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Versions: (draft-johnson-ipfix-mib-variable-export) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 8038

IPFIX Working Group                                            B. Claise
Internet-Draft                                                 P. Aitken
Intended status: Standards Track                                  S. B S
Expires: January 7, 2013                             Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                        J. Schoenwaelder
                                                Jacobs University Bremen
                                                            July 6, 2012


            Exporting MIB Variables using the IPFIX Protocol
                draft-ietf-ipfix-mib-variable-export-00

Abstract

   This document specifies a way to complement IPFIX Flow Records with
   Management Base (MIB) objects, avoiding the need to define new IPFIX
   Information Elements for existing Management Information Base objects
   that are already fully specified.

   This method requires an extension to the current IPFIX protocol.  New
   Template Set and Options Template Sets are specified to allow the
   export of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) MIB Objects along
   with IPFIX Information Elements.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
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Table of Contents

   1.  Open Issues / To do list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Motivation and Architectural Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  MIB OID Extended Template Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.1.  MIB OID Extended Template Record Format  . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.  MIB OID Extended Options Template Record Format  . . . . . 11
     5.3.  MIB OID Extended Field Specifier Format  . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.3.1.  Standard Field Specifier Format  . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       5.3.2.  Extended Field Specifier Format for a non-indexed
               MIB Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       5.3.3.  Extended Field Specifier Format for an Indexed MIB
               Object, with an MIB OID as Index . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.3.4.  Extended Field Specifier Format for an Indexed MIB
               Object, with an IPFIX Information Element as Index . . 18
       5.3.5.  Extended Field Specifier Format for an Indexed MIB
               Object, with one IPFIX Information Element for the
               OID segment identifying the instance . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.4.  Indices Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     5.5.  Identifying the SNMP Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     5.6.  Template Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   6.  Example Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     6.1.  Without Using the Specifications in this Document  . . . . 25
     6.2.  Non-indexed MIB Object: Established TCP Connections  . . . 25
     6.3.  Enterprise Specific MIB Object: Detailing CPU Load
           History  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     6.4.  Indexed MIB Object with an OID: Output Interface Queue
           Size in PSAMP Packet Report  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     6.5.  Indexed MIB Object with Two OIDs: The
           ipIfStatsInForwDatagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     6.6.  Indexed MIB Object with an IPFIX Information Element:
           Output Interface Queue Size in PSAMP Packet Report . . . . 36
     6.7.  Indexed MIB Objects with a mix of MIB OID and IPFIX
           Information Element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
     6.8.  Indexed MIB Object with MIBInstanceIdentifier
           Information Element: ipIfStatsOutOctets  . . . . . . . . . 40
     6.9.  Using MIB Objects as IPFIX Options Scope fields  . . . . . 42
       6.9.1.  Using non-Indexed MIB Objects as Option Scope
               fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       6.9.2.  Using Indexed MIB Objects as Option Scope fields . . . 44
     6.10. Using MIB Objects with IPFIX Structured Data . . . . . . . 46
   7.  Configuration Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   8.  The Collecting Process's Side  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   9.  Applicability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
   11. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48



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     11.1. New Set IDs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     11.2. New Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     11.3. New Information Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
   12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51











































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1.  Open Issues / To do list

   o  Skipping the length.  Is a new Set ID the right solution?

   o  "timestamps, exporters, and other animals" -> see the mailing
      list.

   o  Question: index is an IPFIX IE that didn't appear the flow record?
      Do we preclude this case?

   o  The value of the MIB OID acting as an index may not be of fixed
      length and may have no default length, for example the OID can be
      of type string or type MIB OID.

   o  "we can use the IE as an index if there is one and only one
      similar with that length in the Template Records".  To be
      discussed.

   o  use case: no index count and no index OID in the SNMP agent -> add
      this with the solution discussed with the DCM2.0 team.

   o  This also allows reduced size encoding for the indices.

   o  some TODO in the XML version:

      *  write section: "Indexed MIB Objects with a mix of MIB OID and
         IPFIX Information Element"

      *  insert example: "Using MIB Objects with IPFIX Structured Data"

   o  Describe how to choose between multiple instances of the required
      index field (eg, when the index is the egress interface for
      multicast). eg, rather than specifying the index IE by ID, we
      could specify it by number: the n'th field in the record.

   o  IPFIX Structured Data: how should it work?  Add example to
      "sectionStructuredData".

   o  How does the example in 5.5 work (ifOutQLen indexed by: ifIndex)
      since ifIndex is not present in the record?

   o  How does the example in 5.8.2 work, since the ifName is indexed by
      ifIndex which comes after - so the value is not already known.

   o  Improve the examples: Add an example with the mix of IPFIX IE and
      OID in sectionUseIndexedwithaMixofOIDAndIPFIXIE.





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   o  RFC 5610: explain what needs to be updated.

   o  ID to name mappings? -> use this for an example in section 5.

   o  What does this mean? : "(Consider the counter synchronization
      issue, non-key info should be static)".

   o  Tidy up the XML.

   o  (JS) Do we need to add something about the contextEngineID and
      contextName?  Optionally associate context with template via
      options Could be done with common properties or in a flow record
      However, do we limit all MIB variables in a Template Record to a
      single context? 3 cases:

      1.  if a simple SNMP agent, no contextEngineID and contextName,
          because it's the default

      2.  the context information is valid for the entire flow record

      3.  the context information is specific for each IE within the
          entire flow record

      question regarding 3.: only one context for an entire flow or can
      a flow record export MIB OID from different context?  (JS): ask
      the IPFIX mailing list.  (BC): ask internally in Cisco Action:
      complete the "Identifying the SNMP Context" section

   o  (JS) Inacio's figure: send email to the mailing list.


2.  Introduction

   There is growing interest in using IPFIX as a push mechanism for
   exporting management information.  Using a push protocol such as
   IPFIX instead of a polling protocol like SNMP is especially
   interesting in situations, where large chunks of repetitive data need
   to be exported periodically.

   While initially targeted at different problems, there is a large
   parallel between the information transported via IPFIX and SNMP.
   Furthermore, certain Management Information Base (MIB) objects are
   highly relevant to flows as they are understood today.  For example,
   in the IPFIX information model [RFC5102], Information Elements coming
   from the SNMP world have already been specified, e.g.,
   ingressInterface and egressInterface both refer to the ifIndex
   defined in [RFC2863].




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   Rather than mapping existing MIB objects to IPFIX Information
   Elements on a case by case basis, it would be advantageous to enable
   the export of any existing or future MIB objects as part of an IPFIX
   Flow Record.  This way, the duplication of data models [RFC3444],
   both as SMI MIB objects and IPFIX Information Elements, out of the
   same information model [RFC3444] would be avoided.

   In this document, new Template Sets for Flow Records and Options
   Records are specified to allow Templates to contain any combination
   of fields defined by traditional IPFIX Information Element(s) and/or
   MIB Object Identifier(s).  The MIB Object Identifiers can reference
   either non-indexed or indexed MIB object(s).  Note that the
   enterprise-specific MIB Object Identifiers are also supported.

   When an indexed MIB object is exported, a method to identify how that
   MIB object is indexed is specified so that the full meaning of the
   information being exported can be conveyed.  The specifications
   encompasses the different index types for the MIB Objects Identifier:
   indexed by one or multiple MIB variable(s), indexed by one or
   multiple IPFIX Information Element(s), indexed by a mix of MIB
   variable(s) and IPFIX Information Element(s).  A set of example use
   cases is used to illustrate how these specifications can be used.

