[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Nits]

Versions: 00 RFC 1941

Network Working Group                      J. Sellers
Internet Draft                             Sterling Software/NASA IITA
Expires in six months
                                           J. Robichaux
                                           BBN Planet


               Frequently Asked Questions for Schools
               <draft-ietf-isn-4-schools-00.txt>

Status of This Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working documents
of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as
Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months.
Internet-Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
at any time.  It is not appropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as a "working draft" or "work in
progress."

To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
1id-abstracts.txt listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
Directories on ds.internic.net, nic.nordu.net, ftp.isi.edu, or
munnari.oz.au.

This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo does
not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is
unlimited.

Abstract

The goal of this FYI RFC, produced by the Internet School Networking (ISN)
group in the User Services Area of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), is to act as an introduction to the Internet for faculty,
administration, and other school personnel in primary and secondary
schools. The intended audience is educators who are recently connected to
the Internet, who are accessing the Internet by some means other than a
direct connection, or who are just beginning to consider Internet access
as a resource for their schools. Although the Internet Engineering Task
Force is an international organization and this paper will be valuable to
educators in many countries, it is limited in focus to internetworking in
the United States.



Table of Contents

1.   Introduction
2.   Acknowledgments
3.   Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting
4.   Questions About Getting the Internet into the School
5.   Questions About Finding Materials, People, and Projects on the
     Internet
6.   Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, and Collaboration
7.   Questions About Security and Ethics
8.   Suggested Reading
9.   Resources and Contacts
10.  References
11.  Security Considerations
12.  Authors' Addresses

Appendix A:  Examples of Educational Projects Using the Internet
Appendix B:  Ways to Get RFCs
Appendix C:  Glossary of Terms Used in this Document

1.  Introduction

As more and more schools begin to use technology to achieve educational
goals, access to the world-wide network of computer networks known as the
Internet is expanding. Help for schools in the form of printed materials,
electronic resources, and people is also expanding. The Internet School
Networking (ISN) group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
remains committed to articulating the advantages of Internet connections
for schools and providing possible solutions to the challenges school s
face in getting connected. The FYI (For Your Information) series, which is
a subset of the IETF-produced RFCs (Requests for Comments) is one means to
these ends. (See Appendix C, "Glossary of Terms Used in This Document" for
further explanation of "FYI" and "RFC".)

While the IETF and ISN are international groups, the authors of this
document are experienced only in bringing the Internet to schools in the
United States. We are aware that culture and the national economy effect
how one views the issues surround ing school networking. (To give just one
example, in the US school reform is an important reason for schools to get
connected to the Internet. Other countries do not have the same agenda to
make the teacherUs role more facilitative and less directive, or to change
classroom structure in the ways that many in the US would like to see.)
So, this document has a decidedly US flavor. However, we feel that the
focus will not prevent it from being useful to those in other countries!

Some of the questions educators have about the Internet are of a more
general nature, and for those we recommend reading FYI 4, "Answers to
commonly asked 'New Internet User' Questions". For information on how to
get this and other IETF documents of interest to the general Internet
user, See Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs".

Please remember that the Internet is a changing environment. Although we
have tried to include only the most stable of network services and
contacts, you may still find that something listed is unavailable. The
positive side of this constant change is that you will discover much on
your own, and some of what you discover will be new since the writing of
this document.

This is an update of an earlier document (FYI 22/RFC 1578, "Answers to
Commonly Asked 'Primary and Secondary School Internet User' Questions").
If future updates are produced, the RFC number will change again, and the
FYI number (22) will remain the same.

2.  Acknowledgments

In addition to Ronald Elliott, Klaus Fueller, Raymond Harder, Ellen
Hoffman, William Manning, April Marine, Michael Newell, and Anthony
Rutkowski, all of whom contributed to the first version of this document,
we would like to thank Gary Malkin of Xylogics, Inc. for his help in
updating the glossary. Special thanks to Jan Wee, K-12 Internet Consultant
and Library Media Director at West Salem (Wisconsin) Middle School for
permission to cannibalize her list of Favorite Internet Resources for K-12
Educators.

3.  Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting

3.1  What is the Internet?

The Internet is a large worldwide network comprised of smaller computer
networks, all linked by a common protocol that enables computers of
different types to exchange information. The networks are owned by
countless commercial, research, governmental, and educational
organizations and individuals. The Internet allows the almost 5 million



computers [1] and countless users of the system to collaborate easily and
quickly through messaging, discussion groups, and conferencing. Users are
able to discover and access people and information, distribute
information, and experiment with new technologies and services. The
Internet has become a major global infrastructure for education, research,
professional learning, public service, and business and is currently
growing at an astronomical monthly rate.

Since the Internet is a network of many different networks, you may
already be using one of the networks that offer partial Internet access.
Networks like Global SchoolNet, FidoNet, and K12Net are bulletin board and
conferencing systems linked via the Internet which provide inexpensive
access to some Internet services. If you can use interactive computer
access (telnet) and resource-finding tools such as Gopher, as well as
electronic mail, you are probably "on" the Internet. If you have questions
about the specific service you're currently using, ask its support
personnel if you have Internet access. See Section 9, "Resources and
Contacts" for information on the Global SchoolNet Foundation, FidoNet, and
K12Net. See Section 6, "Questions about Classroom Resources, Projects, and
Collaboration" for further discussion of network tools such as telnet and
Gopher.

While there is no official governing body of the Internet, the Internet
Society serves as the international organization for Internet cooperation
and coordination. See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts" for Internet
Society contact information.

For a more complete basic introduction to the Internet, see FYI 20, "What
is the Internet?" cited in Section 8, "Suggested Reading". For information
on how to retrieve FYI documents produced by the Internet Engineering Task
Force, see Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs".

3.2  What are the benefits of using the Internet in the classroom?

The Internet is an exciting classroom resource. It expands the classroom
dramatically by delivering information, data, images, and even computer
software from places otherwise impossible to reach, and it does this
almost instantly. This access to up-to-the-minute information can make a
student's education more relevant. Some of these materials are original
sources which are too expensive or in other ways difficult for schools to
own. Some information is news unfiltered by mass media, requiring students
to critically assess its content and value.

But the Internet is not strictly a place from which to gather something.
It is also a place to communicate, to make contact with people all over
the world. The Internet brings into the classroom experts in every content
area, new and old friends, and colleagues in education. And it allows
students and teachers to leave the classroom by sharing ideas with people
far away. The isolation inherent in the teaching profession is well-known
among educators. By having access to colleagues in other parts of the
world, as well as to those who work outside of classrooms, educators able
to reach the Internet are not as isolated.

Your site can become a valuable source of information as well. Consider
the expertise in your school which could be shared with others around the
world. For guidance in finding schools with a presence on the Internet,
see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

Use of the Internet shifts focus away from a teacher-as-expert model and
toward one of shared responsibility for learning, making it a vital part
of school reform. Many reform efforts attempt to move away from teacher
isolation and toward teacher collaboration, away from learning in a
school-only context and toward learning in a life context, away from an
emphasis on knowing and toward an emphasis on learning, away from a focus
on content and toward a focus on concepts [2]. The Internet can play an
integral part in helping to achieve these shifts as it lends itself to use
as a resource for project-based learning and often what students learn
spans curricular areas. Information on the Internet, as in the rest of the
world outside the classroom, is not divided into geometry, writing,
geography, painting, etc.

As a hands-on classroom tool, the use of networks encourages the kind of
independence and autonomy that many educators agree is important to the
learning process, but network use can also be a motivator for students in
and of itself. Additionally, because class, race, ability, and disability
are removed as factors in communication while using the Internet, it is a
natural tool for addressing the needs of all students; exactly how this is
done will vary from district to district as schools empower individual
teachers and students.

There are a number of resources you can use to convince others of the
benefits of the Internet in the classroom. The NASA IITA (US National
Aeronautics and Space Administration Information Infrastructure Technology

and Applications) K-12 Internet Initiative has produced an 11-minute video
describing the benefits to schools in using the Internet.  Its title is
"Global Quest: The Internet in the Classroom". Several articles appearing
in various periodicals make a beautiful case for using the Internet in the
classroom. A particularly good one by Al Rogers of Global SchoolNet is
called, "Global Literacy in a Gutenberg Culture".  Student essays can also
give compelling testimony. For information on the Rogers article, see
Section 8, "Suggested Reading." The essays can be found on NASA's Quest
server listed in Section 9, Resources and Contacts," as can information on
the video.

3.3  Will using the Internet replace teachers?

Just as textbooks, periodicals, videos, guest speakers, and field trips
are often used to support a curriculum, the Internet can be used as a tool
for teaching and learning.  This does not mean that it must be the sole
instructional method in a classroom. Teachers will remain responsible for
making educated and informed decisions about the best way to use the
Internet as a tool, just as they do with other materials used in the
classroom. And they can use the Internet to individualize student
learning, making a student's classroom experiences more relevant.

3.4  Will this technology replace books?

There is room in any school for all kinds of materials and resources.
Books and other print materials will certainly continue to be important.
Internet resources have the advantage of easy searching and cataloguing,
making them useful research tools. As mentioned before, they can also be
up-to-the-minute and therefor particularly relevant.

One factor to consider is that much of the material published on the
Internet lacks the authority imputed by an established publishing house or
a reputable author, and may therefore be viewed as less reliable than
books. For example, an encyclopedia or almanac found in a school library
might reasonably be accepted as valid without question, while a source
found on the Internet may require a more critical look. However, lack of
authority is not always a negative. Reading an account of the fall of the
Berlin wall by a student in the local region the day it happened is
valuable even if the student is not a reputable author. Moreover, while
it's true that with Internet materials it becomes increasingly important
to evaluate where they came from, one of the hallmarks of a good education
is the ability to assess information critically, whether the source be
print, television, or some other media.

3.5 How can use of the Internet be integrated into the existing
curriculum?

This is a key question. In order for the Internet to be used successfully
in schools, it must employed as a tool to teach content and to reach
educational goals that have already been established. It cannot be seen as
an end in itself.

Individual teachers will first need to become familiar enough with the
Internet to know how to do at least two things:  find information on
topics they consider important and locate communities with like
educational goals. Once they are familiar with how to find content on the
Internet, most teachers can decide how to use Internet resources to help
their students meet goals. (See Section 6, "Questions About Finding
Material on the Internet".) For example, science teachers often teach
about hurricanes and other weather phenomena in the normal course of
instruction. With Internet access they can use information and satellite
data pertaining to the most recent storm to make their points, rather than
out-dated examples from a textbook. When teachers become familiar with
finding communities on the Internet, they can gain experience in using the
Internet from educators who have been using it longer; they can join
existing projects, contribute to the evolution of proposed projects, and
propose their own projects; and they can ask for and give help to solve
problems in the classroom ranging from the content they teach, to
addressing students as individuals, to mastering effective discipline.

Internet access supports project-based learning. A teacher in an
individual classroom can use the data and information available on the
Internet as a resource for classroom projects, and there are also a
variety of projects which take place over the Internet in more than one
classroom at a time. A project may be initiated by any educator with an
idea. A popular example of an educator-initiated project is one which
requires data to be collected from diverse sites around the world or at
least around the country. For example, together students in various
locations have tracked butterfly and bird migrations, compared bodies of
water, and measured the north-south circumference of the Earth. Various
organizations also run projects in which schools can participate. Among
the many groups which have invited schools to participate in projects with
a focus on a specific topic are the Global SchoolNet Foundation, the
International Educational and Research Network (I*EARN), and groups
associated with such federal agencies as the Department of Energy, the US
Geological Service, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


The Internet can also be used for peer review of student materials; as a
medium for publishing student newspapers, art exhibits, and science fairs;
and in a global email pen-pal program for the discussion of classroom
topics.

We cannot stress enough that the key factor these Internet uses have in
common is that they are supporting classroom curriculum, not defining it.

Learning about the Internet and how to use it is an important goal for any
school's Internet program, but in the classroom, the message needs to be
emphasized over the medium.

There are several sources of material for discussing curriculum infusion,
including mailing lists, World Wide Web sites, and archives of sample
lesson plans. Most of the mail lists, network servers, and organizations
in section 9, "Resources and Contacts," address infusion of technology
into the curriculum. See also Appendix A, "Examples of Educational
Projects Using the Internet".

4.  Questions About Getting the Internet into the School

4.1 How much does it cost to connect to the Internet, and what kind of
equipment does my school need to support the Internet connection?

The cost of an Internet connection varies tremendously with the location
of your site and the kind of connection that is appropriate to your needs.
In order to determine the cost to your school, you will need to answer a
number of questions.  For help in learning what the questions are and
getting answers to them, begin asking at local colleges, universities,
technology companies, government agencies, community networks (often
called "freenets"), local electronic bulletin board systems (BBS),
Internet access providers, or technology consultants.

To give you an idea of possible equipment needs, here are three sample
scenarios, based on possible solutions found in the United States. Keep in
mind that these are very general examples and that there are many
solutions at each level. See also the answer to Question 4.4.

Low-end: You could subscribe to some kind of Internet dial-up service.
This may be provided by a vendor at a cost, by a local university gratis,
or as a part of a public access service like a community network. You will
need a computer which allows terminal emulation, terminal emulation
software, a telephone line, and a modem which is compatible with your
dial-up service.  This kind of connection is appropriate for using email,
telnet, and File Transfer Protocol. Additionally, text-based access to the
World Wide Web is often available through this kind of connectivity, but
graphical user interfaces to Internet tools are not available. At the time
of this writing the approximate cost in the United States, not including
the PC or the cost of the phone call, is $100 to $800 in set-up charges,
plus a monthly fee of approximately $30.

Mid-range: You could subscribe to a dial-up service that provides Serial
Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to Point Protocol (PPP), allowing
your computer to effectively become a host on the Internet. You will need
a computer with SLIP or PPP software, telecommunications applications
software (to allow you to use telnet, FTP, and the World Wide Web), a
telephone line, and a modem which is compatible with your dial-up service.

As with a lower-end connection, email, FTP, and telnet are available with
this kind of connection. In addition, graphical user interfaces to
Internet resources and applications, including the World Wide Web, are
available for use with your SLIP or PPP connection. A high-speed modem
(14,400 bps or faster) is necessary to take full advantage of graphical
capabilities, however. The approximate cost in the United States at the
time of this writing, not including the PC or the cost of the phone call,
is $100 to $800 for set-up charges, plus a monthly fee that can range from
approximately $30 for lower-speed service from a basic provider to
approximately $300 for higher-speed service from a full-service provider.


High-end: Your school or department could subscribe to a service that
provides a full Internet connection to the school or department's local
area network. This allows all the computers on the local area network
access to the Internet. You will need a router and a connection to a
network access provider's router. Typically the connection is a leased
line with a CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit). A leased
line is a permanent high-speed telephone connection between two points;
this allows you to have a high quality permanent Internet connection at
all times. A local area network, which may consist only of the router and
a PC, Macintosh, or other computer system, is also needed, and your
computer(s) will need some special software:  a TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) stack, as well as TCP/IP based
communications software such as telnet, FTP, and a World Wide Web browser.
This type of connectivity is suitable for all forms of Internet use, and

allows many users access at a time. At the time of this writing , the
approximate cost, not including the computers, is $2,000 to $3,000 for
installation plus a monthly fee of at least $300 in the United States.
Depending on the line capacity and speed you require, yearly costs can
range upwards of US $20,000.

