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Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working                               I. Chakeres
Group                                                   E. Belding-Royer
Internet-Draft                                          UC Santa Barbara
Expires: July 5, 2005                                         C. Perkins
                                                                   Nokia
                                                            January 2005


            Dynamic MANET On-demand Routing Protocol (DYMO)
                        draft-ietf-manet-dymo-00

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of Section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
   author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of
   which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of
   which he or she become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.  The list of
   Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 5, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol is intended for
   use by mobile nodes in wireless multihop networks.  It offers quick
   adaptation to dynamic conditions, low processing and memory overhead,
   low network utilization, and determines unicast routes between nodes
   within the network.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5

   3.  Data Structures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1   Conceptual Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.1.1   Route Table Entry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2   DYMO Message Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.1   Fixed Portion of DYMO Elements . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.2   Routing Element (RE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.3   Route Error (RERR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.2.4   Unsupported-element Error (UERR) . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3   Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   4.  Detailed Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.1   Sequence Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.1.1   Maintaining a Sequence Number  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.1.2   Incrementing a Sequence Number . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.1.3   Sequence Number Rollover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.1.4   Actions After Sequence Number Loss . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.2   DYMO Routing Table Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.2.1   Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry from
               Routing Element Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.2.2   Route Table Entry Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.3   DYMO General Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.1   DYMO Control Packet Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.2   Generic Element Pre-processing . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.3   Processing Unsupported DYMO Elements . . . . . . . . . 14
         4.3.3.1   Generating an Unsupported-element Error  . . . . . 14
       4.3.4   Generic Element Post-processing  . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.3.5   DYMO Control Packet Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.4   Routing Element  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.4.1   Routing Element Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.4.2   Appending Additional Routing Information to an
               Existing Routing Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       4.4.3   Routing Element Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.5   Route Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.6   Route Maintenance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.6.1   Link Breaks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.6.2   Updating Route Lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.6.3   Extending Route Lifetimes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       4.6.4   Route Error Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       4.6.5   Route Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.7   Routing Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.8   Internet Attachment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.9   Multiple Interfaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19



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     4.10  Packet Generation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

   5.  Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     9.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     9.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

       Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 27


































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1.  Overview

   The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol enables dynamic,
   reactive, multihop routing between participating nodes wishing to
   communicate.  The basic operations of the protocol are route
   discovery and management.  During route discovery the originating
   node causes dissemination of a Routing Element (RE) throughout the
   network to find the target node.  During dissemination each
   intermediate node creates a route to the originating node.  When the
   target node receives the RE it responds with RE unicast toward
   originating node.  During propagation each node creates a route to
   the target node.  When the originating node is reached routes have
   been established between the originating node and the target node in
   both directions.

   In order to react quickly to changes in the network topology nodes
   should maintain their routes and monitor their links.  When a packet
   is received for a route that is no longer available the source of the
   packet should be notified.  A Route Error (RERR) is sent to the
   packet source to indicate the current route is broken.  Once the
   source receives the RERR, it will re-initiate route discovery if it
   still has packets to deliver.

   In order to enable extension of the base specification, DYMO defines
   the handling of unsupported extensions.  By defining default
   handling, future extensions are handled in a predetermined understood
   fashion.

   DYMO uses sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom [3].

   All DYMO packets are transmitted via UDP on port TBD.




















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2.  Terminology
      IPBroadcastAddress
         Transmit the packet to the IP Limited Broadcast address,
         255.255.255.255 (IPv4) or FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF (IPv6).
      IPDestinationAddress
         The destination of a packet, indicated by examining the IP
         header.
      IPSourceAddress
         The source of a packet, indicated by examining the IP header.
      MANETcast
         Transmit the packet to all MANET nodes within reception range.
         In a simple implementation MANETcast packets are sent to the
         IPBroadcastAddress.  MANETcast SHOULD preform duplicate
         suppression.
      Valid Route
         A known route where the RouteValidTimeout is larger than the
         current time.


































