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Internet Engineering Task Force                    Ken Carlberg
INTERNET DRAFT                                     UCL
August 25, 2003                                    Ran Atkinson
                                                   Extreme Networks



                       General Requirements for
                  Emergency Telecommunication Service
                 <draft-ietf-ieprep-ets-general-04.txt>


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt The list of Internet-Draft
   Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   For potential updates to the above required-text see:
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-guidelines.txt


Abstract

   This document presents a list of general requirements in support of
   Emergency Telecommunications Service (ETS).  Solutions to these
   requirements are not presented in this document.  Additional
   requirements pertaining to specific applications, or types of
   applications, are to be specified in separate document(s).


Conventions Used In This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [12].





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Terminology

   Label:
     The term label has been used for a number of years in various IETF
     protocols.  It is simply an identifier.  It can be manifested in
     the form of a numeric, alphanumeric value, or a specific bit
     pattern, within a field of a packet header.  The exact form is
     dependent on the protocol in which it is used.

     An example of a label can be found in RFC 3031; the Multiprotocol
     label switching architecture.  Another example can be found in RFC
     2597 (and updated by RFC 3260); a bit pattern for the Assured
     Forwarding PHB group.  This latter case is a type of label that
     does not involve routing.  Note that specification of labels is
     outside the scope of this document.  Further comments on labels are
     discussed below in section 3.


1.  Introduction

   Effective telecommunications capabilities can be imperative to
   facilitate immediate recovery operations for serious disaster events,
   such as, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, and terrorist attacks.
   Disasters can happen any time, any place, unexpectedly.  Quick
   response for recovery operations requires immediate access to any
   public telecommunications capabilities at hand.  These capabilities
   include:  conventional telephone, cellular phones, and Internet
   access via online terminals, IP telephones, and wireless PDAs.  The
   commercial telecommunications infrastructure is rapidly evolving to
   Internet-based technology.  Therefore, the Internet community needs
   to consider how it can best support emergency management and recovery
   operations.

1.1  Existing Emergency Related Standards

   The following are standards from other organizations that are
   specifically aimed at supporting emergency communications.  Most of
   these standards specify telephony mechanisms or define telephony
   related labels.

       Standard   / Organization
      --------------------------
      1) T1.631   /   ANSI
      2) E.106    /   ITU
      3) F.706    /   ITU
      4) H.460.4  /   ITU
      5) I.255.3  /   ITU




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   The first specifies an indicator for SS7 networks that signals the
   need for a High Probability of Completion (HPC) service.  This
   indicator is termed National Security / Emergency Preparedness
   (NS/EP) The T1.631 standard [2] is the basis for the U.S. Government
   Emergency Telecomunications Service (GETS) [7].

   The second standard describes functional capabilities for the PSTN to
   support International Emergency Preparedness System (IEPS) [3].  From
   the PSTN perspective, one can view NS/EP as a standard with national
   boundaries, while IEPS is an extention to international boundaries
   for telephony.

   The third standard extends IEPS beyond the scope of telephony into
   other forms that encompass multimedia [4].

   The fourth and fifth standard focuses on a multi-level labeling
   mechanism distinguishing emergency type traffic from that which is
   not.  The former case focuses on call signaling for H.323 networks
   [5], while the latter has been applied for both SS7 [6] and data
   networks.

   While the above standards are outside the scope of the IETF, they do
   represent existing efforts in the area of emergency communications,
   as opposed to conceptual of potential possibilities.  They act as
   example manifestations of Emergency Telecommunications Service (ETS).

1.2  Problem

   One problem faced by the IEPREP working group entails how, and to
   what degree, support for these standards are to be realized within
   the Internet architecture and the existing suite of IETF standards
   and associated working groups.  This support could be in the form of
   interoperability with correponding IETF protocols.

   A subsequent problem is to ensure that requirements associated with
   potential support is not focused just on IP telephony applications.
   The I-Am-Alive (IAA) database system is an example of an ETS type
   application used in Japan that supports both signaled and non-
   signaled access by users[10].  It is a distributed database system
   that provides registration, querying, and reply primitives to
   participants during times of an emergency (e.g., an earthquake) so
   that others can make an after-the-event determination about the
   status of a person.  In this case, a separate signaling protocol like
   SIP is not always required to establish or maintain a connection.

   Given the case where signaling is optional, requirements and
   subsequent solutions that address these problems must not assume the
   existence of signaling and must be able to support applications that



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   only have labels in data packets.  These label(s) may be in various
   places, such as the application or IP header.


2.  Scope

   This document defines a set of general system requirements to achieve
   support for ETS and addressing the problem space presented in Section
   1.2.  In defining these requirements, we consider known systems such
   as GETS and IAA that represent existing manifestations of emergency
   related systems. These two examples also represent a broad spectrum
   of characteristics that range from signaling & interactive non-
   elastic applications to non-signaled & elastic applications.

