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         Internet Draft     AAA   Framework   for   Multicasting
         July 2007



                                                    Hiroaki Satou, NTT
         Internet Draft                              Hiroshi Ohta, NTT
         Expires: Jan 10, 2008     Christian Jacquenet, France Telecom
         Intended status: Informational         Tsunemasa Hayashi, NTT
                                          Haixiang He, Nortel Networks

                                                          July 9, 2007


                     AAA Framework for Multicasting
             <draft-ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework-04.txt>


      Status of this Memo

         By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author
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         of BCP 79.


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         at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.





         Satou, Ohta, Jacquenet, Hayashi, He                    [Page 1]


         Internet Draft     AAA   Framework   for   Multicasting
         July 2007


         The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be
         accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


         This Internet-Draft will expire on January 10, 2008.


      Copyright Notice

         Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).  This document
         is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
         contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth
         therein, the authors retain all their rights.

      Abstract
         IP multicast-based services, such as TV broadcasting
         or videoconferencing raise the issue of making sure
         that potential customers are fully entitled to access
         the corresponding contents. There is indeed a need
         for service and content providers to identify (if not
         authenticate, especially within the context of
         enforcing electronic payment schemes) and to invoice
         such customers in a reliable and efficient manner.
         This memo describes the framework for specifying the
         Authorization, Authentication and Accounting (AAA)
         capabilities that could be activated within the
         context of the deployment and the operation of IP
         multicast-based services.  This framework addresses
         the requirements presented in draft-ietf-mboned-
         maccnt-req-04.txt, "Requirements for Accounting,
         Authentication and Authorization in Well Managed IP
         Multicasting Services". The memo provides a basic AAA
         enabled model as well as an extended fully enabled
         model with resource and admission control
         coordination.




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1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose and Background
   IP multicasting is designed to serve cases of group
   communication schemes of any kind, such as 1-to-n (case of
   TV broadcasting services for example) or n-to-p (case of
   videoconferencing services, for example).
      In these environments, IP multicast provides a better
   resource optimization than using a unicast transmission
   scheme, where data need to be replicated as many times as
   there are receivers. Activation of IP multicast
   capabilities in networks yields the establishment and the
   maintenance of multicast distribution trees that are
   receiver-initiated by nature: multicast-formatted data are
   forwarded to receivers who explicitly request them.

        IP multicast-based services, such as TV broadcasting
   or videoconferencing raise the issue of making sure that
   potential customers are fully entitled to access the
   corresponding contents.
   There is indeed a need for service and content providers to
   identify (if not authenticate, especially within the
   context of enforcing electronic payment schemes) and to
   invoice such customers in a reliable and efficient manner.
   Solutions should consider a wide range of possible content
   delivery applications: content delivered over the multicast
   network may include video, audio, images, games, software
   and information such as financial data, etc.


         This memo describes a framework for specifying the
   Authorization, Authentication and Accounting (AAA)
   capabilities that could be activated within the context of
   the deployment and the operation of IP multicast-based
   services. This memo also describes a framework to realize
   high-quality multicast transport using a Resource and
   Admission Control System (RACS) with multicast
   Authorization.
   Specifically, this framework addresses the requirements
   presented in draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-04.txt,
   "Requirements for Accounting, Authentication and
   Authorization in Well Managed IP Multicasting Services"
   MACCNT-REQ-draft describes the requirements in CDN services
   using IP multicast[1]. The requirements are derived from:
        - need for user tracking and billing capabilities
        - need for network access control to satisfy the
   requirements of the Network Service Provider (NSP) and/or
   content access control to satisfy the requirements of the
   Content Provider (CP)



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   Internet Draft     AAA Framework for Multicasting   July 2007


        - methods for sharing information between the network
   service provider and content provider to make it possible
   to fulfill the above two requirements.

   Detailed requirements are presented in MACCNT-REQ-draft.
   These requirements include mechanisms for recording end-
   user requests and provider responses for content-delivery,
   sharing user information (possibly anonymously depending on
   the trust model) between content provider and network
   service provider, and protecting resources through the
   prevention of network and content access by unauthorized
   users, as well as other AAA related requirements.

