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Versions: 00 01 02 03 RFC 2492

Internet-Draft                                       Grenville Armitage
                                                    Lucent Technologies
                                                         Peter Schulter
                                               BrightTiger Technologies
                                                            Markus Jork
                                                                 Compaq
                                                       October 17, 1998


                        IPv6 over ATM Networks
                   <draft-ietf-ion-ipv6-atm-03.txt>


Status of this Memo

   This document was submitted to the IETF Internetworking over NBMA
   (ION) WG.  Publication of this document does not imply acceptance by
   the ION WG of any ideas expressed within.  Comments should be
   submitted to the ion@sunroof.eng.sun.com mailing list.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   This memo is an internet draft. Internet Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas,
   and its Working Groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet Drafts.

   Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
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   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as a
   "working draft" or "work in progress".

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "lid-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts shadow
   directories on ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net
   (Europe), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific
   Rim).

Abstract

   This document is a companion to the ION working group's architecture
   document 'IPv6 over Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks'.
   It provides specific details on how to apply the IPv6 over NBMA
   architecture to ATM networks. This architecture allows conventional



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   host-side operation of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol, while
   also supporting the establishment of 'shortcut' ATM forwarding paths
   (when using SVCs).  Operation over administratively configured Point
   to Point PVCs is also supported.



1. Introduction.

   This document is an ATM-specific companion document to the ION
   working group's "IPv6 over Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA)
   networks" specification [1].  Terminology and architectural
   descriptions will not be repeated here.

   The use of ATM to provide point to point PVC service, or flexible
   point to point and point to multipoint SVC service, is covered by
   this document.

   A minimally conforming IPv6/ATM driver SHALL support the PVC mode of
   operation. An IPv6/ATM driver that supports the full SVC mode SHALL
   also support PVC mode of operation.


2. Specification Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [16].

3. PVC Environments

   When the ATM network is used in PVC mode, each PVC will connect
   exactly two nodes and the use of Neighbor Discovery and other IPv6
   features is limited.  IPv6/ATM interfaces have only one neighbor on
   each Link. The MARS and NHRP protocols are NOT necessary, since
   multicast and broadcast operations collapse down to an ATM level
   unicast operation. Dynamically discovered shortcuts are not
   supported.

   The actual details of encapsulations, MTU, and link token generation
   are provided in the following sections.

   This use of PVC links does not mandate, nor does it prohibit the use
   of extensions to the Neighbor Discovery protocol which may be
   developed for either general use of for use in PVC connections (for



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   example, Inverse Neighbor Discovery).

   Since ATM PVC links do not use link-layer addresses, the link-layer
   address options SHOULD not be included in any ND message [11].  If a
   link-layer address option is present in an ND message, then the
   option SHOULD be ignored.

   A minimally conforming IPv6/ATM driver SHALL support the PVC mode of
   operation.  PVC only implementations are not required to support any
   SVC mode of operation.

3.1 Default Packet Encapsulation

   Following the model in RFC 1483 [2], AAL5 SHALL be the default
   Adaptation Layer service, and (LLC/SNAP) encapsulation SHALL be
   default encapsulation used by unicast and multicast packets across
   pt-pt PVC links. As defined in [1], the default IPv6 packet
   encapsulation SHALL be:

         [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-00][0x86-DD][IPv6 packet]
             (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)

3.2 Optional null encapsulation

   IPv6/ATM drivers MAY also support null encapsulation as a
   configurable option. When null encapsulation is enabled, the IPv6
   packet is passed directly to the AAL5 layer. Both ends of the PVC
   MUST be configured to use null encapsulation. The PVC will not be
   available for use by protocols other than IPv6.

3.3 PPP encapsulation

   The concatentation of IPv6 over PPP with PPP over AAL5 PVCs is not
   covered by this specification.

3.4 MTU For PVC Environments

   The default IP MTU size for PVC links is 9180 bytes as specified in
   [7].  Other IP MTU values MAY be used.

3.5 Interface Token Formats in PVC Environments

   When the ATM network is used in PVC mode interface tokens SHALL be
   generated using one of the methods described in section 5. Interface
   tokens need only be unique between the two nodes on the PVC link.