   We stress that ETS, and its associated requirements, is not the only
   means of supporting authorized emergency communications.  It is
   simply an approach influenced by existing systems and standards.

   Solutions to requirements are not defined.  This document does not
   specify protocol enhancements or specifications.  Requirements for
   specific types of applications that go beyond the general set stated
   in section 3 are to be specified in other document(s).  At the
   current writing of this document, [9] has been written for the case
   of IP telephony.

   The current IEPREP charter stipulates that any proposed solution to
   support ETS that responds to the requirements of this document are to
   be developed in other working groups.  We note that other specific
   requirements (like that of IP telephony) may be defined as an
   extension of the general requirements presented in section 3 below.

2.1  Out of Scope

   While the problem space stated in section 1.2 includes standards
   related to telephony, this document is meant to be broader in scope.
   Hence, emulation of specific architectures, like the PSTN, or focus
   on a specific application is out of scope.  Further, the
   specifications of requirements that are aimed at adhering to
   regulations or laws of governments is also out of scope of this
   document.  The focus of the IETF and its working groups is technical
   positions that follow the architecture of the Internet.

   Another item that is not in scope of this document is mandating
   acceptance and support of the requirements presented in this
   document.  There is an expectation that business contracts, (e.g.,
   Service Level Agreements) , will be used to satisfy those
   requirements that apply to service providers.  Absence of an SLA
   implies best effort service is provided.



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3.  General Requirements

   These are general requirements that apply to authorized emergency
   telecommunications service.  The first requirement is presented as a
   conditional one since not all applications use or are reliant on
   signaling.

     1) Signaling

       IF signaling is to be used to convey the state or existence of
       emergency, then signaling mechanism(s) MUST exist to carry
       applicable labels.

     2) Labels

       Labels may exist in various forms at different layers.  They
       might be carried as part of signaling, and/or as part of the
       header of a data packet.  Labels from different layers are NOT
       required to be the same, but MAY be related to each other.

     3) Policy

       Policy MUST be kept separate from label(s).  This topic has
       generated a fair amount of debate, and so we provide additional
       guidance from the following:

       A set of labels may be defined as being related to each other.
       Characteristics (e.g., drop precedence) may also be attributed
       to these labels.  [11] is an example of a related set of labels
       based on a specific characteristic.

       However, the mechanisms used to achieve a stated characteristic
       MUST NOT be stated in the definition of a label.  Local policy
       determines mechanism(s) used to achieve or support a specific
       characteristic.  This allows for the possibility of different
       mechanisms to achieve the same stated characteristic.

       The interaction between unrelated labels MUST NOT be embedded
       within the definition of a label.  Local policy states the
       actions (if any) to be taken if unrelated labeled traffic
       merges at a node.

       Finally, labels may have additional characteristics added to
       them as a result of local policy.

     4) Network Functionality

       Functionality to support better than best effort SHOULD focus



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       on probability versus guarantees.  Probability can be realized
       in terms of reduced probability of packet loss, and/or minimal
       jitter, and/or minimal end-to-end delay.  There is NO
       requirement that better than best effort functionality MUST
       exist.  There is NO requirement that if better-than-best effort
       functionality exists then it must be ubuiquitous between end
       users.

3.1  General Security Related Requirements

   The following are security related requirements that emerge given the
   requirements 1 through 4 above.

     5) Authorization

       Authorization is a method of validating that a user or some
       traffic is allowed by policy to use a particular service
       offering.

       Mechanisms must be implemented so that only authorised users
       have access to emergency telecommunications services.  Any
       mechanism for providing such authorization beyond closed
       private networks SHOULD meet IETF Security Area criterion
       (e.g. clear-text passwords would not generally be acceptable).
       Authorization protects network resources from excessive use,
       from abuse, and might also support billing and accounting for
       the offered service.

       Such authorization mechanisms SHOULD be flexible enough to
       provide various levels of restriction and authorization depending
       on the expectations of a particular service or customer.

     6) Integrity & Authentication

       In practice, authentication and integrity for IP based
       communications are generally bound within a single mechanism,
       even though conceptually they are different.  Authentication
       ensures that the user or traffic is who it claims to be.
       Integrity offers assurance that unauthorised modifications
       to objects can be detected.

       Authorised emergency traffic needs to have reduced risk of
       adverse impact from denial of service.  This implies a need to
       ensure integrity of the authorised emergency network traffic.
       It should be noted, though, that mechanisms used to ensure
       integrity can also be subjects to Denial of Service attacks.

       Users of emergency network services SHOULD consider deploying



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       end-to-end integrity and authentication, rather than relying on
       services that might be offered by any single provider of
       emergency network services.  Users SHOULD also carefully
       consider which application-layer security services might be
       appropriate to use.