   Some Exporters may not have the knowledge to convey the full
   information on how the MIB objects being exported are indexed.  They
   may not know the index count and/or the OID's of the objects that are
   used to index a MIB object.  In such cases the Exporter can send the
   the values of the index OID's identifying the instance of the object
   being exported as one string that conveys the instance identifier
   part of an object being exported.  The Collecting Process may know
   how a MIB object is indexed by some other means, for example, it
   could compile this information from the MIB Module that defines
   exported MIB object or the Collecting Process could be hardcoded with
   this information for a pre-defined set of MIB objects that it is
   interested in.  An example use case is used to illustrate this
   mechanism.


3.  Motivation and Architectural Model

   Most Flow Records contain the ingressInterface and/or the
   egressInterface Information Element.  These Information Elements
   carry an ifIndex value, a MIB object defined in [RFC2863].  In order
   to retrieve additional information about the identified interface, a
   Collector could simply poll relevant objects from the device running
   the Exporter via SNMP, however, that approach has several problems:





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   o  It requires implementing a mediation function between two data
      models, i.e., MIB objects and IPFIX Information Elements.

   o  Confirming the validity of simple mappings (e.g., ifIndex to
      ifName) requires to either check on a regular basis that the
      Exporter's network management system did not reload, or to impose
      ifIndex persistence across an Exporter's reload.

   o  Synchronization problems occur since counters carried in Flow
      Records and counters carried in SNMP messages are retrieved from
      the Exporter at different points in time and thus can't be
      correlated.  In the best case, assuming very tight integration of
      an IPFIX Collector with and SNMP polling engine, SNMP data is
      retrieved shortly after Data Records have been received, which
      implies the sum of the active or inactive timeouts (if not null)
      plus the time to export the Flow Record to the Collector.  If,
      however, the SNMP data is retrieved by a generic Network
      Management Station (NMS) polling interface statistics, then the
      time lag between IPFIX counters and SNMP counters can be
      significant.

   The intended scope of this work is the addition of MIB variable(s) to
   IPFIX Information Elements in Flow Records, in order to complement
   the Flow Records with useful and already standardized information.
   More specifically, the case of an existing Template Record, which
   needed to be augmented with some MIB variables whose index was
   already present in the Template Record as an IPFIX Information
   Element: typically, a 7-tuple Flow Record containing the
   ingressInterface Information Element, augmented by interface counters
   [RFC2863], which are indexed by the respective ingressInterface
   values in the Flow Records.

   The intended goal of this work is not a replacement of SNMP
   notifications, even if the specifications in this document could
   potentially allow this.  Since IPFIX is a push mechanism, initiated
   from the Exporter with no acknowledgment method, this specification
   does not provide the ability to execute configuration changes.

   The Distributed Management Expression MIB [RFC2982], which is a
   mechanism to create new MIB variables based on the content of
   existing ones, could also be advantageous in this context of this
   specification.  Indeed, newly created MIB object (for example, the
   link utilization MIB variable), created with the Distributed
   Management Expression MIB [RFC2982] could nicely complement Flow
   Records.

   Another advantage of exporting MIB objects via IPFIX is that IPFIX
   would benefit from an extended series of types to be exported.  The



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   simple and application-wide data types specified in SMIv2 [RFC2578],
   along with a new textual conventions, can be exported within IPFIX
   and then decoded in the Collector.

                 +------+  +-------+  +.........+  +.....+
                 | SNMP |  | IPFIX |  : NETCONF :  : CLI :
                 +------+  +-------+  +.........+  +.....+
                     |         |           |          |
               +--------------------------------------------+
               | Instrumentation (specified in MIB modules) |
               +--------------------------------------------+

                       Figure 1: Architectural Model

   The overall architectural model is depicted in Figure 1.  The IPFIX
   Exporter accesses the device's instrumentation, which follows the
   specifications contained in MIB modules.  Other management interfaces
   such as NETCONF or the device's Command Line Interface (CLI) may
   provide access to the same instrumentation.


4.  Terminology

   IPFIX-specific terminology (Information Element, Template, Template
   Record, Options Template Record, Template Set, Collector, Exporter,
   Flow Record, etc.) used in this document is defined in Section 2 of
   [RFC5101].  As in [RFC5101], these IPFIX-specific terms have the
   first letter of a word capitalized.

   This document prefers the more generic term "Data Record" as opposed
   to "Flow Record" as this specification allows the export of MIB
   objects.

   MIB Object Identifier (MIB OID)

        An ASCII character sequences of decimal non-negative sub-
        identifier values.  Each sub-identifier value MUST NOT exceed
        2^32-1 (4294967295) and MUST NOT have leading zeros.  Sub-
        identifiers are separated by single dots and without any
        intermediate whitespace.

   MIB Object Identifier Information Element

        An IPFIX Information Element ("MIBObjectIdentifierMarker") that
        denotes that a MIB Object Identifier is exported in the
        (Options) Template Record.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",



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   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].


5.  MIB OID Extended Template Formats

   Extended Template Record Formats are required to export data defined
   by MIB Object Identifiers.  New Template Sets are required for these
   extended Template Record Formats.

5.1.  MIB OID Extended Template Record Format

   The format of the MIB Object Identifier Extended Template Record is
   shown in Figure 2.  It consists of a Template Record Header and one
   or more Field Specifiers.

           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Template Record Header                            |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Field Specifier                                   |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Field Specifier                                   |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
                                 ...
           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Field Specifier                                   |
           +---------------------------------------------------+

      Figure 2: MIB Object Identifier Extended Template Record Format

   A MIB Object Identifier Extended Template Record MUST contain at
   least one MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier.  It MAY
   also contain any combination of IANA-assigned and/or enterprise-
   specific Information Element identifiers as specified in [RFC5101].

   The format of the Template Record Header is shown in Figure 3.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Template ID (> 255)   |         Field Count           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                  Figure 3: Template Record Header Format

   Where:




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      Template ID

         Template ID of this Template Record.  This value is greater
         than 255.

      Field Count

         Number of all fields in this Template Record.

   At this level of detail the layout of the Template Record Format, as
   specified in [RFC5101], and the MIB Object Identifier Extended
   Template Record Format are identical.  It is only the structure of
   the Field Specifiers that is different (see Section 5.3).

5.2.  MIB OID Extended Options Template Record Format

   The format of the MIB Object Identifier Extended Options Template
   Record is shown in Figure 4.  It consists of an Options Template
   Record Header and one or more Field Specifiers.

           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Options Template Record Header                    |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Field Specifier                                   |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Field Specifier                                   |
           +---------------------------------------------------+
                                 ...
           +---------------------------------------------------+
           | Field Specifier                                   |
           +---------------------------------------------------+

     Figure 4: MIB Object Identifier Options Extended Template Record
                                  Format

   A MIB Object Identifier Extended Options Template Record MUST contain
   at least one MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier, which
   MAY be a scope field.  It MAY also contain any combination of IANA-
   assigned and/or enterprise-specific Information Element identifiers.

   The format of the Options Template Record Header is shown in
   Figure 5.









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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Template ID (> 255)   |         Field Count           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      Scope Field Count        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 5: Options Template Record Header Format

   Where:

      Template ID

         Template ID of this Template Record.  This value is greater
         than 255.

      Field Count

         Number of all fields in this Template Record, including the
         Scope Fields.

      Scope Field Count

         Number of scope fields in this Options Template Record.  The
         Scope Fields are normal Fields except that they are interpreted
         as Scope at the Collector.  The Scope Field Count MUST NOT be
         zero for an Options Template Record.

   As with the Template Record Format, the only difference between the
   standard Options Template Record Format as defined in [RFC5101] and
   the MIB Object Identifier Extended Template Options Record Format is
   the structure of the Field Specifiers (see Section 5.3).

   Both indexed and non-indexed MIB Objects may be used as scope fields
   in an IPFIX Options Template Record.  Each scope MIB object is
   included in the IPFIX Scope Field Count.  When indexed MIB Objects
   are used, the index information is not included in the Scope Field
   Count since the size of the index information is already specified in
   the MIB Object's "index count" field (see Section 5.3.3).  Examples
   are given in Section 6.9.