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4 SVC environments

4.1 SVC Specific Code Points

4.1.1 ATM Adaptation Layer encapsulation for SVC environments

   Following the model in RFC 1483 [2], AAL5 SHALL be the default
   Adaptation Layer service, and (LLC/SNAP) encapsulation SHALL be the
   default encapsulation used by unicast and multicast packets across
   SVC links.

4.1.2 Unicast Packet Encapsulation

   As defined in [1], the default IPv6 unicast packet encapsulation
   SHALL be:

         [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-00][0x86-DD][IPv6 packet]
             (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)

4.1.3 Multicast packet encapsulation

   As defined in [1], the default IPv6 multicast packet encapsulation
   SHALL be:

         [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-01][pkt$cmi][0x86DD][IPv6
         packet]
             (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)    (mars encaps)

         The IPv6/ATM driver's Cluster Member ID SHALL be copied into
         the 2 octet pkt$cmi field prior to transmission.

4.1.4 Optional null encapsulation

   IPv6/ATM drivers MAY also support null encapsulation as a
   configurable option. Null encapsulation SHALL only be used for
   passing IPv6 packets from one IPv6/ATM driver to another. Null
   encapsulation SHALL NOT be used on the pt-pt SVC between the
   IPv6/ATM driver and its local MARS.

   If null encapsulation is enabled, the IPv6 packet is passed directly
   to the AAL5 layer. Both ends of the SVC MUST agree to use null
   encapsulation during the call SETUP phase.  The SVC will not be
   available for use by protocols other than IPv6.

   If null encapsulation is enabled on data SVCs between routers,



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   inter-router NHRP traffic SHALL utilize a separate, parallel SVC.

   Use of null encapsulation is not encouraged when IPv6/ATM is used
   with MARS/NHRP/ND as described in [1].

4.1.5 MARS control messages

   The encapsulation of MARS control messages (between MARS and MARS
   Clients) remains the same as shown in RFC 2022 [3]:

      [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-03][MARS control message]
         (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)

   The key control field values are:

      The mar$afn field remains 0x0F (ATM addresses)

      The mar$pro field SHALL be 0x86DD (IPv6)

      The mar$op.version field remains 0x00 (MARS)

   The mar$spln and mar$tpln fields (where relevant) are either 0 (for
   null or non-existent information) or 16 (for the full IPv6 protocol
   address)

   The way in which ATM addresses are stored remains the same as shown
   in RFC 2022 [3]

4.1.6 NHRP control messages

   The encapsulation of NHRP control messages remains the same as shown
   in RFC 2332 [4]:

      [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-03][NHRP control message]
         (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)

   The key control field values are:

      The ar$afn field remains 0x0F (ATM addresses)

      The ar$pro field SHALL be 0x86DD (IPv6)

      The ar$op.version field remains 0x01 (NHRP)

   The ar$spln and ar$tpln fields (where relevant) are either 0 (for



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   null or non-existent information) or 16 (for the full IPv6 protocol
   address)

   The way in which ATM addresses are stored remains the same as shown
   in RFC 2022 [3]

4.1.7 Neigbor Discovery control messages

   Section 5.2 of [1] describes the ND Link-layer address option.  For
   IPv6/ATM drivers, the subfields SHALL be encoded in the following
   manner:

      [NTL] defines the type and length of the ATM number immediately
      following the [STL] field. The format is as follows:

            7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            |0|x|  length   |
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      The most significant bit is reserved and MUST be set to zero.
      The second most significant bit (x) is a flag indicating whether
      the ATM number is in:

          ATM Forum AESA format (x = 0).
          Native E.164 format (x = 1).

      The bottom 6 bits represent an unsigned integer value indicating
      the length of the associated ATM address field in octets.

   The [STL] format is the same as the [NTL] field. Defines the length
   of the subaddress field, if it exists. If it does not exist this
   entire octet field MUST be zero. If the subaddress exists it will be
   in AESA format, so flag x SHALL be zero.

   [NBMA Number] is a variable length field containing the ATM address
   of the Link layer target. It is always present.