In the United States, there are a number of state-wide educational
networks, most of them with access to the Internet. To find out if there
is a state education network in your area which gives accounts to
educators and/or students, contact the Consortium for School Networking
(CoSN) or consult the document "Getting US Educators Online" which is
listed in Section 8, "Suggested Reading". Two lists of Internet providers
available via the World Wide Web can be found in Section 9, "Resources and
Contacts" along with the Consortium for School Networking.

The global regional Network Information Centers (NICs) such as the RIPE
NCC (Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre) in Europe can also
provide a list of service providers. The APNIC (Asia Pacific Network
Information Center) in the Pacific Rim will have a similar list in the
near future. These two NICs are listed in Section 9, "Resources and
Contacts".

You can sometimes locate a person enthusiastic about the idea of using
networks in schools and willing to help you who works as an independent
consultant, in a local college or university, in a technology company, for
a network access provider, at a community network, or in a government
agency.

There are a number of books about the Internet and how to get connected to
it. A few are listed in Section 8, "Suggested Reading", and more are being
published every month. Check libraries, bookstores, and booksellers'
catalogs.

4.2 What are the other costs associated with having Internet access?

When budgeting for your school's Internet connection, there are a number
of factors to consider that might not seem immediately obvious. Technical
support and training will incur additional ongoing costs, even if those
costs show up only as someone's time. Equipment will need to be maintained
and upgraded as time passes, and even when all teachers have received
basic Internet training, they will most likely have questions as they
explore and learn more on their own. A general rule for budget planning is
this: for every dollar you spend on hardware and software, plan to spend
three dollars to support of the technology and those using it.

It will be necessary for your school to have some technical expertise
on-site. Your network access provider may offer training and support for
technical issues, and other groups also offer formal classes and seminars.
If your school has designated technical personnel, they will be good
candidates for such classes and seminars. If your school does not have
designated technical personnel, a teacher or other staff member with a
strong interest will need take on the task of becoming the local expert.
Students can help local experts maintain equipment and do other tasks, and
they get to learn new skills at the same time.

Training is an equally significant component to deployment of the Internet
in schools. Most teachers learn about the Internet during the time they
use to learn about any new teaching tool, which often means they "steal"
time at lunch, on week-ends, and before and after school to explore
resources and pursue relationships via the Internet. When a school is
committed to providing the Internet as an educational resource, the
administration will make in-service time available. It will also ensure
that someone at the school is sufficiently knowledgeable to field
questions and help people as they risk trying new ways of teaching using
Internet resources. Again, some students make excellent tutors.

Some technical support and a number of training materials can be found by
using the Internet itself. You can send questions to people in the know
and join discussion lists and newsgroups that discuss and answer questions
about support and training. See section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for a
preliminary listing of these resources, one of which is the Edtech mail
list. Your local community may also have resources that you can tap. These
include colleges and universities, businesses, computer clubs and user
groups, technology consultants, and government agencies.

4.3 How can my school afford access to the Internet?

Although school budgets are impossibly tight in most cases, the cost of an
Internet connection can be squeezed from the budget when its value becomes
apparent. Costs for a low end connection can be reasonable.  (See the next
question.) The challenge facing those advocating an Internet connection
sometimes has less to do with the actual cost than it has with the
difficulty of convincing administrators to spend money on an unfamiliar
resource.


In order to move the Internet connection closer to the top of your
school's priority list, consider at least two possibilities. First, your
school may be in the process of reform, as are many schools. As mentioned
earlier, use of the Internet supports reform efforts, so framing Internet
access as a component to systemic reform may convince some people of its
value. Second, to demonstrate the value of a connection, an actual
Internet demonstration can be more useful than words. While this may sound
like a chicken-and-egg situation (I have to have Internet access to get
Internet access), some organizations will provide guest accounts on an
Internet-connected computer for people in schools who are trying to
convince others of the value of an Internet connection.

Contact local colleges, universities, technology companies, service
providers, community networks, and government agencies for both guest
accounts and funding ideas. For alternatives to your own school's budget
or for supplements to it, look for funding in federal, state, and district
budgets as well as from private grants. Work with equipment vendors to
provide the hardware needed at low or no cost to your school, and consider
forming a School/Community Technology Committee, or a joint School
District/School/Community Technology Committee. Also investigate the
possibility of a back-door connection to a local college or university.
Service providers often allow schools to connect to higher education sites
at a lower cost.

A number of sites on the Internet provide more information about grants
and organizations that offer them. Two in particular that you may find
useful are Grants Web, for grant information of all kinds, and the
Foundation Center, for information on private and nonprofit organizations.
For information on where to find these sites on the Internet, see Section
9, "Resources and Contacts".

4.4 What are some ways to cut costs?

It is possible to create a local, store-and-forward network using various
implementations of the Unix to Unix Copy (UUCP) software suite, available
as public domain (free) or shareware (small fee which is often optional)
software, which can run on many different platforms including Amiga, IBM,
and Macintosh. The connections are via dial-up phone lines using local
phone numbers. Usenet News and email (both described in Section 6) are
"stored" on a computer until the time appointed for that computer to
contact the next one along the path to the final destination, at which
time it is "forwarded" along its way.  Most computers are set up to
process outgoing requests at least every 30 minutes. With this type of
system you will have access to as many Usenet News groups as your site
agrees to carry, as well as email, which includes access to mailing lists
such as those listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts". Many file
servers also offer file transfer and other services via email.

There are a couple of advantages to such a system. First, it is much more
affordable since such networks provide more efficient use of telephone
lines, making a connection only while data is actually being transferred.

Second, it allows for filtering, which gives a school some control over
what kind of information is available to its students. (See Section 7,
"Questions About Security and Ethics" for further discussion on school
control of information available to students.)

The disadvantage to this type of Internet access is that you will be
limited regarding the range of Internet applications you can use. Many
utilities, including the World Wide Web and other network tools described
in Section 6, "Questions about Classroom Resources, Projects, and
Collaboration", are not operable over a UUCP connection.

Global SchoolNet, FidoNet, and K12Net are store-and-forward systems.
FidoNet, for example, is a network of amateurs and hobbyists which
operates on personal computers and is publicly accessible by anyone with a
microcomputer and a modem. Contact information for all three organizations
can be found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

4.5 What organizational structure needs to be in place in order for my
school to have Internet access?

Schools and school districts have devised structures that vary widely,
depending on a school's particular requirements. In many schools, the
librarians/media specialists guide the development of the network and
policies on its use and serve as the top of the structure within the
school. In other schools, an interested teacher becomes the driving force
behind getting the Internet into the school, and may be the most
appropriate person to see the project through. The school administration,
if not the guiding force, needs to be behind the plan to bring the
Internet into the school. And all other parties who might have a stake in
the development should be brought in as early as possible. These might
include area businesses, community leaders, teachers with Internet access
at home, anyone in the school who finds the idea of bringing the Internet

into the school appealing, the librarian or media specialist whether or
not that person is knowledgeable about the Internet, and parents. In
short, any organizational structure will do as long as it is clear and
simple and includes the people who might have a stake in the process of
bringing the Internet into the school.

One way to ensure that an organizational structure develops and that the
right people become involved is to invite a wide variety of people to
create a technology plan for the school. The by-product of technology
planning can be the development of an organizational structure, but of
course the planning is useful in itself to help your school define and
meet goals for Internet and other technology use. The National Center for
Technology Planning hosts a collection of technology plans and planning
aids for people who need help, new ideas, or solutions as they tackle
technology planning in their schools or districts. Information on the
National Center for Technology Planning can be found in Section 9,
"Resources and Contacts."

4.6 How many of our computers should have Internet access and where in the
school should they be located?

You should make Internet access possible for as many of your school's
computers as possible. Ideally, you have computers located throughout the
school -- in classrooms, the library, and laboratories -- and they are all
connected together with printers and other peripherals in one or more
Local Area Networks (LANs). In that case, you acquire one dedicated
Internet connection of 56 Kbs (Kilobits per second) or higher to serve the
whole school.

If your budget and existing computer equipment are both limited, you can
use a dial-up service and a modem to access the Internet, but in most
cases that will only be viable for one computer at a time. As use of the
Internet catches on in your school, it will eventually be more effective
for you to create the LAN with Internet access mentioned above than to
keep adding modems in classrooms.

If you must choose between Internet access in one lab in the school or
Internet access for a the same number of computers throughout the school,
your best bet for getting teachers to use the access is to make it
available where they can most easily take advantage of it; this usually
means that you make access available throughout the school. Although a
computer lab is an easier maintenance set-up for the person in charge of
keeping the equipment running and allows each individual (or pair) in an
entire class to be using a computer at the same time, a computer located
in the classroom is more convenient for both the teacher and the class.
Internet resources can be more easily integrated into a classroom lesson,
and the emphasis remains on using the Internet as an instructional tool.
Since only one or two computers can usually be placed in each classroom,
teachers will learn to allocate computer time creatively. And if you are
only able to provide a few computers throughout the school, make sure that
at least one of them is in the library where all students will have the
chance to be exposed to the Internet as a resource.

Networking all computers campus-wide can be expensive. You may want to
investigate initially giving one lab, the library, and a few classrooms
dial-up access, assuming phone lines are available. Even a connection to
only one classroom as a demonstration may help you to garner more support
for creating a campus-wide local area network that is routed to the
Internet through a dedicated line. Or you may want to consider the other
options discussed in question 4.4 above.

4.7 Can people get on the Internet from home?

This depends on your network access provider. It is certainly a
possibility and is definitely desirable for the educators at your school.

Many teachers like to be able to learn at home as well as on school
grounds, and having the ability to explore when they have the time is
invaluable. One school district we know of made low-interest loans
available to teachers so that they could buy home computers. When the
technology was later made available in their classrooms, they already had
some experience and were comfortable beginning to use it in day-to-day
instruction.

The question of whether or not to make the option to dial in from home
available to students is more difficult. On one hand, a school may not be
able to escape the idea that it is responsible for how students use the
Internet access it provides, even though the school has no control over
the home environment. On the other hand, particularly in high school, much
schoolwork is done at home. Since most classrooms don't have enough
computers for all students to access the Internet at once, it is even more
likely that work will not be completed during class time. Having Internet
access from home becomes more important.


Discussion of whether or not you want to make this option available to
students -- even if it is possible technically -- should involve as many
school partners as possible, including faculty, administration, parents,
and other community members. It might take place in a public forum such as
a school/community meeting.

5.  Questions About Finding Materials, People, and Projects on the
Internet

The way to find people, information, software, and anything else on the
Internet is generally to use either printed or electronic guides and
Internet tools. In this section we will concentrate on the tools. (See
Section 6, "Questions about Classroom Resources, Projects, and
Collaboration," for information on guides.) We answer more questions about
the World Wide Web than about other online tools for three reasons.
First, the World Wide Web is the Internet tool coming into most prominence
at the time of this writing.  Second, many (if not all) of the other tools
are included seamlessly in the Web; that is, they're there, but you may or
may not realize you're using them. Third, making your way around the
Internet using the World Wide Web is very easy; it is no longer the case
that for people not interested in computers the Internet is more trouble
than it's worth!

5.1 What is the World Wide Web?

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a project initiated and driven by CERN, the
European Laboratory for Particle Physics located in Geneva, Switzerland.
When exploring the World Wide Web, users navigate through documents by
selecting highlighted text, called pointers or anchors, that lead to
another document or location.  This navigation results in a
three-dimensional exploration of documents, instead of a flat text
document.  The World Wide Web incorporates different media into its
documents, including text, sound, graphics, and moving images.

The World Wide Web presents either a graphical or a text interface to
numerous Internet resources. Not only can users access documents
specifically designed for the Web, they can also view documents on Gopher
servers; use FTP to download files; and launch a telnet session. Some
World Wide Web clients also allow for the use of email and Usenet news.
This is a very easy-to-use, non-threatening way to approach the Internet,
and does not require in-depth technical knowledge.  (See Question 5.5 for
a discussion of these other tools.)

5.2 How do I connect to the World Wide Web?

To access the Web, the user runs a client on a local computer which
accesses a WWW server running on another computer. In WWW terms, the
client is called a browser. The browser retrieves and reads documents from
WWW servers. Information providers establish WWW servers for use by
network users, and when you become proficient at using the Internet, you
may want to become exactly that kind of information provider.

Most Web browsers share common features. One feature is the hotlist, or
bookmark, feature. This allows you to mark your favorite sites. Your
browser will store these sites and their addresses and allow you to
revisit them later by simply selecting the name of a site from a menu.
Another feature common to most browsers allows you to save the current
file to your local disk. Some browsers keep a tally of the sites you've
visited recently and allow you to revisit them without typing in the
location again. Every browser is different, so it pays to explore your own
client software and learn its features through practice. Most people, even
those with little computer experience, find that it's easy to learn to use
a browser just by exploring on their own.

Each document contained on Web servers across the Internet has a unique
address. This is called a URL, a uniform resource locator. Browsers
negotiate URLs just like mail software negotiates email addresses. Users
can type in the URL for the browser to access. URLs are also embedded in a
Web document's text, providing a seamless link to another location or
document.

5.3 How is the World Wide Web linked?

The World Wide Web functions as a distributed hypermedia system. The
purpose of this system is to allow the exchange of information across the
Internet in the form of hypertext documents. Hypertext is text with
pointers to other text, allowing the user to branch off to another
document for more information on a given topic, and then return to the
same location in the original document with ease. Pointers in a Web
document are analogous to HyperCard stacks or Microsoft help files in
which you click on an option (a pointer or a link) and the program moves
you to another document, or location.


Documents published on the World Wide Web are constructed in HTML,
hypertext markup language. This is a very simple language that allows for
formatting of text, insertion of images and sound, and creation of anchors
in a document. Tutorials on creating Web services are available at the
NCSA Mosaic Home Page, the automatic starting place for Web exploration
when using the Mosaic client. There are also pointers to Web page creation
resources in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

5.4 Where do I get a World Wide Web browser?

The two most common graphical World Wide Web browsers at the time of this
writing are Netscape and Mosaic. Netscape is a commercial product, but is
currently free for educational use. Mosaic is free.  Both of these
packages are available for Macintosh, PC, and UNIX platforms through the
Internet. See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for details.

For those users with lower-speed connections who cannot accommodate full
graphical browsers, there is a text-based browser available for UNIX
systems called Lynx. One public-access Lynx client is accessible through
telnet at the server of the World Wide Web Consortium, which is listed in
Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

5.5 What are the other tools on the Internet?

There are a number of other tools to help you get around on the Internet.

We will briefly describe the most common ones. For more information, see
the "EFF's (Extended) Guide to the Internet" by the Electronic Frontier
Foundation, and "The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog" by Ed Krol,
both of which are listed in Section 8, "Suggested Reading" in addition to
the Glossary entries mentioned for each tool.

