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IP Security Protocol Working Group (IPSEC)                    T. Kivinen
INTERNET-DRAFT                               SSH Communications Security
draft-ietf-ipsec-ike-hash-revised-01.txt                    8 March 1999
Expires: 8 September 2000


              Fixing IKE Phase 1 & 2 Authentication HASHs

Status of This Memo

This document is a submission to the IETF IP Security Protocol
(IPSEC) Working Group.  Comments are solicited and should be
addressed to the working group mailing list (ipsec@lists.tislabs.com)
or to the editor.

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Abstract

This document defines new method of calculating the authentication HASH
of the IKE [RFC-2409] protocol. It fixes known problems with the IKE.
The way the HASH is currently defined in the [RFC-2409] does not authen-
ticate the generic ISAKMP [RFC-2408] header, nor does it authenticate
any extra payloads inside phase 1 packets. This causes a security prob-
lem when using extra payloads as already defined in the IKE and DOI
[RFC-2407] (vendor ID payload, INITIAL-CONTACT notification etc).  This
document defines three methods how to negotiate the new HASH method. All
methods tries to be backward compatible as much as possible. Only one of
those methods must be selected by the working group and all the other
should be removed from this document.  There is also suggestion how to
fix the Phase 2 authentication hashes so that they will also authenti-
cate the generic ISAKMP header.







T. Kivinen                                                      [page 1]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

Table of Contents

1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
2.  Specification of Requirements   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
3.  Revised HASH Calculation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
4.  Negotiating Revised HASH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
5.  Selecting Revised HASH Using New Authentication Methods   . . . .  5
6.  Selecting Revised HASH Using New HASH Algorithms  . . . . . . . .  5
7.  Selecting Revised HASH Using New PRF Algorithm  . . . . . . . . .  6
8.  Fixing the Phase 2 authentication HASHs   . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
9.  Security Considerations   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
10.  References   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
11.  Authors' Addresses   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7



1.  Introduction

In the IKE [RFC-2409] protocol there is a clear security problem,
because of the way the authentication HASH is calculated.

The HASH is defined in the [RFC-2409] like this:

HASH_I = prf(SKEYID, g^xi | g^xr | CKY-I | CKY-R | SAi_b | IDii_b )
HASH_R = prf(SKEYID, g^xr | g^xi | CKY-R | CKY-I | SAi_b | IDir_b )

The HASH does not include all payloads, nor it does not include generic
ISAKMP [RFC-2408] header, which contains version numbers, exchange type
etc.

This problem is quite easy to fix, but the bigger problem is how to fix
it in the backward compatible way, so we do not break all existing
implementations out there.

Most of the implementations out there will break immediately if we
update the ISAKMP major/minor number or the phase 1 transform
identifier. Most of the implementators say that their implementation
should be able to ignore unknown SA data attributes inside the SA
payload. They will not select that transform, so there should also be
transform that is supported by them to really be backward compatible.
This means that the most backword compatible way to negotiate the new
HASH method is to negotiate it inside the SA payload.

One advantage of negotiating new HASH inside the SA payload is that it
is authenticated, so if attacker removes new revised HASH proposals from
the SA payload the initiator will detect this when checking the HASH.

There are three different alternatives that can be used. One is to
define new, revised, authentication method for each existing
authentication method. I.e define "Pre Shared Keys Revised HASH
Authentication Method", "RSA Signatures Revised HASH Authentication
Method" etc. Another alternative is to duplicate all HASH types ("MD5
Revised Authentication HASH"), and the third way is to define PRF method


T. Kivinen                                                      [page 2]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

to describe new authentication HASH usage ("Revised Authentication
PRF").

All of the cases are identical in sense that the reserved number range
is large enough (16 bits), so we can "consume" some extra numbers. The
PRF method is might have more problems, because currently it is not used
at all (there is no defined PRFs), so some implementations might break
when they see such attribute class.

2.  Specification of Requirements

This document shall use the keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
"SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED, "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" to describe requirements. They are to be interpreted as
described in [RFC-2119] document.

3.  Revised HASH Calculation

The new HASH is defined so that all the packet received and sent before
are included in the HASH calculation. This also includes the packet
currently being generated. The final authentication HASH is HASH of
concatenation of HASHes of individiual packets. The reason for this is
that quite a lot of implementations already calculate the HASH of the
packet they are receiving just to detect retransmissions. This method
also makes the memory consumption smaller.