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3.  Data Structures

3.1  Conceptual Data Structures

3.1.1  Route Table Entry
   o  RouteAddress
   o  RouteDeleteTimeout
   o  RouteHopCnt
   o  RouteIsGateway
   o  RouteNextHopAddress
   o  RouteNextHopInterface
   o  RoutePrefix
   o  RouteSeqNum
   o  RouteValidTimeout

3.2  DYMO Message Elements

3.2.1  Fixed Portion of DYMO Elements

   All DYMO message elements must conform to the fixed data structure
   below.


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    ElemType   |T|I|  Res  |  ElemTTL  |      ElemLen          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                      ElemTargetAddress                        .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .      ElemNotifyAddress (Only ElemTypes with M-bit set)        .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                                                               .
   .                            ElemData                           .
   .                     ElemType-Specific Payload                 .
   .                                                               .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+














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3.2.2  Routing Element (RE)


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    ElemType   |T|I|  Res  |  ElemTTL  |        ElemLen        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                        ElemTargetAddress                      .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        ElemTargetSeqNum                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |A|G| Prefix1 | Res | REHopCnt1 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                          RENodeAddress1                       .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          RENodeSeqNum1                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |R|G| PrefixN | Res | REHopCntN |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .               Additional RENodeAddressN (if needed)           .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               Additional RENodeSeqNumN (if needed)            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      ElemType: 1.  Nodes MUST implement the Routing Element.

























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3.2.3  Route Error (RERR)


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    ElemType   |T|I|  Res  |  ElemTTL  |       ElemLen         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                       ElemTargetAddress                       .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                         UNodeAddress1                         .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         UNodeSeqNum1                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .               Additional UNodeAddress (if needed)             .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               Additional UNodeSeqNum (if needed)              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      ElemType: 2.  Nodes not implementing RERR will ignore the element
      and continue.

3.2.4  Unsupported-element Error (UERR)


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    ElemType   |T|I|  Res  |  ElemTTL  |       ElemLen         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                       ElemTargetAddress                       .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                       UElemTargetAddress                      .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   .                        UERRNodeAddress                        .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   UElemType    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      ElemType: 3.  Nodes not implementing UERR will ignore the element
      and continue.

3.3  Field Descriptions
      A-bit (A)
         1-bit selector indicating whether this RE requires an answer RE
         by the ElemTargetAddress.  If A=1 an answer is required.  The
         instructions for generating an answer RE are described in
         Section 4.4.3.



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      Element Data (ElemData)
         ElemType-specific payload.
      Element Length (ElemLen)
         12-bit field that indicates the size of the element in bytes,
         including the fixed portion.
      Element Notify Address (ElemNotifyAddress)
         The node to send a UERR if the ElemType is unsupported.  The
         ElemNotifyAddress field is only present if the ElemType has the
         M-bit is set to one (1).
      Element Target Address (ElemTargetAddress)
         The node that is the ultimate destination of the element.
      Element Time to Live (ElemTTL)
         6-bit field that identifies the maximum number of times the
         element is to be retransmitted.  The ElemTTL field operates
         similar to IPTTL (MaxCount) and is decremented at each hop.
         When ElemTTL reaches zero (0) the element is dropped.
      Element Type (ElemType)


                  0                          0
                  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                  |    ElemType   |     =    |M| H |         |
                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         The ElemType field identifies the element as well as the
         handling by nodes that do not implement or understand the
         element.  The MSB bit, M-bit, denotes whether the element
         requires notification via an Unsupported-element Error (UERR)
         when the element is not understood or handled by a particular
         node.  The next two bits, H-bits, identify how the ElemType
         MUST be handled by nodes not implementing the ElemType,
         regardless of UERR delivery.  Section 4.3.3 describes the
         handling behavior based on the ElemType.
      G-bit (G)
         1-bit selector to indicate whether the RENodeAddress1 is a
         gateway.  If G=1 RENodeAddress1 is a gateway.  For more
         information on gateway operation see Section 4.8.
      I-bit (I)
         1-bit selector indicating whether the element has been ignored.
         If I=1 the element has been ignored.  For a description of
         processing for unsupported elements by ElemType see
         Section 4.3.3.
      Prefix Size (Prefix)
         6-bit field that specifies the size of the subnet reachable
         through the associated node, see Section 4.7.  The definition
         of Prefix is different for gateways.




