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      INTERNET-DRAFT                                   T. Pusateri
      Obsoletes: RFC 1075                          NetEdge Systems
                                                     February 1996
                                              Expires: August 1996
      
      
      
      
      
               Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
                   <draft-ietf-idmr-dvmrp-v3-00.txt>
      
      
      Status of this Memo
      
      
      This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are
      working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
      (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
      groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
      Drafts.
      
      Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of
      six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
      other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use
      Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other
      than as `'work in progress.''
      
      To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please
      check the `'1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the
      Internet-Drafts Shadow Directories on ftp.is.co.za
      (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe), munnari.oz.au (Pacific
      Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US
      West Coast).
      
      
      
      
      1. Introduction
      DVMRP is a TCP/IP routing protocol that provides an
      efficient mechanism for connectionless datagram delivery to
      a group of hosts across an internetwork. It is a
      distributed protocol that dynamically generates multicast
      delivery trees for IP Multicast datagrams using a technique
      called Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM) [1]. This document
      describes Version 3 of the protocol replacing Version 1
      specified in RFC 1075 [2].
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 1]


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      1.1 Reverse Path Multicasting
      Datagrams follow multicast delivery trees from a source to
      all members of a multicast group [3], replicating the
      packet only at necessary branches in the delivery tree. The
      trees are calculated and updated dynamically to track the
      membership of individual groups.  When a datagram arrives
      on an interface, the reverse path to the source of the
      datagram is determined by examining a unicast routing table
      of known source networks. If the datagram arrives on an
      interface that would be used to transmit unicast datagrams
      back to the source, then it is forwarded to the appropriate
      list of downstream interfaces.  Otherwise, it is not on the
      optimal delivery tree and should be discarded. In this way
      duplicate packets can be filtered when loops exist in the
      network topology. The source specific delivery trees are
      automatically pruned back as group membership changes or
      leaf routers determine that no group members are present.
      This keeps the delivery trees to the minimum branches
      necessary to reach all of the group members. New sections
      of the tree can also be added dynamically as new members
      join the multicast group by grafting the new sections onto
      the delivery trees.
      
      
      1.2 IP-IP Tunnels
      Because not all IP routers support native multicast
      routing, DVMRP includes direct support for tunneling IP
      Multicast datagrams through routers. The IP Multicast
      datagrams are encapsulated in unicast IP packets and
      addressed to the routers that do support native multicast
      routing. DVMRP treats tunnel interfaces in an identical
      manner to physical network interfaces.
      
      
      1.3 Document Overview
      Section 2 provides an overview of the protocol and the
      different message types exchanged by DVMRP routers. Those
      who wish to gain a general understanding of the protocol
      but are not interested in the more precise details may wish
      to only read this section.  Section 3 explains the detailed
      operation of the protocol to accommodate developers needing
      to provide interoperable implementations.  The interaction
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 2]


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      with the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) [4] is
      discussed in Appendix A.  A summary of the DVMRP constants
      and configurable parameters are included in Appendix B. A
      section on DVMRP support for tracing and troubleshooting
      procedures is the topic of Appendix C.  Finally, a short
      DVMRP version history is provided in Appendix D to assist
      with backward compatibility issues.
      
      
      Table of Contents
      
      1. INTRODUCTION ...........................................1
      
       1.1 REVERSE PATH MULTICASTING ............................2
       1.2 IP-IP TUNNELS ........................................2
       1.3 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW ....................................2
      
      2. PROTOCOL OVERVIEW ......................................5
      
       2.1 NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY ...................................5
       2.2 SOURCE LOCATION ......................................6
       2.3 DEPENDENT DOWNSTREAM ROUTERS .........................7
       2.4 BUILDING MULTICAST TREES .............................8
         2.4.1 Adding Leaf Networks .............................8
         2.4.2 Adding Non-Leaf Networks .........................9
       2.5 PRUNING MULTICAST TREES ..............................9
       2.6 GRAFTING MULTICAST TREES ............................10
       2.7 SUPPRESSING DUPLICATE PACKETS .......................11
      
      3. DETAILED PROTOCOL OPERATION ...........................11
      
       3.1 PROTOCOL HEADER .....................................11
       3.2 DVMRP PROBE MESSAGES ................................12
         3.2.1 Router Capabilities .............................13
         3.2.2 Generation ID ...................................14
         3.2.3 Neighbor Addresses ..............................14
         3.2.4 Probe Packet Format .............................15
         3.2.5 Designated Router Election ......................16
       3.3 BUILDING FORWARDING CACHE ENTRIES ...................16
         3.3.1 Determining the upstream interface ..............16
         3.3.2 Determining the downstream interface list .......16
       3.4 UNICAST ROUTE EXCHANGE ..............................17
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 3]


