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Versions: (draft-morton-ippm-2330-stdform-typep) 00 01 02

Network Working Group                                          A. Morton
Internet-Draft                                                 AT&T Labs
Updates: 2330 (if approved)                                    J. Fabini
Intended status: Informational                                   TU Wien
Expires: April 13, 2018                                        N. Elkins
                                                   Inside Products, Inc.
                                                            M. Ackermann
                                      Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan
                                                                V. Hegde
                                                              Consultant
                                                        October 10, 2017


 IPv6, IPv4 and Coexistence Updates for IPPM's Active Metric Framework
                      draft-ietf-ippm-2330-ipv6-02

Abstract

   This memo updates the IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Framework RFC
   2330 with new considerations for measurement methodology and testing.
   It updates the definition of standard-formed packets in RFC 2330 to
   include IPv6 packets, deprecates the definition of minimum standard-
   formed packet, and augments distinguishing aspects of packets,
   referred to as Type-P for test packets in RFC 2330.  This memo
   identifies that IPv4-IPv6 co-existence can challenge measurements
   within the scope of the IPPM Framework.  Exemplary use cases include,
   but are not limited to IPv4-IPv6 translation, NAT, protocol
   encapsulation, IPv6 header compression, or use of IPv6 over Low-Power
   Wireless Area Networks (6LoWPAN).

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any



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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 13, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Packets of Type-P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Standard-Formed Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  NAT, IPv4-IPv6 Transition and Compression Techniques  . . . .   8
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   The IETF IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) working group first created a
   framework for metric development in [RFC2330].  This framework has
   stood the test of time and enabled development of many fundamental
   metrics.  It has been updated in the area of metric composition
   [RFC5835], and in several areas related to active stream measurement
   of modern networks with reactive properties [RFC7312].

   The IPPM framework [RFC2330] recognized (in section 13) that many
   aspects of IP packets can influence its processing during transfer
   across the network.




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   In Section 15 of [RFC2330], the notion of a "standard-formed" packet
   is defined.  However, the definition was never updated to include
   IPv6, as the original authors planned.

   In particular, IPv6 Extension Headers and protocols which use IPv6
   header compression are growing in use.  This memo seeks to provide
   the needed updates.

2.  Scope

   The purpose of this memo is to expand the coverage of IPPM metrics to
   include IPv6, and to highlight additional aspects of test packets and
   make them part of the IPPM performance metric framework.

   The scope is to update key sections of [RFC2330], adding
   considerations that will aid the development of new measurement
   methodologies intended for today's IP networks.  Specifically, this
   memo expands the Type-P examples in section 13 of [RFC2330] and
   expands the definition (in section 15 of [RFC2330]) of a standard-
   formed packet to include IPv6 header aspects and other features.

   Other topics in [RFC2330] which might be updated or augmented are
   deferred to future work.  This includes the topics of passive and
   various forms of hybrid active/passive measurements.

3.  Packets of Type-P

   A fundamental property of many Internet metrics is that the measured
   value of the metric depends on characteristics of the IP packet(s)
   used to make the measurement.  Potential influencing factors include
   IP header fields and their values, but also higher-layer protocol
   headers and their values.  Consider an IP-connectivity metric: one
   obtains different results depending on whether one is interested in
   connectivity for packets destined for well-known TCP ports or
   unreserved UDP ports, or those with invalid IPv4 checksums, or those
   with TTL or Hop Limit of 16, for example.  In some circumstances
   these distinctions will result in special treatment of packets in
   intermediate nodes and end systems (for example, if Diffserv
   [RFC2780], ECN [RFC3168], Router Alert, Hop-by-hop extensions
   [RFC7045], or Flow Labels [RFC6437] are used, or in the presence of
   firewalls or RSVP reservations).

   Because of this distinction, we introduce the generic notion of a
   "packet of Type-P", where in some contexts P will be explicitly
   defined (i.e., exactly what type of packet we mean), partially
   defined (e.g., "with a payload of B octets"), or left generic.  Thus
   we may talk about generic IP-Type-P-connectivity or more specific IP-
   port-HTTP-connectivity.  Some metrics and methodologies may be



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   fruitfully defined using generic Type-P definitions which are then
   made specific when performing actual measurements.

   Whenever a metric's value depends on the type of the packets involved
   in the metric, the metric's name will include either a specific type
   or a phrase such as "Type-P".  Thus we will not define an "IP-
   connectivity" metric but instead an "IP-Type-P-connectivity" metric
   and/or perhaps an "IP-port-HTTP-connectivity" metric.  This naming
   convention serves as an important reminder that one must be conscious
   of the exact type of traffic being measured.