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      Routing Element Block Hop Count (REHopCnt)
         6-bit field that identifies the number of intermediate nodes
         the associated RE block has passed through.
      Routing Element Node Address (RENodeAddress)
         The IP address of the node that appending its RENodeAddress.
      Routing Element Node Sequence Number (RENodeSeqNum)
         The sequence number of the node appending its RENodeSeqNum.
      Reserved (Res, R)
         Reserved bits.  These bits are set to zero (0) during element
         creation and ignored during processing.
      Route Node Address (RouteNodeAddress)
         The IP address of the node associated with the routing table
         entry.
      Route Delete Timeout (RouteDeleteTimeout)
         The corresponding routing table entry MUST be deleted if the
         current time is after RouteDeleteTimeout.
      Route Hop Count (RouteHopCnt)
         The number of intermediate node hops before reaching the
         RouteNodeAddress.
      Route Is Gateway (RouteIsGateway)
         1-bit selector indicating whether the RouteNodeAddress is a
         gateway.
      Route Next Hop Address (RouteNextHopAddress)
         The IP address of the next node on the path toward the
         RouteNodeAddress.
      Route Next Hop Interface (RouteNextHopInterface)
         The interface to send packets toward the RouteNodeAddress.
      Route Prefix (RoutePrefix)
         6-bit field that specifies the size of the subnet reachable
         through the RouteNodeAddress, see Section 4.7.  The definition
         of the Prefix field is different for gateways.
      Route Sequence Number (RouteSeqNum)
         The sequence number of the RouteNodeAddress.
      RouteValidTimeout
         The routing table entry is no longer considered valid if the
         current time is after RouteValidTimeout.
      T-bit (T)
         1-bit selector indicating how the element must be transmitted.
         If T=0 the element is unicast toward the ElemTargetAddress.
         Otherwise, if T=1 the element is MANETcast.
      Unreachable Node Address (UNodeAddress)
         The IP address of the unreachable node.
      Unreachable Node Sequence Number (UNodeSeqNum)
         The sequence number of the unreachable node, if known;
         otherwise, zero (0).
      Unsupported-element Node Address (UERRNodeAddress)
         The IP address of the node that generated the UERR.




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      Unsupported-element Target Address (UElemTargetAddress)
         Address of the destination of the element that caused delivery
         of the UERR.
      Unsupported-element Type (UElemType)
         The ElemType that required generation of the UERR.














































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4.  Detailed Operation

4.1  Sequence Numbers

4.1.1  Maintaining a Sequence Number

   DYMO requires each node in the network maintain its own sequence
   number (OwnSeqNum).  The circumstances for a node to change its
   OwnSeqNum are described in Section 4.4.1.

4.1.2  Incrementing a Sequence Number

   When a node increments its OwnSeqNum (as proscribed in Section 4.4.1
   and Section 4.4.3) it MUST do so by treating the sequence number
   value as if it were an unsigned number.  The sequence number zero (0)
   is reserved and is used in several DYMO data structures to represent
   an unknown sequence number.

4.1.3  Sequence Number Rollover

   To accomplish sequence number rollover, if the sequence number has
   been assigned to be the largest possible number representable as a
   32-bit unsigned integer (i.e., 4294967295), then the sequence number
   when incremented MUST be set to one (1).

4.1.4  Actions After Sequence Number Loss

   If a node's OwnSeqNum is lost it MUST NOT participate in the MANET
   network (forward any data or issue any DYMO control packets) until it
   is sure that all other nodes have deleted any sequence number
   information about it.  If RouteDeleteTimeout is set to
   ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT + the current time (as described in
   Section 4.2.1), nodes should avoid participation for at least
   ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT after sequence number loss.

4.2  DYMO Routing Table Operations

4.2.1  Creating or Updating a Route Table Entry from Routing Element
      Information

   While processing a RE, as described in Section 4.4.3, a node checks
   its routing table for an entry to the RENodeAddress using
   longest-prefix matching.  In the event that there is no corresponding
   entry for the node, an entry is created.

