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Network Working Group                                             W. Dec
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Standards Track                            T. Mrugalski
Expires: February 25, 2013                                           ISC
                                                                  T. Sun
                                                            China Mobile
                                                             B. Sarikaya
                                                              Huawei USA
                                                            A. Matsumoto
                                                              NTT NT Lab
                                                         August 24, 2012


                          DHCPv6 Route Options
                 draft-ietf-mif-dhcpv6-route-option-05

Abstract

   This document describes DHCPv6 Route Options for provisioning IPv6
   routes on DHCPv6 client nodes.  This is expected to improve the
   ability of an operator to configure and influence a nodes' ability to
   pick an appropriate route to a destination when this node is multi-
   homed and where other means of route configuration may be
   impractical.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 25, 2013.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Problem overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  DHCPv6 Based Solution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  Default route configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Configuring on-link routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3.  Deleting obsolete route  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  Applicability to routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.5.  Updating Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.6.  Limitations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.  DHCPv6 Route Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.  Next Hop Option Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.2.  Route Prefix Option Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  DHCPv6 Server Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  DHCPv6 Client Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.1.  Conflict resolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  Raised concerns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     8.1.  Vendor-specific option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     8.2.  Unicast RA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.3.  DHCPv6 requires client to use one server . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.4.  Use VLANs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.5.  Lack of link-layer address information . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   11. Contributors and Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21




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1.  Introduction

   The Neighbor Discovery (ND) protocol [RFC4861] provides a mechanism
   for hosts to discover one or more default routers on a directly
   connected network segment.  Extensions to the Router Advertisement
   (RA) protocol defined in [RFC4191] allow hosts to discover the
   preferences for multiple default routers on a given link, as well as
   any specific routes advertised by these routers.  This allows network
   administrators to better handle multi-homed host topologies and
   influence the route selection by the host.  This ND based mechanism
   however is sub optimal or impractical in some multi-homing scenarios,
   where DHCPv6 [RFC3315] is seen to be more viable.

   This draft defines the DHCPv6 Route Options for provisioning IPv6
   routes on DHCPv6 clients.  The proposed option is primarily envisaged
   for use by DHCPv6 client nodes that are capable of making basic IP
   routing decisions and maintaining an IPv6 routing table, broadly in
   line with the capabilities of a generic host as described in
   [RFC4191].

   Throughout the document the words node and client are used as a
   reference to the device with such routing capabilities, hosting the
   DHCPv6 client software.  The route information is taken to be
   equivalent to static routing, and limited in the number of required
   routes to a handful.


2.  Problem overview

   The solution described in this document applies to multi-homed
   scenarios including ones where the client is simultaneously connected
   to multiple access network (e.g.  WiFi and 3G).  The following
   scenario is used to illustrate the problem as found in typical multi-
   homed residential access networks.  It is duly noted that the problem
   is not specific to IPv6, occurring also with IPv4, where it is today
   solved by means of DHCPv4 classless route information option
   [RFC3442], or alternative configuration mechanisms.

   In multi-homed networks, a given user's node may be connected to more
   than one gateway.  Such connectivity may be realized by means of
   dedicated physical or logical links that may also be shared with
   other users nodes.  In such multi-homed networks it is quite common
   for the network operator to offer the delivery of a particular type
   of IP service via a particular gateway, where the service can be
   characterised by means of specific destination IP network prefixes.
   Thus, from an IP routing perspective in order for the user node to
   select the appropriate gateway for a given destination IP prefix,
   recourse needs to be made to classic longest destination match IP



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   routing, with the node acquiring such prefixes into its routing
   table.  This is typically the remit of dynamic Internal Gateway
   Protocols (IGPs), which however are rarely used by operators in
   residential access networks.  This is primarily due to operational
   costs and a desire to contain the complexity of user nodes and IP
   Edge devices to a minimum.  While, IP Route configuration may be
   achieved using the ICMPv6 extensions defined in [RFC4191], this
   mechanism does not lend itself to other operational constraints such
   as the desire to control the route information on a per node basis,
   the ability to determine whether a given node is actually capable of
   receiveing/processing such route information.  A preferred mechanism,
   and one that additionally also lends itself to centralized management
   independent of the management of the gateways, is that of using the
   DHCP protocol for conveying route information to the nodes.


