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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 RFC 3561

Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Working Group                Charles E. Perkins
INTERNET DRAFT                                     Nokia Research Center
17 February 2003                              Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer
                                 University of California, Santa Barbara
                                                            Samir R. Das
                                                University of Cincinnati

            Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing
                      draft-ietf-manet-aodv-13.txt




Status of This Memo

   This document is a submission by the Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Working
   Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).  Comments should
   be submitted to the manet@ietf.org mailing list.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at
   any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at:
        http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at:
        http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


Abstract

   The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol
   is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network.  It
   offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing
   and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines
   unicast routes to destinations within the ad hoc network.  It uses
   destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times
   (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages),
   avoiding problems (such as ``counting to infinity'') associated with
   classical distance vector protocols.






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                                Contents


Status of This Memo                                                    i

Abstract                                                               i

 1. Introduction                                                       1

 2. Overview                                                           1

 3. AODV Terminology                                                   3

 4. Applicability Statement                                            5

 5. Message Formats                                                    5
     5.1. Route Request (RREQ) Message Format . . . . . . . . . . .    5
     5.2. Route Reply (RREP) Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . .    7
     5.3. Route Error (RERR) Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . .    8
     5.4. Route Reply Acknowledgment (RREP-ACK) Message Format  . .    9

 6. AODV Operation                                                     9
     6.1. Maintaining Sequence Numbers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10
     6.2. Route Table Entries and Precursor Lists . . . . . . . . .   11
     6.3. Generating Route Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   12
     6.4. Controlling Dissemination of Route Request Messages . . .   13
     6.5. Processing and Forwarding Route Requests  . . . . . . . .   14
     6.6. Generating Route Replies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   16
           6.6.1. Route Reply Generation by the Destination . . . .   16
           6.6.2. Route Reply Generation by an Intermediate Node  .   17
           6.6.3. Generating Gratuitous RREPs . . . . . . . . . . .   17
     6.7. Receiving and Forwarding Route Replies  . . . . . . . . .   18
     6.8. Operation over Unidirectional Links . . . . . . . . . . .   19
     6.9. Hello Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   20
    6.10. Maintaining Local Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21
    6.11. Route Error (RERR) Messages, Route Expiry and Route
             Deletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22
    6.12. Local Repair  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   23
    6.13. Actions After Reboot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   25
    6.14. Interfaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   26

 7. AODV and Aggregated Networks                                      26

 8. Using AODV with Other Networks                                    27

 9. Extensions                                                        28
     9.1. Hello Interval Extension Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .   28



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10. Configuration Parameters                                          29

11. Security Considerations                                           31

12. IANA Considerations                                               32

13. IPv6 Considerations                                               32

14. Acknowledgments                                                   32

 A. Draft Modifications                                               34


1. Introduction

   The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) algorithm enables
   dynamic, self-starting, multihop routing between participating mobile
   nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad hoc network.  AODV
   allows mobile nodes to obtain routes quickly for new destinations,
   and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that
   are not in active communication.  AODV allows mobile nodes to respond
   to link breakages and changes in network topology in a timely manner.
   The operation of AODV is loop-free, and by avoiding the Bellman-Ford
   ``counting to infinity'' problem offers quick convergence when the
   ad hoc network topology changes (typically, when a node moves in the
   network).  When links break, AODV causes the affected set of nodes to
   be notified so that they are able to invalidate the routes using the
   lost link.

   One distinguishing feature of AODV is its use of a destination
   sequence number for each route entry.  The destination sequence
   number is created by the destination to be included along with any
   route information it sends to requesting nodes.  Using destination
   sequence numbers ensures loop freedom and is simple to program.
   Given the choice between two routes to a destination, a requesting
   node is required to select the one with the greatest sequence number.


2. Overview

   Route Requests (RREQs), Route Replies (RREPs), and Route Errors
   (RERRs) are the message types defined by AODV. These message types
   are received via UDP, and normal IP header processing applies.
   So, for instance, the requesting node is expected to use its IP
   address as the Originator IP address for the messages.  For broadcast
   messages, the IP limited broadcast address (255.255.255.255) is used.
   This means that such messages are not blindly forwarded.  However,
   AODV operation does require certain messages (e.g., RREQ) to be
   disseminated widely, perhaps throughout the ad hoc network.  The



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   range of dissemination of such RREQs is indicated by the TTL in the
   IP header.  Fragmentation is typically not required.

   As long as the endpoints of a communication connection have valid
   routes to each other, AODV does not play any role.  When a route to a
   new destination is needed, the node broadcasts a RREQ to find a route
   to the destination.  A route can be determined when the RREQ reaches
   either the destination itself, or an intermediate node with a 'fresh
   enough' route to the destination.  A 'fresh enough' route is a valid
   route entry for the destination whose associated sequence number is
   at least as great as that contained in the RREQ. The route is made
   available by unicasting a RREP back to the origination of the RREQ.
   Each node receiving the request caches a route back to the originator
   of the request, so that the RREP can be unicast from the destination
   along a path to that originator, or likewise from any intermediate
   node that is able to satisfy the request.

   Nodes monitor the link status of next hops in active routes.  When a
   link break in an active route is detected, a RERR message is used to
   notify other nodes that the loss of that link has occurred.  The RERR
   message indicates those destinations (possibly subnets) which are no
   longer reachable by way of the broken link.  In order to enable this
   reporting mechanism, each node keeps a ``precursor list'', containing
   the IP address for each its neighbors that are likely to use it as a
   next hop towards each destination.  The information in the precursor
   lists is most easily acquired during the processing for generation
   of a RREP message, which by definition has to be sent to a node in a
   precursor list (see section 6.6).  If the RREP has a nonzero prefix
   length, then the originator of the RREQ which solicited the RREP
   information is included among the precursors for the subnet route
   (not specifically for the particular destination).

   A RREQ may also be received for a multicast IP address.  In this
   document, full processing for such messages is not specified.  For
   example, the originator of such a RREQ for a multicast IP address
   may have to follow special rules.  However, it is important to
   enable correct multicast operation by intermediate nodes that are
   not enabled as originating or destination nodes for IP multicast
   addresses, and likewise are not equipped for any special multicast
   protocol processing.  For such multicast-unaware nodes, processing
   for a multicast IP address as a destination IP address MUST be
   carried out in the same way as for any other destination IP address.

   AODV is a routing protocol, and it deals with route table
   management.  Route table information must be kept even
   for short-lived routes, such as are created to temporarily
   store reverse paths towards nodes originating RREQs.  AODV





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   uses the following fields with each route table entry:

       -  Destination IP Address
       -  Destination Sequence Number
       -  Valid Destination Sequence Number flag
       -
       -  Other state and routing flags (e.g., valid, invalid, repairable,
          being repaired)
       -  Network Interface
       -  Hop Count (number of hops needed to reach destination)
       -  Next Hop
       -  List of Precursors (described in Section 6.2)
       -  Lifetime (expiration or deletion time of the route)

   Managing the sequence number is crucial to avoiding routing loops,
   even when links break and a node is no longer reachable to supply
   its own information about its sequence number.  A destination
   becomes unreachable when a link breaks or is deactivated.  When these
   conditions occur, the route is invalidated by operations involving
   the sequence number and marking the route table entry state as
   invalid.  See section 6.1 for details.