   The routing information about RENodeAddress contained in the RE block
   is considered stale if:




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   o  the result of subtracting the RouteSeqNum from RENodeSeqNum is
      less than zero (0) using signed 32-bit arithmetic, OR
   o  the result of subtracting the RouteSeqNum from RENodeSeqNum is
      equal to zero (0) using signed 32-bit arithmetic AND the REHopCnt
      is greater than RouteHopCnt.
   If the information is stale and this RE block is the first node in
   the RE (RENodeAddress1) this DYMO packet dropped.  Otherwise, the
   RENodeAddress and RENodeSeqNum are removed from this RE.

   If the route information for RENodeAddress is not stale, then the
   following actions occur to the route table entry for RENodeAddress:
   o  the RouteDeleteTimeout is set to the current time +
      ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT,
   o  the RouteNextHopAddress is set to the node that transmitted this
      DYMO packet (IPSourceAddress),
   o  the RouteNextHopInterface is set to the interface that this DYMO
      packet was received on,
   o  the RoutePrefix is set to Prefix,
   o  and the RouteSeqNum is set to the RENodeSeqNum.
   o  the RouteValidTimeout is set to the current time + ROUTE_TIMEOUT,

   If a valid route exists to RENodeAddress, the route can be used to
   send any queued data packets and to fulfill any outstanding route
   requests.

4.2.2  Route Table Entry Timeouts

   If the current time is later than a routing entry's
   RouteValidTimeout, the route is stale and it is not be used to route
   packets.

   If the current time is later than a routing entry's
   RouteDeleteTimeout, the route MUST be deleted.

4.3  DYMO General Processing

4.3.1  DYMO Control Packet Processing

   A DYMO packet may consist of multiple DYMO elements.  Each element is
   processed individually and in sequence, from first to last.  An
   incoming DYMO packet MUST be completely processed prior to any DYMO
   packet transmissions, resulting from the contained DYMO elements.

   The length of IP addresses (32-bits for IPv4 and 128-bits for IPv6)
   inside DYMO elements is dependent on the IP packet header.  For
   example, if the IP header is IPv6 then all DYMO elements contained in
   the payload use IPv6 addresses.




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   Unless specific element processing requires dropping the DYMO packet,
   it is retransmitted after processing.

4.3.2  Generic Element Pre-processing

   Each element in a DYMO packet undergoes pre-processing before the
   element specific processing occurs.  The ElemTTL is decremented by
   one (1).

4.3.3  Processing Unsupported DYMO Elements

   This section describe the processing for unsupported DYMO ElemTypes.
   For unsupported DYMO elements, the ElemType field identifies the
   handling by nodes that do not implement or understand the element.
   The most significant bit (M-bit) indicates whether an
   Unsupported-element Error (UERR) SHOULD be sent to the
   ElemNotifyAddress.  The next two bits (H-bits) identify how the
   element should be handled.

                  0                          0
                  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                  |    ElemType   |     =    |M| H |         |
                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   If the M-bit is set is this DYMO element, a UERR is sent to the
   ElemNotifyAddress.  This is accomplished by following the
   instructions in Section 4.3.3.1.

   Regardless of whether or not a UERR is sent in response to this
   unsupported ElemType, the processing node MUST also examine the
   H-bits to determine how this unsupported element is handled.  If :
   o  H == 00: Processing for this ElemType MUST skip the element and
      continue, as if the packet did not contain this element.
   o  H == 01: Processing for this ElemType MUST remove the element
      (using the ElemLen) from the packet and continue, as if the packet
      did not include this element.
   o  H == 10: Processing for this ElemType MUST set the ignored bit
      (I-bit), skip this element and continue, as if the packet did not
      contain this element.
   o  H == 11: Processing for this ElemType dictates that the packet
      MUST be dropped.