     7) Confidentiality

       Some emergency communications might have a requirement that they
       not be susceptible to interception or viewing by others, due to
       the sensitive and urgent nature of emergency response activities.
       An emergency telecommunications service MAY offer options to
       provide confidentiality for certain authorised user traffic.

       Consistent with other IETF standards and the Internet
       Architecture, this document recommends that IEPREP users SHOULD
       deploy end-to-end security mechanisms, rather than rely on
       security services that might be offered by a single network
       operator.  IEPREP users SHOULD carefully consider security
       alternatives (e.g. PGP, TLS, IPsec transport-mode) at different
       layers (e.g.  Application Layer, Session Layer, Transport Layer)
       of the Internet Architecture before deployment.


4.  Issues

   This section presents issues that arise in considering solutions for
   the requirements that have been defined for ETS.  This section does
   not specify solutions nor is it to be confused with requirements.
   Subsequent documents that articulate a more specific set of
   requirements for a particular service may make a statement about the
   following issues.

     1) Accounting

       Accounting represents a method of tracking actual usage of a
       service.  We assume that the usage of any service better than
       best effort will be tracked and subsequently billed to the user.
       Accounting is not addressed as a general requirement for ETS.
       However, solutions used to realize ETS should not preclude an
       accounting mechanism.

     2) Admission Control

       The requirements of section 3 discuss labels and security.
       Those developing solutions should understand that the
       ability labels provide to distinguish emergency flows does
       not create an ability to selectively admit flows.  Admission



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       control as it is commonly understood in circuit-switched
       networks is not present in IP-based networks, and schemes
       which presume the ability to selectively admit flows when
       resources are scarce will fail outside of very controlled
       environments.  In cases where emergency related flows occur
       outside of controlled environments, the development of
       technologies based on admission control is not recommended
       as the foundation of emergency services.

     3) Digital Signatures

       Verification of digital signatures is computationally expensive.
       If an operator acts upon a label and hence needs to verify the
       authenticity of the label, then there is a potential denial-of-
       service attack on the entity performing the authentication.
       The DoS attack works by flooding the entity performing the
       authentication with invalid (i.e. not authentic) labelled
       information, causing the victim to spend excessive amounts of
       computing resources on signature validation.  Even though the
       invalid information might get discarded after the signature
       validation fails, the adversary has already forced the victim to
       expend significant amounts of computing resource.  Accordingly,
       any system requiring such validation SHOULD define operational
       and protocol measures to reduce the vulnerability to such a DoS
       attack.


5. Related Work

   RFC 3487 describes requirements for resource priority mechanisms for
   the Session Initiation Protocol [8].  The requirements specified in
   that RFC pertain to a specific application level protocol.  In
   contrast, the requirements of this document are a generalization that
   are not application specific.  From this blueprint (acting as a
   guideline), more specific requirements may be described in future
   documents.


6. Security Considerations

   Security in terms of requirements is discussed sections 3.1 and 4.


7. References

   1  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
      9, RFC 2026, October 1996.




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   2  ANSI, "Signaling System No. 7(SS7) "High Probability of
      Completion (HPC) Network Capability" , ANSI T1.631-1993 (R1999).

   3  "Description of an International Emergency Preference
      Scheme (IEPS)", ITU-T Recommendation  E.106 March, 2000.

   4  "Description for an International Emergency Multimedia Service",
      ITU Draft Recommendation F.706, February, 2002.

   5  "Call Priority Designation for H.323 Calls", ITU Recommendation
      H.460.4, November, 2002.

   6  ITU, "Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption Service, ITU,
      Recomendation, I.255.3, July, 1990.

   7  U.S. National Communications System: http://www.ncs.gov

   8  Schulzrinne, H., "Requirements for Resource Priority Mechanisms
      for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3487, Feb 2003

   9  Carlberg, K., Atkinson, R., "IP Telephony Reqirements for
      Emergency Telecommunications Service", Internet Draft, Work In
      Progress, March 1, 2003

   10 Tada, N., et. al., "IAA System (I Am Alive): The Experiences of
      the Internet Disaster Drills", Proceedings of INET-2000, June.

   11 Heinanen, J., et. al., "Assured Forwarding PHB Group", RFC 2597,
      June 1999

   12 Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.



8.  Author's Addresses

   Ken Carlberg                            Ran Atkinson
   University College London               Extreme Networks
   Department of Computer Science          3585 Monroe Street
   Gower Street                            Santa Clara, CA
   London, WC1E 6BT                        95051  USA
   United Kingdom
   k.carlberg@cs.ucl.ac.uk                 rja@extremenetworks.com

Full Copyright Statement

   "Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.



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