Email:  Email is probably the most basic tool on the Internet. It is short
for electronic mail and may be used in a couple of ways. You can send
email back and forth with just one person, or you can participate with a
group of people who discuss topics of common interest. These groups are
called mail lists. You join and leave the lists by sending email to one
address, and you post messages to all the people on the list by sending
email to a slightly different address. Sometimes a human does the list
registration and sometimes a software program does it. For more
information, see the entries for "email" and "mailing lists" in the
Glossary. A list of mail lists related to primary and secondary education
can be found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

Network News:  Also known as Usenet News or Net News. Reading news is
similar to joining an email list, but instead of the messages coming to
your mailbox, you use news reader software to read messages on a computer
where they are accumulated. For more information, see the entry for
"Usenet News" in the Glossary.

FTP:  FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, and just as the name implies,
it allows you to transfer files from one computer to another. It is the
name for both the protocol and the program. A special kind of FTP,
Anonymous FTP, allows you to access the many public archives on the
Internet. FTP is not used by itself as much as it used to be, since people
often use the World Wide Web browsers and Gopher clients which incorporate
FTP when they want to retrieve files. For more information, see the
entries for "Anonymous FTP" and "FTP" in the Glossary.

Telnet:  Telnet allows you to log into a computer somewhere else on the
Internet and use the services there. For example, if you don't have a
Gopher client or a World Wide Web browser, there are some public access
sites that you can telnet to in order to use a Gopher client or a
text-based WWW browser.

Gopher:  Gopher is a tool that lets you browse for information on the
Internet using menus. If you know what you're looking for and have an idea
about where to find it, Gopher can make your search easier. And when you
have located something of interest, whether it's a document, a data set,
or a picture, Gopher will retrieve it for you. For more information, see
the entry for "Gopher" in the Glossary.

Search Tools:  Archie is a tool for searching FTP sites; Veronica (Very
Easy Rodent-Oriented Network Index to Computerized Archives, which works
the same way Archie does) is a tool for searching Gopherspace; WAIS (Wide
Area Information Service, pronounced "wayz") is a tool for searching
indexed databases, whether the databases are full of numbers, text, or
graphics files; and Yahoo, Lycos, and WebCrawler are some of the many
search tools available on and for the World Wide Web. For more
information, see the entries for "Archie," "Gopher," "WAIS," "WWW," and
"Veronica in the Glossary.


6.  Questions about Classroom Resources, Projects, and Collaboration

6.1 How can I find specific projects using the Internet that are already
developed?

When you have learned to use some of the Internet tools discussed in
Section 5, "Questions About Finding Materials, People, and Projects on the
Internet," particularly the search tools, you will be able to answer that
question fully for yourself. In the mean time, since there are a several
resources on the Internet that are directed specifically at the primary
and secondary school communities, here are some ideas to get you started.


The Global SchoolNet Foundation's World Wide Web site contains a wealth of
valuable information and materials, including help setting up projects by
learning what has worked best based on others's experience. The GSN site
also contains a landmark registry of projects in which schools can
participate. Andy Carvin's EdWeb is an excellent source of K-12
information; the Consortium for School Networking maintains a gopher
server; and NASA's Spacelink and Quest are directed at primary and
secondary school educators, and both house lesson plans and Internet-based
curriculum units.  NYSERNet's Empire Internet Schoolhouse is an extension
of its Bridging the Gap program. Gleason Sackman of North Dakota's SENDIT
network for K-12 educators maintains an active list of K-12 schools on the
Internet. BBN's National School Network Testbed provides links to numerous
schools and projects. Also visit the Internet School Networking home page,
listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for a collection of
documents and case studies on projects.  For access to these and others,
see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".  A number of Web sites also
provide favorite "bookmarks," or lists of sites for educators. We will not
include these in Section 9, but you will quickly find them if you begin at
any of the entry points listed here.

Many people on electronic mailing lists such as Ednet, Kidsphere, and the
Consortium for School Networking Discussion List (cosndisc) post their
projects and ask for partners and collaborators. The K12 hierarchy of
Usenet News has several groups where educators post these invitations as
well. For subscription to these and other electronic lists and for names
of news groups, see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

There are also a number of conferences you may want to look in to. The
National Education Computing Conference (NECC) and Tel-Ed, both held
annually, are conferences sponsored by the International Society for
Technology in Education (ISTE). The INET conference is the annual
conference for the Internet Society. See Section 9, "Resources and
Contacts", for contact information for these organizations.

6.2 What are some examples of how the Internet is being used in classrooms
now?

Projects which use the Internet sometimes request sites from all over the
world to contribute data from the local area then compile that data for
use by all. Weather patterns, pollutants in water or air, and Monarch
butterfly migration are some of the data that has been collected over the
Internet. In Appendix A you will find several examples collected from
various online servers and electronic mailing lists pertaining to
education, each from a different content area and representing different
ways of using the Internet. Some of the projects require only that you be
able to use email, some require that you have access to the most advanced
Internet tools, and some offer varying levels of participation.

There are a number of specific projects you may find interesting. KIDS,
managed by the non-profit KIDLINK Society, is one. It includes discussion
lists and services, some of them only for people who are ten through
fifteen years old. Another place to look is Academy One of the National
Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN), which usually has a number of
projects running at a time. The International Education and Research
Network (I*EARN), a project of the non-profit Copen Family Fund,
facilitates telecommunications in schools around the world. Chatback
Trust, initiated to provide email for schools in the United Kingdom and
around the world with students who have mental or physical difficulty with
communicating, and Chatback International, directed at any school on the
Internet, maintain a network server that you may want to investigate.  The
European Schools Project involves approximately 200 schools in 20
countries and has as its goal building a support system for secondary
school educators. The Online Interactive Projects on NASA's Quest server
and the JASON Project are electronic field trips designed especially to
provide classroom contact with real science and scientists. For contact
information on these groups and server access, refer to Section 9,
"Resources and Contacts".


6.3 Are there any guides to using the Internet in schools that list all
these resources in one place?

Printed guides to using the Internet in education are appearing along with
the new books on the Internet, and we would expect to see more in the near
future. The problem with paper resource guides is that the Internet is a
changing environment, so they can become outdated quickly.  Most (like
this document) try to list only the most stable resource sites, and even
if not everything you try is available, these guides can be particularly
helpful if you are new to the Internet. Try the books entitled "Education
on the Internet," "Teaching with the Internet:  Putting Teachers Before
Technology," and "Brave New Schools" listed in Section 8, "Suggested
Reading" for a sampling of those available at the time of this writing,
and check bookstores, libraries, and booksellers's catalogs for the others.

One answer to the problem of printed Internet guides is the newsletter.
Two newsletters we know are both of good quality. They are specifically
for primary and secondary school educators interested in networking and
contain information on new services on the Internet that are of interest
to educators, projects for collaboration, conferences, new books and
publications, essays, and practical tutorials on using network tools and
services. NetTeach News is published ten times a year and is available
both hardcopy and via email. Classroom Connect is published nine times a
year. Information on subscribing and related online services for both
newsletters can be found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

Network servers which act as guides to the Internet for educators are,
among others, BBN's Copernicus server, the Global SchoolNet server, NASA's
Quest server, the University of Illinois College of Education's Learning
Resource Server, and Web66. All are listed in Section 9, "Resources and
Contacts".

6.4 How can I add my own contributions to the Internet?

In addition to sharing your knowledge and expertise on the electronic mail
lists and news groups mentioned, as you gain experience you may find you
have the knowledge and inclination to put up an electronic server at your
own site. Many K-12 schools are maintaining World Wide Web servers to
publish student projects and information about their schools. Gleason
Sackman's Hot List of K-12 Internet School Sites and Web66 offer a
comprehensive listing of these schools and provides links to their home
pages. These pages may give you ideas about ways your school can use the
World Wide Web to contribute to the K-12 Internet community. There are
also a number of sites which give instruction in how to publish on the
World Wide Web and how to maintain Web sites, including Web66, the
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), and the Geometry
Forum. For the Internet locations these resources, see Section 9,
"Resources and Contacts".

7.  Questions about Security and Ethics

7.1 I've heard that there is a lot of objectionable material on the
Internet.  How do we deal with that problem?

Because sensational media accounts tend to downplay the educational uses
of the Internet in favor of the more controversial material available,
this will almost certainly be an issue raised when you discuss getting an
Internet connection in your school. Concerned educators should learn more
about this issue and formulate a strategy for resolving problems before
they arise. One important point to realize early is that students do not
accidentally bump into objectionable material in the course of most
educational explorations. Although we are not suggesting that one couldn't
possibly run across objectionable material without trying, most people
find this material only because they're looking for it.

If your school has a direct Internet connection, and often even if it
doesn't, it is not possible to use a technical solution to prevent
students from accessing objectionable material.  Everyone on the network,
including students, is able to download files from public electronic
repositories, some of which contain materials that just about anyone would
consider objectionable for school-age children.

Several commercial software products are available which do attempt to
address this problem. They block access to sites which are known to
contain materials many people would object to, look for text in email
messages, or do both. Some can be configured in the home or school and
some block a pre-configured collection of sites which is maintained and
configured by the company. None of them has been proven to be wholly
successful in addressing the problem of student access to controversial
material yet.

The store-and-forward scenario described in Question 4.4 is one solution
to filtering the information to which students have access, but if
students are allowed to use email then it is possible for someone to send

them objectionable material. It is also possible to control the times and
opportunities that students have to access the Internet and only allow
access under supervision. Some success has been achieved through the use
of proxy servers. Teachers can point their World Wide Web browsers to a
proxy server, through which access to objectionable sites is forbidden.

These are less desirable options than teaching the ethics of Internet
access as a matter of course, but may be used in combination with other
methods to ensure the integrity of the school, its students, and its
educators.

At the time of this writing the most important and effective action
schools can take is to develop clear policies to guide students' use of
the Internet and establish rules -- and consequences for breaking them --
that govern behavior on the Internet. These policies, called Acceptable
Use Policies, work best when they are in line with rules governing other
behavior at school. Additionally, schools should integrate issues around
technology and ethics into the curriculum [3].

Schools need to exercise reasonable oversight while realizing that it is
almost impossible to absolutely guarantee that students will not be able
to access objectionable material. It may be wise to make this clear to
parents and students before a student is given access to the Internet. To
limit a school's liability, some systems have found it necessary to obtain
signed releases from students and parents stipulating that they have read
the Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) and that the student agrees to abide by
it.

There are resources for further exploration of the issue of students and
objectionable material available on the Internet. The National Center for
Missing and Exploited Children has produced a sensible and practical
brochure entitled, "Child Safety on the Information Highway," written by
Los Angeles Times columnist Lawrence J. Magid. It is available both online
and hardcopy. Another good document is "Internet Parental Control
Frequently Asked Questions," which describes the tools available at the
time of this writing to help with issues of children using the Internet,
from guidance by parents to government restrictions to rating and
filtering systems. It is produced by the Voters Telecommunications Watch
and is available on the Internet. There is also at least one mailing list
which you may want to join, called CACI, Children Accessing Controversial
Information. Information on all of these, can be found in Section 8,
"Suggested Reading" and Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.2 How do we keep our own and other people's computers safe from student
"hackers"?

In the language of computer folks, a "hacker" is someone who is excellent
at understanding and manipulating computer systems. A "cracker" is someone
who maliciously and/or illegally enters or attempts to enter someone
else's computer system.

Computer security is unquestionably important, both in maintaining the
security of the school's computers and in ensuring the proper behavior of
the school's students (and others who use the network). In this area, not
only school policy, but also state and national laws may apply. One source
of information which you can read to help you sort through security issues
is the Site Security Handbook (FYI 8), which suggests to site computer
administrators, Network Information Centers, Network Operation Centers,
and others how to set up security policies and gives pointers to further
information. The full reference for this document can be found in Section
8, "Suggested Reading".

Your school's AUP (see question 5.4) should specify the consequences for
such activity, and it may also be prudent to require a signed release from
each student stating that he understands these consequences and possible
legal implications of intentional exploitation of computer networks.

7.3 How do we keep viruses from attacking all our computers if we get
connected to the Internet?

If you use the Internet to exchange data (such as text or pictures), virus
infection is generally not a problem. The real concern is when you
download software programs and run them on your own computer. Any program
you download over the network and run could have a virus. For that matter,
any program, whether on tape or a disk, even commercial software still in
its original packaging, might possibly have a virus. For this reason, all
computers should have virus protection software running on them.

Virus checking software is available free over the Internet via Anonymous
FTP from the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT), which is run by the
US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). Your hardware
or software vendor, your network access provider, your technical support

resources, or your colleagues on network mailing lists should be able to
provide more specific information applicable to your site. Information on
how to locate CERT can be found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

To help reduce the risk of downloading a virus with your program, try to
use trusted sources.  Ask someone you know or send the question to a
mailing list or news group to find the most reliable sites for software
access.

7.4 What are the rules for using the Internet?

When your Internet connection is established, your access provider should
acquaint you with their Acceptable Use Policy. This policy explains the
acceptable and non-acceptable uses for your connection. For example, it is
in all cases unacceptable to use the network for illegal purposes. It may,
in some cases, be unacceptable to use the network for commercial purposes.
If such a policy is not mentioned, ask for it. All users are expected to
know what the acceptable and unacceptable uses of their network are.

Remember that it is essential to establish a school-wide policy in
addition to the provider's . A school's AUP is usually more restrictive
and specific than the one used by the service provider. A repository of
sample AUPs can be found on the Armadillo Web server, listed in section 9,
"Resources and Contacts." As mentioned earlier, some school systems have
found it worthwhile to make Internet access contingent upon a student's
signed agreement to abide by the school's AUP.

Beyond your service provider's AUP and any you create for your school,
there are no overreaching rules for Internet use. There are, however,
community standards and conventions that should be observed. You can
review some generally agreed-upon guidelines at Arlene Rinaldi's etiquette
page and by reading FYI 28 (RFC 1855), "Netiquette Guidelines".  See
Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for the location of the etiquette
page and Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs" for instructions on obtaining FYI
28.

8.  Suggested Reading

Those items marked with an asterisk (*) are available free online. For
information on retrieving RFCs and FYIs, see Appendix B, "Ways to Get
RFCs".

* Conrad, Linda B. "Getting US Educators Online"
  http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/online/table.html  (State-by-state
  compilation of Internet service offerings especially for teachers.)

Cummins, J. and D. Sayers. Brave New Schools: Challenging Cultural
  Illiteracy Through Global Learning Networks. New York: St. Martin's
  Press, 1995.

Ellsworth, J. H.  Education on the Internet: A Hands-on Book of Ideas,
  Resources, Projects, and Advice. Indianapolis, Indiana: Sams
  Publishing, 1994.

* Electronic Frontier Foundation. EFF's (Extended) Guide to the Internet.

  http://www.eff.org/pub/Net_info/EFF_Net_Guide/netguide.eff
  and from the EFF online archives at ftp.eff.org, gopher.eff.org, AOL
  keyword EFF, CIS EFFSIG forum.


* FYI 4  "FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly asked `New
  Internet User' Questions", Malkin, G.S. and A. Marine. (fyi4.txt or
  rfc1594.txt)

* FYI 5  "Choosing a Name for Your Computer", Libes, D. (fyi5.txt or
  rfc1178.txt)

* FYI 8  "Site Security Handbook", Holbrook, J.P. and J.K. Reynolds.
  (fyi8.txt or rfc1244.txt)

* FYI 18 "Internet Users' Glossary", LaQuey Parker, T. and G. Malkin.
  (fyi18.txt or rfc1392.txt)

* FYI 20, "What is the Internet?" Krol, E. and E. Hoffman. (fyi20.txt or
  rfc1462.txt)

* FYI 28, "Netiquette Guidelines," Hambridge, S.(fyi28.txt or
  rf1855.txt)

Giagnocavo, G., et. al. Educator's Internet Companion (with diskette
  and video). Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wentworth Worldwide Media, 1995.