5.3.  MIB OID Extended Field Specifier Format

   This section specifies how the Field Specifier format in [RFC5101] is
   extended to allow fields to be defined using a specified MIB Object.
   First for a MIB Object Identifier that is a non-indexed MIB object,
   then for an indexed MIB object.



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   The Field Specifier formats are shown in Figure 6 to Figure 9 below.

5.3.1.  Standard Field Specifier Format

   The Field Specifier format in Figure 6, along with the associated
   definitions, has been copied from [RFC5101], for an easier comparison
   with the MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier Format in
   Figure 7 through Figure 9.

   When exporting an IANA-assigned and/or enterprise-specific IPFIX
   Information Element identifier, the Field Specifier Format is the
   same as shown below.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|  Information Element ident. |        Field Length           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Enterprise Number                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 6: Standard Field Specifier format

   Where:

      E

         Enterprise bit.  This is the first bit of the Field Specifier.
         If this bit is zero, the Information Element Identifier
         identifies an IETF specified Information Element, and the four
         octet Enterprise Number field MUST NOT be present.  If this bit
         is one, the Information Element identifier identifies an
         enterprise-specific Information Element, and the Enterprise
         Number filed MUST be present.

      Information Element identifier

         A numeric value that represents the type of the Information
         Element.  Refer to [RFC5102].

      Field Length

         The length of the corresponding encoded Information Element, in
         octets.  Refer to [RFC5102].  The field length may be smaller
         than the definition in [RFC5102] if reduced size encoding is
         used.  The value 65535 is reserved for variable length
         Information Element.




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      Enterprise Number

         IANA enterprise number [PEN] of the authority defining the
         Information Element identifier in this Template Record.

5.3.2.  Extended Field Specifier Format for a non-indexed MIB Object

   When a MIB object is to be exported, a special Information Element
   value is used to show that the extended Field Specifier is being
   used, as shown in Figure 7:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|         MIB OID IE          |         Field Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Index Count = 0|  MIB OID Len  |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              ... MIB Object Identifier continued              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 7: MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier Format for a
              non-indexed MIB Object with an OID length < 255

   Where:

      E

         Enterprise bit.  This is the first bit of the Field Specifier.
         The value is always set to 0 for the MIB Object Identifier
         Extended Field Specifier Format, even if the MIB Object
         Identifier is enterprise-specific, because the MIB OID IE is an
         IANA standard field and is not enterprise-specific.

      MIB OID IE

         Special IPFIX Information Element, MIBObjectIdentifierMarker,
         that denotes that a MIB object is exported in the (Options)
         Template Record.  When the MIB Object Identifier Information
         Element (MIB OID IE) is used, the MIB Object Identifier must be
         specified in the MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier
         for the Collecting Process to be able to decode the Records.

      Field Length

         The definition is as [RFC5101].  Note that the Field Length can
         be expressed using reduced size encoding per [RFC5101].




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      Index Count

         The number of indices for a MIB object.  Set to zero for a non-
         indexed MIB object.

      MIB Object Identifier Length

         The length of the textual representation of the MIB Object
         Identifier that follows.  This is encoded in the same manner as
         the variable length encoding in [RFC5101].  If the length of
         the MIB Object Identifier is greater than or equal to 255
         octets, the length is encoded into 3 octets before the MIB
         Object Name, where the first octet is 255 and the length is
         carried in the second and third octets as shown in Figure 8.
         If the MIB Object Identifier is longer than 254 characters then
         the length MUST be extended.

      MIB Object Identifier

         The textual representation of a MIB object identifier as
         defined in Section 4.


      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|         MIB OID IE          |        Field Length           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Index Count = 0|      255      | MIB Object Identifier Length  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                  MIB Object Identifier ...                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              ... MIB Object Identifier continued              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 8: MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier Format for a
             non-indexed MIB Object with an OID length >= 255

5.3.3.  Extended Field Specifier Format for an Indexed MIB Object, with
        an MIB OID as Index

   The mechanism for "Extended Field Specifier Format for non-indexed
   MIB Object" in Section 5.3.2 can be used for exporting any MIB
   objects, including indexed MIB objects.  However, per the nature of
   indexing in MIB module, every indexed object is specified by a new
   MIB Object Identifier, which in turn implies that a new Template
   Record must be used for every indexed object.  For example, the
   ifInOctets for the interface represented by the interface ifIndex 1



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   is ifInOctets.1, the ifInOctets for the interface represented by the
   interface ifIndex 2 is ifInOctets.2, ...  This makes the export
   mechanism for "Extended Field Specifier Format for non-indexed MIB
   Object" inefficient when used for indexed MIB objects.  An example is
   shown in Section 6.1.

   When an indexed MIB object is exported in IPFIX, either the meaning
   of the exported value of each index may be identified or the complete
   OID segment identifying the instance can be sent as one piece.  When
   the meaning of each index is identified, this index (or indices) MUST
   be a MIB Object Identifier (this section) or an IPFIX Information
   Element (see Section 5.3.4).

   A MIB Object Identifier MAY be used as an index and sent as described
   in Figure 9.  However, if a MIB Object Identifier with an index is
   used as an index then its indices will not be identified.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|         MIB OID IE          |         Field Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Index Count  |  MIB OID Len  |   MIB Object Identifier ...   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              ... MIB Object Identifier continued              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|         MIB OID IE          |      Index Field length       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Idx MIB OID Len|        Index MIB Object Identifier ...        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         ... Index MIB Object Identifier continued ...         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 ...

   Figure 9: MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier Format with
         a MIB Index using a normal MIB Object Identifier as index

   Where:

      E

         Enterprise bit.  This is the first bit of the Field Specifier.
         The value is always set to 0 for the MIB Object Identifier
         Extended Field Specifier Format, even if the MIB Object
         Identifier is enterprise-specific, because the MIB OID IE is an
         IANA standard field and is not enterprise-specific.





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      MIB OID IE

         Special IPFIX Information Element, MIBObjectIdentifierMarker,
         that denotes that a MIB object is exported in the (Options)
         Template Record.  When the MIB Object Identifier Information
         Element (MIB OID IE) is used, the MIB Object Identifier must be
         specified in the MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier
         for the Collecting Process to be able to decode the Records.

      Field Length

         The definition is as [RFC5101].  Note that the Field Length can
         be expressed using reduced size encoding per [RFC5101].

      Index Count

         The number of indices for a MIB object, and zero for a non-
         indexed MIB object.

      MIB Object Identifier Length

         The length of the textual representation of the MIB Object
         Identifier that follows.  This is encoded in the same manner as
         the variable length encoding in [RFC5101].  If the length of
         the MIB Object Identifier is greater than or equal to 255
         octets, the length is encoded into 3 octets before the MIB
         Object Name Where the first octet is 255 and the length is
         carried in the second and third octets (as shown in Figure 8).
         If the MIB Object Identifier is longer than 254 characters then
         the length MUST be extended.

      MIB Object Identifier

         The textual representation of a MIB object identifier as
         defined in Section 4.  For any indices identified using
         Information Elements the Enterprise bit can be 1, indicating
         that an Enterprise Number will follow the Information Element.

      Index Field Length

         The length of the encoded index field, in octets, per the Field
         Length definition in [RFC5101].  Note that the Index Field
         Length can be expressed using reduced size encoding per
         [RFC5101].

      Index MIB Object Identifier Length





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         The length of the textual representation of the MIB Object
         Identifier being used as an index.  This is encoded in the same
         manner as the variable length encoding in [RFC5101].  If the
         length of the MIB Object Identifier is greater than or equal to
         255 octets, the length is encoded into 3 octets before the MIB
         Object Name.  The first octet is 255 and the length is carried
         in the second and third octets.