3. AODV Terminology

   This protocol specification uses conventional meanings [1] for
   capitalized words such as MUST, SHOULD, etc., to indicate requirement
   levels for various protocol features.  This section defines other
   terminology used with AODV that is not already defined in [3].

      active route

         A route towards a destination that has a routing table entry
         that is marked as valid.  Only active routes can be used to
         forward data packets.

      broadcast

         Broadcasting means transmitting to the IP Limited Broadcast
         address, 255.255.255.255.  A broadcast packet may not be
         blindly forwarded, but broadcasting is useful to enable
         dissemination of AODV messages throughout the ad hoc network.

      destination

         An IP address to which data packets are to be transmitted.
         Same as "destination node".  A node knows it is the destination
         node for a typical data packet when its address appears in the
         appropriate field of the IP header.  Routes for destination



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         nodes are supplied by action of the AODV protocol, which
         carries the IP address of the desired destination node in route
         discovery messages.

      forwarding node

         A node that agrees to forward packets destined for another
         node, by retransmitting them to a next hop that is closer to
         the unicast destination along a path that has been set up using
         routing control messages.

      forward route

         A route set up to send data packets from a node originating a
         Route Discovery operation towards its desired destination.

      invalid route

         A route that has expired, denoted by a state of invalid in
         the routing table entry.  An invalid route is used to store
         previously valid route information for an extended period of
         time.  An invalid route cannot be used to forward data packets,
         but it can provide information useful for route repairs, and
         also for future RREQ messages.

      originating node

         A node that initiates an AODV route discovery message to be
         processed and possibly retransmitted by other nodes in the
         ad hoc network.  For instance, the node initiating a Route
         Discovery process and broadcasting the RREQ message is called
         the originating node of the RREQ message.

      reverse route

         A route set up to forward a reply (RREP) packet back to the
         originator from the destination or from an intermediate node
         having a route to the destination.

      sequence number

         A monotonically increasing number maintained by each
         originating node.  In AODV routing protocol messages, it
         is used by other nodes to determine the freshness of the
         information contained from the originating node.

      valid route

         See active route.



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4. Applicability Statement

   The AODV routing protocol is designed for mobile ad hoc networks
   with populations of tens to thousands of mobile nodes.  AODV can
   handle low, moderate, and relatively high mobility rates, as well
   as a variety of data traffic levels.  AODV is designed for use in
   networks where the nodes can all trust each other, either by use
   of preconfigured keys, or because it is known that there are no
   malicious intruder nodes.  AODV has been designed to reduce the
   dissemination of control traffic and eliminate overhead on data
   traffic, in order to improve scalability and performance.


5. Message Formats

5.1. Route Request (RREQ) Message Format

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |J|R|G|D|U|   Reserved          |   Hop Count   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            RREQ ID                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Destination IP Address                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Destination Sequence Number                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator IP Address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Originator Sequence Number                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The format of the Route Request message is illustrated above, and
   contains the following fields:

      Type           1

      J              Join flag; reserved for multicast.

      R              Repair flag; reserved for multicast.

      G              Gratuitous RREP flag; indicates whether a
                     gratuitous RREP should be unicast to the node
                     specified in the Destination IP Address field (see
                     sections 6.3, 6.6.3)






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      D              Destination only flag; indicates only the
                     destination may respond to this RREQ (see
                     section 6.5).

      U              Unknown sequence number; indicates the destination
                     sequence number is unknown (see section 6.3).

      Reserved       Sent as 0; ignored on reception.

      Hop Count      The number of hops from the Originator IP Address
                     to the node handling the request.

      RREQ ID        A sequence number uniquely identifying the
                     particular RREQ when taken in conjunction with the
                     originating node's IP address.

      Destination IP Address
                     The IP address of the destination for which a route
                     is desired.

      Destination Sequence Number
                     The latest sequence number received in the past
                     by the originator for any route towards the
                     destination.

      Originator IP Address
                     The IP address of the node which originated the
                     Route Request.

      Originator Sequence Number
                     The current sequence number to be used in the route
                     entry pointing towards the originator of the route
                     request.



















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5.2. Route Reply (RREP) Message Format

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |R|A|    Reserved     |Prefix Sz|   Hop Count   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Destination IP address                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Destination Sequence Number                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Originator IP address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Lifetime                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The format of the Route Reply message is illustrated above, and
   contains the following fields:

      Type          2

      R             Repair flag; used for multicast.

      A             Acknowledgment required; see sections 5.4 and 6.7.

      Reserved      Sent as 0; ignored on reception.

      Prefix Size   If nonzero, the 5-bit Prefix Size specifies that the
                    indicated next hop may be used for any nodes with
                    the same routing prefix (as defined by the Prefix
                    Size) as the requested destination.

      Hop Count     The number of hops from the Originator IP Address
                    to the Destination IP Address.  For multicast route
                    requests this indicates the number of hops to the
                    multicast tree member sending the RREP.

      Destination IP Address
                    The IP address of the destination for which a route
                    is supplied.

      Destination Sequence Number
                    The destination sequence number associated to the
                    route.

      Originator IP Address
                    The IP address of the node which originated the RREQ
                    for which the route is supplied.




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      Lifetime      The time in milliseconds for which nodes receiving
                    the RREP consider the route to be valid.

   Note that the Prefix Size allows a subnet router to supply a route
   for every host in the subnet defined by the routing prefix, which
   is determined by the IP address of the subnet router and the Prefix
   Size.  In order to make use of this feature, the subnet router has
   to guarantee reachability to all the hosts sharing the indicated
   subnet prefix.  See section 7 for details.  When the prefix size is
   nonzero, any routing information (and precursor data) MUST be kept
   with respect to the subnet route, not the individual destination IP
   address on that subnet.

   The 'A' bit is used when the link over which the RREP message is sent
   may be unreliable or unidirectional.  When the RREP message contains
   the 'A' bit set, the receiver of the RREP is expected to return a
   RREP-ACK message.  See section 6.8.


5.3. Route Error (RERR) Message Format

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |N|          Reserved           |   DestCount   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Unreachable Destination IP Address (1)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Unreachable Destination Sequence Number (1)           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-|
   |  Additional Unreachable Destination IP Addresses (if needed)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Additional Unreachable Destination Sequence Numbers (if needed)|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   The format of the Route Error message is illustrated above, and
   contains the following fields:

      Type        3

      N           No delete flag; set when a node has performed a local
                  repair of a link, and upstream nodes should not delete
                  the route.

      Reserved    Sent as 0; ignored on reception.

      DestCount   The number of unreachable destinations included in the
                  message; MUST be at least 1.



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      Unreachable Destination IP Address
                  The IP address of the destination that has become
                  unreachable due to a link break.

      Unreachable Destination Sequence Number
                  The sequence number in the route table entry for
                  the destination listed in the previous Unreachable
                  Destination IP Address field.

   The RERR message is sent whenever a link break causes one or more
   destinations to become unreachable from some of the node's neighbors.
   See section 6.2 for information about how to maintain the appropriate
   records for this determination, and section 6.11 for specification
   about how to create the list of destinations.


5.4. Route Reply Acknowledgment (RREP-ACK) Message Format

   The Route Reply Acknowledgment (RREP-ACK) message MUST be sent in
   response to a RREP message with the 'A' bit set (see section 5.2).
   This is typically done when there is danger of unidirectional
   links preventing the completion of a Route Discovery cycle (see
   section 6.8).

    0                   1
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |   Reserved    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Type        4

      Reserved    Sent as 0; ignored on reception.


6. AODV Operation

   This section describes the scenarios under which nodes generate Route
   Request (RREQ), Route Reply (RREP) and Route Error (RERR) messages
   for unicast communication towards a destination, and how the message
   data are handled.  In order to process the messages correctly,
   certain state information has to be maintained in the route table
   entries for the destinations of interest.

   All AODV messages are sent to port 654 using UDP.






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6.1. Maintaining Sequence Numbers

   Every route table entry at every node MUST include the latest
   information available about the sequence number for the IP address of
   the destination node for which the route table entry is maintained.
   This sequence number is called the "destination sequence number".  It
   is updated whenever a node receives new (i.e., not stale) information
   about the sequence number from RREQ, RREP, or RERR messages that
   may be received related to that destination.  AODV depends on each
   node in the network to own and maintain its destination sequence
   number to guarantee the loop-freedom of all routes towards that
   node.  A destination node increments its own sequence number in two
   circumstances:

    -  Immediately before a node originates a route discovery, it MUST
       increment its own sequence number.  This prevents conflicts with
       previously established reverse routes towards the originator of a
       RREQ.
    -  Immediately before a destination node originates a RREP in
       response to a RREQ, it MUST update its own sequence number to
       the maximum of its current sequence number and the destination
       sequence number in the RREQ packet.