3.  Motivation

   The following section enumerates use cases, both in existing networks
   and as well as in evisaged future deployments.  Usage scenarios are
   specified here in no particular order.  As those use cases are
   descibed by various network operators, their scenario partially
   overlaps.

   Use case 1: In Broadband network environment where the CPE is multi-
   homed to two upstream edge routers and each router provides
   connectivity for different types of services for example internet
   access and Video on Demand (restricted inside a walled garden) and
   the Service Provide would like to avoid routing on the CPE, there is
   a need to provision static route entries on RGs/CPEs.  Service
   Provider requires a centralized control/management point for storing
   the customer's related innformation (IPv6 prefix, IPv6 routes and
   other provisioned information) and DHCPv6 is a good place for that.
   Using RA's would require to manually provision the edge router and
   this operation is not always possible, for example when router is
   operated by 3rd party.  Broadband Forum document WT-124 issue 3
   [BBF-WT-124] calls for this draft to solve the problem.

   Use case 2: Operators want (approximate) feature parity so that they
   can have (approximate) alignment between their operational procedures
   for v4 and v6, especially in a dual stack network.  Having similar
   mechanisms for both protocols is desired due to lower operational
   expenses (OPEX).

   Use case 3: In cellular networks, it is efficient for the network to
   configure routing information in central DHCPv6 server to do unified
   routing policy information.  The gateways (GGSN in cellular network)
   only need to perform DHCPv6 relay.  The Option code sent by clients



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   can be used as an indication that host is MIF capable, so that
   network need not to do such configuration to host without MIF
   capabilities.

   Use case 4: In cellular network, DHCPv6 is used for IPv6 parameter
   configuration and RA is used for SLAAC of handset.  This behavior was
   introduced in 3GPP Release 8 (or earlier).  The network gateway in
   cellular network (e.g., GGSN) can naturally support DHCPv6 extension
   since the gateway acts as a DHCPv6 relay.  However, it is very hard
   to update those gateways to use RA announcing the route information.
   The handsets with MIF feature need to visit subscribed/operator
   provided service.  Some traffic is routed to the operator's network
   through 3G interface instead of to Internet through WiFi.  DHCPv6
   will be used to configure these specific routes.  This use case is
   described in [THREEGPP-23.853].

   Use case 5: WiFi networks.  Some WiFi hotspots provide local services
   ("walled garden").  The route configuration on hosts or RGs is needed
   to direct some traffic to local network, while other traffic to the
   Internet.  While this can be achieved using Route Information Option
   (RIO) in RA for all nodes that support [RFC4191], it does not allow
   doing so on a per-host basis.

   Use case 6: VPN network.  When a user connects to enterprise VPN
   network, the routing of VPN traffic need to be configured.  Due to
   the large number of such VPN networks, we cannot assume all the VPN
   network only use RA.  DHCPv6 provides another choice which may be
   preferred by the VPN network.  This situation is described in
   [RFC4191], Section 5.2.  Hosts that do not support RFC4191 will not
   operate properly.

   Use case 7: Walled garden.  Figure 1 illustrates the case of two
   clients connected to a shared link.  Both clients are assumed to have
   IPv6 addresses from a global scope and obtain their Internet
   connectivity via Router2 by means of a configured or a discovered
   default route.  Client 1 however, unlike Client 2, is intended to run
   a specific application, e.g.  VoIP, that is meant to access ServerA
   by means of Router1 with Server A being otherwise not reachable from
   the Internet.  In addition to the global IP address Client1 may be
   assigned with another IP address of a more restricted scope for the
   purpose of communicating with Server A.