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         3.4.1 Route Packing and Ordering ......................17
         3.4.2 Unicast Route Metrics ...........................18
         3.4.3 Unicast Route Dependencies ......................19
         3.4.4 Sending Route Reports ...........................19
         3.4.5 Receiving Route Reports .........................20
         3.4.6 Route Report Packet Format ......................20
       3.5 PRUNING .............................................21
         3.5.1 Leaf Networks ...................................21
         3.5.2 Source Networks .................................22
         3.5.3 Receiving a Prune ...............................22
         3.5.4 Sending a Prune .................................23
         3.5.5 Prune Packet Format .............................23
       3.6 GRAFTING ............................................23
         3.6.1 Grafting All Sources ............................24
         3.6.2 Sending a Graft .................................24
         3.6.3 Receiving a Graft ...............................24
         3.6.4 Graft Packet Format .............................26
         3.6.5 Sending a Graft Acknowledgment ..................26
         3.6.6 Receiving a Graft Acknowledgment ................26
         3.6.7 Graft Acknowledgment Packet Format ..............27
       3.7 LOOP DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION ......................27
       3.8 INTERFACES ..........................................27
         3.8.1 IP Tunnels ......................................27
         3.8.2 Parameters ......................................27
         3.8.3 Metric ..........................................27
         3.8.4 Threshold .......................................27
         3.8.5 Scope Control ...................................27
      
      4. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS ...............................27
      
      
      5. REFERENCES ............................................27
      
      
      6. AUTHOR'S ADDRESS ......................................29
      
      
      7. APPENDIX A - INTERACTION WITH IGMP (V1 & V2) ..........29
      
      
      8. APPENDIX B - CONSTANTS & CONFIGURABLE PARAMETERS ......29
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 4]


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      9. APPENDIX C - TRACING AND TROUBLESHOOTING SUPPORT ......29
      
       9.1 DVMRP ASK NEIGHBORS .................................30
       9.2 DVMRP NEIGHBORS .....................................30
       9.3 DVMRP ASK NEIGHBORS2 ................................30
       9.4 DVMRP NEIGHBORS2 ....................................30
       9.5 DVMRP INFO MESSAGE ..................................30
      
      10. APPENDIX D - VERSION HISTORY .........................30
      
      
      
      
      2. Protocol Overview
      
      2.1 Neighbor Discovery
      Neighbor DVMRP routers can be discovered dynamically by
      sending Neighbor Probe Messages on all of the local
      multicast capable network interfaces. These messages are
      sent periodically to the All-DVMRP-Routers IP Multicast
      group address. This address falls into the range of IP
      Multicast addresses that are to remain on the locally
      attached IP network and therefore are not forwarded by
      multicast routers.  Beginning with Version 3 of DVMRP
      outlined in this document, each Neighbor Probe message
      should contain the list of Neighbor DVMRP routers for which
      Neighbor Probe messages have been received. In this way,
      Neighbor DVMRP routers can ensure that they are seen by
      each other. Care must be taken to interoperate with older
      implementations of DVMRP that do not include this list of
      neighbors.  It can be assumed that older implementations of
      DVMRP will safely ignore this list of neighbors in the
      Probe message. Therefore, it is not necessary to send both
      old and new types of Neighbor Probes. In addition to the
      list of known neighbors, the Probe message should contain a
      set of flags describing the attributes of the DVMRP router.
      There are currently four attributes defined.
      
        1. PRUNE - This router supports Pruning of multicast
           delivery trees
        2. GENID - This router is including a Generation
           Identifier in the probe message that can be used to
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 5]


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           detect when a neighbor wants to re-synchronize its
           unicast routing database.
        3. LEAF - This router considers itself a leaf router.
           (i.e. it is not aware of any downstream multicast
           routers.)
        4. MTRACE - This router is capable of responding to a
           multicast trace route request.
      
      
      As mentioned before, DVMRP versions prior to this
      specification may not include this set of flags and this
      information will have to be determined by the DVMRP Major
      and Minor version numbers.
      
      
      2.2 Source Location
      When an IP Multicast datagram is received by a router
      running DVMRP, it first looks up the interface of the
      unicast route back to the source of the datagram.  This
      interface is called the upstream interface. If the datagram
      arrived on the correct upstream interface, then it is a
      candidate for forwarding to one or more downstream
      interfaces. If the datagram did not arrive on the
      anticipated upstream interface, it is discarded. This check
      is known as a reverse path forwarding check and must be
      performed by all DVMRP routers.
      
      In order to ensure that all DVMRP routers have a consistent
      view of the unicast path back to a source, a unicast
      routing table is propagated to all DVMRP routers as an
      integral part of the protocol.  Each router advertises the
      network number and mask of the interfaces it is directly
      connected to as well as relaying the routes received from
      neighbor routers. DVMRP allows for an interface metric to
      be configured on all physical and tunnel interfaces. When a
      route is received, the metric of the upstream interface
      over which the datagram was received must be added to the
      metric of the route being propagated. This adjusted metric
      should be computed before the route is compared to the
      metric of the current next hop gateway.  As is customary
      with distance vector routing protocols, split horizon
      should be applied to the route propagation policy in order
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 6]


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      to prevent advertising a route to a destination over the
      interface from which it was received.
      
      Although there is certainly additional overhead associated
      with propagating a separate unicast routing table, it does
      provide two nice features. First, since all DVMRP routers
      are using the same unicast routing protocol, there are no
      inconsistencies between routers when determining the
      upstream interface (aside from normal convergence issues
      related to distance vector routing protocols). By placing
      the burden of synchronization on the protocol as opposed to
      the network manager, DVMRP reduces the risk of creating
      routing loops or blackholes due to disagreement between
      neighbor routers on the upstream interface.
      