4.3.3.1  Generating an Unsupported-element Error

   The ElemTargetAddress in the UERR is set to the ElemNotifyAddress
   from the unsupported element.  The UElemTargetAddress is set to the
   ElemTargetAddress from the unsupported element.  The UERRNodeAddress



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   is set to the generating nodes IP address.  The UElemType is the
   ElemType from the unsupported element.  The ElemTTL is set to
   NET_DIAMETER.  The UERRNodeAddress is set to the address of the node
   generating this UERR.  The ElemLen is set to the total number of
   bytes in this UERR.  The T-bit is set to zero (T=0).  The element is
   then processed as described in Section 4.3.4.

4.3.4  Generic Element Post-processing

   If the ElemTTL is zero (0) AND this element is the first element this
   DYMO packet is dropped after processing of all elements in the DYMO
   packet.  If the ElemTTL is zero (0) AND this is NOT the first
   element, this element is removed from the packet.  If the ElemTTL is
   larger than zero (0), this element is re-transmitted in a DYMO packet
   after all elements have been processed.

4.3.5  DYMO Control Packet Transmission

   DYMO packet transmission is controlled by the T-bit in the first
   element.  If T=0 the element is unicast toward the ElemTargetAddress
   via a routing table lookup.  If the RouteNextHopAddress for the
   ElemTargetAddress is not known the packet is dropped.  If T=1 the
   element is MANETcast.

   For all DYMO packets the IPTTL (IPMaxCount) SHOULD be set to 1
   (IPTTL=1).

4.4  Routing Element

4.4.1  Routing Element Creation

   When a node creates a RE, it first increments its OwnSeqNum by one
   according to the rules specified in Section 4.1.2.  Then it sets the
   RENodeAddress1 to its own address.  The RENodeSeqNum1 is the node's
   OwnSeqNum.  The node may advertise a prefix using the Prefix field,
   as described in Section 4.7.  Otherwise, the Prefix field is set to
   zero (0).  This node may advertise it is a gateway by setting the
   G-bit, as described in Section 4.8.  Otherwise, the G-bit is set to
   zero (0).  The ElemTTL is set to NET_DIAMETER.

4.4.2  Appending Additional Routing Information to an Existing Routing
      Element

   After processing a RE, a node MAY append its IP address and OwnSeqNum
   to the RE.  Appending its own routing information may alleviate some
   route discovery procedures to this node from other nodes that process
   this RE.




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   If this node plans to append its IP address to the RE, it first
   increments its OwnSeqNum as defined in Section 4.1.2.  Then this node
   appends its IP address and OwnSeqNum to the RE.  The ElemLen is also
   adjusted accordingly.

4.4.3  Routing Element Processing

   After general DYMO element pre-processing, the ElemHopCnt is
   incremented by one.  A route to RENodeAddress1 is then created or
   updated using the associated RENodeSeqNum, G-bit, Prefix, and
   REHopCnt, as defined in Section 4.2.1.

   Each RENodeAddress, RENodeSeqNum, G-bit, Prefix, and REHopCnt block
   MAY be processed.  First the REHopCnt is incremented, then a route is
   created or updated as defined in Section 4.2.1.  Each RENodeAddress
   block resulting in a valid route entry may alleviate a future route
   discovery.  Any unprocessed RENodeAddress blocks MUST be removed from
   the RE.

   If this node is the ElemTargetAddress AND the A-bit is set (A=1),
   this node MUST reciprocate with a RE.  This node creates a new RE as
   described in Section 4.4.1.  The ElemTargetAddress in the new RE is
   set to the RENodeAddress1 from the RE currently being processed.  The
   T-bit is set to zero (T=0) and the A-bit is set to (A=0).  Then the
   new RE undergoes post-processing, according to Section 4.3.5.

   If this node is not the ElemTargetAddress the current RE SHOULD be
   handled according to Section 4.3.4.

   If this node is the ElemTargetAddress the current packet and any
   additional elements are processed, but this packet is not
   retransmitted.