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                          +---Router1---<IP Cloud>---ServerA
                          |
               Client1----+
                          |
               Client2----+
                          |
                          +---Router2---<IP Cloud>---Internet

                     Figure 1: Walled garden scenario

   The problem in the above scenario comes down to the fact that in
   order to reach Server A, Client1 requires to use a more specific
   route whose next-hop address is Router1.  An ICMPv6 based mechanism
   for disseminating more specific route information, as defined in
   [RFC4191], disseminates this information via the shared link also to
   Client2.  Often the operator wants to avoid this redundant
   dissemination to passing to Client2.  In addition many operators
   prefer to be able to manage specific client route information from a
   centralized repository instead of managing directly such
   configuration on a router, as is required with the ICMPv6 based
   scheme.  The former requirement is driven by the desire to provide to
   each client only the information required for their intended role
   which may be tied to a specific service, as well as to allow the
   possibility to introduce other routers into the scenario for purposes
   of load sharing.  The requirement for more centralized configuration
   management is often due to administrative boundaries within an
   operator's organization as well as an existing operational practice
   that are in place for IPv4, all of which make router based
   configuration difficult.

   Use case 8: Multihoming problem.  A multihomed IPv6 host or gateway
   needs to solve at least 3 problems to operate properly when more than
   one link is operational:

   1.  Source address selection

   2.  Next-hop selection

   3.  DNS server selection

   Problems one and three are solved by [I-D.ietf-6man-addr-select-opt]
   and [I-D.ietf-mif-dns-server-selection], respectively.  It should be
   noted that both mechanisms use DHCPv6 as well.  This draft attempts
   to solve problem two.  Below is a brief explanation of the problem.
   See draft [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ipv6-multihoming-without-ipv6nat] for
   detailed problem analysis, background information and additional
   discussion regarding the need for a DHCPv6 solution to route
   information problem and IPv6 multihoming in general (with focus on



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   aforementioned 3 problems).

   In multihoming environment, server can restrict assignment of
   additional prefixes only to hosts that support more advanced next-hop
   and address selection requirements.  (See Section 5.2 of
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ipv6-multihoming-without-ipv6nat]).  Obviously this
   MUST be done on a per-host basis.  Information about node capability
   is obtained via Option Request Option (ORO) in Solicit message, so
   support for Route Options is also used as means to report node
   capabilities to a network.

   Use case 9: In static networks (i.e. networks that have static
   routers that are not changing over time), such as some enterprise
   networks, it may be possible to stop using RA mechanism and deliver
   all configuration parameters to hosts using DHCPv6 only.  This
   approach solves the rogue RA problem (i.e. a node that is not an
   approved router starts announcing RA in a network may hijack traffic
   from other hosts).  This approach may be appealing in some cases, but
   not in all.  For example if there is security association shared
   between clients and a DHCPv6 server, it may be useful to trust DHCP
   and disable RA mechanism.

   Use case 10: It also has been proposed that route information option
   may be used as tie breaker in networks that deploy both DHCPv6 route
   option and RA.  DHCPv6 server could announce routing information
   along with RA.  Legitimate router is also announced over DHCPv6.
   Host that receives conflicting information over RA may use additional
   information received from DHCPv6 as a tie breaker.  This proposal
   [nanog-beijnum] was not investigated further.

   Use case 11: Separated networks.  In networks that do not have any
   routers, two DHCPv6 clients get a global address from DHCPv6 server.
   They cannot ping each other due to the fact that they do not know
   prefix that is available on-link.  While it is tempting to suggest
   that separated networks should use link-local addressing, other
   factors should be taken into consideration.  A stateful DHCPv6 may be
   used as a node monitoring tool, thus having avantage over link-local
   address usage.  The also may be sensor networks that have outside
   connectivity only sporadically, e.g. uplink is established
   periodically to gather readings, but most of the time router is
   powered down for power reasons.  Route Option in DHCPv6 could be used
   to configure on-link routes, while router could announce itself using
   short-lived RA.

   Those requirements and use cases can be summarized as following:

   1.  In view of the DHCPv6 requirements in several fields, vendor-
       specific options lead to several segmented definitions.  An IETF



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       defined general option is a better choice.

   2.  Per user/host configuration makes DHCPv6 be used for the on-
       demand configuration.

   3.  As there is no well-defined central management system for prefix
       delegation and routing options va RA, it seems that DHCPv6 is the
       only available solution.  It is better to have a generic option
       then a bunch of competing vendor options.