      Second, by propagating its own unicast routing table, DVMRP
      makes it convenient to have separate paths for unicast vs.
      multicast datagrams. Although, ideally, many network
      managers would prefer to keep their unicast and multicast
      traffic aligned, tunneled multicast topologies may prevent
      this causing the unicast and multicast paths to diverge.
      Additionally, service providers may prefer to keep the
      unicast and multicast traffic separate for routing policy
      reasons as they experiment with IP multicast routing and
      begin to offer it as a service. For these benefits, DVMRP
      has chosen to accept the additional overhead of propagating
      unicast routes.
      
      
      2.3 Dependent Downstream Routers
      In addition to providing a consistent view of source
      networks, the exchange of unicast routes in DVMRP provides
      one other important feature. DVMRP uses the unicast route
      exchange as a mechanism for upstream routers to determine
      if any downstream routers depend on them for forwarding
      from particular source networks. DVMRP accomplishes this by
      using a well known technique called _Poison Reverse_. If a
      downstream router selects a particular upstream router as
      the best next hop to a particular source network, then it
      signifies this to the upstream router by echoing back the
      route to the upstream router with a metric equal to the
      original metric plus infinity. When the upstream router
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 7]


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      receives the report and sees a metric that lies between
      infinity and two times infinity, it can then add the
      downstream router from which it received the report to a
      list of dependent routers for this source.
      
      This list of dependent routers per source network built by
      the _Poison Reverse_ technique will provide the foundation
      necessary to determine when it is appropriate to prune back
      the source specific IP multicast trees.
      
      
      2.4 Building Multicast Trees
      As previously mentioned, when an IP multicast datagram
      arrives, the upstream interface is determined by looking up
      the interface that would be used if a datagram was being
      sent back to the source of the datagram. If the upstream
      interface is correct, then a DVMRP router will forward the
      datagram to a list of downstream interfaces.
      
      
      2.4.1 Adding Leaf Networks
      Initially, the DVMRP router must consider all of the
      remaining IP multicast capable interfaces (including
      tunnels) on the router.  If the downstream interface under
      consideration is a leaf network (has no other IP multicast
      routers on it), then the IGMP local group database must be
      consulted. DVMRP routers can easily determine if a directly
      attached network is a leaf network by keeping a list of all
      routers from which DVMRP Router Probe messages have been
      received on the interface. Obviously, it is necessary to
      refresh this list and age out entries received from routers
      that are no longer being refreshed. The IGMP local group
      database is maintained by an elected IP multicast router on
      each physical, multicast capable network. The details of
      the election procedure are discussed in section 3. If the
      destination group address is listed in the local group
      database, then the interface should be included in the list
      of downstream interfaces.  If there are no group members on
      the interface, then the interface can be pruned from the
      candidate list.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 8]


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      2.4.2 Adding Non-Leaf Networks
      Initially, all non-leaf networks should be included in the
      downstream interface list when a forwarding cache entry is
      first being created.  This allows all downstream routers to
      be aware of traffic destined for a particular (source,
      group) pair. The downstream routers will then have the
      option to prune and graft this (source, group) pair to and
      from the multicast delivery tree as requirements change
      from their downstream routers and local group members.
      
      
      2.5 Pruning Multicast Trees
      As mentioned above, routers at the edges with leaf networks
      will prune their leaf interfaces that have no group members
      associated with an IP multicast datagram. If a router
      prunes all of its downstream interfaces, it can notify the
      upstream router that it no longer wants traffic destined
      for a particular (source, group) pair. This is accomplished
      by sending a DVMRP Prune message upstream to the router it
      expects to forward datagrams from a particular source.
      Recall that a downstream router will inform an upstream
      router that it depends on the upstream router to receive
      datagrams from particular source networks by using the
      _Poison Reverse_ technique during the exchange of unicast
      routes. This method allows the upstream router to build a
      list of downstream routers on each interface that are
      dependent upon it for datagrams from a particular source
      network.  If the upstream router receives prune messages
      from each one of the dependent downstream routers on an
      interface, then the upstream router can in turn prune this
      interface from its downstream interface list.  If the
      upstream router is able to prune all of its downstream
      interfaces in this way, it can then send a DVMRP Prune
      message to its upstream router. This continues until the
      minimum tree necessary to reach all of the receivers
      remains. Since IP multicast routers may be restarted at any
      time and lose state information about existing prunes, it
      is necessary to limit the life of a prune and periodically
      resume the flooding procedure. This will reinitiate the
      prune mechanism and the cycle will continue. When a router
      decides to prune one of its downstream interfaces, it will
      set a timer to indicate the lifetime of the prune. If all
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                            [Page 9]


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      of its downstream interfaces become pruned off the
      multicast delivery tree and a DVMRP Prune message is sent
      upstream, the lifetime of the prune will be equal to the
      minimum of the remaining lifetimes of the pruned
      interfaces.
      