Harris, J. Way of the Ferret: Finding and Using Educational Resources on
  the Internet. Eugene, Oregon: International Society for Technology in
  Education, 1995.

Krol, E. The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog, Second Edition.
  Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1994.

* National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
  http://www.missingkids.org/information_superhighway.html (Online
  brochure "Child Safety on the Information Highway")
Also available from
  National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
  2101 Wilson Boulevard
  Suite 550
  Arlington, VA 22201-3052
  1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678)

Protheroe, N. and E. Wilson. The Internet Handbook for School Users.
  Arlington, Virginia: Educational Research Service, 1994.

* RFC 1480  "The US Domain",  Cooper, A. and J. Postel. June 1993.
  (rfc1480.txt)
  [This document will also be useful to people not in the United States.
  See the sites listed under the FYI documents for the location nearest you
  from which to download the file.]

* Rinaldi, Arlene. "The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette"
  http://rs6000.adm.fau.edu/rinaldi/netiquette.html

* Rogers, Al. "Global Literacy in a Gutenberg Culture,"
  http://gsn.org/gsn/article.gutenberg.html

* Safdar, Shabbir J. "Internet Parental Control Frequently Asked
  Questions," Voters Telecommunications Watch, 1995.
  http://www.vtw.org/pubs/ipcfaq, or email vtw@vtw.org and in the
  subject line type "send ipcfaq" without the quotes

Steen, D.R., M.R. Roddy, D. Sheffield, and M.B. Stout. Teaching with
  the Internet: Putting Teachers Before Technology. Bellevue,
  Washington: Resolution Business Press, Inc., 1995.


9.  Resources and Contacts

------------
CONFERENCES:
------------

A list of other conferences, primarily in the United States, can be found
at http://www.classroom.net/classroom/conf.htm

NECC and Tel-Ed
   International Society for Technology in Education
   1787 Agate Street
   Eugene, Oregon  97403-1923
   USA
   phone:  503-346-4414 or 1-800-336-5191
   fax:    503-346-5890
   email:  iste@oregon.uoregon.edu
           (Compuserve:  70014,2117)
           (AppleLink:  ISTE)

See Also "Network Servers" in this section.

INET
   Internet Society
   1895 Preston White Drive
   Suite 100
   Reston, Virginia  22091
   USA
   Phone:  703-648-9888
   Fax:    703-620-0913
   Email:  isoc@isoc.org


----------------------
ELECTRONIC MAIL LISTS:
----------------------

A list of electronic mail lists which you can search by category can be
found via the World Wide Web at http://tile.net/listserv/ and another list
can be found at http://k12.cnidr.org:90/lists.html. Both of these lists
are for mail lists handled by listserv software. (See the entries for
"Mailing List" and "Listserv" in Appendix C: Glossary.)

Classroom Connect mailing list
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   crc-request@wentworth.com
   Leave the Subject field blank and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe

CACI (Children Accessing Controversial Information)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   caci-request@cygnus.com
   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe

Cosndisc (Consortium for School Networking Discussion List)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listproc@list.cren.net

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe cosndisc YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   cosndisc@list.cren.net

Ednet
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listproc@lists.umass.edu

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe ednet YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   ednet@lists.umass.edu

Edtech (Educational Technology list)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listserv@msu.edu

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe edtech YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   edtech@msu.edu

Internet School Networking (List for the working group which produced
     this document)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listmanager@nasa.gov

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe isn-wg (NOTE: Do not add your name)

   To post, send a message to...
   isn-wg@nasa.gov

Kidsphere
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   kidsphere-request@vms.cis.pitt.edu
   Type any message asking to subscribe.

   To post, send a message to...
   kidsphere@vms.cis.pitt.edu


KIDLINK (Also KIDS-96, KIDS-97, etc.)
   KIDLINK operates 24 public mailing lists in English, Spanish, Portuguese,
   Japanese, Hebrew, and Scandinavian languages, and a private "chat"
   network for members.

   To learn about KIDLINK projects, subscribe to the news service by
   sending a message to...
   listserv@vm1.nodak.edu

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe KIDLINK YourFirstName YourLastName

   To receive a file of general information on KIDLINK, send email to
   the same listserv address, leave the Subject field blank, and in
   the first line of the body of the message enter...
   get kidlink general

K12admin (A list for K-12 educators interested in educational
   administration)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listserv@listserv.syr.edu

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe k12admin YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   k12admin@ listserv.syr.edu

LM_NET (A list for school library media specialists worldwide)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listserv@listserv.syr.edu

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   subscribe LM_NET YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   LM_NET@listserv.syr.edu

NOVAE Group: Teachers Networking for the Future (Distribution list --
      not discussion list -- of projects and happenings of interest to
      educators)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listserv@idbsu.idbsu.edu

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of
   the body of the message, enter...
   subscribe novae YourFirstName YourLastName

UK-schools (for teachers and others interested in the use of the
      Internet in UK schools and for general discussion about anything
      concerning international classroom connections)
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
   of the message enter...
   join uk-schools YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   uk-schools@mailbase.ac.uk

WWWedu (the World Wide Web in Education list; pronounced "we do")
   To subscribe, send a message to...
   listproc@kudzu.cnidr.org

   Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of
   the body of the message, enter...
   subscribe wwwedu YourFirstName YourLastName

   To post, send a message to...
   wwwedu@kudzu.cnidr.org


----------------
NETWORK SERVERS:
----------------

Academy One (National Public Telecomputing Network)
   via WWW:
   http://www.nptn.org/cyber.serv/AOneP/index.html

Armadillo's WWW Server
   via WWW:
   http://riceinfo.rice.edu:80/armadillo/

BBN National School Network Testbed
   via gopher:
   copernicus.bbn.com

   via WWW:
   http://copernicus.bbn.com:70/testbed/

Censorship/Freedom of Speech/Child Safety on the Internet Web page
   via WWW:
   http://www.voicenet.com/~cranmer/censorship.html

Classroom Connect on the Net
   via WWW:
   http://www.classroom.net/

...via ftp:
   ftp.classroom.net/wentworth/Classroom-Connect/aup-faq.txt (for an
     FAQ document on Acceptable Use Policies)


Chatback Trust and Chatback International network server
   via WWW:
   http://www.tcns.co.uk/chatback/welcome.html

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)
   via WWW:
   http://www.sei.cmu.edu/SEI/programs/cert/CERT.info.html

   via e-mail:
   cert@cert.org

   via FTP: info.cert.org
   cd pub/

Consortium for School Networking
   via gopher:
   cosn.org

   via WWW:
   http://cosn.org/

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)
   via WWW:
   http://ericir.syr.edu/

   via gopher:
   ericir.syr.edu

   via telnet:
   telnet bbs.oit.unc.edu
   login: launch
     (Follow directions on screen for registration. At the main menu,
     choose number 4, "Topical Document Search (WAIS)", and move to
     eric-digests.  For help in WAIS, type a question mark.)

   via email:
   askeric@ericir.syr.edu
     (In your message ask for the topic you're interested in. A human
     will answer you.)

Empire Internet Schoolhouse
   via gopher:
   nysernet.org (port 3000)


Electronic Frontier Foundation ("A non-profit civil liberties
   organization working in the public interest to protect privacy, free
   expression, and access to online resources and information.")

   via WWW:
   http://www.eff.org/

   via email:
   ask@eff.org

   via snailmail, telephone, and fax:
   The Electronic Frontier Foundation
   P.O. Box 170190
   San Francisco CA 94117 USA
   +1 415 668 7171 (voice)
   +1 415 668 7007 (fax)

EdWeb
   via WWW:
   http://edweb.cnidr.org:90/

Foundation Center
   via WWW:
   http://fdncenter.org/

Geometry Forum
   via WWW:
   http://forum.swarthmore.edu/
   http://forum.swarthmore.edu/~steve/steve/wwwhtml.html ("Learning
     to Use the Web and Create Web Pages")

Global SchoolNet
   via WWW:
   http://gsn.org/

Grants Web
   via WWW:
   http://infoserv.rttonet.psu.edu/gweb.htm

Hot List of K-12 Internet School Sites (Gleason Sackman, SENDIT)
   via WWW:
   http://www.sendit.nodak.edu/k12/

International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)

Through I*EARN's network of 1,500 schools in 25 countries teachers and
students engage in collaborative and curriculum-based projects designed
to make a meaningful difference in the health and welfare of the planet
and its people.

To access I*EARN's many conferences or participate in projects, you must
be a member of I*EARN.  For details about membership, point your gopher
client to gopher.iearn.org port 7008 or send e-mail to: iearn@iearn.org

   via WWW:
   http:// www.iearn.org/iearn/

   via gopher:
   gopher.iearn.org (port 7008)

Internet School Networking (ISN) working group home page (publishers of
     this document)
   via WWW:
   http://spider.lloyd.com/isn/index.html

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
   via WWW:
   http://isteonline.uoregon.edu/

   via gopher:
   isteonline.uoregon.edu

KIDLINK
   via WWW:
   http://www.kidlink.org/

   via gopher:
   gopher.kidlink.org


Learning Resource Server, University of Illinois College of Education
   via WWW:
   http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/
   http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/Activity-Structures/ (Judi Harris' Network-
      Based Educational Activity Collection)

   via gopher:
   gopher.ed.uiuc.edu

NASA Jason Project
   via WWW:
   http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/JASON/JASON_HOME.html

NASA Online Educational Resources
   via WWW:
   http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/OER/

NASA Quest
   via WWW:
   http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/
   http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/essay/essay-index.html ("Networks, Where
      Have You Been All My Life" student essay contest winners)

   via gopher:
   quest.arc.nasa.gov (port 70)

   via FTP:
   ftp quest.arc.nasa.gov

NASA Spacelink
   via WWW:
   http//spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov/

   via gopher:
   spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov

via telnet:
   telnet spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov
   login: guest

   via FTP:
   ftp spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov

To find information on the NASA Teacher Resource Center Network, choose
"Educational Services," then "Teacher Resource Center Network". For
television schedules, follow the menu for "Educational Service" to the
menu option, "Technology".

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
   via WWW:
   http://www.missingkids.org/
   http://www.missingkids.org/information_superhighway.html (Online
      brochure "Child Safety on the Information Highway)

National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)
   via WWW:
   http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/NCSAMosaicHome.html
      (Mosaic Home Page)
   http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimer.html
      (A Beginner's Guide to HTML)

   via FTP:
   ftp ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu (to download the Mosaic WWW browser)

National Center for Technology Planning
   via gopher:
   gopher.msstate.edu

Choose "Resources Maintained at MS State University," then select
"National Center for Technology Planning."

National Science Foundation's (United States) Science and Technology
   Information System (STIS)

   via WWW:
   http://stis.nsf.gov/

   via gopher:
   stis.nsf.gov

   via telnet:
   telnet stis.nsf.gov
   login:  public
   Follow instructions on screen.


Netscape Communications
   via WWW:
   http://www.netscape.com/

   via FTP:
   ftp ftp.netscape.com

Netscape's WWW browser can be downloaded from Netscape's FTP sites at
ftp.netscape.com, ftp2.netscape.com, ftp3.netscape.com...through
ftp7.netscape.com.

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (US Department of
   Education)

   via WWW:
   http://oeri.ed.gov/

    via gopher:
    gopher.ed.gov

Providers of Commercial Internet Access (for a list of Internet Service
   Providers)

   via WWW:
   http://www.celestin.com/pocia/

THE LIST (for a list of Internet Service Providers)
   via WWW:
   http://thelist.com

Voters Telecommunications Watch
   via WWW:
   http://www.vtw.org/
   http://www.vtw.org/pubs/ipcfaq [Internet Parental Control Frequently
      Asked Questions (FAQ) by Shabbir J. Safdar]

World Wide Web Consortium
   via WWW:
   http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/

   via telnet:
   telnet telnet.w3.org (public access Lynx client. Use "lynx" without
      the quotes if a login is requested.)

Web66
   via WWW:
   http://web66.coled.umn.edu/
   http://web66.coled.umn.edu/schools.html (International WWW Schools
      Registry)
   http://web66.coled.umn.edu/Cookbook/contents.html (Classroom Internet
      Server Cookbook)

------------
NEWS GROUPS:
------------

   alt.algebra.help
   alt.comp.shareware.for-kids
   alt.education.distance
   alt.kids-talk
   bit.listserv.edtech
   comp.security.announce
   k12.chat.elementary
   k12.chat.junior
   k12.chat.senior
   k12.chat.teacher
   k12.ed.art
   k12.ed.business
   k12.ed.comp.literacy
   k12.ed.health-pe
   k12.ed.life-skills
   k12.ed.math
   k12.ed.music
   k12.ed.science
   k12.ed.soc-studies
   k12.ed.special
   k12.ed.tag
   k12.ed.tech
   k12.edu.life-skills (especially for school counselors)
   k12.euro.teachers (in Europe)
   k12.lang.art
   k12.lang.deutsch-eng
   k12.lang.esp-eng

   k12.lang.francais
   k12.lang.russian
   k12.library
   k12.sys.projects
   misc.education
   misc.education.multimedia
   misc.education.language.english
   misc.kids
   misc.kids.computer
   news.announce.newusers
   pubnet.nixpub (where a list of open access Unix sites is often
      posted, for those looking for access to Usenet News and email
      only)
   uk.education.misc
   uk.education.teachers

-------------------------
NEWSLETTERS and JOURNALS:
-------------------------

Classroom Connect

   Published monthly during the school year, a subscription currently
   costs US $39.00.

   Wentworth Worldwide Media
   1866 Colonial Village Lane
   P.O. Box 10488
   Lancaster, PA 17605-0488
   USA
   Phone:  1-717-393-1000
           1-800-638-1639
   Fax:    1-717-390-4378
   Email:  connect@wentworth.com

   via WWW:
   http://www.wentworth.com/classroom/crcpub.htm (Classroom Connect home
      page)
   http://www.wentworth.com/classroom/orderform.htm (order form for
      Classroom Connect Newsletter, books, software, and videos about
      the Internet for educators)

The Computing Teacher

   Published monthly, the current US $61.00 ISTE membership fee
   includes $36.00 for this journal.

   ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education
   1787 Agate Street
   Eugene, OR  97403
   Phone:  1-503-346-4414

Electronic Learning

   Published eight times per year, a current subscription to this
   magazine for technology and school change costs $23.95.

   Scholastic, Inc.
   2931 East McCarty Street
   P.O. Box 3710
   Jefferson City, MO  65102-3710

MultiMedia Schools

   Published five times a year, a subscription currently costs
   US $38.00.

   Online, Inc.
   462 Danbury Road
   Wilton, CT  06897-2126
   USA
   Phone:  1-800-222-3766


NetTeach News

   Published ten times a year, subscription prices are as follows.