   4.  While this work was initially started with multihoming in mind,
       it is useful for single interface devices as well.

   In a sense this route configuration mechanism makes DHCPv6 complete.
   Without it, this protocol cannot fully provision all configuration
   parameters to a host on its own.


4.  DHCPv6 Based Solution

   A DHCPv6 based solution allows an operator an on demand and node
   specific means of configuring static routing information.  Such a
   solution also fits into network environments where the operator
   prefers to manage Residential Gateway (RG) configuration information
   from a centralized DHCP server.
   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ipv6-multihoming-without-ipv6nat] provides additional
   background to the need for a DHCPv6 solution to the problem.

   In terms of the high level operation of the solution defined in this
   draft, a DHCPv6 client interested in obtaining routing information
   request the route options using the DHCPv6 Option Request Option
   (ORO) sent to a server.  A Server, when configured to do so, provides
   the requested route information as part of a nested options structure
   covering; the next-hop address; the destination prefix; the route
   metric; any additional options applicable to the destination or next-
   hop.

4.1.  Default route configuration

   Defined mechanism may be used to configure default route.  Default
   route is configured using RT_PREFIX option that specifies ::/0 route,
   included as suboption in NEXT_HOP.

   Server MUST NOT define more than one default route.







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4.2.  Configuring on-link routes

   Server may also configure on-link routes, i.e. routes that are
   available directly over the link, not via routers.  To specify on-
   link routes, server MAY include RTPREFIX option directly in Advertise
   and Reply messages.

4.3.  Deleting obsolete route

   There are two mechanisms that allow removing a route.  Each defined
   route has a route lifetime.  If specific route is not refreshed and
   its timer reaches 0, client MUST remove corresponding entry from
   routing table.

   In cases, where faster route removal is needed, server SHOULD return
   RT_PREFIX option with route lifetime set to 0.  Client that receives
   RT_PREFIX with route lifetime set to 0 MUST remove specified route
   immediately, even if its previous lifetime did not expire yet.

4.4.  Applicability to routers

   Contrary to Router Adverisement mechanism, defined in [RFC4861] that
   explicitly limits configuration to hosts, routing configuration over
   DHCPv6 defined in this document may be used by both hosts and
   routers.  (This limitation of RA mechanism was partially lifted by
   W-1 requirement formulated in [RFC6204].)

   One of the envisaged usages for this solution are residential
   gateways (RG) or Customer Premises Equipment (CPE).  Those devices
   very often perform routing.  It may be useful to configure routing on
   such devices over DHCPv6.  One example of such use may be a class of
   premium users that are allowed to use dedicated router that is not
   available to regular users.

4.5.  Updating Routing Information

   Network configuration occassionally changes, due to failure of
   existing hardware, migration to newer equipment or many other
   reasons.  Therefore there a way to inform clients that routing
   information have changed is required.

   There are several ways to inform clients about new routing
   information.  Every client SHOULD periodically refresh its
   configuration, according to Information Refresh Time Option, so
   server may send updated information the next time client refreshes
   its information.  New routes may be configured at that time.  As
   every route has associated lifetime, client is required to remove its
   routes when this timer expires.  This method is particularly useful,



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   when migrating to new router is undergoing, but old router is still
   available.

   Server MAY also announce routes via soon to be removed router with
   lifetimes set to 0.  This will cause the client to remove its routes,
   despite the fact that previously received lifetime may not yet
   expire.

   Aforementioned methods are useful, when there is no urgent need to
   update routing information.  Bound by timer set by value of
   Information Refresh Time Option, clients may use outdated routing
   information until next scheduled renewal.  Depending on configured
   value this delay may be not acceptable in some cases.  In such
   scenarios, administrators are advised to use RECONFIGURE mechanism,
   defined in [RFC3315].  Server transmits RECONFIRGURE message to each
   client, thus forcing it to immediately start renewal process.

   See also Section 4.6 about limitations regarding dynamic routing.

