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Versions: (draft-howard-gss-sanon) 00 01

Network Working Group                                          L. Howard
Internet-Draft                                                      PADL
Intended status: Standards Track                             May 5, 2020
Expires: November 6, 2020


                  A Simple Anonymous GSS-API Mechanism
                     draft-ietf-kitten-gss-sanon-00

Abstract

   This document defines protocols, procedures and conventions for a
   Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API)
   security mechanism that provides key agreement without authentication
   of either party.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 6, 2020.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Discovery and Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Naming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.1.  Mechanism Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.2.  Display Name Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.3.  Exported Name Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   5.  Definitions and Token Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.1.  Context Establishment Tokens  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.1.1.  Initial context token . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.1.2.  Acceptor context token  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.1.3.  Initiator context completion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.2.  Per-Message Tokens  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.3.  Context Deletion Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Key derivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Pseudo-Random Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Appendix A.  Test Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Appendix B.  Mechanism Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Appendix C.  NegoEx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   The Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API)
   [RFC2743] provides a framework for authentication and message
   protection services through a common programming interface.

   The Simple Anonymous mechanism (hereafter SAnon) described in this
   document is a simple protocol based on the X25519 elliptic curve
   Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key agreement scheme defined in [RFC7748].  No
   authentication of initiator or acceptor is provided.  A potential use
   of SAnon is to provide a degree of privacy when bootstrapping unkeyed
   entities.

2.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].





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3.  Discovery and Negotiation

   The SAnon mechanism is identified by the following OID:

       sanon-x25519 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
           {iso(1)identified-organization(3)dod(6)internet(1)
            private(4)enterprise(1)padl(5322)gss-sanon(26)
            mechanisms(1)sanon-x25519(110)}

   The means of discovering GSS-API peers and their supported mechanisms
   is out of this specification's scope.  To avoid multiple layers of
   negotiation, SAnon is not crypto-agile; a future variant using a
   different algorithm would be assigned a different OID.

   If anonymity is not desired then SAnon MUST NOT be used.  Either
   party can test for anon_state (GSS_C_ANON_FLAG) to check if anonymous
   authentication was performed.

4.  Naming

4.1.  Mechanism Names

   A SAnon mechanism name is abstractly a boolean indicating whether it
   represents an anonymous identity.  Anonymous identities are names
   imported with the GSS_C_NT_ANONYMOUS name type.  Implementations MAY
   map other names to anonymous identities according to local policy.
   Names representing non-anonymous identities MUST be importable so
   that initiators with non-default credentials can engage SAnon by
   setting anon_req_flag (GSS_C_ANON_FLAG).

4.2.  Display Name Format

   When GSS_Display_name() is called on a mechanism name representing an
   anonymous identity, the display string is WELLKNOWN/
   ANONYMOUS@WELLKNOWN:ANONYMOUS [RFC8062] and the name type is
   GSS_C_NT_ANONYMOUS.  This is always the name observed by a SAnon
   peer.  All context APIs that return peer names MUST return this name
   for both parties if the context is established.

4.3.  Exported Name Format

   SAnon uses the mechanism-independent exported name object format
   defined in [RFC2743] Section 3.2.  All lengths are encoded as big-
   endian integers.  The export of non-anonymous mechanism names MUST
   fail with GSS_S_BAD_NAME.






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     +--------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
     | Length       | Name         | Description                     |
     +--------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
     | 2            | TOK_ID       | 04 01                           |
     |              |              |                                 |
     | 2            | MECH_OID_LEN | Length of the mechanism OID     |
     |              |              |                                 |
     | MECH_OID_LEN | MECH_OID     | The SAnon mechanism OID, in DER |
     |              |              |                                 |
     | 4            | NAME_LEN     | 00 00 00 01                     |
     |              |              |                                 |
     | 1            | NAME         | 01                              |
     +--------------+--------------+---------------------------------+

5.  Definitions and Token Formats

5.1.  Context Establishment Tokens

5.1.1.  Initial context token

   The initial context token is framed per Section 1 of [RFC2743]:

   GSS-API DEFINITIONS ::=
       BEGIN

       MechType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER -- 1.3.6.1.4.1.5322.26.1.110
       GSSAPI-Token ::=
       [APPLICATION 0] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
            thisMech MechType,
            innerToken ANY DEFINED BY thisMech
                -- 32 byte initiator public key
                -- 8 byte protocol flags (optional)
       }
       END

   On the first call to GSS_Init_sec_context(), the mechanism checks if
   one or more of the following are true:

      The caller set anon_req_flag (GSS_C_ANON_FLAG)

      The claimant credential identity is anonymous (see Section 4.1)

      The claimant credential is the default one and target identity is
      anonymous

   If none of these are the case, the call MUST fail with
   GSS_S_UNAVAILABLE.




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   If proceeding, the initiator generates a fresh secret and public key
   pair per [RFC7748] Section 6.1 and returns GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED,
   indicating that a subsequent context token from the acceptor is
   expected.  The innerToken field of the output_token contains the
   initiator's 32 byte public key, optionally concatenated with a 64-bit
   big-endian integer containing flags that are not optional and the
   acceptor would be otherwise be unable to infer (such as those defined
   in [RFC4757] Section 7.1).

   Portable initiators are RECOMMENDED to use default credentials
   whenever possible and request anonymity only through anon_req_flag
   (see [RFC8062] Section 6).

5.1.2.  Acceptor context token

   Upon receiving a context token from the initiator, the acceptor
   validates that the token is well formed.  The acceptor generates a
   fresh secret and public key pair.  The context session key is
   computed as specified in Section 6.

   The acceptor constructs an output_token by concatenating its public
   key with the token emitted by calling GSS_GetMIC() with the default
   QOP and zero-length octet string.  The output token is sent to the
   initiator without additional framing.

   The acceptor then returns GSS_S_COMPLETE, setting src_name to the
   canonical anonymous name.  The reply_det_state (GSS_C_REPLAY_FLAG),
   sequence_state (GSS_C_SEQUENCE_FLAG), conf_avail (GSS_C_CONF_FLAG),
   integ_avail (GSS_C_INTEG_FLAG) and anon_state (GSS_C_ANON_FLAG)
   security context flags are set, along with any additional flags
   received from the initiator that are supported by the acceptor.  The
   context is ready to use.

5.1.3.  Initiator context completion

   Upon receiving the acceptor context token and verifying it is well
   formed, the initiator extracts the acceptor's public key (being the
   first 32 bytes of the input token) and computes the context session
   key per Section 6.

   The initiator calls GSS_VerifyMIC() with the MIC extracted from the
   context token and the zero-length octet string.  If successful, the
   initiator returns GSS_S_COMPLETE to the caller, to indicate the
   initiator is authenticated and the context is ready for use.  No
   output token is emitted.  The security context flags are set as for
   the acceptor, including any additional flags sent in the initial
   context token.




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5.2.  Per-Message Tokens

   The per-message tokens definitions are imported from [RFC4121]
   Section 4.2.  The base key used to derive specific keys for signing
   and sealing messages is defined in Section 6.  The [RFC3961]
   encryption and checksum algorithms use the aes128-cts-hmac-sha256-128
   encryption type defined in [RFC8009].  The AcceptorSubkey flag as
   defined in [RFC4121] Section 4.2.2 MUST be set.

5.3.  Context Deletion Tokens

   Context deletion tokens are empty in this mechanism.  The behavior of
   GSS_Delete_sec_context() [RFC2743] is as specified in [RFC4121]
   Section 4.3.

6.  Key derivation

   The context session key is known as the base key, and is computed
   using a key derivation function from [SP800-108] Section 5.1 (using
   HMAC as the PRF):

       base key = HMAC-SHA-256(K1, i | label | 0x00 | context | L)

   where:

   K1            the output of X25519(local secret key, peer public key)
                 as specified in [RFC7748] Section 6.1

   i             the constant 0x00000001, representing the iteration
                 count expressed in big-endian binary representation of
                 4 bytes

   label         the string "sanon-x25519" (without quotation marks)

   context       initiator public key | acceptor public key | flags |
                 channel binding application data (if present)

   L             the constant 0x00000080, being length in bits of the
                 key to be outputted expressed in big-endian binary
                 representation of 4 bytes

   The flags input to the context contains any flags sent by the
   initiator, defaulting to zero if none were sent, expressed in big-
   endian binary representation of 8 bytes.