   When the destination increments its sequence number, it MUST do so
   by treating the sequence number value as if it were an unsigned
   number.  To accomplish sequence number rollover, if the sequence
   number has already been assigned to be the largest possible number
   representable as a 32-bit unsigned integer (i.e., 4294967295), then
   when it is incremented it will then have a value of zero (0).  On
   the other hand, if the sequence number currently has the value
   2147483647, which is the largest possible positive integer if 2's
   complement arithmetic is in use with 32-bit integers, the next value
   will be 2147483648, which is the most negative possible integer in
   the same numbering system.  The representation of negative numbers
   is not relevant to the increment of AODV sequence numbers.  This is
   in contrast to the manner in which the result of comparing two AODV
   sequence numbers is to be treated (see below).

   In order to ascertain that information about a destination is not
   stale, the node compares its current numerical value for the sequence
   number with that obtained from the incoming AODV message.  This
   comparison MUST be done using signed 32-bit arithmetic, this is
   necessary to accomplish sequence number rollover.  If the result of
   subtracting the currently stored sequence number from the value of
   the incoming sequence number is less than zero, then the information
   related to that destination in the AODV message MUST be discarded,
   since that information is stale compared to the node's currently
   stored information.




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   The only other circumstance in which a node may change the
   destination sequence number in one of its route table entries is
   in response to a lost or expired link to the next hop towards that
   destination.  The node determines which destinations use a particular
   next hop by consulting its routing table.  In this case, for each
   destination that uses the next hop, the node increments the sequence
   number and marks the route as invalid (see also sections 6.11, 6.12).
   Whenever any fresh enough (i.e., containing a sequence number at
   least equal to the recorded sequence number) routing information for
   an affected destination is received by a node that has marked that
   route table entry as invalid, the node SHOULD update its route table
   information according to the information contained in the update.

   A node may change the sequence number in the routing table entry of a
   destination only if:

    -  it is itself the destination node, and offers a new route to
       itself, or

    -  it receives an AODV message with new information about the
       sequence number for a destination node, or

    -  the path towards the destination node expires or breaks.


6.2. Route Table Entries and Precursor Lists

   When a node receives an AODV control packet from a neighbor, or
   creates or updates a route for a particular destination or subnet,
   it checks its route table for an entry for the destination.  In the
   event that there is no corresponding entry for that destination, an
   entry is created.  The sequence number is either determined from
   the information contained in the control packet, or else the valid
   sequence number field is set to false.  The route is only updated if
   the new sequence number is either

      (i)       higher than the destination sequence number in the route
                table, or

      (ii)      the sequence numbers are equal, but the hop count (of
                the new information) plus one, is smaller than the
                existing hop count in the routing table, or

      (iii)     the sequence number is unknown.

   The Lifetime field of the routing table entry is either
   determined from the control packet, or it is initialized to
   ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT. This route may now be used to send any queued
   data packets and fulfills any outstanding route requests.



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   Each time a route is used to forward a data packet, its Active
   Route Lifetime field of the source, destination and the next hop
   on the path to the destination is updated to be no less than the
   current time plus ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT. Since the route between
   each originator and destination pair is expected to be symmetric,
   the Active Route Lifetime for the previous hop, along the reverse
   path back to the IP source, is also updated to be no less than the
   current time plus ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT. The lifetime for an Active
   Route is updated each time the route is used regardless of whether
   the destination is a single node or a subnet.

   For each valid route maintained by a node as a routing table entry,
   the node also maintains a list of precursors that may be forwarding
   packets on this route.  These precursors will receive notifications
   from the node in the event of detection of the loss of the next hop
   link.  The list of precursors in a routing table entry contains those
   neighboring nodes to which a route reply was generated or forwarded.


6.3. Generating Route Requests

   A node disseminates a RREQ when it determines that it needs a route
   to a destination and does not have one available.  This can happen if
   the destination is previously unknown to the node, or if a previously
   valid route to the destination expires or is marked as invalid.  The
   Destination Sequence Number field in the RREQ message is the last
   known destination sequence number for this destination and is copied
   from the Destination Sequence Number field in the routing table.  If
   no sequence number is known, the unknown sequence number flag MUST
   be set.  The Originator Sequence Number in the RREQ message is the
   node's own sequence number, which is incremented prior to insertion
   in a RREQ. The RREQ ID field is incremented by one from the last RREQ
   ID used by the current node.  Each node maintains only one RREQ ID.
   The Hop Count field is set to zero.

   Before broadcasting the RREQ, the originating node buffers the RREQ
   ID and the Originator IP address (its own address) of the RREQ for
   PATH_DISCOVERY_TIME. In this way, when the node receives the packet
   again from its neighbors, it will not reprocess and re-forward the
   packet.

   An originating node often expects to have bidirectional
   communications with a destination node.  In such cases, it is
   not sufficient for the originating node to have a route to the
   destination node; the destination must also have a route back to
   the originating node.  In order for this to happen as efficiently
   as possible, any generation of a RREP by an intermediate node (as
   in section 6.6) for delivery to the originating node SHOULD be
   accompanied by some action that notifies the destination about a



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   route back to the originating node.  The originating node selects
   this mode of operation in the intermediate nodes by setting the `G'
   flag.  See section 6.6.3 for details about actions taken by the
   intermediate node in response to a RREQ with the `G' flag set.

   A node SHOULD NOT originate more than RREQ_RATELIMIT RREQ messages
   per second.  After broadcasting a RREQ, a node waits for a RREP (or
   other control message with current information regarding a route to
   the appropriate destination).  If a route is not received within
   NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME milliseconds, the node MAY try again to discover a
   route by broadcasting another RREQ, up to a maximum of RREQ_RETRIES
   times at the maximum TTL value.  Each new attempt MUST increment and
   update the RREQ ID. For each attempt, the TTL field of the IP header
   is set according to the mechanism specified in section 6.4, in order
   to enable control over how far the RREQ is disseminated for the each
   retry.

   Data packets waiting for a route (i.e., waiting for a RREP after a
   RREQ has been sent) SHOULD be buffered.  The buffering SHOULD be
   "first-in, first-out" (FIFO). If a route discovery has been attempted
   RREQ_RETRIES times at the maximum TTL without receiving any RREP, all
   data packets destined for the corresponding destination SHOULD be
   dropped from the buffer and a Destination Unreachable message SHOULD
   be delivered to the application.

   To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts by a source
   node at route discovery for a single destination MUST utilize a
   binary exponential backoff.  The first time a source node broadcasts
   a RREQ, it waits NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME milliseconds for the reception
   of a RREP. If a RREP is not received within that time, the source
   node sends a new RREQ. When calculating the time to wait for
   the RREP after sending the second RREQ, the source node MUST use
   a binary exponential backoff.  Hence, the waiting time for the
   RREP corresponding to the second RREQ is 2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME
   milliseconds.  If a RREP is not receivied within this time period,
   another RREQ may be sent, up to RREQ_RETRIES additional attempts
   after the first RREQ. For each additional attempt, the waiting time
   for the RREP is multiplied by 2, so that the time conforms to a
   binary exponential backoff.


6.4. Controlling Dissemination of Route Request Messages

   To prevent unnecessary network-wide dissemination of RREQs, the
   originating node SHOULD use an expanding ring search technique.
   In an expanding ring search, the originating node initially
   uses a TTL = TTL_START in the RREQ packet IP header and sets the
   timeout for receiving a RREP to RING_TRAVERSAL_TIME milliseconds.
   RING_TRAVERSAL_TIME is calculcated as described in section 10.  The



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   TTL_VALUE used in calculating RING_TRAVERSAL_TIME is set equal to
   the value of the TTL field in the IP header.  If the RREQ times out
   without a corresponding RREP, the originator broadcasts the RREQ
   again with the TTL incremented by TTL_INCREMENT. This continues until
   the TTL set in the RREQ reaches TTL_THRESHOLD, beyond which a TTL =
   NET_DIAMETER is used for each attempt.  Each time, the timeout for
   receiving a RREP is RING_TRAVERSAL_TIME. When it is desired to have
   all retries traverse the entire ad hoc network, this can be achieved
   by configuring TTL_START and TTL_INCREMENT both to be the same value
   as NET_DIAMETER.