Each packet HASH includes the ISAKMP generic headers, ISAKMP payload
headers etc, i.e the exact bits sent to the wire from the beginning of
the ISAKMP generic header to the end of the packet. The HASH includes
the padding added because of the encryption. When the length of the
packet (inside the ISAKMP header) is calculated in to the HASH, it MUST
be set to the real length of packet including the padding. Packet is
added to the HASH as plaintext.

The authentication payloads (HASH or SIG) MUST be the last payload in
the packet, and when it is calculated to the authentication HASH it MUST
have proper payload header, but its contents inside the payload MUST be
all zeros, with proper length (either determined by the HASH algorithm
or the public key used in the authentication).

So in the main mode the initiator HASH is calculated as follows:

HASH_I = prf(SKEYID, HASH(packet_1) | HASH(packet_2) | HASH(packet_3) |
HASH(packet_4) | HASH(packet_5_template))

Where the HASH() is the negotiated hash algorithm. Note, that the
initiator has to save the first packet he sends out, because he might
not be able calculate the hash of the packet before he receives the
responders packet and can find out the negotiated hash algorithm.
Retransmission packets are not added to the HASH.

The packet_1 is the first packet initiator sends to the network
(starting from the beginning of the generic header and continuing to the


T. Kivinen                                                      [page 3]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

length specified in the ISAKMP header). Same goes for packets 2 to 4.
The packet 5 template is special, because it is this packet we are
currently sending out.

The HASH of the packet 5 template is calculated before encryption, but
including the padding. The HASH/SIG payload MUST be in its place and
MUST contain all zeros.

After the HASH of the packet has been calculated, then we calculate the
actual HASH_I value. When the HASH_I has been calculated the place
holder inside the packet is filled with the proper hash or signature,
and the packet is encrypted before sent out.

When the responder is checking the HASH it first decrypts the
packet_5_template and then it copies the HASH/SIG away and clears it
from the packet. Then it calculates the exactly same HASH_I the
initiator did, which can then be used authenticate the exchange (either
direct comparison of the HASH, or signature verification).

In the main mode the responder HASH is calculated as follows:

HASH_R = prf(SKEYID, HASH(packet_1) | HASH(packet_2) | HASH(packet_3) |
HASH(packet_4) | HASH(packet_5_template) | HASH(packet_6_template))

The packets 1 to 5 are identical to initiator case, i.e the SIG/HASH
payload inside the payload 5 template contains zeros. The packet 6
template is similar than packet 5 template in the initiator case, i.e
the HASH/SIG payload is in its place and must contain all zeros.

In the aggressive mode the HASH is calculated as follows:

HASH_I = prf(SKEYID, HASH(packet_1) | HASH(packet_2_template))
HASH_R = prf(SKEYID, HASH(packet_1) | HASH(packet_2_template) |
HASH(packet_3_template))

With same kind of processing of packet 2 and 3 than was for packets 5
and 6 in the main mode. Note, that the encryption of the final packet in
the aggressive mode does affect the HASH, because there might be padding
added to the packet 3 which must be then be included to the HASH.

4.  Negotiating Revised HASH

The revised HASH is negotiated using defined attribute values inside the
SA payload. This means that current implementations are able to ignore
those proposal and select the old HASH method. New implementations
SHOULD add revised HASH method before normal method, so that the new
revised HASH method is preferred.

XXX Next paragraph will disappear from the final document:

Next three sections describe three different ways to negotiate the new
revised HASH method. The working group must select one of those and
after that two of the other methods are removed from this document.


T. Kivinen                                                      [page 4]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

Each of sections are currently written as they would be there alone,
thus there is some duplication of text inside of them.

5.  Selecting Revised HASH Using New Authentication Methods

The revised HASH method is negotiated by adding 5 new authentication
methods, i.e:

    XXX+1
      Pre-Shared Keys with Revised Authentication HASH

    XXX+2
      DSS Signatures with Revised Authentication HASH

    XXX+3
      RSA Signatures with Revised Authentication HASH

    XXX+4
      Encryption with RSA with Revised Authentication HASH

    XXX+5
      Revised Encryption with RSA with Revised Authentication HASH

Note, The XXX should be replaced as the last defined authentication
method number from the RFC2409.

Each authentication method is exactly identical to the old ones, except
the HASH_I and HASH_R are calculated as described in the section
``Revised HASH Calculation''.

In the signature modes the final SIG_I or SIG_R is the result of the
negotiated digital signature algorithm applied to HASH_I or HASH_R
respectively.

In the RSA Encryption mode the authentication of the other party takes
place in the generation of the SKEYID, because to generate it correctly
the other end must be able to decrypt the encrypted NONCE payload. Note
that the ID and NONCE payloads are already encrypted using public key
when they are calculated to the authentication HASH.