   The purpose of this memo is to provide a generalized framework
   for specifying multicast-inferred AAA capabilities that can
   meet these requirements. This framework is to provide a
   basis for future work of investigating the applicability of
   existing AAA protocols to provide these AAA capabilities in
   IP multicast specific context and/or if deemed necessary,
   the refining or defining of protocols to provide these
   capabilities.



2. Definitions and Abbreviations

2.1 Definitions

   For the purpose of this memo the following definitions
   apply:

   Accounting: The set of capabilities that allow the
   retrieval of a set of statistical data that can be defined
   on a per customer and/or a per service basis, within the
   context of the deployment of multicast-based services. Such
   data are retrieved for billing purposes, and can be
   retrieved on a regular basis or upon unsolicited requests.
   Such data include (but are not necessarily limited to) the
   volume of multicast-formatted data that have been forwarded
   to the receiver over a given period of time, the volume of
   multicast-formatted data that have been exchanged between a
   receiver (or set of) and a given source over a given period
   of time (e.g. the duration of a multicast session), etc.

   Authentication: action for identifying a user as a genuine
   one.

   Authorization: The set of capabilities that need to be
   activated to make sure a given requesting customer is (1)



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   Internet Draft     AAA Framework for Multicasting   July 2007


   what he claims to be (identification purposes), and (2) is
   fully entitled to access a set of services (authentication
   purposes).

   Receiver: an end-host or end-client which receives content.
   A receiver may be identified by a network ID such as MAC
   address or IP address.

   User: a human with a user account.  A user may possibly use
   multiple reception devices.  Multiple users may use the
   same reception device.

   Note: The definition of a receiver (device) and a user
   (human) should not be confused.


2.2 Abbreviations

   For the purpose of this draft the following abbreviations
   apply:

   ACL: Access Control List

   AN: Access Node

   CAPCF: Conditional Access Policy Control Function

   CDN: Content Delivery Network

   CDS: Content Delivery Services

   CP: Content Provider

   CPE: Customer Premise Equipment

   mRACF: Multicast Resource and Admission Control Function

   NSP: Network Service Provider

   TS: Transport System

3. Common use models and network architecture implications

   In some cases a single entity may design and be responsible
   for a system that covers the various common high-level
   requirements of a multicasting system such as 1) content
   serving, 2) the infrastructure to multicast it, 3) network
   and content access control mechanisms. In many cases
   however the content provision and network provision roles
   are divided between separate entities.  The MACCNT-REQ-



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   Internet Draft     AAA Framework for Multicasting   July 2007


   draft provides more detail of the multiple versus single
   entity CDS network models.

   As such it should not be assumed that the entity
   responsible for the multicasting structure and the entity
   responsible for content serving are the same.  Indeed
   because the infrastructure for multicasting is expensive
   and many content holders are not likely to be competent at
   building and maintaining complicated infrastructures
   necessary for multicasting, many content holders would
   prefer to purchase transport and management services from a
   network service provider and thus share the infrastructure
   costs with other content holders.

   Similarly network service providers in many cases do not
   specialize in providing content and are unlikely to build
   and maintain such a resource-intensive system without a
   certain level of demand from content holders.

   The use model of a single NSP providing multicasting
   services to multiple CPs the following general requirements
   from MACCNT-REQ-draft apply:

        -Need for user tracking and billing capabilities
        -Need for QoS control such as resource management and
   admission control
        -Need for conditional content access control
   satisfactory to the requirements of the CP
        -Methods for sharing information between the NSP and
   CP to make the above two possible


   When the NSP and CP are the same single entity the general
   requirements are as follows.

        -Need for user tracking and user-billing capabilities
        -Need for access control and/or content protection at
   level the entity deems appropriate



4. Framework and Roles of Entities


4.1 Framework for multicast AAA

   A general high-level framework can be represented as
   follows.