   The Hop Count stored in an invalid routing table entry indicates
   the last known hop count to that destination in the routing table.
   When a new route to the same destination is required at a later time
   (e.g., upon route loss), the TTL in the RREQ IP header is initially
   set to the Hop Count plus TTL_INCREMENT. Thereafter, following
   each timeout the TTL is incremented by TTL_INCREMENT until TTL =
   TTL_THRESHOLD is reached.  Beyond this TTL = NET_DIAMETER is used.
   Once TTL = NET_DIAMETER, the timeout for waiting for the RREP is set
   to NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME, as specified in section 6.3.

   An expired routing table entry SHOULD NOT be expunged before
   (current_time + DELETE_PERIOD) (see section 6.11).  Otherwise, the
   soft state corresponding to the route (e.g., last known hop count)
   will be lost.  Furthermore, a longer routing table entry expunge time
   MAY be configured.  Any routing table entry waiting for a RREP SHOULD
   NOT be expunged before (current_time + 2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME).


6.5. Processing and Forwarding Route Requests

   When a node receives a RREQ, it first creates or updates a route to
   the previous hop without a valid sequence number (see section 6.2)
   then checks to determine whether it has received a RREQ with
   the same Originator IP Address and RREQ ID within at least the
   last PATH_DISCOVERY_TIME. If such a RREQ has been received, the
   node silently discards the newly received RREQ. The rest of this
   subsection describes actions taken for RREQs that are not discarded.

   First, it first increments the hop count value in the RREQ by one,
   to account for the new hop through the intermediate node.  Then the
   node searches for a reverse route to the Originator IP Address (see
   section 6.2), using longest-prefix matching.  If need be, the route
   is created, or updated using the Originator Sequence Number from the
   RREQ in its routing table.  This reverse route will be needed if
   the node receives a RREP back to the node that originated the RREQ
   (identified by the Originator IP Address).  When the reverse route
   is created or updated, the following actions on the route are also
   carried out:



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    1. the Originator Sequence Number from the RREQ is compared to the
       corresponding destination sequence number in the route table
       entry and copied if greater than the existing value there

    2. the valid sequence number field is set to true;

    3. the next hop in the routing table becomes the node from which the
       RREQ was received (it is obtained from the source IP address in
       the IP header and is often not equal to the Originator IP Address
       field in the RREQ message);

    4. the hop count is copied from the Hop Count in the RREQ message;

   Whenever a RREQ message is received, the Lifetime of the reverse
   route entry for the Originator IP address is set to be the maximum of
   (ExistingLifetime, MinimalLifetime), where

      MinimalLifetime =    (current time + 2*NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME -
                           2*HopCount*NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME).

   The current node can use the reverse route to forward data packets in
   the same way as for any other route in the routing table.

   If a node does not generate a RREP (following the processing rules in
   section 6.6), and if the incoming IP header has TTL larger than 1,
   the node updates and broadcasts the RREQ to address 255.255.255.255
   on each of its configured interfaces (see section 6.14).  To update
   the RREQ, the TTL or hop limit field in the outgoing IP header
   is decreased by one, and the Hop Count field in the RREQ message
   is incremented by one, to account for the new hop through the
   intermediate node.  Lastly, the Destination Sequence number for the
   requested destination is set to the maximum of the corresponding
   value received in the RREQ message, and the destination sequence
   value currently maintained by the node for the requested destination.
   However, the forwarding node MUST NOT modify its maintained value for
   the destination sequence number, even if the value received in the
   incoming RREQ is larger than the value currently maintained by the
   forwarding node.

   Otherwise, if a node does generate a RREP, then the node discards the
   RREQ. Notice that, if intermediate nodes reply to every transmission
   of RREQs for a particular destination, it might turn out that the
   destination does not receive any of the discovery messages.  In
   this situation, the destination does not learn of a route to the
   originating node from the RREQ messages.  This could cause the
   destination to initiate a route discovery (for example, if the
   originator is attempting to establish a TCP session).  In order
   that the destination learn of routes to the originating node, the
   originating node SHOULD set the ``gratuitous RREP'' ('G') flag in the



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   RREQ if for any reason the destination is likely to need a route to
   the originating node.  If, in response to a RREQ with the 'G' flag
   set, an intermediate node returns a RREP, it MUST also unicast a
   gratuitous RREP to the destination node (see section 6.6.3).


6.6. Generating Route Replies

   A node generates a RREP if either:

      (i)       it is itself the destination, or

      (ii)      it has an active route to the destination, the
                destination sequence number in the node's existing route
                table entry for the destination is valid and greater
                than or equal to the Destination Sequence Number of the
                RREQ (comparison using signed 32-bit arithmetic), and
                the ``destination only'' ('D') flag is NOT set.

   When generating a RREP message, a node copies the Destination IP
   Address and the Originator Sequence Number from the RREQ message
   into the corresponding fields in the RREP message.  Processing is
   slightly different, depending on whether the node is itself the
   requested destination (see section 6.6.1), or instead if it is an
   intermediate node with an fresh enough route to the destination (see
   section 6.6.2).

   Once created, the RREP is unicast to the next hop toward the
   originator of the RREQ, as indicated by the route table entry for
   that originator.  As the RREP is forwarded back towards the node
   which originated the RREQ message, the Hop Count field is incremented
   by one at each hop.  Thus, when the RREP reaches the originator, the
   Hop Count represents the distance, in hops, of the destination from
   the originator.


6.6.1. Route Reply Generation by the Destination

   If the generating node is the destination itself, it MUST increment
   its own sequence number by one if the sequence number in the
   RREQ packet is equal to that incremented value.  Otherwise, the
   destination does not change its sequence number before generating
   the RREP message.  The destination node places its (perhaps newly
   incremented) sequence number into the Destination Sequence Number
   field of the RREP, and enters the value zero in the Hop Count field
   of the RREP.

   The destination node copies the value MY_ROUTE_TIMEOUT (see
   section 10) into the Lifetime field of the RREP. Each node MAY



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   reconfigure its value for MY_ROUTE_TIMEOUT, within mild constraints
   (see section 10).


6.6.2. Route Reply Generation by an Intermediate Node

   If the node generating the RREP is not the destination node, but
   instead is an intermediate hop along the path from the originator
   to the destination, it copies its known sequence number for the
   destination into the Destination Sequence Number field in the RREP
   message.

   The intermediate node updates the forward route entry by placing the
   last hop node (from which it received the RREQ, as indicated by the
   source IP address field in the IP header) into the precursor list for
   the forward route entry -- i.e., the entry for the Destination IP
   Address.  The intermediate node also updates its route table entry
   for the node originating the RREQ by placing the next hop towards
   the destination in the precursor list for the reverse route entry
   -- i.e., the entry for the Originator IP Address field of the RREQ
   message data.

   The intermediate node places its distance in hops from the
   destination (indicated by the hop count in the routing table) Count
   field in the RREP. The Lifetime field of the RREP is calculated by
   subtracting the current time from the expiration time in its route
   table entry.


6.6.3. Generating Gratuitous RREPs

   After a node receives a RREQ and responds with a RREP, it discards
   the RREQ. If the RREQ has the 'G' flag set, and the intermediate
   node returns a RREP to the originating node, it MUST also unicast a
   gratuitous RREP to the destination node.  The gratuitous RREP that is
   to be sent to the desired destination contains the following values
   in the RREP message fields:

      Hop Count  The Hop Count as indicated in the node's route table
                 entry for the originator

      Destination IP Address
                 The IP address of the node that originated the RREQ

      Destination Sequence Number
                 The Originator Sequence Number from the RREQ

      Originator IP Address
                 The IP address of the Destination node in the RREQ



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      Lifetime   The remaining lifetime of the route towards the
                 originator of the RREQ, as known by the intermediate
                 node.