   Annual hardcopy subscription cost:
   US $38.00  for individual subscriptions in the US
   US $45.00  for individual subscriptions in Canada and Mexico
   US $60.00  for individual subscriptions outside North America

   Annual ASCII electronic copy cost:
   US $22.00  for individual subscriptions worldwide

   Site licenses are available for the electronic version.
   Discounts are available for ten or more orders of the printed version
   for educational institutions.

   For subscription questions and submissions contact:

   Kathleen M. Rutkowski, Editor
   Chaos Publications
   13102 Weather Vane Way
   Herndon, VA  22071
   USA
   Phone:  1-703-471-0593
   Fax:    1-703-471-0596
   Email:  netteach@chaos.com

   via WWW:
   http://www.chaos.com/netteach

--------------
ORGANIZATIONS:
--------------

Asia Pacific Network Information Center
   c/o University of Tokyo, Computer Center
   2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
   Japan
   Phone:  +81-3-5684-7747
   Fax:    +81-3-5684-7256
   Email:  hostmaster@apnic.net
   WWW: http://www.apnic.net

AskERIC Project
   ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources
   Syracuse University
   4-194 Center for Science & Technology
   Syracuse, New York 13244-4100
   Phone:  315-443-3640
   Fax:    315-443-5448
   Email:  AskERIC@ericir.syr.edu

See also "Network Servers" above.

Chatback International
   Dr. R. Zenhausern, Executive Director
   Psychology Department
   St. Johns University
   SB 15, Marillac
   Jamaica, NY  11439
   USA
   Phone:  718-990-6447
   Fax:    718-990-6705
   Email:  drz@sjuvm.stjohns.edu

The Chatback Trust
   Tom Holloway, UK Director
   6 St. Mary's Crescent
   Royal Leamington Spa
   Warwickshire, 1JL
   Phone:  +44-926-888333
   Fax:    +44-926-420204
   Email:  t.holloway@warwick.ac.uk

See also "Network Servers" above.


Consortium for School Networking
   P.O. Box 65193
   Washington, DC  20035-5193
   USA
   Phone:  202-466-6296
   Fax:    202-872-4318
   Email:  info@cosn.org

See also "Network Servers" above.

European Schools Project ("...a support system for secondary schools
      to explore applications of educational telematics".)
   University of Amsterdam
   Centre for Tele-Learning
   Wibautstraat 2-4
   1091 GM Amsterdam
   The Netherlands
   Contact: Dr. Pauline Meijer or Dr. Henk Sligte
   Phone:   +31-20-5251248
   Fax:     +31-20-5251211
   Email:   risc@esp.educ.uva.nl
   WWW: http:/www.educ.uva.nl/ESP

FidoNet
   1151 SW Vermont Street
   Portland, OR 97219
   USA
   Contact: Janet Murray
   Phone:   1-503-280-5280
   Email:   jmurray@psg.com
   WWW: http://bbs.owls.com/~jerrys/fidonet.html (A Fidonet Primer)

Global SchoolNet Foundation (formerly FrEdMail)
   P.O. Box 243,
   Bonita, CA 91908
   USA
   Phone: (619) 475-4852
   Fax: (619) 472-0735
   Email:  info@gsn.org

See also "Network Servers" above.

International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)
   c/o Copen Family Fund
   345 Kear Street
   Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
   USA
   Contact: Dr. Edwin H. Gragert
   Phone:   914-962-5864
   Fax:     914-962-6472
   Email: iearn@iearn.org

See also "Network Servers" above.

Internet Society
   1895 Preston White Drive
   Suite 100
   Reston, Virginia  22091
   USA
   Phone:  703-648-9888
   Fax:    703-620-0913
   Email:  isoc@isoc.org
   WWW:    http://www.isoc.org/home.html

KIDLINK Society
   4815 Saltrod
   Norway
   Phone:   +47-370-31204
   Fax:     +47-370-27111
   Email:   kidlink-info@kidlink.org

See also "Network Servers" and "Electronic Mail Lists" above.

K12Net
   1151 SW Vermont Street
   Portland, OR 97219
   USA
   Phone:   503-280-5280
   Contact: Janet Murray
   Email:   jmurray@psg.com
   Telnet:  telnet gopher.psg.com
            login:  gopher
   Gopher:  rain.psg.com:70/11/schools/k12net
   WWW: http://arlo.wilsonhs.pps.k12.or.us/k12.html


Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
   Kruislaan 409
   NL-1098 SJ  Amsterdam
   The Netherlands
   Phone: +31 20 592 5065
   Fax:   +31 20 592 5090
   Email: ncc@ripe.net
   WWW: http://www.ripe.net/ripe/default.html

------
VIDEOS
------

Master Communications Group
   7322 Ohms Lane
   Minneapolis, MN  55439
   Phone:  1-800-862-6164
   Fax:    1-612-835-9573

Titles:
   Experience the Power: Network Technology for Education (produced
     by the National Center for Education Statistics)
   Future Schools: Connected to the World (produced by MIT)


NASA Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE)
   Lorain County Joint Vocational School
   15181 Route 58 South
   Oberlin, OH  44074
   USA
   Phone:   1-216-774-1051, x293/294
   Fax:     1-216-774-2144
   Email: video-info@quest.arc.nasa.gov

Titles:
   Global Quest: The Internet in the Classroom
   Connecting to the Future: A Guide for Building a Network
      Infrastructure for Education
   Global Quest II: The Internet in the Curriculum
   Others

The fee for the videos is cost plus shipping and handling.  You may also
make a copy yourself by taking a blank copy to the nearest NASA Teacher
Resource Center. For information on the NASA Teacher Resource Center
Network or on NASA Select, contact your nearest NASA facility or consult
NASA Spacelink, listed above in "Network Servers".

Wentworth Worldwide Media
   1866 Colonial Village Lane
   P.O. Box 10488
   Lancaster, PA 17605-0488
   USA
   Phone:  1-717-393-1000
           1-800-638-1639
   Fax:    1-717-390-4378

Titles:
   The Amazing Internet
   Internet Email
   Searching the Internet
   Discovering the World Wide Web
   Others


10.  References

[1] "Internet Domain Survey, January 1995," Network Wizards
http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW/report.html

[2] "Restructuring Schools: A Systematic View", Action Line, the
newsletter of the Maryland State Teachers Association, a National
Education Association Affiliate. R. Kuhn, Editor. No. 93-6. June, 1993.

[3] Sivin, J. P. and E. R. Bialo, "Ethical Uses of Information
Technologies in Education." Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of
Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. 1992.


11.  Security Considerations

General security considerations are discussed in Section 7 of this
document.


12.  Authors' Addresses

Julie Robichaux
BBN Planet Southeastern Region
XXXX
Phone: 301-982-4600 x 169
Email: julie@bbnplanet.com

Jennifer Sellers
Sterling Software/NASA IITA
700 13th Street, NW
Suite 950
Washington, DC  20005
Phone:  202-434-8954
Email:  sellers@quest.arc.nasa.gov



APPENDIX A:  EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS USING THE INTERNET

The following examples of projects using the Internet appeared on various
online servers and electronic mailing lists pertaining to education during
the 1995-96 school year. The messages have been edited in the interest of
space and because many of the details about how to participate are dated,
but the information presented can give you a feel for the types and range
of projects that happen today.

A good source for project examples is "Judi Harris' Network-Based
Educational Activity Collection" and other World Wide Web sites listed
above in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".


--------------------------------------------------
Example One: WhaleNet Interdisciplinary Activities
--------------------------------------------------

Welcome to WhaleNet

      This packet gives you the information that you need to begin using
WhaleNet in your classroom.  This packet contains the following information:

1. Instructions on How to Access WhaleNet
2. Start-up WhaleNet Activities
3. Instructions for recording whale watch data.
4. Instructions on how to input data into the WhaleNet program
5. Marine mammal species sheet with abbreviations
6. Whale Study Data Sheet
7. WhaleNet data base Information Sheet
8. Supplemental Materials information

Please feel free to contact us for further information.

Mr. Michael Williamson   Mr. Paul Colombo       Dr. Karen Talentino
WhaleNet Coordinator     Co-Director EnviroNet  Co-Director EnviroNet
Science Dept.            Dept. of Biology       Simmons College
200 Riverway             300 Fenway             300 Fenway
Boston, MA 02215         Boston, MA 02115       Boston, MA 02115
617/734-5200, x256       617/521-2665           617/617/521-2666
Mwilliamson@vmsvax.simmons.edu
Pcolombo@vmsvax.simmons.edu
Ktalentino@vmsvax.simmons.edu

WhaleNet is a teacher enhancement project funded by the National Science
Foundation (RED-9454757) and sponsored by Wheelock College and Simmons
College in Boston.  The purpose of the WhaleNet is to enhance science
education and environmental awareness using interdisciplinary learning
through the use of telecommunications.

[text deleted]

Expand Your Educational Horizons with Telecommunications

WhaleNet, in conjunction with research groups, educational organizations,
and whale watch companies, provides a program to enhance the educational
opportunities of students.

WhaleNet offers, students and teachers, curriculum support, a source of
data for interdisciplinary classroom activities , and interactive
informational support through WhaleNet/EnviroNet utilizing
telecommunications.

WhaleNet provides a system where students, teachers, and researchers
collect data on their whale watching cruises and compile their data on the
WhaleNet bulletin board.  The data is then shared, via WhaleNet, with
schools for interdisciplinary curricular activities and student research
in their respective classrooms world-wide.  WhaleNet is establishing
Internet communication between classes from around the world so that
students can use collaborative learning, compare and relate their
experiences, data, and knowledge with one another.

WhaleNet is an interdisciplinary program to enhance science education and
environmental awareness using telecommunications.  WhaleNet, part of
EnviroNet, is an enhancement project funded by the National Science
Foundation and sponsored by Wheelock College and Simmons College in
Boston.

Class activities may be supplemented with information packets with
materials supplied by WhaleNet.  Plans to build a life-sized (55 ft.)
inflatable whale that the students can actually walk through are also
available through WhaleNet.  Also available are Interactive CD-Rom and
curriculum materials and the Elementary Whale Study Curriculum (EWSC)
developed by Whale Conservation Institute and the Discovery Channel, and

the booklets Whale Watches as Interdisciplinary Teaching Opportunities,
The World of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises -- Interdisciplinary
Curriculum Activities for Pre-K through High School, and Marine Science
Activities on a Budget.  WhaleNet curricula support continues through the
winter months by utilizing information from the humpback southern breeding
areas, WCI Patagonia right whale research, and research information on
tracking whales, ocean toxics (ECOTOX), and bioacoustics supplied by the
voyages of the WCI research vessel Odyssey.

If you are interested in receiving an information packet, participating in
the program, or learning more you can contact me, Michael Williamson,
WhaleNet Coordinator at 617/734-5200, X256 or 508/468-4699, or Dr. Karen
Talentino or Paul Colombo, EnviroNet co-directors, Park Science Bldg.,
Simmons College, 300 Fenway, Boston, MA 02115, 617/521-2665.

[text deleted]

GUEST INSTRUCTIONS FOR EnviroNet / WhaleNet LOGINS

The following are some directions to access our network as a "guest".
Please feel free to browse through our bulletin boards and let us know if
you find them a help to your instruction.  Bold type indicates information
that you type.

>From the TELNET> prompt you can either type connect vmsvax.simmons.edu to
connect to us (you may use our IP# 134.140.112.5), or our direct dial-up #
is (617)521-3000.

username> ENVIRONET and
password >SIMMONS
[if Local appears--- Local> c vmsvax]

This will give you the BULLETIN> prompt.
There are currently thirteen different bulletin boards that we are running:

ENVIRONET     ROADKILL     LEADPAINT    ETHNICPLANTS  ACIDRAIN
OZONE         ENVST-L      LICHENS      FLU           WHALENET
BIRDS         WATERSHED    ENVIROQUEST  MARINE

You should access the WhaleNet bulletin board first by typing at the
prompt BULLETIN> select WHALENET.

Once the folder has been set to WHALENET you should view the directory by
typing at the prompt BULLETIN> 1 for the introductory message , then at
BULLETIN> dir This will give you a list of current postings.  Type the
number of the file and [Return] to view the material.

To access any of the other bulletin boards you would type select (space)
and then the name of the bulletin board at the BULLETIN> prompt.  When
the board is activated you would simply hit your return key to read the
messages or you can type dir to see a directory of all messages that
appear in the board and access any one message by its number.

To LOG OFF or to get out of the system

BULLETIN> exit
ENVIRONET    logged out at  8-MAY-1994 11:30:38.90
Local> lo
Local -020- Logged out port 1 on server MCB3
NO CARRIER

We hope you enjoy our network and please send us your comments.

*WhaleNet  is funded by the National Science Foundation and supported by
Wheelock Colege and Simmons College, Boston, MA.

Recording Whale Watch Data

Prior to making reservations for your whale watch, ask the company if
they are WhaleNet affiliated and/or if they will allow you to conduct
your research: record Lat/Long positions, collect water samples, and/or
collect plankton samples.  The companies need not be affiliated with
WhaleNet, but you should be sure that you will be allowed to conduct your
activities.  Ask if the captain will allow a student in the pilot house
to collect Latitude/Longitude (or LORAN) readings, depths, etc.

Organize your data collecting teams or individuals before you arrive at
the boat.  The excitement of the day, boarding, etc. does not lend itself
to organizing at dock side.


Data Sheet

1.  Fill in as much of the general information (weather, tides, etc.) in
the data sheet header as possible.  Sea state (beaufort scale of wind
velocity), wave height, and visibility should be recorded at sea.

2.  Take a Latitude/Longitude (Lat/Long) fix about every 15 minutes on
the way to and from the primary whale watching area beginning at the
harbor mouth.

3.  The time should be recorded for each Lat/Long fix and marine mammal
observation.  Use 24-hr. time for all data entries, i.e.  2:15 PM would
be 14:15. (For afternoon or evening just add 12 to the hour.)

4. The location is determined by Lat/Long coordinates (i.e. 71 24'W, 42
40'N)  Two coordinates are used for a fix.  Write one coordinate in each
column under Location.

5.  Depth can either be recorded by depth sounder on the boat or by
making a fix on the chart and noting the depth on the chart closest to
the fix.  Many depth sounders do not work well when the boat is traveling
at higher speeds.

6.  When a whale is observed record the species using the Species
Abbreviation Sheet, i.e. Mn for humpback, Bp for fin whale etc.

7.  Record the number of whales in the immediate area (subjective
distance judgment) around the boat.  This can be confusing when there are
a number of whales in the area.  Use a separate line on the data sheet
for each species in an area, all the other data will be the same, i.e.
time, Lat/Long, depth,  etc.

8.  Grouping is recorded by listing the number of whales in a group. The
sum  total of grouping must equal the previous Number recorded.  For
instance, if you have 6  humpback whales, you may have 2+2+1+1 if there
are two pairs and two single animals.  a cow/calf pair is recorded as c/c.

9.  Behavior is recorded as feeding, traveling, breaching, flipper
slapping, lob tailing, spy hop, logging, trumpeting, etc.  There are more
behaviors and some researchers take minute detailed behavioral data, but
for your purposes that detail may not be necessary.

10. The last column can be used for names of humpbacks.  Most of the Gulf
of Maine population have been named to facilitate data transfer by
researchers.