      Index MIB Object Identifier

         The textual representation of a MIB object identifier as
         defined in Section 4.

5.3.4.  Extended Field Specifier Format for an Indexed MIB Object, with
        an IPFIX Information Element as Index

   A possible optimization for the Extended Field Specifier Format for
   an Indexed MIB Object as specified in Section 5.3.3 is to use an
   existing IPFIX Information Element, which is already present in the
   Flow definition, as the index for indexed MIB Object.  On the top not
   repeating the index, the primary advantage is to make a clear link
   between the Flow Record values and the MIB variable index.

   For example, if a Flow Record definition contains the source IP
   address, the destination IP address, and the ingressInterface
   Information Element as Flow Keys, this implies that the IP address
   pairs are seen on that specific interface.  If the ifInOctets,
   indexed by that specific interface, is added to the Flow Record, it's
   clear from the Flow Record, that the ifInOctets is related to the
   same interface.  If the ifInOctets was indexed by the ifIndex (as
   specified in Section 5.3.3), the Collector would have to hardcode
   that the semantic of ifIndex MIB variable is equivalent to the
   ingressInterface Information Element.

   When an indexed MIB object is exported in IPFIX, the index (or
   indices) MAY be an IPFIX Information Element(s).  Note that this/
   these IPFIX Information Element(s) MAY be an enterprise-specific
   Information Element.

   Indexed MIB Objects, with IPFIX Information Elements as index, are
   exported as shown in Figure 10.










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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|         MIB OID IE          |         Field Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Index Count  |  MIB OID Len  |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              ... MIB Object Identifier continued              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E| Index Information Element 1 |       Index 1 Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E| Index Information Element 2 |       Index 2 Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Index Information Element 2 Enterprise Number           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E| Index Information Element N |       Index N Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Index Information Element N Enterprise Number           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 10: MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier Format with
     an indexed MIB Object using an IPFIX Information Element as Index

   Where:

      E

         Enterprise bit.  This is the first bit of the Field Specifier.
         The value is always set to 0 for the MIB Object Identifier
         Extended Field Specifier Format, even if the MIB Object
         Identifier is enterprise-specific, because the MIB OID IE is an
         IANA standard field and is not enterprise-specific.

      MIB OID IE

         Special IPFIX Information Element, MIBObjectIdentifierMarker,
         that denotes that a MIB object is exported in the (Options)
         Template Record.  When the MIB Object Identifier Information
         Element (MIB OID IE) is used, the MIB Object Identifier must be
         specified in the MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier
         for the Collecting Process to be able to decode the Records.

      Field Length

         The definition is as [RFC5101].  The Field Length does not
         include the length of the index fields, since these are



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         specified separately.  Note that the Field Length can be
         expressed using reduced size encoding per [RFC5101].

      Index Count

         The number of indices for a MIB object, and zero for a non-
         indexed MIB object.  The index count MUST be consistent with
         the INDEX definition of the corresponding MIB module.

      MIB Object Identifier Length

         The length of the textual representation of the MIB Object
         Identifier that follows.  This is encoded in the same manner as
         the variable length encoding in [RFC5101].  If the length of
         the MIB Object Identifier is greater than or equal to 255
         octets, the length is encoded into 3 octets before the MIB
         Object Name where the first octet is 255 and the length is
         carried in the second and third octets (as shown in Figure 8).
         If the MIB Object Identifier is longer than 254 characters then
         the length MUST be extended.

      MIB Object Identifier

         The textual representation of a MIB object identifier as
         defined in Section 4.

      Index Information Element 1..N

         The Information Element(s) that are used as indices for the MIB
         Object Identifier.

         Regular Information Elements, enterprise-specific Information
         Elements, and non-indexed MIB object identifiers may all be
         used as indices.  However, indexed MIB object identifiers may
         not be used as indices because SNMP doesn't support
         hierarchical indexing.

      Index 1..N Length

         The respective index lengths for the Information Element(s)
         1..N

5.3.5.  Extended Field Specifier Format for an Indexed MIB Object, with
        one IPFIX Information Element for the OID segment identifying
        the instance

   When MIB objects are to be exported, the Exporter may need to
   interact with the MIB instrumentation in an SNMP agent to obtain the



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   required information.  For some SNMP agents, the MIB instrumentation
   by design does not have knowledge of the OID of the indice(s) that
   identify the instance of the MIB object being accessed.  For example,
   when accessing a MIB object ifInOctets.10, the MIB instrumentation
   code may not know that the object ifInOctets is indexed by ifIndex,
   it is sufficient for it to map the value (10) of the ifIndex to an
   interface on the device.  For such SNMP agents, the Exporter can not
   use the methods described in Section 5.3.3 and Section 5.3.4 without
   making extensive changes to the existing MIB instrumentation.

   An alternate method for exporting Indexed MIB objects in such cases
   is to convey only the value(s) of the indice(s) that identify the
   instances being exported.  The index count and OIDs of the indice(s)
   are not conveyed in the IPFIX template record.  The Collecting
   Process is assumed to have the intelligence to understand how the
   exported objects are indexed.  For example, it can either compile
   this information from the MIB Module where this object type is
   defined or it may be hardcoded with this information for specific MIB
   objects that are of interest to it.  The object identifier of the
   indexed MIB object is split into two parts, first part is the OID
   prefix which is the OID of the corresponding object type and the
   second part is the OID segment identifying the instance.  An
   information element called MIBInstanceIdentifier is defined for
   conveying the instance identification segment of an indexed MIB
   object's OID in string format.  While the OID prefix is sent in the
   template record, the instance identifier segment is sent in the data
   record.  Since the instance identifier segment of the MIB OID is in
   the data-record, the same template record can be used for exporting
   different instances of the same MIB object.

   Indexed MIB objects, with MIBInstanceIdentifier as index are exported
   as shown in Figure 11

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|         MIB OID IE          |         Field Length          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Index Count=1 |  MIB OID Len  |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              ... MIB Object Identifier continued              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |E|    MIBInstanceIdentifier    |MIBInstanceIdentifier Len=FFFF |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 11: MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier Format with
        an indexed MIB Object using MIBInstanceIdentifier as Index




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   Where:

      E

         Enterprise bit.  This is the first bit of the Field Specifier.
         The value is always set to 0 for the MIB Object Identifier
         Extended Field Specifier Format, even if the MIB Object
         Identifier is enterprise-specific, because the MIB OID IE is an
         IANA standard field and is not enterprise-specific.

      MIB OID IE

         Special IPFIX Information Element, MIBObjectIdentifierMarker,
         that denotes that a MIB object is exported in the (Options)
         Template Record.  When the MIB Object Identifier Information
         Element (MIB OID IE) is used, the MIB Object Identifier must be
         specified in the MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier
         for the Collecting Process to be able to decode the Records.

      Field Length

         The definition is as [RFC5101].  The Field Length does not
         include the length of the index fields, since these are
         specified separately.  Note that the Field Length can be
         expressed using reduced size encoding per [RFC5101].

      Index Count

         When the OID segment identifying the instance is exported as
         one string using the MIBInstanceIdentifier the Index Count
         value is always set to 1 to indicate that there is one
         information element conveying index values for this MIB object.
         Since the Collecting Process is assumed to know the INDEX
         definition of the MIB object, the actual index count need not
         be conveyed.

      MIB Object Identifier Length

         The length of the textual representation of the MIB Object
         Identifier that follows.  This is encoded in the same manner as
         the variable length encoding in [RFC5101].  If the length of
         the MIB Object Identifier is greater than or equal to 255
         octets, the length is encoded into 3 octets before the MIB
         Object Name where the first octet is 255 and the length is
         carried in the second and third octets (as shown in Figure 8).
         If the MIB Object Identifier is longer than 254 characters then
         the length MUST be extended.