4.5  Route Discovery

   A node generates a Route Request (RREQ) to discover a valid route to
   a particular destination (ElemTargetAddress), other than itself.  A
   RREQ is simply a RE with the T-bit set (T=1) to indicate that this RE
   is to be MANETcast.  Also, the A-bit is set to one (A=1) to indicate
   that the TargetNode must respond with a RE.  If a sequence number is
   known for the ElemTargetAddress it is placed in the ElemTargetSeqNum
   field.  Otherwise, ElemTargetSeqNum is set to zero (0).

   Before sending the RREQ, the generating node buffers its
   RENodeAddress and RENodeSeqNum in its RE Table.  The RE is then
   transmitted according to the procedure defined in Section 4.3.5.

   After issuing the RREQ, the node waits for a route to be created to




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   the TargetNode.  If a route is not received within RREQ_WAIT_TIME
   milliseconds, this node MAY again try to discover a route by issuing
   another RREQ.

   To reduce congestion in a network, repeated attempts at route
   discovery for a particular TargetNode SHOULD utilize a binary
   exponential backoff.  The first time an node issues a RREQ, it waits
   RREQ_WAIT_TIME milliseconds for a route to the TargetNode.  If a
   route is not found within that time, the node may send another RREQ.
   If a route is not found within 2*RREQ_WAIT_TIME, another RREQ may be
   sent, up to a total of RREQ_TRIES.  For each additional attempt, the
   waiting time for the previous RREP is multiplied by 2 so that the
   waiting time conforms to a binary exponential backoff.

   Data packets waiting for a route SHOULD be buffered.

   If a route discovery has been attempted RREQ_TRIES times without
   receiving a route to the TargetNode, all data packets destined for
   the corresponding TargetNode SHOULD be dropped from the buffer and a
   Destination Unreachable ICMP message SHOULD be delivered to the
   application.

4.6  Route Maintenance

4.6.1  Link Breaks

   Nodes SHOULD monitor links to active neighbors.  This may be
   accomplished by one or several mechanisms.  Such as:
   o  Link layer feedback
   o  Hello messages
   o  Neighbor discovery
   o  Route timeout
   Upon detecting a link break the valid routes utilizing the broken
   link MUST set their RouteValidTimeout to the current time.

   A RERR MAY be issued after detecting a broken link of an active
   route.  RERR Generation is described in Section 4.6.4.

4.6.2  Updating Route Lifetimes

   To avoid route timeouts for active sources, after receiving a packet
   a node MAY update the RouteValidTimeout to the IPSourceAddress to be
   the current time + ROUTE_TIMEOUT.

4.6.3  Extending Route Lifetimes

   To avoid route timeouts for active routes, an originating node MAY
   periodically send a RE with the T-bit set to zero (0), the A-bit set



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   to one (A=1) and the ElemTargetAddress set to the target node's
   address (RouteAddress).  The resultant DYMO packet transmissions and
   RE processing (Section 4.2.1) will update the lifetime of routes to
   the originating node and target node (RouteAddress) at all
   intermediate nodes, if a valid route still exists.

4.6.4  Route Error Generation

   When a non-DYMO packet is received for a destination without a valid
   routing table entry, a Route Error (RERR) SHOULD be generated by this
   node.  A RERR informs the source that the current route is no longer
   available in a more timely manner than RouteValidTimeout.

   In the RERR, the ElemTargetAddress is the node that sent the non-DYMO
   packet, the IPSourceAddress.  The UNodeAddress1 field is the address
   of the unreachable node (IPDestinationAddress) from the non-DYMO
   packet.  If the UNodeSeqNum is known, it is placed in the RERR;
   otherwise zero (0) is placed in the this field of the RERR.  The
   ElemTTL is set to NET_DIAMETER.  The T-bit is set to one (T=1).

   Additional unreachable nodes utilizing the same invalid link (routes
   with the same RouteNextHopAddress and RouteNextHopInterface) as the
   UNodeAddress1 MAY be appended to the RERR.  For each unreachable node
   their UNodeAddress and UNodeSeqNum are appended.  The ElemLen is set
   accordingly.

   The RERR is then processed as described in Section 4.3.5.