   If the information constituting Type-P at the Source is found to have
   changed at the Destination (or at a measurement point between the
   Source and Destination, as in [RFC5644]), then the modified values
   SHOULD be noted and reported with the results.  Some modifications
   occur according to the conditions encountered in transit (such as
   congestion notification) or due to the requirements of segments of
   the Source to Destination path.  For example, the packet length will
   change if IP headers are converted to the alternate version/address
   family, or if optional Extension Headers are added or removed.  Even
   header fields like TTL/Hop Limit that typically change in transit may
   be relevant to specific tests.  For example Neighbor Discovery
   Protocol (NDP) [RFC4861] packets are transmitted with Hop Limit value
   set to 255, and the validity test specifies that the Hop Limit must
   have a value of 255 at the receiver, too.  So, while other tests may
   intentionally exclude the TTL/Hop Limit value from their Type-P
   definition, for this particular test the correct Hop Limit value is
   of high relevance and must be part of the Type-P definition.

   Local policies in intermediate nodes based on examination of IPv6
   Extension Headers may affect measurement repeatability.  If
   intermediate nodes follow the recommendations of [RFC7045],
   repeatability may be improved to some degree.

   A closely related note: it would be very useful to know if a given
   Internet component (like host, link, or path) treats equally a class
   C of different types of packets.  If so, then any one of those types
   of packets can be used for subsequent measurement of the component.
   This suggests we devise a metric or suite of metrics that attempt to
   determine C.

   Load balancing over parallel paths is one particular example where
   such a class C would be more complex to determine in IPPM
   measurements.  Load balancers often use flow identifiers, computed as
   hashes of (specific parts of) the packet header, for deciding among
   the available parallel paths a packet will traverse.  Packets with
   identical hashes are assigned to the same flow and forwarded to the
   same resource in the load balancer's pool.  The presence of a load



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   balancer on the measurement path, as well as the specific headers and
   fields that are used for the forwarding decision, are not known when
   measuring the path as a black-box.  Potential assessment scenarios
   include the measurement of one of the parallel paths, and the
   measurement of all available parallel paths that the load balancer
   can use.  Knowledge of a load balancer's flow definition
   (alternatively: its class C specific treatment in terms of header
   fields in scope of hash operations) is therefore a prerequisite for
   repeatable measurements.  A path may have more than one stage of load
   balancing, adding to class C definition complexity.

4.  Standard-Formed Packets

   Unless otherwise stated, all metric definitions that concern IP
   packets include an implicit assumption that the packet is *standard-
   formed*. A packet is standard-formed if it meets all of the following
   criteria:

   +  It includes a valid IP header: see below for version-specific
      criteria.

   +  It is not an IP fragment.

   +  The Source and Destination addresses correspond to the intended
      Source and Destination, including Multicast Destination addresses.

   +  If a transport header is present, it contains a valid checksum and
      other valid fields.

   For an IPv4 ( [RFC0791] and updates) packet to be standard-formed,
   the following additional criteria are required:

   o  The version field is 4

   o  The Internet Header Length (IHL) value is >= 5; the checksum is
      correct.

   o  Its total length as given in the IPv4 header corresponds to the
      size of the IPv4 header plus the size of the payload.

   o  Either the packet possesses sufficient TTL to travel from the
      Source to the Destination if the TTL is decremented by one at each
      hop, or it possesses the maximum TTL of 255.

   o  It does not contain IP options unless explicitly noted.

   For an IPv6 ([RFC2460] and updates) packet to be standard-formed, the
   following criteria are required:



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   o  The version field is 6.

   o  Its total length corresponds to the size of the IPv6 header (40
      octets) plus the length of the payload as given in the IPv6
      header.

   o  The payload length value for this packet (including Extension
      Headers) conforms to the IPv6 specifications.

   o  Either the packet possesses sufficient Hop Count to travel from
      the Source to the Destination if the Hop Count is decremented by
      one at each hop, or it possesses the maximum Hop Count of 255.

   o  Either the packet does not contain IP Extension Headers, or it
      contains the correct number and type of headers as specified in
      the packet, and the headers appear in the standard-conforming
      order (Next Header).

   o  All parameters used in the header and Extension Headers are found
      in the IANA Registry of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
      Parameters, partly specified in [RFC7045].