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            +------------------------------+
            |    user                      |
            |                              |
            +------------------------------+
                | Access       ^ Response
                | Request      | & Multicast Data
                V              |
            +------------------------------+
            |    NSP                       |
            |                              |
            +------------------------------+
                | Access         ^ Response
                | Request        | (Success)
                v                |
            +------------------------------+
            |    CP                        |
            |                              |
            +------------------------------+
                        Figure 1

   For the sake of simplicity, the above diagram portrays a
   case where there is a single NSP entity and a single CP
   entity, but multiple CPs can be connected to the same NSP.
   It is also possible for the same CP to be connected to
   multiple NSP networks (e.g. network selection).  In other
   words the relationship of NSP:CP can be described as  1:1,
   1:N or M:N.  Furthermore it is possible that the NSP and CP
   could be the same entity.

   Description of Roles:

   The user (or the user's device) selects a CP and a NSP when
   the user requests content. The NSP may be automatically
   selected by a user terminal: e.g. a fixed line NSP for STB
   or a mobile NSP for mobile phone.  In some usage cases it
   is possible that the NSP used by the user terminal will not
   always be the same.  For example a user may have contracted
   with different NSPs for fixed line or mobile roaming access.

   The CP is responsible for Authentication and Authorization
   of users' access to content that the CP manages. The CP
   hopes to collect accounting information related to the
   access of their content. The CP may choose to authenticate
   and authorize NSPs which are eligible to provide users
   access to its contents.  When the CP cannot (e.g. error or
   resource issues) or decides not (e.g. policy issues) to
   deliver content, the CP is responsible for notifying the
   NSP of the reason.  It is up to the NSP how to relay or
   translate the messages to the user.




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   Internet Draft     AAA Framework for Multicasting   July 2007


   The NSP is responsible for managing its network resources.
   The NSP may perform admission control. It is also
   responsible for relaying the AAA messages from the CP
   whether the user is eligible to receive content
   (authentication by proxy), and the NSP's relevant AAA
   server will allow access to the network and contents
   conditional to both the CP AAA server's content
   authorization result and the NSPs network utilization
   authorization result.  In certain cases the CP and NSP may
   have a contractual relationship in which the NSP is
   authorized to make the content authorization decision based
   on mutually predetermined criteria: in such cases the NSP-
   AAA may also make the content authorization decision
   without querying the CP-AAA.  When the NSP cannot or
   decides not to multicast to users, the NSP may notify the
   users of the reason. It is recommended that the NSP notify
   eligible users of the reason for not multicasting content
   when it is due network or content unavailability, for
   example.  The NSP may choose not to notify ineligible users
   of the reason for any case.



4.2 Multiple User IDs

   Users may hold multiple user IDs: IDs which have been
   separately assigned for each subscription they may have for
   various NSPs and CPs.  The NSPs and CPs control the user
   IDs for their respective domains.  The user IDs are only
   meaningful in the context of each domain.

   When the user wants to access content, the user registers
   the corresponding user ID (including its CP domain
   information) with a request for content, etc: web
   authentication is one possible method.

   Each CP may identify users by the user IDs that it has
   issued to them.

   Terminal portability can be realized if the NSP
   authenticates a user using a NSP-assigned user ID. A NSP-
   assigned user ID is an access-line independent unique ID
   assigned to users which allows user identification from any
   access point within the network and possibly roaming to
   other networks.  This allows the user to access the content
   from various network access points.


   The NSP and CP do not need to know the corresponding user
   id for the same user in the other provider's domain, and it



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   is not necessary that there is a one to one relationship.
   It is quite possible for one person to hold multiple user
   ids for the same provider.

   The actual mapping rules for NSPs and CPs to map user IDs
   with the IDs in other provider domains is a matter for the
   providers.  A solution should provide an API between the
   providers to flexibly support various mapping methods.

4.3 Accounting

   MACCNT-REQ-draft defines requirements for Accounting and
   Billing. These include the requirement for the NSP to log
   user behavior such as the join action and the leave action,
   as well as the result of the access-control decision.
   (MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.5) MACCNT-REQ-draft also specifies
   that there should be a standardized way to sharing with the
   CP the user behavior and content reception information
   which the NSP is logging.(MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.5.1)
   Standardization of the logs or messages to share content
   usage information is important to support a single NSP
   sharing accounting information with multiple CPs or a
   single CP receiving from multiple NSPs.