      
      2.6 Grafting Multicast Trees
      Once a tree branch has been pruned from a multicast
      delivery tree, packets from the pruned (source, group) pair
      will no longer be forwarded.  There are two different ways
      for packets from the (source, group) pair to be forwarded
      again. First, since IP multicast supports dynamic group
      membership, new hosts may join the multicast group. In this
      case, DVMRP routers will need a mechanism to undo the
      prunes that are in place from the host back to the first
      branch that was pruned from the multicast tree.  This is
      accomplished with a DVMRP Graft message. A router will send
      a Graft message to its upstream neighbor if a group join
      occurs for a group that currently has pruned sources.
      Separate Graft messages must be sent to the appropriate
      upstream neighbor for each source that has been pruned.
      Since there would be no way to tell if a Graft message sent
      upstream was lost or the source simply quit sending
      traffic, it is necessary to acknowledge each Graft message
      with a DVMRP Graft Ack message. If an acknowledgment is not
      received within a Graft Time-out period, the Graft message
      should be retransmitted. Duplicate Graft Ack messages
      should simply be ignored. Second, if the prune interval
      expires, the negative cache entries are removed and the
      packets will automatically be forwarded again. This is a
      necessary feature since routers may be restarted and lose
      all prune state information or new routers may appear.
      Since these routers will not have prune state associated
      with the (source, group) pair, they will not realize that a
      DVMRP Graft message is necessary if a new host joins the
      group. Therefore, by periodically timing out the prunes and
      re-flooding the traffic, any new or restarted routers can
      have their prune state periodically refreshed.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 10]


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      2.7 Suppressing Duplicate Packets
      
      3. Detailed Protocol Operation
      This section contains a detailed description of DVMRP. It
      covers sending and receiving of DVMRP messages as well as
      the generation and maintenance of IP Multicast forwarding
      cache entries.
      
      
      3.1 Protocol Header
      DVMRP packets are  encapsulated in IP datagrams, with an IP
      protocol number of 2 (IGMP) as specified in the Assigned
      Numbers RFC.  All DVMRP packets use a common protocol
      header that specifies the IGMP Packet Type as hexadecimal
      0x13 (DVMRP). A diagram of the common protocol header
      follows:
      
                  Table 1 - Common Protocol Header
      
                 0         8         16              31
                +--------------------------------------+
                |         |         |                  |
                |  Type   |  Code   |     Checksum     |
                | (0x13)  |         |                  |
                +--------------------------------------+
      
      
      The value of the Code field determines the DVMRP packet
      type. Currently, there are codes allocated for DVMRP
      protocol message types as well as protocol analysis and
      troubleshooting packets. The protocol message Codes are:
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 11]


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                  Table 2 - Standard Protocol Packet Types
      
      
              Code   Packet Type   Description
              -------------------------------------------
      
               1     DVMRP Probe   for neighbor discovery
      
               2     DVMRP Report  for unicast route
                                   exchange
      
               7     DVMRP Prune   for pruning multicast
                                   delivery trees
      
               8     DVMRP Graft   for grafting multicast
                                   delivery trees
      
               9     DVMRP Graft   for acknowledging
                           Ack     graft messages
      
              -------------------------------------------
      
      
      There are additional codes used for protocol analysis and
      troubleshooting. These codes are discussed in Appendix B.
      The Checksum is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's
      complement sum of the DVMRP message. The checksum of the
      DVMRP message should be calculated with the checksum field
      set to zero.
      
      
      3.2 DVMRP Probe Messages
      When a DVMRP router is configured to run on an physical
      interface, it sends local IP Multicast discovery packets to
      inform other DVMRP routers that it is operational. These
      discovery packets are called DVMRP Probes and they serve
      three purposes.
      
        1. Probes provide a mechanism for DVMRP routers to locate
           each other. The existence of other routers is used for
           network leaf detection and the list of addresses of
           the other routers are used in designated router
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 12]


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           election. In addition, this list of DVMRP neighbors
           provides a foundation for neighbor prune lists.
        2. They provide a way for DVMRP routers to determine the
           capabilities of each other. This may be deduced from
           the major and minor version numbers in the Probe
           packet or directly from the capability flags. Examples
           of these capabilities are whether Generation IDs are
           used, if the neighbor supports pruning, if the
           neighbor is a leaf router, and whether the neighbor
           supports the multicast trace route function.
        3. Probes provide a keep-alive function in order to
           quickly detect neighbor loss. DVMRP probes  sent on
           each multicast capable interface configured for DVMRP
           SHOULD have an interval of 10 seconds. The neighbor
           time-out interval SHOULD be set at 140 seconds. This
           allows fairly early detection of a lost neighbor yet
           provides tolerance for busy multicast routers. These
           values MUST be coordinated between all DVMRP routers
           on a physical network segment.
      