   [NBMA Subaddress] is a variable length field containing the ATM
   subaddress of the Link layer target. It may or may not be present.
   When it is not, the option ends after the [NBMA Number] (or any
   additional padding for 8 byte alignment).

   The octet ordering of the [NBMA Number] and [NBMA Subaddress] fields
   SHALL be the same as that used in MARS and NHRP control messages.



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4.2 UNI 3.0/3.1 signaling issues (SVC mode).

   When an IPv6 node places a call to another IPv6 node, it SHOULD
   follow the procedures in [6] and [7] for signalling UNI 3.0/3.1 SVCs
   [9] and negotiating MTU.  The default IP MTU size on a LL is 9180
   bytes as specified in [7].

   Note that while the procedures in [7] still apply to IPv6 over ATM,
   IPv6 Path MTU Discovery [8] is used by nodes and routers rather than
   IPv4 MTU discovery. Additionally, while IPv6 nodes are not required
   to implement Path MTU Discovery, IPv6/ATM nodes SHOULD implement it.
   Also, since IPv6 nodes will negotiate an appropriate MTU for each
   VC, Path MTU should never be triggered since neither node should
   ever receive a Packet Too Big message to trigger Path MTU Discovery.
   When nodes are communicating via one or more routers Path MTU
   Discovery will be used just as it is for legacy networks.

5 Interface Tokens

   For both PVC and SVC modes of operation, one of the following
   methods SHALL be used to generate Interface Tokens as required by
   section 5.1 of [1].

5.1 Interface Tokens Based on ESI values

   When the underlying ATM interface is identified by an ATM End System
   Address (AESA, formerly known as an NSAPA), the interface token MAY
   be formed from the ESI and SEL values in the AESA as follows:

          [0x00][ESI][SEL]

   [0x00] is a one octet field which is always set to 0.
          Note that the bit corresponding to the EUI-64 Global/Local
          bit [5] is always reset indicating that this address is not a
          globally unique IPv6 interface token.

   [ESI] is a six octet field.
          This field always contains the six octet ESI value for the
          AESA used to address the specific instance of the IPv6/ATM
          interface.

   [SEL] is a one octet field.
          This field always contains the SEL value from the AESA used
          to address the specific instance of the IPv6/ATM interface.




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5.2 Interface Tokens Based on 48 Bit MAC Values

   Where the underlying ATM NIC driver has access to a set of one or
   more 48 bit MAC values unique to the ATM NIC (e.g. MAC addresses
   configured into the NIC's ROM), the IPv6/ATM interface MAY use one
   of these values to create a unique interface token as described in
   [10].

5.3 Interface Tokens Based on EUI-64 Values

   Where the underlying ATM NIC driver has access to a set of one or
   more 64 bit EUI-64 values unique to the ATM NIC (e.g. EUI-64
   addresses configured into the NIC's ROM), the IPv6/ATM interface
   SHOULD use one of these values to create a unique interface token.
   after inverting the Global/Local identifier bit [10].  (Any
   relationship between these values and the ESI(s) registered with the
   local ATM switch by the ATM driver are outside the scope of this
   document.)

   When EUI-64 values are used for IPv6 interface tokens the only
   modification allowed to the octet string read from the NIC is
   inversion of the Global/Local identifier bit.

5.4 Interface Tokens Based on Native E.164 Addresses

   When an interface uses Native E.164 addresses then the E.164 values
   MAY be used to generate an interface token as follows:

          [D14][D13D12][D11D10][D9D8][D9D6][D5D4][D3D2][D1D0]

   [D14] A single octet containing the semi-octet representing the most
   significant E.164 digit shifted left four bits to the most
   significant four bits of the octet.  The lower four bits MUST be set
   to 0.  Note that the EUI-64 Global/Local indicator is set to 0
   indicating that this is not a globally unique IPv6 interface token.

   [D13D12] A single octet containing the semi-octet representing the
   second most significant E.164 digit [D13] shifted left four places
   to the most significant bits of the octet, and the third most
   significant semi-octet in the four least significant bits of the
   octet.