   In order to provide the granularity of user-behavior and
   actual content reception information as specified in
   MACCNT-REQ-draft, the NSP should not manage multicast
   states on a subnet basis, but on a user basis (see in
   MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.1 "User identification") because the
   NSP needs to be able to notify the CP of a user's start and
   stop times for accounting purposes. This means that the NSP
   sends to the CP AAA an indication for Join and Leave on a
   user basis. User-based multicast state management is
   equivalent to explicit membership tracking in RFC3376 and
   per-host tracking in RFC3810.

   This framework specifies an accounting API provided by the
   NSP and accessed by the CP to allow for sharing user-
   behavior and content-reception information between the NSP
   AAA and CP AAA. This accounting API should be configurable
   to allow the CP to request only the logging information it
   actually requires.  Such an API would allow for realtime
   accounting information sharing by the NSP to the CP. When
   logging information is shared through the accounting API,
   it is important that the CP be able to match the user as
   described in the database operated by the NSP to the user
   as described in the database operated by the CP.

   The NSP requires the capability to log both user and host
   information for each join and leave, indicating the



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   corresponding multicast source for each action. When either
   a CP source stops sending, or the NSP stops multicasting,
   in an unsolicited manner, there is also a need to notify
   the AAA servers accordingly about the users who are
   impacted by this event.

   Also, intermittent logs between the join and leave would
   allow for finer diagnostics and therefore could serve
   useful in billing discrepancies, and provide for a better
   estimation of the time span that content was multicasted in
   the even that users disconnect without sending leave
   messages.



4.4 Access Control and CP selection by NSP

   When a NSP receives an access request from a user, it is
   necessary for the NSP to determine to which CP the request
   is to be directed. It is necessary for the NSP to ensure
   that it is not spoofed by an inappropriate CP or user.


4.5 API for Admission Control Information by NSP

   After authorizing a user request, the NSP may have further
   conditions for determining its admission control decision.
   MACCNT-REQ-draft defines requirements for providing the
   network capability to conduct admission control based on
   the network bandwidth usage status and bandwidth management
   policy. (MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.2.2, 4.2.3 & 4.9) Such QoS
   measurement and policy mechanisms themselves are out of the
   scope of this memo. However the NSP's AAA Server should be
   provided with an Admission control API that allows for
   interfacing so that additional conditions can be added to
   the admission control decision.


4.6 Access Control and Distinguishing of Users by CP

   The user ID and authentication information are forwarded
   transparently by the NSP so that the CP can distinguish the
   user, as well as authenticate and authorize the request.

4.7 Caching of AAA results

   An NSP should be able to cache AAA results based upon an
   agreement between the NSP and a CP.  The AAA cache would
   store information about permissions of a specific user to



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   Internet Draft     AAA Framework for Multicasting   July 2007


   receive multicast data from specified channel(s) up to
   specified expiration date(s) and time(s).
   If such caching is implemented, a method must exist for the
   CP to communicate this permission information to the NSP.
   The NSP refers to the AAA cache and if the cache indicates
   that the user has permission to receive multicast data from
   a specific channel at that time, the NSP may forward the
   data without querying the CP.

   It should be possible for a CP to send unsolicited requests
   to the NSP to refresh or change the permissions for a user
   for specific channel(s).

   When a user is receiving multicast content and the
   permission is about to expire, the NSP may send a
   notification to the user client that his session is about
   to expire, and that he will need to re-connect. The user
   will have to reestablish a connection.  In the case that
   the user still has permission to the content, they should
   be able to continue to receive the content without
   interruption.


5. Network Connection Model and Functional Components

   Section 3.1 introduces the high-level AAA framework for
   multicasting.  This section provides more detail on the
   network connection model and constituent functional
   components.

5.1 Basic Connection Model


   In the simple case represented in Figure 1 the NSP is the
   sole entity providing network resources including network
   access to the User.  First a user that requests content
   sends an Access request to an NSP which then forwards it on
   to the appropriate CP for Authentication and Authorization
   purposes. The CP responds with either "success" or
   "failure".  If "success", the NSP may forward a success
   response and stream multicast data to the user.