      3.2.1 Router Capabilities
      In the past, there have been many versions of DVMRP in use
      with a wide range of capabilities. Practical considerations
      require a current implementation to interoperate with these
      older implementations that don't formally specify their
      capabilities. For instance, for major versions less than 3,
      it can be assumed that the neighbor does not support
      pruning.  The formal capability flags were first introduced
      in version 3.5 in an attempt to take the guess work out
      which features are supported by a neighbor. A complete
      version history is summarized in Appendix A to assist with
      backward compatibility. A DVMRP router MUST specify its
      capabilities in a Probe message. The following capabilities
      are currently defined:
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 13]


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                  Table 3 - Probe Capability Flags
      
                 15               8  7                0
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                   |                  |
                |     Reserved      |           M G P L|
                |                   |                  |
                +--------------------------------------+
      
      
      
             LEAF - The LEAF bit is set if the router does not
                have any downstream DVMRP neighbor routers.
      
             PRUNE - router is capable of handling prunes
      
             GENID - router keeps a non-decreasing generation id
                for synchronization on restart.
      
             MTRACE - router  includes multicast trace route
                support
      
      
      3.2.2 Generation ID
      If a DVMRP router is restarted, it must immediately
      exchange unicast routing tables with all of its neighbors.
      If a neighbor doesn't automatically detect that the
      neighbor has restarted, then it will not send its entire
      routing table immediately. Instead, it will spread the
      updates over an entire routing update interval. In order
      for the neighbor to detect a router that is restarted, a
      non-decreasing number is placed in the periodic probe
      message called the generation ID. If a router detects an
      increase in the generation ID of a neighbor, it should
      exchange its entire unicast routing table with the
      neighbor.  A time of day clock provides a good source for a
      non-decreasing 32 bit integer.
      
      
      3.2.3 Neighbor Addresses
      As a DVMRP router sees Probe messages from its DVMRP
      neighbors, it records the neighbor addresses on each
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 14]


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      interface and places them in the Probe message sent on the
      particular interface. This allows the neighbor router to
      know that its probes have been received by the sending
      router.
      
      
      3.2.4 Probe Packet Format
      The Probe packet is variable in length depending on the
      number of neighbor IP addresses included. The current Major
      Version is 3. To maintain compatibility with previous
      versions, implementations of Version 3 must include pruning
      and grafting of multicast trees. Non-pruning
      implementations are HIGHLY discouraged at this time.
      
                  Table 4 - DVMRP Probe Packet Format
      
                 0         8         16        24
                +-------------------+--------+---------+
                |                   |        |         |
                |   Capabilities    | Minor  |  Major  |
                |                   |Version | Version |
                +-------------------+--------+---------+
                |                                      |
                |            Generation ID             |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |        Neighbor IP Address 1         |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |        Neighbor IP Address 2         |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |                 ...                  |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |        Neighbor IP Address N         |
                +--------------------------------------+
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 15]


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      3.2.5 Designated Router Election
      Since it is wasteful to have more than a single router
      sending IGMP Host Membership Queries on a given physical
      network, DVMRP provides a method to elect a single router
      on each physical network as the Designated Querier. Based
      on the list of neighbors from which DVMRP Probe messages
      were received, a router will pick the router with the
      lowest IP address as the designated querier. The router
      must be sure and include itself in this list of candidates.
      
      
      3.3 Building Forwarding Cache Entries
      In order to create optimal multicast delivery trees, IP
      Multicast was designed to keep separate forwarding cache
      entries for each (source network, destination group) pair.
      Because the possible combinations of these is quite large,
      forwarding cache entries are generated on demand as data
      arrives at a multicast router. Since the IP forwarding
      decision is made on a hop by hop basis (as with the unicast
      case), it is imperative that each multicast router has a
      consistent view of the reverse path back to the source
      network. For this reason, DVMRP includes its own unicast
      routing protocol.
      
      
      3.3.1 Determining the upstream interface
      When a multicast packet arrives, a DVMRP router will use
      the internal DVMRP unicast routing table to determine which
      interface leads back to the source. If the packet did not
      arrive on that interface, it should be discarded without
      further processing. Each multicast forwarding entry should
      cache the upstream interface for a particular source host
      or source network after looking this up in the DVMRP
      unicast routing table.
      
      
      3.3.2 Determining the downstream interface list
      The downstream interface list is built from the remaining
      list of multicast capable interfaces. Any interfaces
      designated as leaf networks and do not have members of the
      particular multicast group can be automatically pruned from
      list of downstream interfaces. The remaining interfaces
      
      
      
      
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      will either have downstream DVMRP routers or directly
      attached group members. These interfaces may be pruned in
      the future if it is determined that there are no group
      members anywhere along the entire tree branch.
      
      
      3.4 Unicast Route Exchange
      It was mentioned earlier that since not all IP routers
      support IP multicast forwarding, it is necessary to tunnel
      IP multicast datagrams through these routers. One effect of
      using these encapsulated tunnels is that IP multicast
      traffic may not be aligned with IP unicast traffic. This
      means that a multicast datagram from a particular source
      can arrive on a different interface than the upstream
      interface back to the unicast source of the multicast
      datagram.
      