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      MIB Object Identifier

         The textual representation of a MIB object identifier as
         defined in Section 4.

      E

         Enterprise bit.  This is the enterprise bit for the
         MIBInstanceIdentifier that follows.  The value is always set to
         0 when the MIBInstanceIdentifier is used because the
         MIBInstanceIdentifier is an IANA standard field and is not
         enterprise-specific.

      MIB Instance Identifier

         IPFIX Information Element, MIBInstanceIdentifier, that denotes
         that a MIB Instance identifier string is exported in the data
         record following the MIB Object's value.  This instance
         identifier when concatenated with the MIB object type OID that
         was sent in the template record gives the complete OID of the
         MIB variable that is being exported.

5.4.  Indices Considerations

   When using an Indexed MIB Object, the Template Record contains the
   index/indices length.  In some cases, this index/indices information
   might be redundant in the export information.  For example, when the
   index is an Information Element already contained in the Template
   Record, the length is already part of the Template Record, and
   available to the Collecting Process for decode, as shown in the
   example in Section 6.6.  A second example in Section 6.9 is when a
   specific MIB OID is already part of the Template Record as a
   standalone MIB object in a Template Record, and also reused as an
   index.

   However, there are two cases where the index length is required.
   Therefore, for consistent decoding on the Collecting Process, the
   Index Length is always specified next to the index.

   Situation 1: When a non-indexed MIB object is used as an index, and
   doesn't appear as a standalone MIB object in the Template Record, the
   Collecting Process might not want, per design, to access the MIB
   modules in order to find the length of the value for a particular MIB
   OID.

   Situation 2: A Template Record might contain two similar Information
   Elements with different encoding lengths even if this situation is an
   unlikely real-world scenario), while an Indexed MIB Object might want



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   to refer to one of this Information Element as the index.  However,
   without clearly specifying the index length, the Collecting Process
   would not know which length to decode the index with.

   When an Information Element is used as index, there MUST be one and
   only one similar Information Element with the exact same length in
   the Template Record, so that the Collecting Process knows which
   Information Element value from the Flow Records to match.  Note that
   this rule also implies that the reduced size encoding [RFC5101] of
   the Information Element in the index compared to the Information
   Element in the Template Record is not allowed.  If the Collecting
   Process can not determine clearly which Information Element value to
   chose as the index because there are two (or more) Information
   Elements with the same length, then index MUST specified as the MIB
   Object Identifier.

   An indexed MIB object MAY be indexed by a mix of MIB OID(s) and IPFIX
   Information Element(s)

5.5.  Identifying the SNMP Context

   Each MIB OID is looked up in a specific context, usually the default
   context.  If exporting a MIB OID value that isn't in the default
   context then the context string MUST be identified and associated
   with the MIB OID.  This can be done on a per template basis by
   exporting an Options Template Record.

   A new IPFIX Information Element, "MIBObjectIdentifierMarker" has been
   allocated for this purpose.  See Section 11.

5.6.  Template Management

   Templates are managed as per [RFC5101].

   The Set ID field MUST contain the value TBD1 for any Template Set
   that contains a MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier.  The
   Template Withdrawal Message for such a Template must also use a Set
   ID field containing the value TBD1.

   The Set ID field MUST contain the value TBD2 for any Option Template
   Set that contains a MIB Object Identifier Extended Field Specifier.
   The Template Withdrawal Message for such an Option Template must also
   use a Set ID field containing the value TBD2.


6.  Example Use Cases





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6.1.  Without Using the Specifications in this Document

   This example shows the need for indexed MIB objects using the example
   of exporting ifInOctets from Section 5.3.3.

   A Template Record for exporting the ifInOctets for the interface
   represented by the interface ifIndex 1 (i.e., ifInOctets.1) is shown
   in Figure 12.  While this may be useful for exporting the single
   ifInOctets.1 field, clearly additional Templates are required in
   order to export ifInOctets.2, ifInOctets.3, etc.  Therefore Indexed
   MIB objects (per Section 5.3.3) are required in order to export
   arbitrary ifInOctets.x.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = TBD1        |          Length = 36          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Template ID = 256      |        Field Count = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=22 |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.1"      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 12: Template for exporting ifInOctets.1

6.2.  Non-indexed MIB Object: Established TCP Connections

   The number of established TCP connections of a remote network device
   could be monitored by configuring it to periodically export the
   number of established TCP connections to a centralized Collector.  In
   this example, the Exporter would export an IPFIX Message every 30
   minutes that contained Data Records detailing the number of
   established TCP connections.

   The table of data that is to be exported looks like:




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            +-------------------------+-----------------------+
            |        TIMESTAMP        | ESTABLISHED TCP CONN. |
            +-------------------------+-----------------------+
            | StartTime +   0 seconds |           10          |
            | StartTime +  60 seconds |           14          |
            | StartTime + 120 seconds |           19          |
            | StartTime + 180 seconds |           16          |
            | StartTime + 240 seconds |           23          |
            | StartTime + 300 seconds |           29          |
            +-------------------------+-----------------------+

                   Table 1: Established TCP Connections

   The Template Record for such a Data Record will detail two
   Information Elements:

   1.  flowStartSeconds from [RFC5102], Information Element 150: The
       absolute timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.

   2.  tcpCurrEstab from [RFC4022], Object ID "1.3.6.1.2.1.6.9": The
       number of TCP connections for which the current state is either
       ESTABLISHED or CLOSE-WAIT.

   Figure 13 shows the exported Template Set detailing the Template
   Record for exporting the number of established TCP connections (see
   Section 6.2).

























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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = TBD1        |          Length = 33          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Template ID = 257      |        Field Count = 2        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|   IE = flowStartSeconds     |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=15 |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.6.9"         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ... |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 13: Example of tcpCurrEstab Template Set

   Figure 14 shows the start of the Data Set for exporting the number of
   established TCP connections (see Section 6.2).

























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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = 257         |         Length = 52           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    StartTime +   0 seconds                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              10                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    StartTime +  60 seconds                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              14                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    StartTime + 120 seconds                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              19                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    StartTime + 180 seconds                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              16                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    StartTime + 240 seconds                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              23                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    StartTime + 300 seconds                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              29                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 14: Example of tcpCurrEstab Data Set

6.3.  Enterprise Specific MIB Object: Detailing CPU Load History

   For the sake of demonstrating a enterprise-specific MIB object, a
   non-indexed MIB object is chosen for simplicity.  The CPU Usage of a
   remote network device could be monitored by configuring it to
   periodically export CPU usage information, i.e. the
   cpmCPUTotal1minRev from the proprietary CISCO-PROCESS-MIB, Object ID
   "1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.109.1.1.1.1.7", to a centralized Collector.  In this
   example, the Exporter would export an IPFIX Message every 30 minutes
   that contained Data Records detailing the CPU 1 minute busy average
   at 1 minute intervals.

   The table of data that is to be exported looks like:






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             +-------------------------+---------------------+
             |        TIMESTAMP        | CPU BUSY PERCENTAGE |
             +-------------------------+---------------------+
             | StartTime +   0 seconds |         10%         |
             | StartTime +  60 seconds |         14%         |
             | StartTime + 120 seconds |         19%         |
             | StartTime + 180 seconds |         16%         |
             | StartTime + 240 seconds |         23%         |
             | StartTime + 300 seconds |         29%         |
             +-------------------------+---------------------+

                          Table 2: CPU Usage Data

   The Template Record for such a Data Record will detail two
   Information Elements:

   1.  flowStartSeconds from [RFC5102], Information Element 150: The
       absolute timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.