   The inclusion of channel bindings in the key derivation function
   means that the acceptor cannot ignore initiator channel bindings;
   this differs from some other mechanisms.  Being the only variable



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   length input to the key derivation function, the length is not
   included.

   The base key provides the acceptor-asserted subkey defined in
   [RFC4121] Section 2 and is used to generate keys for per-message
   tokens and the GSS-API PRF.  Its encryption type is aes128-cts-hmac-
   sha256-128 per [RFC8009].  The [RFC3961] algorithm protocol
   parameters are as given in [RFC8009] Section 5.

7.  Pseudo-Random Function

   The [RFC4401] GSS-API pseudo-random function for this mechanism
   imports the definitions from [RFC8009], using the base key for both
   GSS_C_PRF_KEY_FULL and GSS_C_PRF_KEY_PARTIAL usages.

8.  Security Considerations

   This document defines a GSS-API security mechanism, and therefore
   deals in security and has security considerations text embedded
   throughout.  This section only addresses security considerations
   associated with the SAnon mechanism described in this document.  It
   does not address security considerations associated with the GSS-API
   itself.

   This mechanism provides only for key agreement.  It does not
   authenticate the identity of either party.  It MUST NOT be selected
   if either party requires identification of its peer.

   SAnon mechanism names are not unary: there may be many real
   identities that map to either the anonymous or non-anonymous
   mechanism name.  As such, implementations MUST ensure that
   GSS_Compare_name() always sets name_equal to FALSE when comparing
   mechanism names.

9.  Acknowledgements

   AuriStor, Inc funded the design of this protocol, along with an
   implementation for the Heimdal GSS-API library.

   Jeffrey Altman, Greg Hudson, Simon Josefsson, and Nicolas Williams
   provided valuable feedback on this document.

10.  References








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10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2743]  Linn, J., "Generic Security Service Application Program
              Interface Version 2, Update 1", RFC 2743,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2743, January 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2743>.

   [RFC3961]  Raeburn, K., "Encryption and Checksum Specifications for
              Kerberos 5", RFC 3961, DOI 10.17487/RFC3961, February
              2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3961>.

   [RFC4121]  Zhu, L., Jaganathan, K., and S. Hartman, "The Kerberos
              Version 5 Generic Security Service Application Program
              Interface (GSS-API) Mechanism: Version 2", RFC 4121,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4121, July 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4121>.

   [RFC4401]  Williams, N., "A Pseudo-Random Function (PRF) API
              Extension for the Generic Security Service Application
              Program Interface (GSS-API)", RFC 4401,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4401, February 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4401>.

   [RFC7748]  Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves
              for Security", RFC 7748, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748, January
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748>.

   [RFC8009]  Jenkins, M., Peck, M., and K. Burgin, "AES Encryption with
              HMAC-SHA2 for Kerberos 5", RFC 8009, DOI 10.17487/RFC8009,
              October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8009>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.zhu-negoex]
              Short, M., Zhu, L., Damour, K., and D. McPherson, "SPNEGO
              Extended Negotiation (NEGOEX) Security Mechanism", draft-
              zhu-negoex-04 (work in progress), January 2011.

   [RFC4178]  Zhu, L., Leach, P., Jaganathan, K., and W. Ingersoll, "The
              Simple and Protected Generic Security Service Application
              Program Interface (GSS-API) Negotiation Mechanism",
              RFC 4178, DOI 10.17487/RFC4178, October 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4178>.



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   [RFC4757]  Jaganathan, K., Zhu, L., and J. Brezak, "The RC4-HMAC
              Kerberos Encryption Types Used by Microsoft Windows",
              RFC 4757, DOI 10.17487/RFC4757, December 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4757>.