      Therefore, when determining the reverse path back to a
      particular source it is not always possible to use the
      standard unicast routing table. DVMRP's solution to this
      problem is to create its own routing table of unicast
      routes for determining upstream routers for each source.
      This routing information is used exclusively for
      determining the reverse path back to source of multicast
      traffic. Tunnels are considered to be distinct interfaces
      and route reports are sent unicast between tunnel endpoints
      as though they arrived on the tunnel pseudo interface. The
      routing information that is propagated by DVMRP contains a
      list of unicast source networks and an appropriate metric.
      The metric used is a hop count which is incremented by the
      cost of the outgoing interface. Traditionally, physical
      interfaces use a metric of 1 while the metric of a tunnel
      interface varies with the distance and bandwidth in the
      path between the two tunnel endpoints. Users are encouraged
      to configure tunnels with the same metric in each direction
      in order to prevent routing loops although the protocol
      does not strictly enforce this.
      
      
      3.4.1 Route Packing and Ordering
      Since DVMRP Route Reports may need to refresh several
      thousand routes each Report interval, routers MUST attempt
      
      
      
      
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      to spread the routes reported across the whole route update
      interval. This reduces the chance of synchronized route
      reports causing routers to become overwhelmed for a few
      seconds each report interval. Since the route report
      interval is 60 seconds, it is suggested that the total
      number routes being updated be split across multiple Route
      Reports sent at regular intervals. One implementation
      splits all unicast routes across 6 Report periods sent at
      10 seconds intervals. Due to limitations of older
      implementations of DVMRP, Route Reports should contain
      source network/mask pairs sorted first by increasing
      network mask and then by increasing source network within
      each possible mask value.
      
      In order to pack more source networks into a route report,
      source networks are often represented by less than 4
      octets. The number of significant bytes in the mask value
      is used to determine the number of octets used to represent
      each source network within that particular mask value. For
      instance if the mask value of 255.255.0.0 is being
      reported, the source networks would only contain 2 octets
      each. DVMRP assumes that source networks will never be
      aggregated into networks whose prefix length is less than
      8. Therefore, it does not carry the first octet of the mask
      in the Route Report since, given this assumption, the first
      octet will always be 0xFF. This means that the netmask
      value will always be represented in 3 octets.
      
      Immediately following each source network is an octet
      containing the metric advertised to reach the source
      network.
      
      
      3.4.2 Unicast Route Metrics
      For each source network reported, a route metric is also
      contained in the route report. The metric is the sum of the
      outgoing interface metrics between the router originating
      the report and the source network. The Infinity metric is
      defined to be 32. This limits the breadth across the whole
      DVMRP network and is necessary to place an upper bound on
      the convergence time of the protocol.
      
      
      
      
      
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      As seen in the packet format below, Route Reports do not
      contain a count of the number of routes reported for each
      netmask. Instead, the high order bit of the metric is used
      to signify the last route being reported for a particular
      mask value. If a metric is read with the high order bit of
      the 8-bit value set, then if the end of the message has not
      been reached, the next value will be a new netmask to be
      applied to the subsequent list of routes. This technique is
      used to prevent wasting space in the Route Report message
      for a count of unicast source networks for each netmask
      value contained in the Report.
      
      
      3.4.3 Unicast Route Dependencies
      In order for pruning to work correctly, each DVMRP router
      needs to know which downstream routers depend on it for
      receiving datagrams from particular source networks.
      Initially, when a new datagram arrives from a particular
      source/group pair, it is flooded to all downstream
      interfaces that have DVMRP neighbors who have indicated a
      dependency on the receiving DVMRP router for that
      particular source. A downstream interface can only be
      pruned when it has received Prune messages from each of the
      dependent routers on that interface. Each downstream router
      uses a method called Poison Reverse to indicate to the
      upstream router which source networks it expects to receive
      from the upstream router. The downstream router indicates
      this by echoing back the source networks it expects to
      receive from the upstream router with infinity added to the
      advertised metric. This means that the legal values for the
      metric now become between 1 and 2*Infinity -1 or 1 and 63.
      Values between 1 and 31 indicate reachable unicast source
      networks. The value of Infinity or 32 indicates the source
      network is not reachable. Values between 33 and 63 indicate
      that the downstream router originating the Report is
      depending upon the upstream router to provide multicast
      datagrams from the corresponding source network.
      
      
      3.4.4 Sending Route Reports
      Full Route Reports MUST be sent out every Route Report
      Interval. In addition, flash updates CAN be sent between
      
      
      
      
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      full route reports. Flash updates can reduce the chances of
      routing loops and black holes occurring when source
      networks become unreachable through a particular path.
      Flash updates need only contain the source networks that
      have changed. It is not necessary to report all of the
      source networks from a particular mask value when sending
      an update.
      