4.6.5  Route Error Processing

   When a node processes a RERR after generic element pre-processing, it
   SHOULD set the RouteValidTimeout to the current time for each route
   to a UNodeAddress that meet all of the following conditions:
      The RouteNextHopAddress is the same as the RERR IPSourceAddress.
      The RouteNextHopInterface is the same as the interface this RERR
      was received.
      The UNodeSeqNum is zero (0) OR if the result of subtracting
      RouteSeqNum from UNodeSeqNum is less than or equal to zero using
      signed 32-bit arithmetic

   If any route's RouteValidTimeout is set to the current time, this
   RERR MAY be handled as described in Section 4.3.4.  Otherwise, the
   RERR is dropped.

   Prior to RERR element post processing a node MAY remove UNodeAddress,
   UNodeSeqNum pairs to decrease the element size.





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4.7  Routing Prefix

   Any node can advertise connectivity to a subset of nodes within its
   address space by using the prefix field in RE.  The nodes within the
   advertised prefix SHOULD NOT participate in the MANET, and MUST be
   reachable by forwarding packets to the node advertising connectivity.
   For example, 192.168.1.1 with a prefix of 16 indicates all nodes with
   the prefix 192.168.X.X are reachable through 192.168.1.1.

   If the G-bit is set the meaning of the prefix field is altered.  For
   a gateway the prefix in association with the IP address indicates
   that nodes outside the subnet are reachable via the gateway node.
   For example, a gateway with IP address 192.168.1.1 and a prefix of 16
   indicates all nodes with the IP address NOT matching 192.168.X.X are
   reachable through 192.168.1.1.

4.8  Internet Attachment

   Basic Internet attachment consists of a stub network of MANET nodes
   connected to the Internet via a single gateway node.  The gateway is
   responsible for responding to RREQs for TargetNodes outside its
   configured MANET subnet, as well as delivering packets to
   destinations outside the MANET subnet.

   MANET nodes wishing to be reachable from nodes in the Internet MUST
   have IP addresses within the gateway's configured MANET subnet.
   Given a node with a globally route-able address or care-of address
   handled by the gateway, the gateway is responsible for performing
   route discovery for packets received from the Internet destined for
   nodes inside its MANET subnet.

   Since many nodes may commonly wish to communicate with the gateway,
   the gateway SHOULD indicate to nodes that it is a gateway by setting
   the gateway bit (G-bit) in the RE.  The G-bit flag indicates to nodes
   in the MANET that the RENodeAddress is attached to the Internet and
   is capable of routing data packets to all nodes outside of the
   configured MANET subnet, described by the RENodeAddress and Prefix
   fields.

4.9  Multiple Interfaces

   It is likely that DYMO will be used with multiple wireless
   interfaces; therefore, the particular interface over which packets
   arrive must be known whenever a packet is received.  Whenever a new
   route is created, the interface through which the RouteAddress can be
   reached is also recorded into the route table entry.

   When multiple interfaces are available, a node transmitting a



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   MANETcast packet SHOULD send the packet on all interfaces that have
   been configured for operation in the MANET.

4.10  Packet Generation Limits

   To avoid congestion, a node SHOULD NOT transmit more than RATE_LIMIT
   control messages per second.












































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5.  Configuration Parameters

   Here are some suggested parameter values for DYMO:
      Parameter Name                  Suggested Value
      ---------------------------     ---------------
      NET_DIAMETER                    10
      RATE_LIMIT                      10
      ROUTE_TIMEOUT                   3000 milliseconds
      ROUTE_DELETE_TIMEOUT            5*ROUTE_TIMEOUT
      RREQ_WAIT_TIME                  1000 milliseconds
      RREQ_TRIES                      3
   These parameters work well for small well-connected networks with
   moderate network topology changes.

   For other networks these DYMO parameters SHOULD be adjusted using
   either dynamic adaptation or experimentally determined values.  For
   example in static networks, ROUTE_TIMEOUT may be set to a much larger
   value.

