   [D11D10] - [D1D0] Octets each containing two E.164 digits, one in
   the most significant four bits, and one in the least significant
   four bits as indicated.



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5.5 Nodes Without Unique Identifiers

   If no MAC, EUI-64, AESA, or E.164 value is available for generating
   an interface token, then the interface token SHALL be generated as
   described in Appendix A of [10].

5.6 Multiple Logical Links on a Single Interface

   A logical ATM interface might be associated with a different SEL
   field of a common AESA prefix, or a set of entirely separate ESIs
   might have been registered with the local ATM switch to create a
   range of unique AESAs.

   The minimum information required to uniquely identify each logical
   ATM interface is (within the context of the local switch port) their
   ESI+SEL combination.

   For the vhost case described in section 5.1.2 of [1], vhost SHALL
   select a different interface token from the range of 64 bit values
   available to the ATM NIC (as described in 4.1). Each vhost SHALL
   implement IPv6/ATM interfaces in such a way that no two or more
   vhosts end up advertising the same interface token onto the same LL.
   (Conformance with this requirement may be achieved by choosing
   different SEL values, ESI values, or both.)

6. Conclusion and Open Issues.

   This document is an ATM-specific companion document to the ION
   working group's "IPv6 over Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA)
   networks" specification [1]. It specifies codepoints for the
   administratively configured PVC, and dynamically established SVC,
   modes of operation.

   There are no major open issues. Comments to the ION mailing list are
   solicited (ion@nexen.com).


7. Security Consideration

   While this proposal does not introduce any new security mechanisms
   all current IPv6 security mechanisms will work without modification
   for ATM.  This includes both authentication and encryption for both
   Neighbor Discovery protocols as well as the exchange of IPv6 data
   packets.




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Acknowledgments

   The original IPv6/ATM work by G. Armitage occurred while employed at
   Bellcore. Elements of section 4 were borrowed from Matt Crawford's
   draft on IPv6 over Ethernet.

   The authors would like to thank Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Kenjiro Cho,
   Yoshinobu Inoue, Hiroshi Esaki, Yoshifumi Atarashi, and Atsushi
   Hagiwara for their contributions based on actual PVC
   implementations.

Author's addresses

   Grenville Armitage
   Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
   101 Crawfords Corner Road
   Holmdel, NJ 07733
   USA
   Email: gja@lucent.com

   Peter Schulter
   BrightTiger Technologies
   125 Nagog Park
   Acton, MA 01720
   Email: paschulter@acm.org

   Markus Jork
   European Applied Research Center
   Digital Equipment GmbH
   CEC Karlsruhe
   Vincenz-Priessnitz-Str. 1
   D-76131 Karlsruhe
   Germany
   email: jork@kar.dec.com

References.

   [1] G. Armitage, P.Schulter, M. Jork, G. Harter, "IPv6 over Non-
   Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks", INTERNET DRAFT, draft-
   ietf-ion-ipv6-01.txt, March 1998

   [2] J. Heinanen, "Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaption
   Layer 5", RFC 1483, USC/Information Science Institute, July 1993.

   [3] G.J. Armitage, "Support for Multicast over UNI 3.1 based ATM



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   Networks", RFC 2022, Bellcore, November 1996.

   [4] J. Luciani, et al, "NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)",
   RFC 2332, April 1998

   [5] "64-Bit Global Identifier Format Tutorial",
   http://standards.ieee.org/db/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html.

   [6] M. Perez, et al, "ATM Signalling Support for IP over ATM", RFC
   1755, February 1995

   [7] R. Atkinson, "Default IP MTU for use over ATM AAL5", RFC 1626,
   May 1994

   [8] J. McCann, et al, "Path MTU Discovery for IP version 6", RFC
   1981, August 1996

   [9] ATM Forum, "ATM User Network Interface (UNI) Specification
   Version 3.1", ISBN 0-13-393828-X, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
   NJ, June 1995.

   [10] B. Hinden, S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture",
   INTERNET DRAFT, draft-ietf-ipngwg-addr-arch-v2-06.txt , January 1998

   [11] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, W.A. Simpson, "Neighbor Discovery for
   IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 1970, August 1996.






















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