   Two mechanisms must be addressed in the context of standard-formed
   packets, namely IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Area Networks (6LowPAN,
   [RFC4494]) and Robust Header Compression (ROHC, [RFC3095]).  IPv6
   over Low-Power Wireless Area Networks (6LowPAN), as defined in
   [RFC4494] and updated by [RFC6282] with header compression and
   [RFC6775] with neighbor discovery optimizations proposes solutions
   for using IPv6 in resource-constrained environments.  An adaptation
   layer enables the transfer IPv6 packets over networks having a MTU
   smaller than the minimum IPv6 MTU.  Fragmentation and re-assembly of
   IPv6 packets, as well as the resulting state that must be stored in
   intermediate nodes, poses substantial challenges to measurements.
   Likewise, ROHC operates stateful in compressing headers on subpaths,
   storing state in intermediate hosts.  The modification of measurement
   packets' Type-P by ROHC and 6LowPAN, as well as requirements with
   respect to the concept of standard-formed packets for these two
   protocols requires substantial work.  Because of these reasons we
   consider ROHC and 6LowPAN packets to be out of the scope of this
   document.

   The topic of IPv6 Extension Headers brings current controversies into
   focus as noted by [RFC6564] and [RFC7045].  However, measurement use
   cases in the context of the IPPM framework like in-situ OAM in
   enterprise environments or IPv6 Performance and Diagnostic Metrics
   (PDM) Destination Option measurements [RFC8250] can benefit from
   inspection, modification, addition or deletion of IPv6 extension
   headers in hosts along the measurement path.



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   As a particular use case, hosts on the path may store sending and
   intermediate timestamps into dedicated extension headers to support
   measurements, monitoring, auditing, or reproducibility in critical
   environments.  [RFC8250] endorses the use and manipulation of IPv6
   extension headers for measurement purposes, consistent with other
   approved IETF specifications.

   The following additional considerations apply when IPv6 Extension
   Headers are present:

   o  Extension Header inspection: Some intermediate nodes may inspect
      Extension Headers or the entire IPv6 packet while in transit.  In
      exceptional cases, they may drop the packet or route via a sub-
      optimal path, and measurements may be unreliable or unrepeatable.
      The packet (if it arrives) may be standard-formed, with a
      corresponding Type-P.

   o  Extension Header modification: In Hop-by-Hop headers, some TLV
      encoded options may be permitted to change at intermediate nodes
      while in transit.  The resulting packet may be standard-formed,
      with a corresponding Type-P.

   o  Extension Header insertion or deletion: It is possible that
      Extension Headers could be added to, or removed from the header
      chain.  The resulting packet may be standard-formed, with a
      corresponding Type-P.

   o  A change in packet length (from the corresponding packet observed
      at the Source) or header modification is a significant factor in
      Internet measurement, and requires a new Type-P to be reported.

   We further require that if a packet is described as having a "length
   of B octets", then 0 <= B <= 65535; and if B is the payload length in
   octets, then B <= (65535-IP header size in octets, including any
   Extension Headers).  The jumbograms defined in [RFC2675] are not
   covered by this length analysis.  In practice, the path MTU will
   restrict the length of standard-formed packets that can successfully
   traverse the path.  Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD, [RFC1191] and
   [RFC1981]) or Packetization Layer Path MTU Discovery (PLMTUD,
   [RFC4821]) is recommended to prevent fragmentation or ICMP error
   messages as a result of IPv6 extension header manipulation.

   So, for example, one might imagine defining an IP connectivity metric
   as "IP-type-P-connectivity for standard-formed packets with the IP
   Diffserv field set to 0", or, more succinctly, "IP-type-
   P-connectivity with the IP Diffserv Field set to 0", since standard-
   formed is already implied by convention.  Changing the contents of a
   field, such as the Diffserv Code Point, ECN bits, or Flow Label may



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   have a profound affect on packet handling during transit, but does
   not affect a packet's status as standard-formed.  Likewise, the
   addition, modification, or deletion of extension headers may change
   the handling of packets in transit hosts.

   [RFC2330] defines the "minimal IP packet from A to B" as a particular
   type of standard-formed packet often useful to consider.  When
   defining IP metrics no packet smaller or simpler than this can be
   transmitted over a correctly operating IP network.  However, the
   concept of the minimal IP packet has not been used in the meantime
   and its practical use is limited.  This is why this memo deprecates
   the concept of the "minimal IP packet from A to B".