   [RFC5587]  Williams, N., "Extended Generic Security Service Mechanism
              Inquiry APIs", RFC 5587, DOI 10.17487/RFC5587, July 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5587>.

   [RFC8062]  Zhu, L., Leach, P., Hartman, S., and S. Emery, Ed.,
              "Anonymity Support for Kerberos", RFC 8062,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8062, February 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8062>.

   [SP800-108]
              Chen, L., "Recommendation for Key Derivation Using
              Pseudorandom Functions (Revised)", October 2009.

Appendix A.  Test Vectors

   The example exchange below contains no additional flags or channel
   binding information.

   initiator secret key  83 33 f2 ea 2a 22 eb aa 05 39 c6 06 1d 6a 99 05
                         84 24 49 9e 2c 16 c1 b1 34 d9 22 27 f3 f4 5e bd

   initiator public key  5f 40 66 22 5a 3c fd 72 57 23 c1 8f ae 71 3e 8c
                         ab 32 a7 2c 93 b9 76 66 04 4b 8f e4 a0 c9 69 19

   initiator token       60 2c 06 0a 2b 06 01 04 01 a9 4a 1a 01 6e 5f 40
                         66 22 5a 3c fd 72 57 23 c1 8f ae 71 3e 8c ab 32
                         a7 2c 93 b9 76 66 04 4b 8f e4 a0 c9 69 19

   acceptor secret key   b0 db 16 32 39 0a dd 93 1e f7 62 bc d3 c9 1d 03
                         e8 d9 59 52 48 eb e2 f2 b5 f7 d8 06 ec dd 50 60

   acceptor public key   2f 81 51 9f a8 9c 07 f8 eb b2 95 6c 0c c3 22 77
                         ae a1 0e 62 0c 79 33 81 ef 9a c5 b2 f0 d9 1e 06

   base key              80 76 2c 43 32 6a 95 f5 be 30 6d ea 10 ba f3 d0

   acceptor token        2f 81 51 9f a8 9c 07 f8 eb b2 95 6c 0c c3 22 77
                         ae a1 0e 62 0c 79 33 81 ef 9a c5 b2 f0 d9 1e 06
                         04 04 05 ff ff ff ff ff 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
                         4d 5e a9 e0 e1 9c 7a 61 c2 6a 9a c5 e8 17 5f 04

   initiator negoex key  2a c8 f9 d0 31 87 40 42 cb d4 50 07 ce db c2 c2




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   acceptor negoex key   73 9f 4d a2 f1 2d f7 f7 d7 ea e4 9d a4 08 62 5b

Appendix B.  Mechanism Attributes

   The [RFC5587] mechanism attributes for this mechanism are:

      GSS_C_MA_MECH_CONCRETE

      GSS_C_MA_ITOK_FRAMED

      GSS_C_MA_AUTH_INIT_ANON

      GSS_C_MA_AUTH_TARG_ANON

      GSS_C_MA_INTEG_PROT

      GSS_C_MA_CONF_PROT

      GSS_C_MA_MIC

      GSS_C_MA_WRAP

      GSS_C_MA_REPLAY_DET

      GSS_C_MA_OOS_DET

      GSS_C_MA_CBINDINGS

      GSS_C_MA_PFS

      GSS_C_MA_CTX_TRANS

Appendix C.  NegoEx

   When SAnon is negotiated by [I-D.zhu-negoex], the authentication
   scheme identifier is DEE384FF-1086-4E86-BE78-B94170BFD376.

   The initiator and acceptor keys for NegoEx checksum generation and
   verification are derived using the GSS-API PRF (see Section 7), with
   the input data "sanon-x25519-initiator-negoex-key" and "sanon-x25519-
   acceptor-negoex-key" respectively (without quotation marks).  No
   metadata is defined and any, if present, SHOULD be ignored.

   It is RECOMMENDED that GSS-API implementations supporting both SPNEGO
   [RFC4178] and NegoEx advertise SAnon under both to maximise
   interoperability.





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Author's Address

   Luke Howard
   PADL Software Pty Ltd
   PO Box 59
   Central Park, VIC  3145
   Australia

   Email: lukeh@padl.com










































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