   The gratuitous RREP is then sent to the next hop along the path to
   the destination node, just as if the destination node had already
   issued a RREQ for the originating node and this RREP was produced
   in response to that (fictitious) RREQ. The RREP that is sent to the
   originator of the RREQ is the same whether or not the 'G' bit is set.


6.7. Receiving and Forwarding Route Replies

   When a node receives a RREP message, it searches (using
   longest-prefix matching) for a route to the previous hop.  If needed,
   a route is created for the previous hop, but without a valid sequence
   number (see section 6.2).  Next, the node then increments the hop
   count value in the RREP by one, to account for the new hop through
   the intermediate node.  Call this incremented value the "New Hop
   Count".  Then the forward route for this destination is created if it
   does not already exist.  Otherwise, the node compares the Destination
   Sequence Number in the message with its own stored destination
   sequence number for the Destination IP Address in the RREP message.
   Upon comparison, the existing entry is updated only in the following
   circumstances:

      (i)       the sequence number in the routing table is marked as
                invalid in route table entry.

      (ii)      the Destination Sequence Number in the RREP is greater
                than the node's copy of the destination sequence number
                and the known value is valid, or

      (iii)     the sequence numbers are the same, but the route is is
                marked as inactive, or

      (iv)      the sequence numbers are the same, and the New Hop Count
                is smaller than the hop count in route table entry.

   If the route table entry to the destination is created or updated,
   then the following actions occur:

      -    the route is marked as active,

      -    the destination sequence number is marked as valid,

      -    the next hop in the route entry is assigned to be the node
           from which the RREP is received, which is indicated by the
           source IP address field in the IP header,



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      -    the hop count is set to the value of the New Hop Count,

      -    the expiry time is set to the current time plus the value of
           the Lifetime in the RREP message,

      -    and the destination sequence number is the Destination
           Sequence Number in the RREP message.

   The current node can subsequently use this route to forward data
   packets to the destination.

   If the current node is not the node indicated by the Originator IP
   Address in the RREP message AND a forward route has been created or
   updated as described above, the node consults its route table entry
   for the originating node to determine the next hop for the RREP
   packet, and then forwards the RREP towards the originator using the
   information in that route table entry.  If a node forwards a RREP
   over a link that is likely to have errors or be unidirectional, the
   node SHOULD set the `A' flag to require that the recipient of the
   RREP acknowledge receipt of the RREP by sending a RREP-ACK message
   back (see section 6.8).

   When any node transmits a RREP, the precursor list for the
   corresponding destination node is updated by adding to it the
   next hop node to which the RREP is forwarded.  Also, at each
   node the (reverse) route used to forward a RREP has its lifetime
   changed to be the maximum of (existing-lifetime, (current time +
   ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT)). Finally, the precursor list for the next hop
   towards the destination is updated to contain the next hop towards
   the source.


6.8. Operation over Unidirectional Links

   It is possible that a RREP transmission may fail, especially if the
   RREQ transmission triggering the RREP occurs over a unidirectional
   link.  If no other RREP generated from the same route discovery
   attempt reaches the node which originated the RREQ message, the
   originator will reattempt route discovery after a timeout (see
   section 6.3).  However, the same scenario might well be repeated
   without any improvement, and no route would be discovered even after
   repeated retries.  Unless corrective action is taken, this can happen
   even when bidirectional routes between originator and destination
   do exist.  Link layers using broadcast transmissions for the RREQ
   will not be able to detect the presence of such unidirectional links.
   In AODV, any node acts on only the first RREQ with the same RREQ ID
   and ignores any subsequent RREQs.  Suppose, for example, that the
   first RREQ arrives along a path that has one or more unidirectional




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   link(s).  A subsequent RREQ may arrive via a bidirectional path
   (assuming such paths exist), but it will be ignored.

   To prevent this problem, when a node detects that its transmission of
   a RREP message has failed, it remembers the next-hop of the failed
   RREP in a ``blacklist'' set.  Such failures can be detected via
   the absence of a link-layer or network-layer acknowledgment (e.g.,
   RREP-ACK). A node ignores all RREQs received from any node in its
   blacklist set.  Nodes are removed from the blacklist set after a
   BLACKLIST_TIMEOUT period (see section 10).  This period should be set
   to the upper bound of the time it takes to perform the allowed number
   of route request retry attempts as described in section 6.3.

   Note that the RREP-ACK packet does not contain any information about
   which RREP it is acknowledging.  The time at which the RREP-ACK
   is received will likely come just after the time when the RREP
   was sent with the 'A' bit.  This information is expected to be
   sufficient to provide assurance to the sender of the RREP that the
   link is currently bidirectional, without any real dependence on the
   particular RREP message being acknowledged.  However, that assurance
   typically cannot be expected to remain in force permanently.


6.9. Hello Messages

   A node MAY offer connectivity information by broadcasting local Hello
   messages.  A node SHOULD only use hello messages if it is part of an
   active route.  Every HELLO_INTERVAL milliseconds, the node checks
   whether it has sent a broadcast (e.g., a RREQ or an appropriate layer
   2 message) within the last HELLO_INTERVAL. If it has not, it MAY
   broadcast a RREP with TTL = 1, called a Hello message, with the RREP
   message fields set as follows:

      Destination IP Address
                  The node's IP address.

      Destination Sequence Number
                  The node's latest sequence number.

      Hop Count   0

      Lifetime    ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS * HELLO_INTERVAL

   A node MAY determine connectivity by listening for packets from its
   set of neighbors.  If, within the past DELETE_PERIOD, it has received
   a Hello message from a neighbor, and then for that neighbor does
   not receive any packets (Hello messages or otherwise) for more than
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   assume that the link to this neighbor is currently lost.  When this
   happens, the node SHOULD proceed as in Section 6.11.

   Whenever a node receives a Hello message from a neighbor, the
   node SHOULD make sure that it has an active route to the neighbor,
   and create one if necessary.  If a route already exists, then the
   Lifetime for the route should be increased, if necessary, to be at
   least ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS * HELLO_INTERVAL. The route to the neighbor,
   if it exists, MUST subsequently contain the latest Destination
   Sequence Number from the Hello message.  The current node can now
   begin using this route to forward data packets.  Routes that are
   created by hello messages and not used by any other active routes
   will have empty precursor lists and would not trigger a RERR message
   if the neighbor moves away and a neighbor timeout occurs.


6.10. Maintaining Local Connectivity

   Each forwarding node SHOULD keep track of its continued connectivity
   to its active next hops (i.e., which next hops or precursors have
   forwarded packets to or from the forwarding node during the last
   ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT), as well as neighbors that have transmitted
   Hello messages during the last (ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS * HELLO_INTERVAL).
   A node can maintain accurate information about its continued
   connectivity to these active next hops, using one or more of the
   available link or network layer mechanisms, as described below.

    -  Any suitable link layer notification, such as those provided by
       IEEE 802.11, can be used to determine connectivity, each time
       a packet is transmitted to an active next hop.  For example,
       absence of a link layer ACK or failure to get a CTS after sending
       RTS, even after the maximum number of retransmission attempts,
       indicates loss of the link to this active next hop.

    -  If layer-2 notification is not available, passive acknowledgment
       SHOULD be used when the next hop is expected to forward the
       packet, by listening to the channel for a transmission attempt
       made by the next hop.  If transmission is not detected within
       NEXT_HOP_WAIT milliseconds or the next hop is the destination
       (and thus is not supposed to forward the packet) one of the
       following methods SHOULD be used to determine connectivity:

        *  Receiving any packet (including a Hello message) from the
           next hop.

        *  A RREQ unicast to the next hop, asking for a route to the
           next hop.

        *  An ICMP Echo Request message unicast to the next hop.



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   If a link to the next hop cannot be detected by any of these methods,
   the forwarding node SHOULD assume that the link is lost, and take
   corrective action by following the methods specified in Section 6.11.