Marine Mammals and Turtle Sighting Abbreviations
[text deleted]

WhaleNet Data Input Instructions

After you access the E-mail address (see WhaleNet Access Sheet) input the
data as follows.

[text deleted]

** NON-WHALE WATCHING CLASSES **

If you are a class not going on a whale watch but using the whale watch
data, use the data sheets to copy data off of the WhaleNet Bulletin
Board.  You can then use the data in the same way as those that did go on

an actual whale watch.

[text deleted]

WhaleNet Sample & Start-up Activities

Activity 1:  Navigation

Simple navigation methods can be used to involve mathematics.  Using
latitude and longitude, or a system of navigation called LORAN (Long
Range Aid to Navigation) the ship's position can be plotted very
accurately on a navigation chart.  The ship's track can be plotted on a
chart by taking a position check or fix periodically by recording the
time and ship's Lat/Long coordinates.  Prior to your trip laminate your
chart or cover it with clear contact paper.  The students can use water
soluble fine tip markers to plot the fixes and course as the day
progresses.  Different colors can be used to indicate different species
sightings, etc.  The chart can be reused when the fixes are washed off.
(Use Lat/Long if possible.)

With the plot of the ship's course a number of activities can be
undertaken.  Plot the vessel's research track and calculate: the distance
covered, the rate of the vessel's travel from point to point (D-R*T, "a
minute's a mile the world around"), the depth of water at various points
can be found by checking the depth on the chart at the point of the fix,
and the topography of the research track can be observed (see bathymetry
below).

Students can plot the track of the boat by recording the Lat/Long
coordinates at preset time intervals, i.e. every 15 minutes and/or at
every sighting of marine mammals, and then plotting these points (taking
a fix) on a chart of the area. (Charts are available for $13.00 or a
bathymetric  (fishing) chart for $3.00 through boat yards or boating
magazines.  The bathymetric chart gives a better visualization of the
bottom topography and may be more helpful if a study of bottom topography
is planned.  The bathymetric chart also has some LORAN lines on it, but
not as many as the navigation chart.  NOTE: you only need the Lat/Long or
two LORAN coordinates to plot a position.)

Using the research track, students should note locations, depths,
topography, etc. where marine mammals are observed along with the
behavior and activity observed.

Activity 2: Water Testing

Water testing is an important part of oceanography and whale research.
Activities such as testing the water temperature, density and salinity
are commonly measured qualities of sea water.  To collect a water sample
notify crew members, wait until the boat STOPS COMPLETELY, drop a bucket
with a line attached to the handle overboard and bring up a water
sample.  Use a thermometer to measure the temperature, and a hydrometer
to measure the density.  With the density and temperature, the salinity
can be determined using temp/density/salinity charts or graphs.

The color of the water, sea state (wave height), wind velocity and
direction, and air temperature are also important bits of information to
the researcher.  This information is listed on the data sheet.

Activity 3:  Plankton Tow and Analysis

A plankton tow and analysis explains a great deal about why the whales
are where they are.  The plankton can be examined with hand lenses or
microscopes, and depending on the class age various degrees of plankton
analysis can be conducted.  Data on density of plankton, identification
of plankton types, etc. can be included.

be a natural follow-up to the plankton tow.  Phytoplankton (plants) and
zoo-plankton (animals) can be observed under normal conditions.  If only
one  plankton net can be purchased choose a phytoplankton net.  It
collects both plant and animal plankton.

Activity 4:  Data Collection

Data collection should be made on: the location of the observation, the
species observed, the number of each species, behavior of the organism,
and any other information that might be important.

Data sheets should be photocopied from the one included in advance of the

trips and research groups can be assigned in any manner appropriate to
the class.  Groups can either be assigned to take data for the class or
groups can be assigned to take data throughout the trip.  It would be
suggested that only one person at a time be assigned to record the
position coordinates (Lat/Long) in the pilot house, and the captain
should be contacted and talked with about the best procedure prior to the
trip.  Some vessels have Lat/Long or LORAN receivers in the public cabin,
inquire at the time you make your reservations.

For more class involvement, additional data can be collected on the
pollution (floating trash) and bird sightings.  The Pollution Data Table
should include time sighted, location, type of trash, amount of trash,
composition of trash, etc.  The data of the times sighted can be
coordinated with the position recordings to approximate the location of
the trash sightings.  Totals of the trash sightings should be included
after the whale sighting information.  Bird sightings can also be
recorded in a similar fashion.  There is a bird sighting bulletin board
in EnviroNet, see the EnviroNet booklet for procedures to input bird data.

Activity 5: Photo-Identification of Whales

Photo-identification photographs of humpback whales taken on the cruise
should be recorded as follows: date, location, photo taken by whom, what
roll number of film (number each roll of film with the initials of the
photographer & roll number such as: JMW/95-001), and what number on the
roll.  The photographs can be used later to identify the whale using a
humpback whale catalogue or they can be mailed to Allied Whale, College
of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine to be entered into the Humpback Whale
Catalogue data base.


Activity 6:  Mathematics

Plot the complete research track on a chart.  How many miles did the trip
cover?  What was the average speed of the boat from fix to fix, for the
entire trip?  What was the heading (compass direction) on each leg of the
trip?  How many sighting were made for each hour of the trip?  (This is
the "catch effort" used by whalers to compare the efficiency of a trip.)
This method can also be used to compare different trips, on different
days, locations, boats, etc.

Activity 7:  Bathymetry

Using graph paper placed along each leg of the research track the bottom
topography can be plotted and displayed.  Fold a piece of graph paper
along a line about one inch from the edge of the paper.  Place the graph
paper on the track line drawn on the chart and using a predetermined
scale for depth on the vertical axis, plot the depth of the bottom on the
(vertical) Y-axis vs. appropriate/convenient points on the (horizontal)
X-axis.

Connect the strip profiles for each leg of the cruise together to show
the bottom topography of the entire trip.

Return to the bottom topography profile and note where on the surface
what species were sighted and what the behavior observed was, i.e.
feeding, logging, traveling, etc.  Is there a pattern of behavior of the
whales or the location of the whales to the bottom topography?  Are
sightings usually made over a specific type of bottom?   Analyze the data
from your trip.

Activity 8:  Topographic Model of the Bottom

Construct a model of Stellwagen Bank.  Draw lines perpendicular to the
ridge line of the bank about one inch apart.  Have students use graph
paper to make a profile of the bottom on each line.  Glue the graph paper
to pieces of cardboard and cut out the profiles.  Line the cardboard
profiles up one inch apart in clay or similar substance to hold up the
cardboard, and cover with damp cloth or paper.  Press the cloth or paper
down gently to the contour of the cardboard, allow to dry, and spray with
paint and allow to dry.  Use your imagination!

Activity 9: Analysis of Whale Watch Data

Suggestions for analysis: (1) compare "catch efforts" (number of
sightings of a species for each hour on the whale watch) for different
days, different species, etc.; (2) compare the range of behaviors of
species on a given day; (3) compare data for Jeffrey's Ledge and
Stellwagen Bank on a given day or week; (4) compare numbers of cow/calf
pairs on given days; (5) calculate the number of whales with killer whale
scars; (6) compare the depths where the different species were observed;
(7) compare where most of the sightings were, on the bank or ledge, over
the deep water, etc. or (8) compare numbers of sightings vs. sea state,
cloud cover, wind velocity, etc.

Activity 10: Analysis of Marine Pollution

sheet
similar to the marine mammal data sheet, but substitute Object for
Species and Composition for Grouping.  Up-load the data using the same
procedure as for the marine mammals but use Pollution Data in place of
Data in the subject header.  We will also be collecting Coast Sweep data
in the future.

Activity 11: Analysis of Pelagic Birds

Collect data on pelagic birds by using a data sheet similar to the marine
mammal data sheet.  Up-load the information by substituting Bird Data in
the subject header.

** NON-WHALE WATCHING CLASSROOMS **

If you are one of the classrooms not going on a whale watch but using the
whale watch data, use the data sheets to copy data off of the WhaleNet
Bulletin Board.  You can then use the data in the same way as those that
did go on an actual whale watch.

WhaleNet Supplementary Materials

The listed materials may be purchased to supplement your classroom
curriculum.

Marine Science Activities on a Budget (booklet) - Contains a
cross-section of oceanographic activities that can be altered to

accommodate many grade levels.

The World of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises - Interdisciplinary
Curriculum Units for Pre-K through High School (book) - This contains
200+ pages of interdisciplinary activities, bibliographies, etc. suitable
for a wide range of interests, abilities, and grade levels.
                                                           $20.00

How to Build an Inflatable (55 ft.) Fin Whale (booklet) - Instructions on
how to build a 55 foot long model of a whale that can be carried in a
duffel bag by one person.  Students and teachers can walk inside.
Estimated cost for materials is between $40.00 and $50.00

Marine Science Bibliography (pamphlet) - Extensive bibliography for a
wide range of grade levels and interests from general knowledge,
children's books, to scientific information for the marine mammal biologist.

Marine Science Activities on a Budget (booklet)            $13.00

The World of Whales, Dolphins,and Porpoises - Interdisciplinary
Curriculum Units for Pre-K through High School (book)      $20.00

How to Build an Inflatable (55 ft.) Fin Whale (booklet)    $8.00
Marine Science Bibliography (pamphlet                      $3.00

Prices (in US funds) include Shipping.
                                              TOTAL -_____________

Make Check payable to: J. Michael Williamson

Send order form to: J. Michael Williamson
Your Name:____________________________
MICS    Address ______________________________
20 Moynihan Rd. _____________________________________
So. Hamilton, MA 01982  _____________________________________

Whalenet Info Packet/           )1995-WhaleNet/J. Michael Williamson


-----------------------------------------------
Example Two:  Astronomy at Various Grade Levels
------------------------- ----------------------

P A S S P O R T   T O    K N O W L E D G E
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
__                         ______
 |                         |
 |     __   _    _  __     |___  ___   __  __    __     _____      ___
 |      |    \  /  |__     |     |__| |  | | \  / |       |   |__| |__
 |     _|_    \/   |__     |     |  \ |__| |  \/  |       |   |  | |__
 |____                    _|_


  ______
 |        ____  ___    _   ___ ___   ___  ___       ___ ___  ___
 |_____     |   |__|  /_\   |  |  |  |__  |__| |__| |__ |__| |__
       |    |   |  \ /   \  |  |__|  __|  |    |  | |__ |  \ |__
  _____|
************************************************************************
N E W S L E T T E R    # 3                     O C T O B E R  9, 1 9 9 5
************************************************************************

** Exploring Space and Cyberspace **

This week we are taking off for a tour of Jupiter and the stars.  Please
join us on-air, online and in classrooms. Here is what is happening this
week ---
                       ___
                        |ELEVISION,
                          ___
                           |ELECOMPUTING, &
                             ___
                              |EACHERS


                       --------------------------
               -------|   T E L E V I S I O N    |------- -
                       --------------------------

We hope all of you were able to join us for a very exciting and
informative "Pre-Flight Briefing on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory." We
had the
opportunity to look around inside and out and to meet and talk with the
people who will be directing the "Flight to Jupiter" this week. April Whitt

and some very talented students helped others show us what is involved in
mounting a telescope on a C-141 jet and flying it out beyond the distortion
caused by the atmosphere. The flight crew, scientists and technology
experts explained how the 36 inch primary mirror gathers light and reflects
it through a series of mirrors into a camera which transmits the digitized
infrared data to a computer where a image is displayed and recorded.

We know that students feel more a part of the journey if they can ask their
own questions as they listen to the questions from students in the video
linked sites. All students are invited to send their questions to the
people that they are seeing on camera.   Fax machines or E-mail provide
links for sending students questions.  Jake Chaput (Arlington Elementary)
comments on his student reactions to their opportunity to pose a question:

        My class went wild with enthusiasm when they heard
        " A question from Arlington Elementary School in
        Poughkeepsie, NY ..."


We hope that this introduction helped prepare your student for....

---->>> T H I S    W E E K:
                     __________________________
                     | /--------------------\ |
                     | |                    | |
 OCTOBER 12TH        | |       T H E        | |
                     | |   J U P I T E R    | |
                     | |   M I S S I O N    | |
                     | |                    | |       OCTOBER 12TH,
                     | \-------------------/  |         14:30 - 17:00 EST
                     |  * * ....         0 0  |
                     |________________________|
Off to Find Jupiter
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Students can track the flight as it leaves Ames Research Center in
California on its quest to bring Jupiter and its moon into view for
students across the country (see Activity 2E in the Teacher's Guide for
more information). If you have online access, you will be able to plot the
course by receiving flight data every 5 minutes. (Converting Universal time
to local time and noting what happens as time zones are crossed may help
students understand why scientists keep there records in Universal Time)
With the aid of technology, and some good luck, we should be able to leap
aboard the KAO at 2:30 EST somewhere above Florida or the Gulf of Mexico
and stay with the crew until they land the KAO in Houston, at Ellington Air
Force Base just before 5:00 EST.

The goal of this flight will be to view Jupiter and its moons.  Student who
have been following along will have studied the obit patterns for Io,
Europa, Ganymede and Callisto and will be ready to match their predictions
with images from the KAO.

We hope you will join us for this Passport to Knowledge FIRST ever
                 "LIVE FROM THE STRATOSPHERE" broadcast.

The program will air live from 2:30 - 5:00 PM EST Eastern on October 12,
1995.
Check local listings to see if your local PBS station will be carrying
the program and at what time.


                     ___________________________
                     | /---------------------\ |
                     | |                     | |
 OCTOBER 13TH        | |      N I G H T      | |
                     | |  F L I G H T   T O  | |
                     | |  T H E   S T A R S  | |
                     | |                     | |       OCTOBER 13TH,
                     | \--------------------/  |         20:00 - 25:00 EST
                     |  * * ....          0 0  |                (01:00 10/14)
                     |_________________________|

Discoveries in the Stars
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Students will be with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (virtually) as it
travels back from Houston to its home at the NASA Ames Research Center.
During the flight, we will explore the life cycle of the stars, looking
at "baby pictures" of places in th sky where stars are forming, a middle-aged
galaxy half as large as our own Milky Way, and a nebula formed as a star
approaches death.  In addition, the KAO will study the planet Saturn and its
giant moon, Titan.

Across the country, many classes and museums will be holding "Star
Parties" and camp-ins.  Following the progress of the KAO will be a

highlight for these gatherings; in addition, many locally developed
activities will help help engage students in the wonders of astronomy and
science.

The program will air live from 8:00 PM EST on October 13, 1995 until
1:00 AM on October 14, 1995.  Check local listings to see if your local
PBS station will be carrying the program and at what time.


ORDERING the Live From the Stratosphere VIDEOTAPES from NASA

The programs will be available shortly (within a 3-5 days) after the live
broadcast schedule from :

NASA CORE,  Lorain County JVS
        15181 Route 58 South, Oberlin, OH 44074
        Phone: 216-774-1051,ext 293 or 294;  Fax: 216-774-2144


                   -------------------------------
           -------|   T E L E C O M P U T I N G   |--------
                  --------------------------------
 _____________
|\             \                        /^-^-^-^-^-^-^-^-^\
| \  \------\   \                  ^-^-^  NEW OPPORTUNITY  ^-^-^
\  \_____________\                      \^-^-^-^-^-^-^-^-^/
 \   QUESTIONS?  |
  \______________|
  KAO SCIENTISTS AND SUPPORT CREW NOW READY TO TAKE QUESTIONS....