6.  Selecting Revised HASH Using New HASH Algorithms

The revised HASH method is negotiated by adding 3 new HASH algorithms,
i.e:

    XXX+1
      MD5 with Revised Authentication HASH

    XXX+2
      SHA with Revised Authentication HASH

    XXX+3
      Tiger with Revised Authentication HASH


T. Kivinen                                                      [page 5]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

Note, The XXX should be replaced as the last defined hash algorithm
number from the RFC2409.

Each HASH is defined so that it doesn't affect the HASH algorithm
itself, but the new revised HASH methods changes the way how the HASH_I
and HASH_R are calculated. This is described in the section ``Revised
HASH Calculation''.

In the signature modes the final SIG_I or SIG_R, is the result of the
negotiated digital signature algorithm applied to HASH_I or HASH_R
respectively.

In the RSA Encryption mode the authentication of the other party happens
in the generation of the SKEYID, because to generate it correctly the
other end must be able to decrypt the encrypted NONCE payload. Note that
the ID and NONCE payloads are already encrypted, when they are
calculated to the authentication HASH.

7.  Selecting Revised HASH Using New PRF Algorithm

The revised HASH method is negotiated by adding a PRF algorithm, i.e:

    XXX+1
      HMAC-HASH PRF with Revised Authentication HASH

Note, The XXX should be replaced as the last defined PRF algorithm
number from the RFC2409.

Each HASH is defined so that it doesn't affect the prf algorithm itself,
but the new revised HASH method change the way how the HASH_I and HASH_R
are calculated. This is described in the section ``Revised HASH
Calculation''.

In the signature modes the final SIG_I or SIG_R, is the result of the
negotiated digital signature algorithm applied to HASH_I or HASH_R
respectively.

In the RSA Encryption mode the authentication of the other party happens
in the generation of the SKEYID, because to generate it correctly the
other end must be able to decrypt the encrypted NONCE payload. Note that
the ID and NONCE payloads are already encrypted, when they are
calculated to the authentication HASH.

8.  Fixing the Phase 2 authentication HASHs

For most of the Phase 2 exchanges the authentication hash is defined as
follows:

HASH = prf(SKEYID_a, M-ID | rest of the packet after hash payload)

The new proposal for the authentication hash is:

HASH = prf(SKEYID_a, packet_template)


T. Kivinen                                                      [page 6]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

Where the packet_template is the whole packet before encryption, but
after adding encryption padding. The HASH payload inside the packet MUST
be in its place and its contents MUST be all zeros (generic payload
header is properly filled in). Because the packet_template includes the
generic packet header, which contains the message id field, there is no
need to add that field to the hash separately.

This authentication hash SHOULD be used for all new exchange modes.  I.e
when new Phase 2 exchange mode is added it SHOULD use this kind of hash
instead of old style hash, regardless of the phase 1 authentication
style.

For already existing phase 2 exchanges (quick mode, new group mode and
informational exchange), this new hash MUST be used only and only if the
ISAKMP SA was negotiated using the revised HASH authentication method.
This will provide the backward compatibility with old implementations.

In the quick mode the HASH(2) and HASH(3) includes the nonce payloads,
so for the quick mode the new authentication HASH is defined to be:

HASH(1) = prf(SKEYID_a, packet_1_template)
HASH(2) = prf(SKEYID_a, Ni_b | packet_2_template)
HASH(3) = prf(SKEYID_a, 0 | Ni_b | Nr_b | packet_3_template)

9.  Security Considerations

This document describes a way to fix the security problem inside the
IKE. In the IKE defined in RFC2409 only some payloads are authenticated.
This means that generic ISAKMP header (version numbers, exchange type,
flags etc) and extra payloads (Notifications, Vendor ID, CERT, and CR
payloads) are not authenticated. This document fixes that security
problem.

10.  References

[RFC-2408] Maughan D., Schertler M., Schneider M., Turner J., "Internet
Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)", November
1998.

[RFC-2409] Harkins D., Carrel D., "The Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",
November 1998

[RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to indicate
Requirement Levels", March 1997

[RFC-2407] Piper D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of Interpretation
for ISAKMP", November 1998

11.  Authors' Addresses

    Tero Kivinen
    SSH Communications Security Ltd.
    Tekniikantie 12


T. Kivinen                                                      [page 7]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              8 March 1999

    FIN-02150 ESPOO
    Finland
    E-mail: kivinen@ssh.fi



















































T. Kivinen                                                      [page 8]


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