6.11. Route Error (RERR) Messages, Route Expiry and Route Deletion

   Generally, route error and link breakage processing requires the
   following steps:

    -  Invalidating existing routes

    -  Listing affected destinations

    -  Determining which, if any, neighbors may be affected

    -  Delivering an appropriate RERR to such neighbors

   A Route Error (RERR) message MAY be either broadcast (if there
   are many precursors), unicast (if there is only 1 precursor),
   or iteratively unicast to all precursors (if broadcast is
   inappropriate).  Even when the RERR message is iteratively unicast
   to several precursors, it is considered to be a single control
   message for the purposes of the description in the text that follows.
   With that understanding, a node SHOULD NOT generate more than
   RERR_RATELIMIT RERR messages per second.

   A node initiates processing for a RERR message in three situations:

      (i)       if it detects a link break for the next hop of an active
                route in its routing table while transmitting data (and
                route repair, if attempted, was unsuccessful), or

      (ii)      if it gets a data packet destined to a node for which it
                does not have an active route and is not repairing (if
                using local repair), or

      (iii)     if it receives a RERR from a neighbor for one or more
                active routes.

   For case (i), the node first makes a list of unreachable destinations
   consisting of the unreachable neighbor and any additional
   destinations (or subnets, see section 7) in the local routing
   table that use the unreachable neighbor as the next hop.  In this
   case, if a subnet route is found to be newly unreachable, an IP
   destination address for the subnet is constructed by appending
   zeroes to the subnet prefix as shown in the route table entry.  This
   is unambiguous, since the precursor is known to have route table
   information with a compatible prefix length for that subnet.



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   For case (ii), there is only one unreachable destination, which is
   the destination of the data packet that cannot be delivered.  For
   case (iii), the list should consist of those destinations in the RERR
   for which there exists a corresponding entry in the local routing
   table that has the transmitter of the received RERR as the next hop.

   Some of the unreachable destinations in the list could be used by
   neighboring nodes, and it may therefore be necessary to send a (new)
   RERR. The RERR should contain those destinations that are part of
   the created list of unreachable destinations and have a non-empty
   precursor list.

   The neighboring node(s) that should receive the RERR are all those
   that belong to a precursor list of at least one of the unreachable
   destination(s) in the newly created RERR. In case there is only one
   unique neighbor that needs to receive the RERR, the RERR SHOULD be
   unicast toward that neighbor.  Otherwise the RERR is typically sent
   to the local broadcast address (Destination IP == 255.255.255.255,
   TTL == 1) with the unreachable destinations, and their corresponding
   destination sequence numbers, included in the packet.  The DestCount
   field of the RERR packet indicates the number of unreachable
   destinations included in the packet.

   Just before transmitting the RERR, certain updates are made on the
   routing table that may affect the destination sequence numbers for
   the unreachable destinations.  For each one of these destinations,
   the corresponding routing table entry is updated as follows:

    1. The destination sequence number of this routing entry, if it
       exists and is valid, is incremented for cases (i) and (ii) above,
       and copied from the incoming RERR in case (iii) above.

    2. The entry is invalidated by marking the route entry as invalid

    3. The Lifetime field is updated to current time plus DELETE_PERIOD.
       Before this time, the entry SHOULD NOT be deleted.

   Note that the Lifetime field in the routing table plays dual role
   -- for an active route it is the expiry time, and for an invalid
   route it is the deletion time.  If a data packet is received for an
   invalid route, the Lifetime field is updated to current time plus
   DELETE_PERIOD. The determination of DELETE_PERIOD is discussed in
   Section 10.


6.12. Local Repair

   When a link break in an active route occurs, the node upstream of
   that break MAY choose to repair the link locally if the destination



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   was no farther than MAX_REPAIR_TTL hops away.  To repair the link
   break, the node increments the sequence number for the destination
   and then broadcasts a RREQ for that destination.  The TTL of the RREQ
   should initially be set to the following value:

      max(MIN_REPAIR_TTL, 0.5 * #hops) + LOCAL_ADD_TTL,

   where #hops is the number of hops to the sender (originator) of the
   currently undeliverable packet.  Thus, local repair attempts will
   often be invisible to the originating node, and will always have TTL
   >= MIN_REPAIR_TTL + LOCAL_ADD_TTL. The node initiating the repair
   then waits the discovery period to receive RREPs in response to the
   RREQ. During local repair data packets SHOULD be buffered.  If, at
   the end of the discovery period, the reparing node has not received
   a RREP (or other control message creating or updating the route)
   for that destination, it proceeds as described in Section 6.11 by
   transmitting a RERR message for that destination.

   On the other hand, if the node receives one or more RREPs (or
   other control message creating or updating the route to the desired
   destination) during the discovery period, it first compares the hop
   count of the new route with the value in the hop count field of the
   invalid route table entry for that destination.  If the hop count of
   the newly determined route to the destination is greater than the
   hop count of the previously known route the node SHOULD issue a RERR
   message for the destination, with the 'N' bit set.  Then it proceeds
   as described in Section 6.7, updating its route table entry for that
   destination.

   A node that receives a RERR message with the 'N' flag set MUST NOT
   delete the route to that destination.  The only action taken should
   be the retransmission of the message, if the RERR arrived from the
   next hop along that route, and if there are one or more precursor
   nodes for that route to the destination.  When the originating node
   receives a RERR message with the 'N' flag set, if this message
   came from its next hop along its route to the destination then
   the originating node MAY choose to reinitiate route discovery, as
   described in Section 6.3.

   Local repair of link breaks in routes sometimes results in increased
   path lengths to those destinations.  Repairing the link locally is
   likely to increase the number of data packets that are able to be
   delivered to the destinations, since data packets will not be dropped
   as the RERR travels to the originating node.  Sending a RERR to the
   originating node after locally repairing the link break may allow the
   originator to find a fresh route to the destination that is better,
   based on current node positions.  However, it does not require the
   originating node to rebuild the route, as the originator may be done,
   or nearly done, with the data session.



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   When a link breaks along an active route, there are often multiple
   destinations that become unreachable.  The node that is upstream
   of the lost link tries an immediate local repair for only the one
   destination towards which the data packet was traveling.  Other
   routes using the same link MUST be marked as invalid, but the node
   handling the local repair MAY flag each such newly lost route as
   locally repairable; this local repair flag in the route table MUST be
   reset when the route times out (e.g., after the route has been not
   been active for ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT). Before the timeout occurs,
   these other routes will be repaired as needed when packets arrive for
   the other destinations.  Hence, these routes are repaired as needed;
   if a data packet does not arrive for the route, then that route will
   not be repaired.  Alternatively, depending upon local congestion,
   the node MAY begin the process of establishing local repairs for
   the other routes, without waiting for new packets to arrive.  By
   proactively repairing the routes that have broken due to the loss
   of the link, incoming data packets for those routes will not be
   subject to the delay of repairing the route and can be immediately
   forwarded.  However, repairing the route before a data packet is
   received for it runs the risk of repairing routes that are no longer
   in use.  Therefore, depending upon the local traffic in the network
   and whether congestion is being experienced, the node MAY elect to
   proactively repair the routes before a data packet is received;
   otherwise, it can wait until a data is received, and then commence
   the repair of the route.


6.13. Actions After Reboot

   A node participating in the ad hoc network must take certain actions
   after reboot as it might lose all sequence number records for all
   destinations, including its own sequence number.  However, there
   may be neighboring nodes that are using this node as an active
   next hop.  This can potentially create routing loops.  To prevent
   this possibility, each node on reboot waits for DELETE_PERIOD
   before transmitting any route discovery messages.  If the node
   receives a RREQ, RREP, or RERR control packet, it SHOULD create route
   entries as appropriate given the sequence number information in the
   control packets, but MUST not forward any control packets.  If the
   node receives a data packet for some other destination, it SHOULD
   broadcast a RERR as described in subsection 6.11 and MUST reset the
   waiting timer to expire after current time plus DELETE_PERIOD.

   It can be shown [4] that by the time the rebooted node comes out
   of the waiting phase and becomes an active router again, none of
   its neighbors will be using it as an active next hop any more.  Its
   own sequence number gets updated once it receives a RREQ from any
   other node, as the RREQ always carries the maximum destination




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   sequence number seen en route.  If no such RREQ arrives, the node
   MUST initialize its own sequence number to zero.