   2.  cpmCPUTotal1minRev, the overall CPU busy percentage in the last
       one-minute period

   Figure 15 shows the exported Template Set detailing the Template
   Record for exporting CPU Load (see Section 6.3).



























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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = TBD1        |          Length = 47          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Template ID = 258      |        Field Count = 2        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|   IE = flowStartSeconds     |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |        Field Length = 1       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=29 |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.109.1.1.1.1.7"  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ... MIB Object Identifier continued |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 15: Example of CPU Load Template Set

   Note that although cpmCPUTotal1minRev is 32 bits long, reduced size
   encoding ([RFC5101]) has been used to encoded it within a single
   octet.

   This example stresses that, even though the OID cpmCPUTotal1minRev is
   enterprise-specific, the E bit for the MIBObjectIdentifierMarker is
   set to "0" since the "MIBObjectIdentifierMarker" Information Element
   is not enterprise-specific.

   The corresponding Data Set does not add any value for this example,
   and is therefore not displayed.

6.4.  Indexed MIB Object with an OID: Output Interface Queue Size in
      PSAMP Packet Report

   Following on the example from the previous section (see Section 6.6),
   if the Template Record for the example Data Record does not contain
   the egressInterface, the ifOutQLen must be indexed by the ifIndex



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   interface index as detailed in the IF-MIB [RFC2863]:

   The Template Record for the example Data Record contains the
   following Information Elements:

   1.  sourceIPv4Address

   2.  destinationIPv4Address

   3.  totalLengthIPv4

   4.  ifOutQLen indexed by: ifIndex

   Figure 16 shows the exported Template Set detailing the Template for
   exporting a PSAMP Report with Interface Output Queue Length
   (ifOutQLen) but using the ifIndex MIB object as the exported index.



































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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = TBD1        |          Length = 70          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Template ID = 259      |        Field Count = 4        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|   IE = sourceIPv4Address    |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0| IE = destinationIPv4Address |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|    IE = totalLengthIPv4     |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |        Field Length = 1       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Index Count=1 |MIB OID Len=20 |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.21"       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | ... MIB OID continued         |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1 length   |MIB OID Len=19 | MIB Obj ID ...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1" ...       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | ... MIB Object Identifier cont|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 16: Example of a Template for a PSAMP Report with ifOutQLen
              using ifIndex from IF-MIB [RFC2863] as an index

   Note that IPFIX reduced size encoding [RFC5101] has been used in this
   example to express ifOutQLen in a single octet, rather than the 32
   bits specified in the IF-MIB [RFC2863].

   The corresponding IPFIX Data Record is shown in Figure 17.  For the



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   sake of the example, the interface index of "Eth 1/0" is 15 and the
   interface index of "Eth 1/1" is 16.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = 259         |         Length = 72           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.1                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.3                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                             150                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      45       |                     15 ...                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      ...      |                  192.0.2.4 ...                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      ...      |                  192.0.2.9 ...                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      ...      |                     350 ...                   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      ...      |       45      |             15 ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             ...               |         192.0.2.3 ...         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             ...               |         192.0.2.9 ...         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             ...               |              650 ...          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             ...               |       23      |    ...        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 ... 15                        |    ...        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 ... 192.0.2.4                 |    ...        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 ... 192.0.2.6                 |    ...        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 ...  350                      |       0       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              16                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 17: Example of PSAMP Packet Report with the ifOutQLen using
                 ifIndex from IF-MIB [RFC2863] as an index






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6.5.  Indexed MIB Object with Two OIDs: The ipIfStatsInForwDatagrams

   MIB objects may be indexed by multiple indices.  Note that all the
   indices apply to the MIB object, i.e. index 2 is not an index of
   index 1.

   This example shows the export of ipIfStatsInForwDatagrams from the
   IP-MIB [RFC4293] indexed by the ipIfStatsIPVersion and
   ipIfStatsIfIndex which are provided as scope fields in an IPFIX
   option.  Note that since these fields are used as indices for
   ipIfStatsInForwDatagrams, they don't need their own indices to be
   identified.

   The Options Template Record for the example Data Record contains the
   following Information Elements:

   1.  ipIfStatsIPVersion (1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.1) (scope field)

   2.  ipIfStatsIfIndex (1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.2) (scope field)

   3.  ipIfStatsInForwDatagrams (1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.12) (non-scope
       field) indexed by ipIfStatsIPVersion and ipIfStatsIfIndex

   Figure 18 shows the exported Options Template Set.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Set ID = TBD2         |          Length = 146         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Template ID = 260       |        Field Count = 3        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Scope Field Count = 2     |0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Scope Field 1 Length = 1    |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=22 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.1" ...     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |MIB Object Identifier continued|0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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     |   Scope Field 2 Length = 2    |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=22 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.2" ...     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |MIB Object Identifier continued|0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Field Length = 4        |Index Count = 2|MIB OID Len=23 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.12" ...     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued|0|MIB OID IE...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |... MIB OID IE | 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.1 Length |MIB OID Len=22 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.1" ...      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   ... MIB Object Identifier   |0|         MIB OID IE          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.2 Length | MIB OID Len=22| MIB Obj ID ...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.2" ...      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            ... MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   ... MIB Object Identifier   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 18: Example of an Options Template for an Indexed MIB Object
                             with two indices.

6.6.  Indexed MIB Object with an IPFIX Information Element: Output
      Interface Queue Size in PSAMP Packet Report

   If a PSAMP Packet Report [RFC5476] was generated on any dropped
   packets on an interface then it may be desirable to know if the send
   queue on the output interface was full.  This could be done be
   exporting the size of the send queue (ifOutQLen) in the same Data
   Record as the PSAMP Packet Report.

   The exported data looks like:

   +-----------+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
   |  SRC ADDR |  DST ADDR |   PAK  | OUTPUT I/F |    OUTPUT Q. LEN    |
   |           |           |   LEN  |            |     (ifOutQLen)     |
   +-----------+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+
   | 192.0.2.1 | 192.0.2.3 |   150  |   Eth 1/0  |          45         |
   |           |           |        |    (15)    |                     |
   | 192.0.2.4 | 192.0.2.9 |   350  |   Eth 1/0  |          45         |
   |           |           |        |    (15)    |                     |
   | 192.0.2.3 | 192.0.2.9 |   650  |   Eth 1/0  |          23         |
   |           |           |        |    (15)    |                     |
   | 192.0.2.4 | 192.0.2.6 |   350  |   Eth 1/1  |           0         |
   |           |           |        |    (16)    |                     |
   +-----------+-----------+--------+------------+---------------------+

   Table 3: Packet Report with Interface Output Queue Length (ifOutQLen)
                                   Data

   The MIB object for the Interface Output Queue Length, ifOutQLen
   ("1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.21"), is indexed by the ifIndex interface index
   as detailed in the IF-MIB [RFC2863].  If, for example, the interface
   index of "Eth 1/0" in the example is 15, the full MIB Object
   Identifier for (ifOutQLen) would be "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.21.15".
   Without a method to specify the index the full MIB OID would have to
   be used, which would mean specifying a new Template Record.  Rather
   than export a separate Template Record for each Interface Index, it
   is more practical to identify the index in the Data Record itself.




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   In fact, only how the indexed object was indexed is necessary,
   although it is often useful to specify the index value.  The example
   identifies the Egress Interface, but for other uses it may be
   sufficient to know that the ifOutQLen value was taken for the
   interface that the packet was switched out of, without identifying
   the actual interface.

   The Template Record for the example Data Record contains the
   following Information Elements:

   1.  sourceIPv4Address

   2.  destinationIPv4Address

   3.  totalLengthIPv4

   4.  egressInterface

   5.  ifOutQLen indexed by: egressInterface

   Figure 19 shows the exported Template Set detailing the Template for
   exporting a PSAMP Report with Interface Output Queue Length
   (ifOutQLen) (see Section 6.4).




