5.  NAT, IPv4-IPv6 Transition and Compression Techniques

   This memo adds the key considerations for utilizing IPv6 in two
   critical conventions of the IPPM Framework, namely packets of Type-P
   and standard-formed packets.  The need for co-existence of IPv4 and
   IPv6 has originated transitioning standards like the Framework for
   IPv4/IPv6 Translation in [RFC6144] or IP/ICMP Translation Algorithms
   in [RFC6145] and [RFC7757].

   The definition and execution of measurements within the context of
   the IPPM Framework is challenged whenever such translation mechanisms
   are present along the measurement path.  In particular use cases like
   IPv4-IPv6 translation, NAT, protocol encapsulation, or IPv6 header
   compression may result in modification of the measurement packet's
   Type-P along the path.  All these changes must be reported.
   Exemplary consequences include, but are not limited to:

   o  Modification or addition of headers or header field values in
      intermediate nodes.  As noted in Section 4 for IPv6 extension
      header manipulation, NAT, IPv4-IPv6 transitioning or IPv6 header
      compression mechanisms may result in changes of the measurement
      packets' Type-P, too.  Consequently, hosts along the measurement
      path may treat packets differently because of the Type-P
      modification.  Measurements at observation points along the path
      may also need extra context to uniquely identify a packet.

   o  Network Address Translators (NAT) on the path can have
      unpredictable impact on latency measurement (in terms of the
      amount of additional time added), and possibly other types of
      measurements.  It is not usually possible to control this impact
      (as testers may not have any control of the underlying network or
      middleboxes).  There is a possibility that stateful NAT will lead
      to unstable performance for a flow with specific Type-P, since
      state needs to be created for the first packet of a flow, and
      state may be lost later if the NAT runs out of resources.



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      However, this scenario does not invalidate the Type-P for testing
      - for example the purpose of a test might be exactly to quantify
      the NAT's impact on delay variation.  The presence of NAT may mean
      that the measured performance of Type-P will change between the
      source and the destination.  This can cause an issue when
      attempting to correlate measurements conducted on segments of the
      path that include or exclude the NAT.  Thus, it is a factor to be
      aware of when conducting measurements.

   o  Variable delay due to internal state.  One side effect of changes
      due to IPv4-IPv6 transitioning mechanisms is the variable delay
      that intermediate nodes spend for header modifications.  Similar
      to NAT the allocation of internal state and establishment of
      context within intermediate nodes may cause variable delays,
      depending on the measurement stream pattern and position of a
      packet within the stream.  For example the first packet in a
      stream will typically trigger allocation of internal state in an
      intermediate IPv4-IPv6 transition host.  Subsequent packets can
      benefit from lower processing delay due to the existing internal
      state.  However, large inter-packet delays in the measurement
      stream may result in the intermediate host deleting the associated
      state and needing to re-establish it on arrival of another stream
      packet.  It is worth noting that this variable delay due to
      internal state allocation in intermediate nodes can be an explicit
      use case for measurements.

   o  Variable delay due to packet length.  IPv4-IPv6 transitioning or
      header compression mechanisms modify the length of measurement
      packets.  The modification of the packet size may or may not
      change the way how the measurement path treats the packets.

   Points that are worthwhile discussing further: handling of large
   packets in IPv6 (including fragment extension headers, PMTUD,
   PLMTUD), extent of coverage for 6LO and IPv6 Header Compression, and
   the continued need to define a "minimal standard-formed packet".

   .

6.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of
   live paths are relevant here as well.  See [RFC4656] and [RFC5357].

   When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
   whose traffic is measured, the sensitive information available to
   potential observers is greatly reduced when using active techniques
   which are within this scope of work.  Passive observations of user
   traffic for measurement purposes raise many privacy issues.  We refer



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   the reader to the privacy considerations described in the Large Scale
   Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [RFC7594],
   which covers active and passive techniques.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This memo makes no requests of IANA.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Brian Carpenter for identifying the lack of IPv6
   coverage in IPPM's Framework, and for listing additional
   distinguishing factors for packets of Type-P.  Both Brian and Fred
   Baker discussed many of the interesting aspects of IPv6 with the co-
   authors, leading to a more solid first draft: thank you both.  Thanks
   to Bill Jouris for an editorial pass through the pre-00 text.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>.

   [RFC1191]  Mogul, J. and S. Deering, "Path MTU discovery", RFC 1191,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1191, November 1990,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1191>.

   [RFC1981]  McCann, J., Deering, S., and J. Mogul, "Path MTU Discovery
              for IP version 6", RFC 1981, DOI 10.17487/RFC1981, August
              1996, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1981>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2330]  Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
              "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2330, May 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2330>.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.