6.14. Interfaces

   Because AODV should operate smoothly over wired, as well as wireless,
   networks, and because it is likely that AODV will also be used with
   multiple wireless devices, the particular interface over which
   packets arrive must be known to AODV whenever a packet is received.
   This includes the reception of RREQ, RREP, and RERR messages.
   Whenever a packet is received from a new neighbor, the interface
   on which that packet was received is recorded into the route table
   entry for that neighbor, along with all the other appropriate routing
   information.  Similarly, whenever a route to a new destination is
   learned, the interface through which the destination can be reached
   is also recorded into the destination's route table entry.

   When multiple interfaces are available, a node retransmitting a RREQ
   message rebroadcasts that message on all interfaces that have been
   configured for operation in the ad-hoc network, except those on which
   it is known that all of the nodes neighbors have already received
   the RREQ For instance, for some broadcast media (e.g., Ethernet) it
   may be presumed that all nodes on the same link receive a broadcast
   message at the same time.  When a node needs to transmit a RERR, it
   SHOULD only transmit it on those interfaces that have neighboring
   precursor nodes for that route.


7. AODV and Aggregated Networks

   AODV has been designed for use by mobile nodes with IP addresses
   that are not necessarily related to each other, to create an ad hoc
   network.  However, in some cases a collection of mobile nodes MAY
   operate in a fixed relationship to each other and share a common
   subnet prefix, moving together within an area where an ad hoc network
   has formed.  Call such a collection of nodes a ``subnet''.  In this
   case, it is possible for a single node within the subnet to advertise
   reachability for all other nodes on the subnet, by responding with
   a RREP message to any RREQ message requesting a route to any node
   with the subnet routing prefix.  Call the single node the ``subnet
   router''.  In order for a subnet router to operate the AODV protocol
   for the whole subnet, it has to maintain a destination sequence
   number for the entire subnet.  In any such RREP message sent by the
   subnet router, the Prefix Size field of the RREP message MUST be
   set to the length of the subnet prefix.  Other nodes sharing the
   subnet prefix SHOULD NOT issue RREP messages, and SHOULD forward RREQ
   messages to the subnet router.




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   The processing for RREPs that give routes to subnets (i.e., have
   nonzero prefix length) is the same as processing for host-specific
   RREP messages.  Every node that receives the RREP with prefix size
   information SHOULD create or update the route table entry for the
   subnet, including the sequence number supplied by the subnet router,
   and including the appropriate precursor information.  Then, in the
   future the node can use the information to avoid sending future RREQs
   for other nodes on the same subnet.

   When a node uses a subnet route it may be that a packet is routed to
   an IP address on the subnet that is not assigned to any existing node
   in the ad hoc network.  When that happens, the subnet router MUST
   return ICMP Host Unreachable message to the sending node.  Upstream
   nodes receiving such an ICMP message SHOULD record the information
   that the partcular IP address is unreachable, but MUST NOT invalidate
   the route entry for any matching subnet prefix.

   If several nodes in the subnet advertise reachability to the subnet
   defined by the subnet prefix, the node with the lowest IP address
   is elected to be the subnet router, and all other nodes MUST stop
   advertising reachability.

   The behavior of default routes (i.e., routes with routing prefix
   length 0) is not defined in this specification.  Selection of routes
   sharing prefix bits should be according to longest match first.


8. Using AODV with Other Networks

   In some configurations, an ad hoc network may be able to provide
   connectivity between external routing domains that do not use AODV.
   If the points of contact to the other networks can act as subnet
   routers (see Section 7) for any relevant networks within the external
   routing domains, then the ad hoc network can maintain connectivity to
   the external routing domains.  Indeed, the external routing networks
   can use the ad hoc network defined by AODV as a transit network.

   In order to provide this feature, a point of contact to an external
   network (call it an Infrastructure Router) has to act as the subnet
   router for every subnet of interest within the external network for
   which the Infrastructure Router can provide reachability.  This
   includes the need for maintaining a destination sequence number for
   that external subnet.

   If multiple Infrastructure Routers offer reachability to the same
   external subnet, those Infrastructure Routers have to cooperate (by
   means outside the scope of this specification) to provide consistent
   AODV semantics for ad hoc access to those subnets.




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9. Extensions

   In this section, the format of extensions to the RREQ and RREP
   messages is specified.  All such extensions appear after the message
   data, and have the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     type-specific data ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

      Type     1-255

      Length   The length of the type-specific data, not including the
               Type and Length fields of the extension in bytes.

   Extensions with types between 128 and 255 may NOT be skipped.  The
   rules for extensions will be spelled out more fully, and conform to
   the rules for handling IPv6 options.


9.1. Hello Interval Extension Format

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |       Hello Interval ...      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | ... Hello Interval, continued |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type     1

      Length   4

      Hello Interval
               The number of milliseconds between successive
               transmissions of a Hello message.

   The Hello Interval extension MAY be appended to a RREP message with
   TTL == 1, to be used by a neighboring receiver in determine how long
   to wait for subsequent such RREP messages (i.e., Hello messages; see
   section 6.9).






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10. Configuration Parameters

   This section gives default values for some important parameters
   associated with AODV protocol operations.  A particular mobile node
   may wish to change certain of the parameters, in particular the
   NET_DIAMETER, MY_ROUTE_TIMEOUT, ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS, RREQ_RETRIES,
   and possibly the HELLO_INTERVAL. In the latter case, the node
   should advertise the HELLO_INTERVAL in its Hello messages, by
   appending a Hello Interval Extension to the RREP message.  Choice
   of these parameters may affect the performance of the protocol.
   Changing NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME also changes the node's estimate
   of the NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME, and so can only be done with suitable
   knowledge about the behavior of other nodes in the ad hoc network.
   The configured value for MY_ROUTE_TIMEOUT MUST be at least 2 *
   PATH_DISCOVERY_TIME.

      Parameter Name           Value
      ----------------------   -----
      ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT     3,000 Milliseconds
      ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS       2
      BLACKLIST_TIMEOUT        RREQ_RETRIES * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME
      DELETE_PERIOD            see note below
      HELLO_INTERVAL           1,000 Milliseconds
      LOCAL_ADD_TTL            2
      MAX_REPAIR_TTL           0.3 * NET_DIAMETER
      MIN_REPAIR_TTL           see note below
      MY_ROUTE_TIMEOUT         2 * ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT
      NET_DIAMETER             35
      NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME       2 * NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME * NET_DIAMETER
      NEXT_HOP_WAIT            NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME + 10
      NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME      40 milliseconds
      PATH_DISCOVERY_TIME      2 * NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME
      RERR_RATELIMIT           10
      RING_TRAVERSAL_TIME      2 * NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME *
                               (TTL_VALUE + TIMEOUT_BUFFER)
      RREQ_RETRIES             2
      RREQ_RATELIMIT           10
      TIMEOUT_BUFFER           2
      TTL_START                1
      TTL_INCREMENT            2
      TTL_THRESHOLD            7
      TTL_VALUE                see note below


   The MIN_REPAIR_TTL should be the last known hop count to
   the destination.  If Hello messages are used, then the
   ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT parameter value MUST be more than the
   value (ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS * HELLO_INTERVAL). For a given
   ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT value, this may require some adjustment to



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   the value of the HELLO_INTERVAL, and consequently use of the Hello
   Interval Extension in the Hello messages.

   TTL_VALUE is the value of the TTL field in the IP header while the
   expanding ring search is being performed.  This is described further
   in section 6.4.  The TIMEOUT_BUFFER is configurable.  Its purpose is
   to provide a buffer for the timeout so that if the RREP is delayed
   due to congestion, a timeout is less likely to occur while the RREP
   is still en route back to the source.  To omit this buffer, set
   TIMEOUT_BUFFER = 0.