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6.  IANA Considerations

   DYMO defines a ElemType field for each element within a packet sent
   to port TBD.  A new registry will be created for the values for this
   ElemType field, and the following values will be assigned:
      ElemType                             Value
      --------------------------------     -----
      Routing Element (RE)                  1
      Route Error (RERR)                    2
      Unsupported-element Error (UERR)      3

   Future values of the ElemType and ErrType will be allocated using
   standard actions as described in [1].






































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7.  Security Considerations

   Currently, DYMO does not specify any special security measures.
   Routing protocols, however, are prime targets for impersonation
   attacks.  In networks where the node membership is not known, it is
   difficult to determine the occurrence of impersonation attacks, and
   security prevention techniques are difficult at best.  However, when
   the network membership is known and there is a danger of such
   attacks, DYMO elements must be protected by the use of authentication
   techniques, such as those involving generation of unforgeable and
   cryptographically strong message digests or digital signatures.
   While DYMO does not place restrictions on the authentication
   mechanism used for this purpose, IPsec Authentication Element (AH) is
   an appropriate choice for cases where the nodes share an appropriate
   security association that enables the use of AH.

   In particular, RE messages SHOULD be authenticated to avoid creation
   of spurious routes to a destination.  Otherwise, an attacker could
   masquerade as that destination and maliciously deny service to the
   destination and/or maliciously inspect and consume traffic intended
   for delivery to the destination.  RERR messages, while less
   dangerous, SHOULD be authenticated in order to prevent malicious
   nodes from disrupting active routes between communicating nodes.

   DYMO does not make any assumption about the method by which addresses
   are assigned to the mobile nodes except that they are presumed to
   have unique IP addresses.  Therefore, no special consideration, other
   than what is natural because of the general protocol specifications,
   can be made about the applicability of IPsec authentication elements
   or key exchange mechanisms.  However, if the mobile nodes in the ad
   hoc network have pre-established security associations, it is
   presumed that the purposes for which the security associations are
   created include that of authorizing the processing of DYMO control
   packets.  Given this understanding, the mobile nodes should be able
   to use the same authentication mechanisms based on their IP addresses
   as they would have used otherwise.















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8.  Acknowledgments

   DYMO is an decedent of the design of previous MANET reactive
   protocols.  Special thanks to the authors of AODV [2] and DSR [4].
   The authors of AODV and DSR include Charlie Perkins, Elizabeth
   Belding-Royer, Samir Das, David Johnson, David Maltz, Yih-Chun Hu and
   Jorjeta Jetcheva.  Much of the DYMO protocol also stems from research
   and implementation of MANET reactive-routing protocols.  To mention a
   few major contributors Sung-Ju Lee, Mahesh Marina, Erik Nordstrom,
   Yves Prelot, J.J.  Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Marc Mosko, Manel Guerrero
   Zapata, Philippe Jacquet, and Chris Shiflet.  Also, special thanks to
   Luke Klein-Berndt for extensive implementation and testing of AODV,
   early reviewing of DYMO, as well as several technical discussions.






































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9.  References

9.1  Normative References

   [1]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
        Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 2434, BCP 26, October 1998.

   [2]  Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E. and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-demand
        Distance Vector (AODV) Routing", RFC 3561, July 2003.

9.2  Informative References

   [3]  Perkins, C. and E. Belding-Royer, "Ad hoc On-Demand Distance
        Vector (AODV) Routing", February 1999.

   [4]  Johnson, D. and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing in Ad-hoc
        Wireless Networks", August 1996.


Authors' Addresses

   Ian Chakeres
   University of California Santa Barbara
   Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
   Santa Barbara, CA  93106
   USA

   Phone: +1-805-893-8981
   Fax:   +1-805-893-8553
   Email: idc@engineering.ucsb.edu


   Elizabeth Belding-Royer
   University of California Santa Barbara
   Dept. of Computer Science
   Santa Barbara, CA  93106-5110
   USA

   Phone: +1-805-893-3411
   Fax:   +1-805-893-8553
   Email: ebelding@cs.ucsb.edu










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   Charlie Perkins
   Nokia Research Center
   313 Fairchild Drive
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   USA

   Phone: +1-650-625-2986
   Fax:   +1-650-625-2502
   Email: charlie.perkins@nokia.com










































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