Live from the Stratosphere experts are ready and willing to answer
questions from teachers and students from October 5 through November 17,
1995!!  It is easy.  Just write a single question in a message and
address it to

                     question-lfs@quest.arc.nasa.gov.

In the subject field, please put the letters "QA:" before a descriptive
subject.  Also, provide a sentence of background information to help the
experts understand the grade level of your students.  The following example
should illustrate this idea.

      TO:             question-lfs@quest.arc.nasa.gov
      FROM:           your Email address
      SUBJECT:        QA: How the telescope works

      Hello,

      I am a fifth grader from Oakland, California.  I don't understand
      how you detect water vapor with infrared photography.  Can you explain
      this to me.

Miai Kayato

To allow for participation from the largest possible number of classes we
ask that each teacher send no more than 20 questions during the project.
We hope that classrooms discussions and use of the materials will help
students frame questions that cannot be answered by other classroom
resources.

If you and your students  would like to receive all of the questions and
answers, you can do this by  sending an Email:

        To: listmanager@quest.arc.nasa.gov

        Subject:          (Leave blank)

        subscribe answers-lfs             (type this one line of text)

You can also search the data base for answers to your questions.  There are
instructions online for how to do this.

--->> Join a Web Chats and/or VideoConferencing

Participants connect with each other on our Web page. During the days,
students discuss their preflight plans with each other.  At night, teachers
are communicating with each other and with KAO Telescope Tracker Allan Meyer.

Last Friday, Allen invited classrooms with CUSeeMe technology to join in a
videoconference at the KAO hangar on a computer called "Cave", IP -
128.102.130.110.


Here is are Marilyn Wall's comments on this experience:

      "Around 11:30 EDT we set up the computer,camera,and modem,
      typed in the reflector and found ourselves looking in the
      NASA Ames room and at Roger's fifth grade in Austin. Wow,
      it worked! By making this CU SeeMe connection, the
      whole LFS program became "personal" "interactive" experience
      for my students. They felt as if THEY were part of the Ames
      research team."

The Houston Museum of Natural Science invites Live from the Stratosphere
schools on the Internet to participate in the October 12 program through
the Museum via CU-SeeMe. The Museum will have 10 consoles in a
communications center directing questions to the Kuiper Airborne
Observatory. Two of these consoles will be targeted for CU-SeeMe
participants.  For more information send a message to  Carolyn Sumners
(sumners@alfven.rice.edu).

--->>> Field Journals for Juniors    ****NEW FEATURE*****

Field Journals are a regular feature of PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE Electronic
field
trips.  These journals introduce students to the human dimensions of doing
science.  In feedback from Live from Antarctica, some of our youngest viewers
asked for journals that were easier for them to understand. This year we are
creating a new feature: Field Journals for Elementary students.   The first
postings are now online.


      For information on all online features, send Email To:

                    info-lfs@quest.arc.nasa.gov

                Gopher Server  quest.arc.nasa.gov

                Live From the Stratosphere  Web site:

          http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/livefrom/stratosphere.html


                        -------------------------
                -------|    T E A C H E R S      |--------
                        --------------------------
---->>>> discuss-lfs  Discussion list now really OPEN!!!

A temporary glitch affected our discuss-lfs list this week blocking
many postings that were sent to the list.  These postings have
reached the list and we are now back in *full force!*

Many members shared their personal classroom experiences focusing on the
October 5th broadcast and integration of the LFS activities. Thanks to
Roger Stryker, Chris Rowan, Ginny Dexter, Jake Chaput, Marilyn Wall,
Margaretha Gebhart, AFC Martine, Pam Berger and others for sharing
their input!

Classroom teachers are sharing their excitement about LFS! Many have plans
for upcoming sleep-overs, inclusion of local astronomy clubs, invitations
extended to local guest experts, involvement with local broadcasting
companies. Experienced Internet-using educators like Roger Stryker, Chris
Rowan and Marilyn Wall are reaching out and helping those new to this
medium by sharing expertise.  We have a very organic & rich discussion on
discuss-lfs!  The Star counting activity is about to begin online so ...
Please feel free to join in.  We want all teachers and students to feel
welcome.

/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\

SPANISH TRANSLATION OF LFS WEB SITE/GUIDE

Live From the Stratosphere seeks to include *everyone* in our
project through such efforts as our Spanish translation project....

Did you know that the Teacher's Guide bilingual Spanish translation
version is available on our web site! You will find some of our
web site (including the teacher's guide, diaries, background
information, etc.) translated and ready for use at :

        http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/lfs/espanol/lfs-overviewE.html

More in Spanish Language resources next week...

/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\


We want to include all teachers who want to join us....

PLEASE COPY THIS DISK SERVICE.... a service to help those
with minimal access to the Internet!

If you would like to have access to our online resources, but
have difficulties doing so, or would simply prefer to take
advantage of this useful service, you can now order our online
resources on diskette from:

                B & R Samizdat Express
                P.O. Box 161
                West Roxbury, MA 02132

Diskettes are available in IBM and MAC format (be sure to indicate
your preference) for $10.00 per diskette (this fee includes the
shipping and handling).  You have permission to copy this diskette
for other educators in your district!  At this time one diskette
of materials is available.  As our resources grow, there will be
additional diskettes made available.  B & R Samizdat Express
is run by Richard Seltzer who has his own web site at:

        http://www.tiac.net/users/samizdat

You can reach Richard at this email address if you have other
questions about his service:     seltzer@samizdat.com


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

These classroom activities from the Teacher's Guide will help students
actively participate in Program 3: "The Jupiter Misson."

    Planning the Jupiter Mission
    Digitized Data
    Finding Jupiter's Moons
    The Energy Equation


These classroom activities from the Teacher's Guide will get students
ready for Program 4: "Night Flight to the Stars"

    Mapping a Birth Cloud
    Seeing the Invisible
    Whispers from the Ring
    The Case of the Disappearing Rings
    Mapping a Galaxy


                    `/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/

                      Online Collaboration on
                     "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star"

                    `/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/`/

Please share your data as soon as possible. We hope to have a summary of
your work ready to be broadcast on October 12th.


                       --------------------------
               -------| T O    R E G I S T E R   |------- -
                       --------------------------

There is no cost to participate in LIVE FROM THE STRATOSPHERE.
It is funded in part, by the Information Infrastructure and Technology
Applications program of NASA's Office of High Performance Computing and
Communications, the NASA Astrophysics Division, NASA Ames Research Center,
NASA Education, and PBS K-12 Learning Services.  It is also supported, in
part, by the National Science Foundation.

Live From the Stratosphere is a Passport to Knowledge project. The
video programs are a co-production of GEOFF HAINES-STILES PRODUCTIONS
and MARYLAND PUBLIC TELEVISION. "Night Flight to the Stars" is
co-presented by WNET/New York.


To register, receive the printed Teacher's Guide, other NASA materials
on astronomy, an original color poster, the "mini-kit", and to cover postage,
and handling please send $10.00 to:

                      LIVE FROM THE STRATOSPHERE
                            P.O. Box 1502
                     Summit, New Jersey  07902-1502

or call:

                     1-800-626-LIVE (1-800-626-5483)

COME FLY WITH US, COME FLY, COME FLY THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY, INTO THE
STRATOSPHERE... INTO ORBIT, AND INTO THE FUTURE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION!
                .   . .     .  .
            *                                 /|
                  . .  .   .     + .         / /     /
                        .  +  . . .   ______/ /_____| |
                .  .    .    . . --<((__*@*_  ______|--  NEXT NEWSLETTER
                .       . +.    +  .        \ \     | |  OCTOBER 16TH
            .                                \ \     \
  *                                           \|
LFS Newsletter Editor: Margaret Riel (mriel@weber.ucsd.edu)


------------------------------------------------------
Example Three: MathMagic; Math at Various Grade Levels
------------------------------------------------------

Note: The MathMagic World Wide Web home page is located at
      http://forum.swarthmore.edu/mathmagic/

What is MathMagic?

MathMagic is a K-12 telecommunications project developed in El Paso,
Texas. It provides strong motivation for students to use computer
technology while increasing problem-solving strategies and communications
skills. MathMagic posts challenges in each of four categories (k-3, 4-6,
7-9 and 10-12) to trigger each registered team to pair up with another
team and engage in a problem-solving dialog. When an agreement has been
reached, one solution is posted for every pair.

MathMagic has received wide ideological acceptance by hundreds of past
FidoNet users, because it addresses most of the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics standards. A modified format has now expanded into
the Internet and is available via regular e-mail or via the World Wide Web
(WWW).

Who can participate?

K-12 teachers and students, but higher education teachers, librarians,
technology coordinators, computer teachers, and even home-schoolers are
joining to act as facilitators.

What is needed?

Any teacher with access to electronic mail via the Internet can
participate. Several net service providers and most of the commercial
boards (America Online, Genie, Compuserve, Delphi, The Well, etc.) now
offer e-mail gateways and other Internet services. MathMagic is best
suited to schools that use computers with modems and have direct Internet
access.

In some areas, a local Bulletin Board System (BBS) or a Net user (such as
a parent with net access) may have to act as a go-between. Please ask
about special arrangements.


Example challenge for grades 10-12:

***************************************

MathMagic Cycle 18: Level 10-12 Regular

***************************************

Using the numbers 1 9 9 2 in a "locked" position, can you develop a 31 day
calendar for the month of October?  You can use addition (+), subtraction
(-), multiplication (*), division (/) exponents (^) factorial (!) square
root (sqrt) and, naturally, parenthesis ( ).

Example: Friday the 13th could be: (1+sqrt(9))!-9-2 (Scary, isn't it?)
            (Notice that the numbers appear in the "locked" sequence)


****************************************

MathMagic Cycle 18: Level 10-12 Advanced

****************************************

What 6 digit number, with 6 different digits, when multiplied by all
integers up to 6, circulates its digits through all 6 possible positions,
as follows:

                        ABCDEF * 1 - ABCDEF
                        ABCDEF * 3 - BCDEFA
                        ABCDEF * 2 - CDEFAB
                        ABCDEF * 6 - DEFABC
                        ABCDEF * 4 - EFABCD
                        ABCDEF * 5 - FABCDE


*********
Good luck
MrH


Example challenges for grades K-3

*************************************

MathMagic Cycle 16: Level K-3 Regular

*************************************

When two straight lines meet, they form an angle. Some angles are easy to
recognize. For instance, a RIGHT ANGLE is any of the four angles formed by
a piece of paper (like typing or computer paper) that has sharp corners.

Using a clock and "talking" with your partners, try to figure out how many
times in a day (24 hours) the hour hand and the minute hand form a right
angle. You may want to do a chart and watch the hour hand move between the
numbers, as you move the minute hand...


**************************************

MathMagic Cycle 16: Level K-3 Advanced

**************************************

One of the better known works of architecture of the Roman Empire was the
Coliseum. For a few months, at it's maximum splendor (before the senate
began cutting its funding... yes, old problem) there stood an Imperial
Roman Guard in each of its 1000 arches. Imagine the splendor! (Not too
cool if you were the entertainment)

The first budget conscious cut called for the removal of every other
Imperial Guard. Imagine, one stayed, the next went. The second senate cut
called for the removal of every third guard (from the original count) So,
the order went out that guards of gate 1 and gate 2 (if there was one)
could stay, while guard of gate 3 (and every other third one) had to go...
Naturally, what the senate was doing was getting rid of some guards, but
also getting the credit for a lot of "cuts" of gates that had no guard.

The "cuts" continued number after number, until a diligent member of the
opposition party cried foul. He said " Only some of the cuts are actually
getting rid of guards. A lot of them are not!" Can you build an argument
for this senator?

Also, if you were a Roman Imperial Guard that every week had to choose a
different gate you had to look after (and run the risk of loosing your
job), which gates would be your choice?

------------------
Good luck MrH



------------------------------------------------------------
Example Four: Various Projects Announced by Global SchoolNet
------------------------------------------------------------

Hi,

Our teachers have been doing K12 projects over the Internet for the past
12 years.

There is NO CHARGE for schools to participate in the projects. Global
SchoolNet organizes, manages, and facilitates collaborative learning
projects for schools with any level of connectivity . . . from email only
. . . to desktop videoconferencing.

To access these projects go to:
 http://gsn.org/gsn/gsn.projects.html

Sample of Projects you will find"
---------------------------------

The Global Schoolhouse (Featuring Desktop Video-Conferencing)

Today's "school of the future" uses the most powerful Internet tools,
including live video, to link K12 classrooms to their communities and to
other children around the world.

CALREN: Building the California Global Schoolhouse

Education leader (Global SchoolNet) partners with business leader (Aldea
Communications) to discover and document how schools, businesses, and the
community can network to share resources.

CyberStars: Number Ones of Tomorrow

For the first time ever, children around the globe can share their musical
talents with the world via the Internet.

PAACE: Personal Achievement And Career Awareness

Students learn and practice important career skills, including those
dealing with education, attitude, manners, grooming, and fashion.

Scientist-on-Tap

Scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory demonstrate the power of
distance learning, by interacting with students around world, from the
comfort of their own offices!

Projects that Require Email Access Only
--------------------------------------

Ask a Geologist (AAG)

Have you ever wondered about why California has so many earthquakes, and
New York does not? Why is there so much oil in Texas, but not in
Wisconsin?  What are the deepest canyons in the United States? (The answer
might surprise you!) While the answers to many of these questions might be
as close as an encyclopedia, some questions are difficult to answer
without checking many sources. Beginning Monday, October 3, 1994, the USGS
will offer a new, experimental Internet service - Ask-A-Geologist.
General questions on earth sciences may be sent by electronic mail

Family Tree-Mail: Language Translation

In this pilot project, children use Globalink's language translation
software to share family histories via email, in their native languages of
Spanish, French, German, and Italian.

Field Trips

Join other classes on their live field trips. In turn, you take other
classes with you when you visit local places of interest. Our FIELDTRIPS-L
mailing list manages this "exchange" of classroom field trips and
excursions.

Geogame

This perennially favorite project will excite your students as they
immerse themselves in atlases, maps, almanacs, and other references in
order to solve a geography puzzle. Your students help create the puzzle by
answering 8 questions about your community: latitude, typical weather,
land formations, time zone, points of interest, etc. We combine their

responses with other classes to create a geography puzzle your students
will love to solve. A simple first project for beginning
telecommunicators.

Global Grocery List

Your students visit their local grocery stores and record the prices of
items on the grocery list, then share their prices with other
participating classes all over the world. The result is a growing table of
current, peer collected data that can be used in math, social studies,
science, and health classes (and others). This project is especially good
for telecomputing beginners:  it has very little structure and no
timeline.

Jane Goodall Institute

Students learn about the interconnectedness of all life on earth as they
observe the world around them and become involved in environmental and
humanitarian issues. Explore Gombe and Kibira National Parks, ChimpanZoo,
and the Roots & Shoots Program.

The Jason Project

The Jason Project brings the thrill of exploration and discovery live to
students around the world as they participate in an amazing electronic
field trip. In 1995 they trekked to Hawaii to study volcanoes. The Global
SchoolNet Foundation manages the Jason Project Listservs and features them
in our Global SCHLnet Newsgroup Service.