      3.4.5 Receiving Route Reports
      
      3.4.6 Route Report Packet Format
      The format of a sample Route Report Packet is shown in
      below. The packet shown is an example of how the source
      networks are packed into a Report. The number of octets in
      each Source Network will vary depending on the mask value.
      The values below are only an example for clarity and are
      not intended to represent the format of every Route Report.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 20]


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                  Table 5 - Route Report Packet Format
      
                 0         8         16              31
                +--------+---------+---------+---------+
                |        |         |         |         |
                |  Mask  |   Mask  |   Mask  |   Src   |
                |Octet 2 | Octet 3 | Octet 4 |  Net11  |
                +--------+---------+---------+---------+
                |Src Net11 (cont.) |  Metric     Src   |
                |       ...        |            Net12  |
                +------------------+-------------------+
                |Src Net12 (cont.) | Metric +    Mask  |
                |       ...        |   0x80    Octet 2 |
                +------------------+-------------------+
                |  Mask      Mask  |     Src Net21     |
                |Octet 3   Octet 4 |                   |
                +------------------+-------------------+
                |Src Net21 (cont.) | Metric +    Mask  |
                |       ...        |   0x80    Octet 2 |
                +------------------+-------------------+
                |  Mask      Mask  |        ...        |
                |Octet 3   Octet 4 |                   |
                +------------------+-------------------+
      
      
      3.5 Pruning
      DVMRP is described as a flood and prune multicast routing
      protocol since datagrams are initially sent out all
      dependent downstream interfaces and then pruned back to
      only the downstream interfaces that are on a reverse
      shortest path to a receiver. Prunes are data driven and are
      sent in response to receiving unwanted multicast traffic at
      the leafs of the multicast tree rooted at a particular
      source network.
      
      3.5.1 Leaf Networks
      Detection of leaf networks is very important to the pruning
      process. Routers at the end of a source specific multicast
      delivery tree must detect that there are no further
      downstream routers. This detection mechanism is covered
      above in section 3.2 titled DVMRP Probe Messages.  If there
      are no group members present for a particular multicast
      
      
      
      
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      datagram received, the leaf routers will start the pruning
      process by pruning their downstream interfaces and sending
      a prune to the upstream router for that source.
      
      3.5.2 Source Networks
      It is important to remember that because prunes are based
      on group membership, a prune sent upstream for a particular
      source applies to all sources on the source network. It is
      not possible to prune only one or a subset of hosts on a
      source network for a particular group. All or none of the
      sources on a source network sending to a particular group
      must be pruned.
      
      3.5.3 Receiving a Prune
      When a prune is received, the following steps should be
      taken:
        1. Determine if a Probe has been received from this
           router recently.
        2. If not, discard prune since there is no prior state
           about this neighbor.
        3. If so, make sure the neighbor advertises it is capable
           of pruning.
        4. Ensure the packet meets the minimum length requirement
           for a prune.
        5. Extract the source address, group address, and prune
           time-out values
        6. If no state exists for the (source, group) pair, then
           ignore the prune.
        7. Verify that the prune was received from a dependent
           neighbor for the source network. If not, discard the
           prune.
        8. Determine if a prune is currently active for this
           (source, group) pair.
        9. If so, reset the timer to the new time-out value.
           Otherwise, create state for the new prune and set a
           timer for the prune lifetime.
        10. Determine if all dependent downstream routers have now
           sent prunes.
        11. If so, a prune should be sent upstream.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
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      3.5.4 Sending a Prune
      When sending a prune upstream, the following steps should
      be taken:
        1. Decide if upstream neighbor is capable of receiving
           prunes.
        2. If not, then proceed no further.
        3. Stop any pending Grafts awaiting acknowledgments.
        4. Determine the prune lifetime. This value should be the
           minimum of the prune lifetimes remaining from the
           downstream neighbors and the cache lifetime of the
           (source, group) pair.
        5. Form and transmit the packet to the upstream neighbor
           for the source.
      
      3.5.5 Prune Packet Format
      In addition to the standard IGMP and DVMRP headers, a Prune
      Packet contains three additional fields: the source host IP
      address, the destination group IP address, and the Prune
      Lifetime in seconds.
      
                  Table 6 - Prune Packet Format
      
                 0                                   31
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Source Address            |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Group Address             |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Prune Lifetime            |
                +--------------------------------------+
      
      
      3.6 Grafting
      Once a multicast delivery tree has been pruned back, DVMRP
      Graft messages are necessary to join new receivers onto the
      multicast tree. Graft messages are sent upstream from the
      new receivers first-hop router until a point on the
      multicast tree is reached. Graft messages are re-originated
      between adjacent DVMRP routers and are not forwarded by
      
      
      
      
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      DVMRP routers.  Therefore, the first-hop router does not
      know if the Graft message ever reaches the multicast tree.
      To remedy this, each Graft message is acknowledged hop by
      hop. This ensures that the Graft message is not lost
      somewhere along the path between the receiver's first-hop
      router and the closest point on the multicast delivery
      tree.
      
      3.6.1 Grafting All Sources
      It is important to realize that prunes are source specific
      and are sent up different trees for each source. Grafts are
      sent in response to a new Group Member which is not source
      specific. Therefore, separate Graft messages must be sent
      to the appropriate upstream routers to counteract each
      previous source specific prune that was sent.
      
      3.6.2 Sending a Graft
      As mentioned above, a Graft message sent to the upstream
      DVMRP router should be acknowledged hop by hop guaranteeing
      end-to-end delivery. If a Graft Acknowledgment is not
      received within a Graft Retransmission Time-out period, the
      Graft should be resent to the upstream router. The time-out
      period is fixed at 5 seconds.
      In order to send a Graft message, the following steps
      should be taken:
        1. Verify a forwarding cache entry exists for the
           (source, group) pair and that a prune exists for the
           cache entry.
        2. Verify that the upstream router is capable of
           receiving prunes (and therefore grafts).
        3. Add the graft to the retransmission timer list
           awaiting an acknowledgment.
        4. Formulate and transmit the Graft packet.
      