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   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, DOI 10.17487/RFC2675, August 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2675>.

   [RFC2780]  Bradner, S. and V. Paxson, "IANA Allocation Guidelines For
              Values In the Internet Protocol and Related Headers",
              BCP 37, RFC 2780, DOI 10.17487/RFC2780, March 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2780>.

   [RFC3095]  Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H.,
              Hannu, H., Jonsson, L-E., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le,
              K., Liu, Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K.,
              Wiebke, T., Yoshimura, T., and H. Zheng, "RObust Header
              Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP,
              ESP, and uncompressed", RFC 3095, DOI 10.17487/RFC3095,
              July 2001, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3095>.

   [RFC3168]  Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
              of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
              RFC 3168, DOI 10.17487/RFC3168, September 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3168>.

   [RFC4494]  Song, JH., Poovendran, R., and J. Lee, "The AES-CMAC-96
              Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 4494,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4494, June 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4494>.

   [RFC4656]  Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
              Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
              (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, DOI 10.17487/RFC4656, September 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4656>.

   [RFC4821]  Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
              Discovery", RFC 4821, DOI 10.17487/RFC4821, March 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4821>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC5357]  Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
              Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
              RFC 5357, DOI 10.17487/RFC5357, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5357>.






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   [RFC5644]  Stephan, E., Liang, L., and A. Morton, "IP Performance
              Metrics (IPPM): Spatial and Multicast", RFC 5644,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5644, October 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5644>.

   [RFC5835]  Morton, A., Ed. and S. Van den Berghe, Ed., "Framework for
              Metric Composition", RFC 5835, DOI 10.17487/RFC5835, April
              2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5835>.

   [RFC6144]  Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for
              IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, DOI 10.17487/RFC6144,
              April 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6144>.

   [RFC6145]  Li, X., Bao, C., and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation
              Algorithm", RFC 6145, DOI 10.17487/RFC6145, April 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6145>.

   [RFC6282]  Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.

   [RFC6437]  Amante, S., Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and J. Rajahalme,
              "IPv6 Flow Label Specification", RFC 6437,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6437, November 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6437>.

   [RFC6564]  Krishnan, S., Woodyatt, J., Kline, E., Hoagland, J., and
              M. Bhatia, "A Uniform Format for IPv6 Extension Headers",
              RFC 6564, DOI 10.17487/RFC6564, April 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6564>.

   [RFC6775]  Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
              Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
              Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
              RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.

   [RFC7045]  Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Transmission and Processing
              of IPv6 Extension Headers", RFC 7045,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7045, December 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7045>.

   [RFC7312]  Fabini, J. and A. Morton, "Advanced Stream and Sampling
              Framework for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 7312,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7312, August 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7312>.




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   [RFC7757]  Anderson, T. and A. Leiva Popper, "Explicit Address
              Mappings for Stateless IP/ICMP Translation", RFC 7757,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7757, February 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7757>.

   [RFC8250]  Elkins, N., Hamilton, R., and M. Ackermann, "IPv6
              Performance and Diagnostic Metrics (PDM) Destination
              Option", RFC 8250, DOI 10.17487/RFC8250, September 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8250>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC7594]  Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
              Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A Framework for Large-Scale
              Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", RFC 7594,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7594, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7594>.

Authors' Addresses

   Al Morton
   AT&T Labs
   200 Laurel Avenue South
   Middletown, NJ  07748
   USA

   Phone: +1 732 420 1571
   Fax:   +1 732 368 1192
   Email: acmorton@att.com
   URI:   http://home.comcast.net/~acmacm/


   Joachim Fabini
   TU Wien
   Gusshausstrasse 25/E389
   Vienna  1040
   Austria

   Phone: +43 1 58801 38813
   Fax:   +43 1 58801 38898
   Email: Joachim.Fabini@tuwien.ac.at
   URI:   http://www.tc.tuwien.ac.at/about-us/staff/joachim-fabini/









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   Nalini Elkins
   Inside Products, Inc.
   Carmel Valley, CA  93924
   USA

   Email: nalini.elkins@insidethestack.com


   Michael S. Ackermann
   Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan

   Email: mackermann@bcbsm.com


   Vinayak Hegde
   Consultant
   Brahma Sun City, Wadgaon-Sheri
   Pune, Maharashtra  411014
   INDIA

   Phone: +91 9449834401
   Email: vinayakh@gmail.com
   URI:   http://www.vinayakhegde.com




























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