   In this model the user selects the NSP to which to send its
   content request.  Based on this request the NSP selects an
   appropriate CP to which it forwards the request. The CP
   responds to the NSP's request:  it may not respond to
   another NSP in regards to the request.

   In this model, as described in section 3.1, the
   relationship between NSP and CP can be 1:1, 1:N or M:N.



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   Users may connect to multiple networks, and networks have
   multiple users.



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5.2 Constituent Logical Functional Components of the fully
enabled AAA Framework


   MACCNT-REQ-draft defined requirements for "well managed"
   multicasting which this memo calls "AAA enabled"
   multicasting. "Fully enabled AAA" multicasting in this memo
   means "AAA enabled" with added QoS functions.

   Section 3.1 introduces the high-level AAA framework for
   multicasting.  Below is a diagram of a AAA enabled
   multicasting network with AAA, including the logical
   components within the various entities.

   AAA enabled framework (basic model)
            +-------------------------------+
            | user                          |
            |+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+|
            || CPE                         ||
            ||                             ||
            |+- - - - - | - - - - - - - - -+|
            +-----------|-------------------+
                        |
                 -------|------ IFa
                        |
            +-----------|-------------------+
            | NSP       |                   |
            |+- - - - - |- -_+              |
            ||TS        |    |              |
            |    +------|-+                 |
            ||   | AN     |  |              |
            |    |        |                 |
            ||   +------|-+  |              |
            |           |     IFb           |
            ||   +------|-+  | | +---------+|
            |    |        |----|-|mAAA     ||
            ||   | NAS    |  | | | (CAPCF*)|| * optional
            |    +--------+      +---------+|
            ||+- - - - - - - +      |       |
            +-----------------------|--------+
                                    |
                             -------|------ IFc
                                    |
            +-----------------------|-------+
            | CP               +---------+  |
            |                  |  CP-AAA |  |
            |                  +---------+  |
            +-------------------------------+
                    Figure 2


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   The user entity includes the CPE (Customer Premise
   Equipment) which includes the user host(s) and optionally a
   multicast proxy (not shown in the Figure 2.)

   The NSP (Network Service Provider) in the basic model
   includes the transport system and a logical element for
   multicast AAA functionality.  The transport system is
   comprised of the access node and NAS (network access
   server.)  Descriptions of AN and its interfaces are out of
   scope for this memo.  The multicast AAA function may be
   provided by a multicast AAA server (mAAA) which may include
   a function by which the access policy is downloaded to the
   NAS (conditional access policy control function.) The
   interface between mAAA and NAS is labeled IFb in Figure 2.
   Over IFb the NAS makes an access request to the NSP-mAAA
   and the mAAA replies. The mAAA may push conditional access
   policy to the NAS.

   The content provider may have its own AAA server which has
   the authority over access policy for its contents.

   The interface between the user and the NSP is labeled IFa
   in Figure 2.  Over IFa the user makes a multicasting
   request to the NSP.  The NSP may in reply send multicast
   traffic depending on the NSP and CP's policy decisions.

   The interface between the NSP and CP is labeled IFc. Over
   IFc the NSP requests to the CP-AAA for access to contents
   and the CP replies.  CP may also send conditional access
   policy over this interface for AAA-caching.


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        Fully enabled framework (c)
            +-------------------------------+
            | user                          |
            |+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+|
            || CPE                         ||
            ||                             ||
            |+- - - - - | - - - - - - - - -+|
            +-----------|-------------------+
                        |
                 -------|------ IFa
                        |
            +-----------|-----------------------+
            |+- - - - - |- - _+   + - - - - - + |
            ||TS        |   | |   |           | |
            |    +------|-+ |       +--------+  |
            ||   | AN     | | |   | | mRACF  || |
            |    |        | |       |        |  |
            ||   +------|-+ | |   | +---|----+| |
            |           |   |           |    |  |
            |           |   | |     IFd----- |  |
            |           |   |  IFb      |    |  |
            ||   +------|---+ | | | +---|----+| |
            |    |          |---|---| mAAA   |  |
            ||   | NAS      | | | | |(CAPCF*)|| | * optional
            |    +----------+ |     +--------+  |
            ||+- - - - - - - -+ - - |- - - - -+ |
            +-----------------------|-----------+
                                    |
                             -------|------ IFc
                                    |
            +-----------------------|-------+
            | CP               +---------+  |
            |                  |  CP-AAA |  |
            |                  +---------+  |
            +-------------------------------+
                           Figure 3