      3.6.3 Receiving a Graft
      The actions taken when a Graft is received depends on the
      state in the receiving router for the (source, group) pair
      in the received Graft message. If the receiving router has
      prune state for the (source, group) pair, then it must
      acknowledge the received graft and send a subsequent graft
      to its upstream router.
      
      
      
      
      
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      If the receiving router has some pruned downstream
      interfaces but has not sent a prune upstream, then the
      receiving interface can simply be added to the list of
      downstream interfaces in the forwarding cache. A Graft
      Acknowledgment must also be sent back to the source of the
      Graft message.
      If the receiving router has no state at all for the
      (source, group) pair, then datagrams arriving for the
      (source, group) pair should automatically be flooded when
      they arrive. A Graft Acknowledgment must be sent to the
      source of the Graft message.
      If a Graft message is received from an unknown neighbor, it
      should be discarded.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 25]


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      3.6.4 Graft Packet Format
      The format of a Graft packet is show below:
      
                  Table 7 - Graft Packet Format
      
                 0                                   31
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Source Address            |
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Group Address             |
                +--------------------------------------+
      
      
      3.6.5 Sending a Graft Acknowledgment
      A Graft Acknowledgment packet is sent to a downstream
      neighbor in response to receiving a Graft message. Grafts
      received from unknown neighbors should be discarded but all
      other correctly formatted Graft messages should be
      acknowledged. This is true even if no other action is taken
      in response to receiving the Graft to prevent the source
      from continually re-transmitting the Graft message.
      The Graft Acknowledgment packet is identical to the Graft
      packet except that the DVMRP code in the common header is
      set to Graft Ack. This allows the receiver of the Graft Ack
      message to correctly identify which Graft was acknowledged
      and stop the appropriate retransmission timer.
      
      3.6.6 Receiving a Graft Acknowledgment
      When a Graft Acknowledgment is received, the (source,
      group) pair in the packet can be used to determine if a
      Graft was sent to this particular upstream router. If no
      Graft was sent, the Graft Ack can simply be ignored.
      If a Graft was sent, and the acknowledgment has come from
      the correct upstream router, then it has been successfully
      received and the retransmission timer for the Graft can be
      stopped.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 26]


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      3.6.7 Graft Acknowledgment Packet Format
      The format of a Graft Ack packet (which is identical to
      that of a Graft packet is show below:
      
                  Table 8 - Graft Ack Packet Format
      
                 0                                   31
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Source Address
                +--------------------------------------+
                |                                      |
                |            Group Address
                +--------------------------------------+
      
      
      
      3.7 Loop Detection and Suppression
      
      3.8 Interfaces
      
      3.8.1 IP Tunnels
      
      3.8.2 Parameters
      
      3.8.3 Metric
      
      3.8.4 Threshold
      
      3.8.5 Scope Control
      
      4. Security Considerations
      Security considerations will be discussed in an upcoming
      revision of this document.
      
      5. References
        [1].  Deering, S., Cheriton, D., "Multicast Routing in
           Datagram Internetworks and Extended LANs",  ACM
           Transactions on Computer Systems, Vol. 8, No. 2, May
           1990, Pages 85-110.
        [2].  Waitzman, D., Partridge, C., Deering, S., "Distance
           Vector Multicast Routing Protocol",  RFC 1075,
           Internet Architecture Board, November 1988.
      
      
      
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        [3].  Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting",
           RFC 1112, Internet Architecture Board, August 1989.
        [4].  Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting -
           Appendix 1 (IGMP)",  RFC 1112, Internet Architecture
           Board, August 1989.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 28]


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      6. Author's Address
      
      Thomas Pusateri
      NetEdge Systems, Inc.
      PO Box 14993
      Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
      
      Phone:    919-991-9028
      Fax: 919-991-9060
      EMail:    pusateri@NetEdge.COM
      
      7. Appendix A - Interaction with IGMP (V1 & V2)
      
      8. Appendix B - Constants & Configurable Parameters
      
      9. Appendix C - Tracing and Troubleshooting support
      
                  Table 9 - Tracing and Debugging Packet Types
      
      
             Code  Packet Type       Description
             ---------------------------------------------
      
             3     DVMRP Ask         Obsolete
                         Neighbors
      
             4     DVMRP Neighbors   Obsolete
      
             5     DVMRP Ask         Request Neighbor List
                         Neighbors 2
      
             6     DVMRP Neighbors 2 Respond with Neighbor
                                     List
      
             13    DVMRP Info        General Information
                                     Request/Reply
             ---------------------------------------------
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
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      9.1 DVMRP Ask Neighbors
      
      9.2 DVMRP Neighbors
      
      9.3 DVMRP Ask Neighbors2
      
      9.4 DVMRP Neighbors2
      
      9.5 DVMRP Info message
      
      10. Appendix D - Version History
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
      Pusateri                                           [Page 30]
      

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