   DELETE_PERIOD is intended to provide an upper bound on the time
   for which an upstream node A can have a neighbor B as an active
   next hop for destination D, while B has invalidated the route to
   D. Beyond this time B can delete the (already invalidated) route
   to D. The determination of the upper bound depends somewhat on the
   characteristics of the underlying link layer.  If Hello messages
   are used to determine the continued availability of links to next
   hop nodes, DELETE_PERIOD must be at least ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS *
   HELLO_INTERVAL. If the link layer feedback is used to detect loss
   of link, DELETE_PERIOD must be at least ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT. If
   hello messages are received from a neighbor but data packets to that
   neighbor are lost, (due to temporary link asymmetry, e.g.)  we have
   to make more concrete assumptions about the underlying link layer.
   We assume that such asymmetry cannot persist beyond a certain time,
   say, a multiple K of HELLO_INTERVAL. In other words, a node will
   invariably receive at least one out of K subsequent Hello messages
   from a neighbor if the link is working and the neighbor is sending no
   other traffic.  Covering all possibilities,

     DELETE_PERIOD = K * max (ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT, HELLO_INTERVAL)
                        (K = 5 is recommended).

   NET_DIAMETER measures the maximum possible number of hops between
   two nodes in the network.  NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME is a conservative
   estimate of the average one hop traversal time for packets and should
   include queuing delays, interrupt processing times and transfer
   times.  ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT SHOULD be set to a longer value (at
   least 10,000 milliseconds) if link-layer indications are used to
   detect link breakages such as in IEEE 802.11 [5] standard.  TTL_START
   should be set to at least 2 if Hello messages are used for local
   connectivity information.  Performance of the AODV protocol is
   sensitive to the chosen values of these constants, which often depend
   on the characteristics of the underlying link layer protocol, radio
   technologies etc.  BLACKLIST_TIMEOUT should be suitably increased
   if an expanding ring search is used.  In such cases, it should be
   {[(TTL_THRESHOLD - TTL_START)/TTL_INCREMENT] + 1 + RREQ_RETRIES} *
   NET_TRAVERSAL_TIME. This is to account for possible additional route
   discovery attempts.



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11. Security Considerations

   Currently, AODV does not specify any special security measures.
   Route protocols, however, are prime targets for impersonation
   attacks.  In networks where the node membership is not known, it
   is difficult to determine the occurrence of impersonation attacks,
   and security prevention techniques are difficult at best.  However,
   when the network membership is known and there is a danger of
   such attacks, AODV control messages must be protected by use of
   authentication techniques, such as those involving generation
   of unforgeable and cryptographically strong message digests or
   digital signatures.  While AODV does not place restrictions on the
   authentication mechanism used for this purpose, IPsec AH is an
   appropriate choice for cases where the nodes share an appropriate
   security association that enables the use of AH.

   In particular, RREP messages SHOULD be authenticated to avoid
   creation of spurious routes to a desired destination.  Otherwise, an
   attacker could masquerade as the desired destination, and maliciously
   deny service to the destination and/or maliciously inspect and
   consume traffic intended for delivery to the destination.  RERR
   messages, while less dangerous, SHOULD be authenticated in order to
   prevent malicious nodes from disrupting valid routes between nodes
   that are communication partners.

   AODV does not make any assumption about the method by which addresses
   are assigned to the mobile nodes, except that they are presumed to
   have unique IP addresses.  Therefore, no special consideration, other
   than what is natural because of the general protocol specifications,
   can be made about the applicability of IPsec authentication headers
   or key exchange mechanisms.  However, if the mobile nodes in the
   ad hoc network have pre-established security associations, it is
   presumed that the purposes for which the security associations are
   created include that of authorizing the processing of AODV control
   messages.  Given this understanding, the mobile nodes should be able
   to use the same authentication mechanisms based on their IP addresses
   as they would have used otherwise.















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12. IANA Considerations

   AODV defines a "Type" field for messages sent to port 654.  A new
   registry is to be created for the values for this Type field, and the
   following values assigned:

     Message Type                    Value
     ---------------------------     -----
     Route Request (RREQ)            1
     Route Reply (RREP)              2
     Route Error (RERR)              3
     Route-Reply Ack (RREP-ACK)      4



   AODV control messages can have extensions.  Currently, only one
   extension is defined.  A new registry is to be created for the Type
   field of the extensions:

     Extension Type                  Value
     ---------------------------     -----
     Hello Interval                  1



   Future values of the Message Type or Extension Type can be allocated
   using standards action [2].


13. IPv6 Considerations

   See [6] for detailed operation for IPv6.  The only changes to the
   protocol are that the address fields are enlarged.


14. Acknowledgments

   Special thanks to Ian Chakeres, UCSB, for his extensive suggestions
   and contributions to recent revisions.

   We acknowledge with gratitude the work done at University of
   Pennsylvania within Carl Gunter's group, as well as at Stanford and
   CMU, to determine some conditions (especially involving reboots and
   lost RERRs) under which previous versions of AODV could suffer from
   routing loops.  Contributors to those efforts include Karthikeyan
   Bhargavan, Joshua Broch, Dave Maltz, Madanlal Musuvathi, and
   Davor Obradovic.  The idea of a DELETE_PERIOD, for which expired
   routes (and, in particular, the sequence numbers) to a particular
   destination must be maintained, was also suggested by them.



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   We also acknowledge the comments and improvements suggested by
   Sung-Ju Lee (especially regarding local repair), Mahesh Marina, Erik
   Nordstrom (who provided text for section 6.11), Yves Prelot, Marc
   Mosko, Manel Guerrero Zapata, Philippe Jacquet, and Fred Baker.


References

   [1] S. Bradner.  Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
       Levels.  Request for Comments (Best Current Practice) 2119,
       Internet Engineering Task Force, March 1997.

   [2] T. Narten and H. Alvestrand.  Guidelines for Writing an IANA
       Considerations Section in RFCs.  Request for Comments (Best
       Current Practice) 2434, Internet Engineering Task Force, October
       1998.

   [3] J. Manner et al.  Mobility Related Terminology (work in
       progress).  draft-manner-seamoby-terms-02.txt, July 2001.

   [4] Karthikeyan Bhargavan, Carl A. Gunter, and Davor Obradovic.
       Fault Origin Adjudication.  In Proceedings of the Workshop on
       Formal Methods in Software Practice, Portland, OR, August 2000.

   [5] IEEE 802.11 Committee, AlphaGraphics #35, 10201 N.35th Avenue,
       Phoenix AZ 85051.  Wireless LAN Medium Access Control MAC and
       Physical Layer PHY Specifications, June 1997.  IEEE Standard
       802.11-97.

   [6] C. Perkins, E. Royer, and S. Das.  Ad hoc on demand distance
       vector (AODV) routing for ip version 6 (work in progress).
       Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, November 2001.

   References [1] and [2] are normative; all others are informative.


















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A. Draft Modifications

   The following are major changes between this version (13) of the AODV
   draft and previous versions:

    -  RERR clarifications for handling subnet routes.  A processing
       step was added to eliminate host routes that are redundant with
       subnet routes.

    -  Added explicit specification to clarify that subnet routes are
       handled the same way as host routes for managing timeouts and
       route table entries.

    -  Applicability Statement and IANA Considerations sections added.

    -  Normative References placed at beginning of bibliography.

    -  Updated Security Considerations section.  AH is suggested but not
       mandated as a good choice for authenticating control messages.

    -  Updated the AODV and Aggregated Networks section to include the
       transmission of an ICMP Host Unreachable message for data packets
       sent to non-existent destinations.


Author's Addresses

   Questions about this memo can be directed to:

      Charles E. Perkins
      Communications Systems Laboratory
      Nokia Research Center
      313 Fairchild Drive
      Mountain View, CA 94303
      USA
      +1 650 625 2986
      +1 650 691 2170 (fax)
      charliep@iprg.nokia.com


      Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer
      Department of Computer Science
      University of California, Santa Barbara
      Santa Barbara, CA 93106
      +1 805 893 3411
      +1 805 893 8553 (fax)
      ebelding@cs.ucsb.edu





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      Samir R. Das
      Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      & Computer Science
      University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030
      +1 513 556 2594
      +1 513 556 7326 (fax)
      sdas@ececs.uc.edu












































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