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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = TBD1        |          Length = 54          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Template ID = 261      |        Field Count = 5        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|   IE = sourceIPv4Address    |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0| IE = destinationIPv4Address |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|    IE = totalLengthIPv4     |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|    IE = egressInterface     |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |        Field Length 4         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Index Count=1 |MIB OID Len=20 |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |      ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.21"       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | ... MIB OID continued         |0|    IE = egressInterface     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  egressInterface Length = 4   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Figure 19: Example of Template for a PSAMP Report with ifOutQLen
                        indexed by egressInterface

   The corresponding IPFIX Data Record is shown in Figure 20.  For the
   sake of the example, the interface index of "Eth 1/0" is 15 and the
   interface index of "Eth 1/1" is 16.













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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Set ID = 261         |         Length = 84           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.1                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.3                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                             150                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        15 (Eth 1/0)                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              45                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.4                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.9                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                             350                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        15 (Eth 1/0)                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              45                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.3                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.9                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                             650                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        15 (Eth 1/0)                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              23                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.4                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                          192.0.2.6                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                             350                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        16 (Eth 1/1)                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               0                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 20: Example of PSAMP Packet Report with ifOutQLen indexed by
                              egressInterface



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6.7.  Indexed MIB Objects with a mix of MIB OID and IPFIX Information
      Element

   TODO.

6.8.  Indexed MIB Object with MIBInstanceIdentifier Information Element:
      ipIfStatsOutOctets

   This example shows the export of ipIfStatsOutOctets from the IP-MIB
   [RFC4293] indexed by the ipIfStatsIPVersion and ipIfStatsIfIndex,
   using the MIBInstanceIdentifier Information Element to carry the
   index information.

   The exported data looks like:

      +--------------------+------------------+--------------------+
      | ipIfStatsIPVersion | ipIfStatsIfIndex | ipIfStatsOutOctets |
      +--------------------+------------------+--------------------+
      |       1(IPv4)      |        10        |       235876       |
      |       2(IPv6)      |        11        |        38688       |
      +--------------------+------------------+--------------------+

     Table 4: The number octets in IP datagrams delivered to the lower
                          layers for transmission

   The MIB object ipIfStatsOutOctets ("1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.32"), is
   indexed by ipIfStatsIPVersion and ipIfStatsIfIndex as detailed in IP-
   MIB [RFC4293].  The instance of the ipIfStatsOutOctets for the IPv4
   protocol on the interface identified by ifIndex 10 is identified in
   the data record with the instance identifier segment ("1.10") in
   string format, while the instance of the ipIfStatsOutOctets for the
   IPv6 protocol on the interface identified by ifIndex 11 is identified
   in the data record with the instance identifier segment ("2.11") in
   string format.

   The Template Record for the example Data Records contains the
   following Information Elements:

   1.  ipIfStatsOutOctets (1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.32)

   Figure 21 shows the exported Template Set.










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      0                   1                   2                   2
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Set ID = TBD1         |          Length = 86          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Template ID = 264       |        Field Count = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|IE=MIBObjectIdentifierMarker |        Field Length = 4       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Index Count=1 |MIB OID Len=23 |    MIB Object Identifier ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  ...MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.4.31.3.1.32"         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |...MIB OID     |0|  MIBInstanceIdentifier IE   | FieldLength...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   ... = FFFF  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Figure 21: Example of a Template for an MIB Objects that use the
                 MIBInstanceIdentifier Information Element

   The corresponding IPFIX Data Record is shown in Figure 22.

   Variable length encoding is used for MIBInstanceIdentifier
   Information Element.


















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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           Set ID = 264        |          Length = 22          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                  ipIfStatsOutOctets = 235876                  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Length = 4   |                  "1.10"...                    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     ...       |          ipIfStatsOutOctets = 38688           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     ...       |  Length = 4   |            "2.11"...          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              ...              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 22: Example of ipIfStatsOutOctets using ipIfStatsIPVersion and
                        ipIfStatsIfIndex as indices

6.9.  Using MIB Objects as IPFIX Options Scope fields

   Both indexed and non-indexed MIB Objects may be used as IPFIX Options
   Scope fields as discussed in Section 5.2.

6.9.1.  Using non-Indexed MIB Objects as Option Scope fields

   In this example, a Cisco Telepresence system uses an IPFIX option to
   report bandwidth usage statistics.  The ctpcLocalAddrType and
   ctpcLocalAddr OIDs from the CISCO-TELEPRESENCE-CALL MIB are used as
   scope fields to identify the Telepresence system.  The
   ctpcLocalAddrType is expressed with a fixed size of 1 octet, while
   the ctpcLocalAddr is expressed using a variable length field.

   These scope fields are followed by two non-scope fields containing
   the number of packets and bytes.  IPFIX reduced size encoding is used
   to express each of these fields in 32 bits.

   Therefore the Options Template Record for the example Data Record
   contains the following Information Elements:

   1.  ctpcLocalAddrType (1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.644.1.2.1) (scope field)

   2.  ctpcLocalAddr (1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.644.1.2.2) (scope field)

   3.  octetDeltaCount (non-scope field)

   4.  packetDeltaCount (non-scope field)




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   The IPFIX Options Template Record is shown in Figure 23.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Set ID = TBD2         |          Length = 80          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Template ID = 262       |        Field Count = 4        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Scope Field Count = 2     |0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Scope Field 1 Length = 1    |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=25 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.644.1.2.1" ...    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |... MIB OID ID |0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker | Scope Field ...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |...Length=65535|Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=25 | MIB OID ID ...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.644.1.2.2" ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|     octetDeltaCount = 1     |       Field Length = 4        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|    packetDeltaCount = 2     |       Field Length = 4        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Figure 23: Example of an IPFIX Options Template Record using non-
                    Indexed MIB Objects as scope fields



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   The corresponding IPFIX Options Data Record is shown in Figure 24.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Set ID = 262          |          Length = 18          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | AddrType = 1  |  Length = 4   |  ctpcLocalAddrsystemID = ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         ... 192.0.2.1         |  octetDeltaCount = nnnn ...   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | ... octetDeltaCount continued |  packetDeltaCount = nnnn ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | ... packetDeltaCount continued|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 24: Example of an IPFIX Options Data Record using non-Indexed
                        MIB Objects as scope fields

6.9.2.  Using Indexed MIB Objects as Option Scope fields

   In this example, interface statistics are reported using ifName and
   ifInOctets from the IF-MIB [RFC2863].  Both of these fields are
   indexed by the ifIndex.  The ifName and ifIndex are scope fields.

   Therefore the Options Template Record for the example Data Record
   contains the following Information Elements:

   1.  ifName (1.3.6.1.2.1.31.1.1.1.1) (scope field) indexed by ifIndex

   2.  ifIndex (1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1) (scope field)

   3.  ifInOctets (1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10) (non-scope field) indexed by
       ifIndex

   The IPFIX Options Template Record is shown in Figure 25.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Set ID = TBD2         |          Length = 137         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       Template ID 263         |        Field Count = 3        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Scope Field Count = 2     |0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Scope Field 1 Length = 65535 |Index Count = 1|MIB OID Len=22 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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     |       MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.31.1.1.1.1"        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |MIB Object Identifier continued|0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Scope Field 1 index Length = 4|MIB OID Len=19 | MIB OID ID ...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1" ...     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   ... MIB Object Identifier   |0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Scope Field 2 Length = 4   |Index Count = 0|MIB OID Len=19 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1" ...       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        ... MIB Obj Identifier continued       |0| MIBObject...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |...Ident Marker|       Field Length =  4       |Index Count = 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |MIB OID Len=20 |MIB Object Identifier="1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10"...|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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     |  ... MIB OID  |0|  MIBObjectIdentifierMarker  |  Field 1 ...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |... index Len=4|MIB OID Len=19 |   MIB Object Identifier ...   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     ... MIB Object Identifier = "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1" ...     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           ...  MIB Object Identifier continued ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |... MIB Obj Id |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 25: Example of an IPFIX Options Template Record using Indexed
                        MIB Objects as scope fields

   The corresponding IPFIX Options Data Record is shown in Figure 26.
   For the sake of the example, the interface index of "Eth 1/1" is 15
   and the ifInOctets are 1000.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Set ID = 263          |          Length = 20          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Length = 7   |             ifName = "Eth 1/1" ...            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                     ... ifName continued                      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         ifIndex = 15                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       ifInOctets = 1000                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 26: Example of an IPFIX Options Data Record using Indexed MIB
                          Objects as scope fields

6.10.  Using MIB Objects with IPFIX Structured Data

   It's possible to export both indexed and non-indexed MIB Objects
   using IPFIX Structured Data per [RFC6313] as shown in the example
   below.