LOGO Foundation

The Logo Foundation, in cooperation with the Global SchoolNet Foundation,
is now managing a Logo listserv discussion group available to anybody on
the Internet.

Newsday

Your students write articles and post them on the Newsday Newswire for the
whole world to see! Then they read and choose articles from other schools
to download and include in their own newspaper! Finally... you share your
newspaper with other classes... and they in turn share theirs with you.
Your students' reading and writing skills will improve while they learn
about current local, national, and global issues.

Where on the Globe is Roger?

Children are invited to learn about history, culture, geography, and the
environment, while they electronically travel around the world with Roger
Williams - in his quest to promote world peace!

           <<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>>
Yvonne Marie Andres, Global Schoolhouse/Global SchoolNet Foundation
            7040 Avenida Encinas 104-281, Carlsbad, CA 92009
                     WWWeb     http://gsn.org
Voice (619) 433-3413    FAX (619) 931-5934  email: andresyv@cerf.net
           <<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>><<*>>

--------------------------------------
Example Five: Professional Development
--------------------------------------

       THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND ANNOUNCES "DISASTER IN THE CLASSROOM"
       A *LIVE* TELEVISION PROGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE USES OF REAL-TIME
       WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMAGERY IN K-12 EDUCATION

Beginning in September 1995, Professor Perry Samson, University of Michigan
professor and Director of the Weather Underground, will host an innovative,
biweekly series of live, interactive, television shows aimed at teachers,
administrators, and parents interested in K-12 education, Internet
resources, and the use of real-time weather information in science.  Aimed
specifically at the professional development of teachers, the programs
create a model for teachers to carry back into their classroom, a model
that promotes project-based student centered learning environments using
new technology and science ideas creatively.

The programs, interactive in design, allow participants to ask questions
and respond to information through a simultaneous e-mail dialogue. A
strength in the design of this series is its ability to allow an
interactive discussion of environmental issues (severe weather, snowstorms,
droughts, earthquakes, volcanic activity , El Nino, etc.) in a timely
manner, matching current news items to science activities. The programs in
the virtual classroom series are uplinked to a satellite from the
University of Michigan.  Teachers, administrators, parents or students can
view the class either on their own or in groups.  Participants will be
encouraged to use their computer and modem to log into our server during
the show.  This interactive virtual classroom will allow participants to
pose or answer questions live (or after the show).

Navigation on the Internet and pointers to information specific to the
science curriculum ideas presented on the show are emphasized and made
available to teachers for use in their classrooms.  Participants are shown
where on the Internet to find imagery and activities relevant to the topics
discussed and are lead through a discussion of new methods to utilize these
data in their classroom activities.  Example activities utilizing current
weather, climate and environmental conditions are demonstrated.

If you are interested in participating in this series from your home or
school and would like to receive graduate credit for it, please contact:

        The Weather Underground
        Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences
        University of Michigan
        Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2134

or

        URL:    http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu
        e-mail: blueskies@umich.edu
        Call:   1-800-386-4141

!!!!!!First show is Sept. 18, contact us or look to URL above for more
information soon!!!!!!


APPENDIX B:  WAYS TO GET RFCs

FYI documents such as the one your are reading are a subset of the
Internet Engineering Task Force's RFC documents.

Note that the latest version of the following file may be found on the
World Wide Web at http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc-editor/rfc-info

For more information on Internet Engineering Task Force publications,
visit the RFC Editor's home page on the World Wide Web at
http://www.isi.edu:80/rfc-editor/rfc-sources.html

-----------------------------------------------------------------
RFC-Info Smplified Help
-----------------------

Use RFC-Info by sending email messages to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU.

1.  To get a specific RFC send a message with text as follows:

        Retrieve: RFC
         Doc-ID: RFC1500

This gets RFC 1500.  All RFC numbers in the Doc-Id are 4 digits
(RFC 791 would be Doc-ID: RFC0791).

2.  To get a specific FYI send a message with text as follows:

        Retrieve: FYI
         Doc-ID: FYI0004

3.  To get a list of available RFC's that match a certain criteria:

        LIST: RFC
         Keywords: Gateway

Returns a list of RFC's with the word Gateway in the title or
specified as a keyword.

4.  To get the Index of all RFCs published:

        HELP: rfc_index


5.  To get information about other ways to get RFCs, FYIs, STDs, or
IMRs.

        HELP: ways_to_get_rfcs
        HELP: ways_to_get_fyis
        HELP: ways_to_get_stds
        HELP: ways_to_get_imrs

6.  To get help about using RFC-Info:

        HELP: help

    or

        HELP: topics

-----------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX C:  GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT

The following is a short glossary of terms used in this document. For a
more complete glossary of Internet terms, refer to FYI 18 (RFC XXXX),
"Internet Users' Glossary". These definitions are largely excerpted from
that glossary. (See Section 8, "Suggested Reading", above for complete
reference information.)

   Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)

      Many transit networks have policies which restrict the use to
      which the network may be put. Enforcement of AUPs varies with the
      network.



   Anonymous FTP

      Accessing data via the File Transfer Protocol using the special
      username "anonymous".  This was devised as a method to provide a
      relatively secure way of providing restricted access to public
      data.  Users who wish to acquire data from a public source may use
      FTP to connect to the source, then use the special username
      "anonymous" and their email address as the password to log into a
      public data area.

   Archie
      A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on
      the Internet.  The initial implementation of archie provided an
      indexed directory of filenames from all anonymous FTP archives on
      the Internet.  Later versions provide other collections of
      information.  See also: Gopher, Wide Area Information Server.

   Cracker

      A person who uses computer knowledge to attempt to gain access to
      computer systems and/or maliciously damage those systems or data.

   Dial-in (also dial-up)

      A connection, usually made via modems, between two computers (or
      servers) over standard voice grade telephone lines.

   Download

      To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer.  The
      opposite of upload.

   DSU/CSU (Data Service Unit/Channel Service Unit)

      The digital equivalent of a modem.  A Channel Service Unit
      connects to a telephone company-provided digital data circuit, and
      a Data Service Unit provides the electronics required to connect
      digital equipment to the CSU.  Paired together a DSU/CSU allows
      computer equipment to be connected into the telephone digital
      service for highly conditioned, high speed data communications.

   Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS)

      A computer, and associated software, which typically provides
      electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other
      services or activities of interest to the bulletin board system's
      operator.  Although BBSs have traditionally been the domain of
      hobbyists, an increasing number of BBSs are connected directly to

      the Internet, and many BBSs are currently operated by government,
      educational, and research institutions.

   EMail (Electronic Mail)

      A system whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other
      computer users (or groups of users) via a communications network.

   FidoNet

      A network of computers interconnected using the FIDO dial-up
      protocols.  The FIDO protocol provides a means of "store and
      forward" file transfer similar to UUCP.

   FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

      A protocol which allows a user on one host to access, and transfer
      files to and from, another host over a network.  Also, FTP is
      usually the name of the program the user invokes to execute the
      protocol.

   FYI (For Your Information)

      A subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards or
      descriptions of protocols.  FYIs convey general information about
      topics related to TCP/IP or the Internet.  See also:  RFC (Request
      for Comments).

Gopher
      A distributed information service that makes available
      hierarchical collections of information across the Internet.
      Gopher uses a simple protocol that allows a single Gopher client
      to access information from any accessible Gopher server, providing
      the user with a single "Gopher space" of information.  Public
      domain versions of the client and server are available.  See also:
      archie, archive site, Prospero, Wide Area Information Servers.

   Hacker

      A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the
      internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in
      particular.  The popular media has corrupted this term to give it
      the pejorative connotation of a person who maliciously uses
      computer knowledge to cause damage to computers and data.  The
      proper term for this type of person is "cracker".

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

      The IETF is a large, open community of network designers,
      operators, vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate
      the operation, management and evolution of the Internet, and to
      resolve short-range and mid-range protocol and architectural
      issues.  It is a major source of protocol proposals and standards.

   InterNIC

      A Network Information Center (NIC), funded by the National Science
      foundation, that provides information about the Internet.  The
      InterNIC is a team of three contractors, each of which focuses on
      a particular network support task.  The three tasks are:
      Information Services (the task most often cited in this document),
      Registration Services, and Directory and Database Services.

   Kbs (Kilo-Bits per Second)

      A data transmission rate expressed in 1000 bit per second units.
      For example, 56Kbs is 56*1000-56,000 bits per second.

   LAN (Local Area Network)

      A data network intended to serve an area of only a few square
      kilometers or less.  Since such are networks relatively small they
      can usually be directly controlled by the users and operate at
      relatively high speeds (up to 100Mb/s [10 million bits per
      second]) over inexpensive wiring.

   Leased line

      A leased line is a special phone company permanent connection
      between two locations.  Leased lines are generally used where
      high-speed data (usually 960 characters per second and higher) is
      continually exchanged between two computers (in the Internet,
      generally between routers).  A leased line is billed at the same
      rate per month independent of how much the line is used and can be

      cheaper than using dial modems depending on the usage.  Leased
      lines may also be used where higher data rates are needed beyond
      what a dial modem can provide.

   Listserv (mailing list server)

      An automated program that accepts mail messages from users and
      performs basic operations on mailing lists for those users.  In
      the Internet, listservs are usually accessed as "listname@host";
      for example, the list server for the hypothetical list
      "newsreports@acme.org" would be called "listserv@acme.org".
      Sending email to "newsreports@acme.org" causes the message to be
      sent to all the list subscribers, while sending a message (to
      subscribe or unsubscribe, for example) to "listserv@acme.org"
      sends the message only to the list server.  Not all mailing lists
      use list servers to handle list administration duties.

   Mailing Lists

      A list of email addresses.  Generally, a mailing list is used to
      discuss a certain set of topics, and different mailing lists
      discuss different topics.  A mailing list may be moderated. That
      is, messages sent to the list are actually sent to a moderator who
      determines whether or not to send the messages on to everyone
      else.  Many mailing lists are maintained by mail handling software
      such as listserv, majordomo, or listproc, which are programs that
      automatically handle operations such as adding new people to the
      list.  (See above.)  In the Internet, for those mailing lists
      maintained by a human, rather than by a program, you can generally
      subscribe to a list by sending a mail message to: "listname-
      REQUEST@host" and in the body of the message enter a request to
      subscribe.  To send messages to other subscribers, you will then
      use the address "listname@host".

   Modem (MODulator/DEModulator)

      A device that converts the digital signals used by computers into
      analog signals needed by voice telephone systems.  Modems can be
      "dial" or "leased line" type.  Dial type modems are used on normal
      telephone lines to call remote computers, and usually operate at
      speeds between 120 to 1,920 characters per second.

   Network Access Provider (Network Service Provider)

      Any organization that provides network connectivity or dial-up
      access.  Service providers may be corporations, government
      agencies, universities, or other organizations.

   Network News

Another name for "Usenet News".

   NIC (Network Information Center)

      A central place where information about a network within the
      Internet is maintained.  Usually NICs are staffed by personnel who
      answer user telephone calls and electronic mail, and provide
      general network usage information and referrals, among other
      possible tasks.  Most network service providers also provide a NIC
      for their users.

   Port

      TCP/IP assigns at least one address to a host computer, but
      applications such as FTP must talk to a corresponding server
      application on the host.  The "port" is the way TCP/IP designates
      the remote application.  Most common Internet servers have
      specific port numbers associated with them.  For example, Telnet
      uses port number 23.  These are known as "well known ports" and
      allow application programmers to write standard applications (such
      as Telnet, FTP, etc.) that "know" where the corresponding server
      is on a particular host.

   PPP  (Point to Point Protocol)

      A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
      such as dial-up telephone lines.  Similar to SLIP (see below), PPP
      is a later standard that includes features such as demand dial-up,
      compression, better flow control, etc.


   Protocol

      A formal description of message formats and the rules two
      computers must follow to exchange those messages.  Protocols can
      describe low-level details of machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g.,
      the order in which bits and bytes are sent across a wire) or
      high-level exchanges between allocation programs (e.g., the way in
      which two programs transfer a file across the Internet).

   Protocol Stack

      A series of protocols linked together to provide an end-to-end
      service.  For example, the File Transfer Protocol uses the
      Transmission Control Protocol, which uses the Internet Protocol,
      which may use the Point to Point protocol, to transfer a file from
      one computer to another.  The series FTP->TCP->IP->PPP is called a
      protocol stack.

   RFC (Request for Comments)

      The document series, begun in 1969, which describes the Internet
      suite of protocols and related experiments.  Not all (in fact very
      few) RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards
      are written up as RFCs.  The RFCs include the documentary record
      of the Internet standards process.

   Router

      A computer which forwards traffic between networks.  The
      forwarding decision is based on network layer information and
      routing tables, often constructed by routing protocols.

   SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

      A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
      such as dial-up telephone lines.  Small computers, such as PCs and
      Macintoshes, can use SLIP to dial up to servers, which then allow
      the computer to act as a full Internet node.  SLIP is generally
      used at sites with a few users as a cheaper alternative than a
      full Internet connection.  SLIP is being replaced by PPP at many
      sites.

   TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

      TCP/IP is named for two of the major communications protocols used
      within the Internet (TCP and IP).  These protocols (along with
      several others) provide the basic foundation for communications
      between hosts in the Internet.  All of the service protocols, such
      as FTP, Telnet, Gopher, use TCP/IP to transfer information.

   Telnet

      Telnet is the Internet standard protocol for remote terminal
      connection service.  The name "telnet" also is used to refer to
      programs that allow interactive access to remote computers, as
      well as the action of using said programs.  For example, the
      phrase "Telnet to host xyzzy." means to interactively log into
      host "xyzzy" from some other host in the Internet.

   Upload

      To copy data from a local computer to a remote computer.  The
      opposite of download.

   Usenet News

      An electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix
      community and which is accessible via the Internet.  Usenet News
      forms a discussion forum accessible by millions of users in almost
      every country in the world.  Usenet News consists of thousands of
      topics arranged in a hierarchical form.  Major topics include
      "comp" for computer topics, "rec" for recreational topics, "soc"
      for social topics, "sci" for science topics, etc.  Within the
      major topics are subtopics, such as "rec.music.classical" for
      classical music, or "sci.med.physics" for discussions relating to
      the physics of medical science.

   UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy)

      This was initially a program run under the UNIX operating system
      that allowed one UNIX system to send files to another UNIX system
      via dial-up phone lines.  Today, the term is more commonly used to
      describe the large international network which uses the UUCP
      protocol to pass news and electronic mail.


   Virus

      A program which replicates itself on computer systems by
      incorporating itself into other programs which are shared among
      computer systems.

   WAIS (Wide Area Information Server)

      A distributed information service which offers simple natural
      language input, indexed searching for fast retrieval, and a
      "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial
      searches to influence future searches.  Public domain
      implementations are available.

   WWW (World Wide Web)

      A hypertext-based, distributed information system created by
      researchers at CERN in Switzerland.  Users may create, edit or
      browse hypertext documents.  The clients and servers are freely
      available.  The WWW servers are interconnected to allow a user to
      traverse the Web from any starting point; in addition, many other
      servers such as WAIS and Gopher have been incorporated into the
      WWW servers.


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.127, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/