   In the fully enabled model the NSP also includes a
   component that provides network resource management (e.g.
   QoS management), as described in section 3.4, "Network
   Resource Management by NSP".  In the fully enabled model
   (Figure 3) resource management and admission control is
   provided by mRACF (multicast resource and admission control
   function.)  This means that mRACF and Authorization portion
   of mAAA comprise RACS.  Before replying to the user's
   multicast request the mAAA queries the mRACF for a network
   resource access decision over the interface IFd.   The mRACF
   is responsible for allocating network resources for multicast
   traffic.  So that mRACF has the necessary network resource



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   availability information, NAS notifies mRACF via mAAA of the
   stopping of multicast traffic.


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5.3 Modularity of the framework

   In the interest of flexibility, this framework is modular
   so that it is possible that partially enabled versions of
   the models are supported.  A AAA-enabled version provides
   AAA functionality without Network Resource management.  A
   Network-Resource-Management-enabled (QoS-enabled) version
   provides Network Resource management without AAA
   functionality.  Similarly, the possibility of one or more
   layers of transit provision between an NSP and CP is in the
   interest of modularity and extendibility.


6. IANA considerations

   This memo does not raise any IANA consideration issues.


7. Security considerations

   Refer to section 3.3.  Also the user information related to
   authentication with the CP must be protected in some way.
   Otherwise, this memo does not raise any new security issues
   which are not already addressed by the original protocols.
   Enhancement of multicast access control capabilities should
   enhance security performance.


8. Conclusion

   This memo provides a generalized framework for solution
   standards to meet the requirements presented in MACCNT-REQ-
   draft.  Further work should be done to specify the
   interfaces between the user and NSP, NAS and mAAA, mAAA and
   mRACF and NSP-mAAA and CP-AAA (presented in 5.2.)


Normative References

   [1] Hayashi, et. al., "Accounting, Authentication and
       Authorization Issues in Well Managed IP Multicasting
       Services", draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-04.txt,
       February 2006, Work in Progress.

   [2] RFC-3810, Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener
       Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", June 2004.



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   [3] RFC-3376, Cain B., et.al., "Internet Group Management
       Protocol, Version 3", October 2002.


Authors' Addresses

           Hiroaki Satou
           NTT Network Service Systems Laboratories
           3-9-11 Midoricho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, 180-8585
   Japan
           Phone : +81 422 59 4683
           Email : satou.hiroaki@lab.ntt.co.jp

           Hiroshi Ohta
           NTT Network Service Systems Laboratories
           3-9-11 Midoricho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, 180-8585
   Japan
           Phone : +81 422 59 3617
           Email: ohta.hiroshi@lab.ntt.co.jp

           Christian Jacquenet
           France Telecom
           3, avenue Francois Chateau
           CS 36901, 35069 Rennes Cedex, France
           Phone: +33 2 99 87 63 31
           Email: christian.jacquenet@francetelecom.com

           Tsunemasa Hayashi
           NTT Network Innovation Laboratories
           1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-0847
   Japan
           Phone: +81 46 859 8790
           Email: tsunemasa@gmail.com

           Haixiang He
           Nortel
           600 Technology Park Drive
           Billerica, MA 01801, USA
           Phone: +1 978 288 7482
           Email: haixiang@nortel.com


Comments

   Comments are solicited and should be addressed to the
   mboned working group's mailing list at
   mboned@lists.uoregon.edu_and/or the authors.



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Full Copyright Statement

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Expiration

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 10, 2008.




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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided
   by the Internet Society.



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