   TODO: insert example.





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7.  Configuration Considerations

   When configuring a MIB OID for export, consideration should be given
   to whether the SNMP Context String should also be configurable.  If a
   non-default Context String is used then it should be associated with
   the fields as per Section 5.5.


8.  The Collecting Process's Side

   This section describes the Collecting Process when using SCTP and PR-
   SCTP as the transport protocol.  Any necessary changes to the
   Collecting Process specifically related to TCP or UDP transport
   protocols are specified in section 10 of [RFC5101].

   The specifications in section 9 of [RFC5101] also apply to
   Collector's that implement this specification.  In addition, the
   following specifications should be noted.

   A Collecting Process that implements this specification MUST be able
   to receive Set IDs TBD1 and TBD2, as specified in this document.

   A Collecting Process that implements this specification MUST have
   access to MIB modules in order to look up the received MIB Object
   Identifiers and find the type and name of MIB OID fields used in
   received templates.  It should be noted that since reduced size
   encoding MAY be used by the Exporting Process then the Collecting
   Process cannot assume a received size for a field is the maximum size
   it should expect for that field.

   If a Collecting Process receives a MIB Object ID that it cannot
   decode, it SHOULD log an error.

   If a Collecting Process receives a MIB Object ID for an indexed MIB
   Object but isn't sent the appropriate number of indices then it
   SHOULD log an error, but it MAY use the Template Record to decode the
   Data Records as the associated indices are purely semantic
   information.


9.  Applicability

   Making available the many and varied items from MIB modules opens up
   a wide range of possible applications for the IPFIX protocol, some
   quite different from the usual flow information.  Some potential
   enhancements for traditional applications are detailed below:

   Some monitoring applications periodically export an interface id to



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   interface name mapping using IPFIX Options Templates.  This could be
   expanded to include the MIB object "ifInUcastPkts" of the IF-MIB
   [RFC2863] indexed using the ingressInterface Information Element, as
   a index.  This would give the input statistics for each interface
   which can be compared to the flow information to ensure the sampling
   rate is expected.  Or, if there is no sampling, to ensure that all
   the expected packets are being monitored.


10.  Security Considerations

   For this extension to the IPFIX protocol, the same security
   considerations as for the IPFIX protocol apply [RFC5101].

   The access to MIB objects is controlled by the configuration of the
   IPFIX exporter.  This is consistent with the way IPFIX controls
   access to other Information Elements in general.  The configuration
   of an IPFIX exporter determines which MIB objects are included in
   IPFIX flow records sent to certain collectors.  Network operators
   should take care that only MIB objects are included in IPFIX flow
   records that the receiving flow collector is allowed to receive.


11.  IANA Considerations

11.1.  New Set IDs

   IPFIX Messages use two fields with assigned values.  These are the
   IPFIX Version Number, indicating which version of the IPFIX Protocol
   was used to export an IPFIX Message, and the IPFIX Set ID, indicating
   the type for each set of information within an IPFIX Message.

   The previously reserved Set ID values of TBD1 and TBD2 are allocated
   in IANA's IPFIX Set IDs registry [IANA-SETS], and are used as
   specified in this document.  All other Set ID values are reserved for
   future use.  Set ID values above 255 are used for Data Sets.

11.2.  New Data Types

   A new mibObject data type must be allocated in IANA's IPFIX
   Information Element Data Types registry, [IANA-DATATYPES].

11.3.  New Information Elements

   Two new Information Elements, "MIBObjectIdentifierMarker", and
   "MIBInstanceIdentifier" must be allocated in IANA's IPFIX registry,
   [IANA-IPFIX]:




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   MIB Object Identifier Marker

        Description: An IPFIX Information Element
        ("MIBObjectIdentifierMarker") that denotes that a MIB Object
        Identifier is exported in the (Options) Template Record.

        Abstract Data Type: mibObject

        Data Type Semantics: identifier

        ElementId: TBD

        Status: current

        Reference: [this document].

   MIB Instance Identifier

      Description: IPFIX Information Element, MIBInstanceIdentifier,
      that denotes that a MIB Instance identifier string is exported in
      the data record following the MIB Object's value.  This instance
      identifier when concatenated with the MIB object type OID that was
      sent in the template record gives the complete OID of the MIB
      variable that is being exported.

      Abstract Data Type: mibObject

      Data Type Semantics: identifier

      ElementId: TBD

      Status: current

      Reference: [this document].


12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Andrew Johnson for his collaboration
   on the first version of the draft.


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [IANA-DATATYPES]
              IANA, "IPFIX Information Element Data Types registry", <ht



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              tp://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/
              ipfix.xml#ipfix-information-element-data-types>.

   [IANA-IPFIX]
              IANA, "IPFIX Information Elements registry",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/ipfix.xml>.

   [IANA-SETS]
              IANA, "IPFIX Set IDs registry", <http://www.iana.org/
              assignments/ipfix/ipfix.xml#ipfix-set-ids>.

   [PEN]      IANA, "Private Enterprise Numbers registry",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.

   [RFC4293]  Routhier, S., "Management Information Base for the
              Internet Protocol (IP)", RFC 4293, April 2006.

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
              Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
              Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.

   [RFC5102]  Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and J.
              Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export",
              RFC 5102, January 2008.

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2982]  Kavasseri, R., "Distributed Management Expression MIB",
              RFC 2982, October 2000.

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
              January 2003.

   [RFC4022]  Raghunarayan, R., "Management Information Base for the
              Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)", RFC 4022,
              March 2005.




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   [RFC5476]  Claise, B., Johnson, A., and J. Quittek, "Packet Sampling
              (PSAMP) Protocol Specifications", RFC 5476, March 2009.

   [RFC6313]  Claise, B., Dhandapani, G., Aitken, P., and S. Yates,
              "Export of Structured Data in IP Flow Information Export
              (IPFIX)", RFC 6313, July 2011.


Authors' Addresses

   Benoit Claise
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   De Kleetlaan 6a b1
   Diegem,   1813
   Belgium

   Phone: +32 2 704 5622
   Email: bclaise@cisco.com


   Paul Aitken
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   96 Commercial Quay
   Commercial Street
   Edinburgh,   EH6 6LX
   UK

   Phone: +44 131 561 3616
   Email: paitken@cisco.com


   Srikar
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Mail Stop BGL13/3/, SEZ Unit, Cessna Business Park, Kadubeesanahalli
   Village Varthur Hobli, Sarjapur Marathalli Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore,   KARNATAKA 560 103
   IN

   Phone: +91 80 4426 3264
   Email: srikar@cisco.com











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   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   Jacobs University Bremen
   Campus Ring 1
   Bremen,   28725
   Germany

   Phone: +49 421 200-3587
   Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de











































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