4.6.  Limitations

   Defined mechanism is not intended to be used as a dynamic routing
   protocol.  It should be noted that proposed mechanism cannot
   automatically detect routing changes.  In networks that use dynamic
   routing and also employ this mechanism, clients may attempt using
   routes configured over DHCPv6 even though routers or specific routes
   ceased to be available.  This may cause black hole routing problem.
   Therefore it is not recommended to use this mechanism in networks
   that use dynamic routing protocols.  This mechanism SHOULD NOT be
   used in such networks, unless network operator can provide a way to
   update DHCP server information in case of router availability
   changes.

   Discussion: It should be noted that DHCPv6 server is not able to
   monitor health of existing routers.  As there are currently more than
   60 options defined for DHCPv6, it is infeasible to implement
   mechanism that would monitor huge set of services and stop announcing
   its availability in case of service outage.  Therefore in case of
   prolonged unavailability human interverntion is required to change
   DHCPv6 server configuration.  If that is considered a problem,
   network administrators should consider using other alternatives, like
   RA and ND mechanisms (see [RFC4861]).

   User is also encouraged to read Section 8.







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5.  DHCPv6 Route Options

   A DHCPv6 client interested in obtaining routing information includes
   the NEXT_HOP and RT_PREFIX options as part of its Option Request
   Option (ORO) in messages directed to a server (as allowed by
   [RFC3315], i.e.  Solicit, Request, Renew, Rebind or Information-
   request messages).  A Server, when configured to do so, provides the
   requested route information using zero, one or more NEXT_HOP options
   in messages sent in response (Advertise, and Reply).  So as to allow
   the route options to be both extensible, as well as conveying
   detailed info for routes, use is made of a nested options structure.
   Server sends one or more NEXT_HOP options that specify the IPv6 next
   hop addresses.  Each NEXT_HOP option conveys in turn zero, one or
   more RT_PREFIX options that represents the IPv6 destination prefixes
   reachable via the given next hop.  Server includes RT_PREFIX directly
   in message to indicate that given prefix is available directly on-
   link.  The Formats of the NEXT_HOP and RT_PREFIX options are defined
   in the following sub-sections.

   The DHCPv6 Route Options format borrows from the principles of the
   Route Information Option defined in [RFC4191].

5.1.  Next Hop Option Format

   Each IPv6 route consists of an IPv6 next hop address, an IPv6
   destination prefix (a.k.a. the destination subnet), and a host
   preference value for the route.  Elements of such route (e.g.  Next
   hops and prefixes associated with them) are conveyed in NEXT_HOP
   option that contains RT_PREFIX suboptions.

   The Next Hop Option defines the IPv6 address of the next hop, usually
   corresponding to a specific next-hop router.  For each next hop
   address there can be zero, one or more prefixes reachable via that
   next hop.

















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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        OPTION_NEXT_HOP        |          option-len           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                    IPv6 Next Hop Address                      |
     |                       (16 octets)                             |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                        NEXT_HOP options                       |
     .                                                               .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 2: IPv6 Next Hop Option Format

   option-code:  OPTION_NEXT_HOP (TBD1).

   option-len:  16 + Length of NEXT_HOP options field.

   IPv6 Next Hop Address:  16 octet long field that specified IPv6
             address of the next hop.

   NEXT_HOP options:  Options associated with this Next Hop. This
             includes, but is not limited to, zero, one or more
             RT_PREFIX options that specify prefixes reachable through
             the given next hop.

5.2.  Route Prefix Option Format

   The Route Prefix Option is used to convey information about a single
   prefix that represents the destination network.  The Route Prefix
   Option is used as a sub-option in the previously defined Next Hop
   Option.  It may also be sent directly in message to indicate that
   route is available directly on-link.














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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |       OPTION_RT_PREFIX        |          option-len           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Route lifetime                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Prefix-Length |Resvd|Prf|Resvd|                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                            Prefix                             |
     |                          (up to 16 octets)                    |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     .                                                               .
     .                         RT_PREFIX sub-options                 .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 3: Route Prefix Option Format

   option-code:  OPTION_RT_PREFIX (TBD2).

   option-len:  Length of the Route Prefix option including all its sub-
             options.

   Route lifetime  32-bit unsigned integer.  Specifies lifetime of the
             route information, expressed in seconds (relative to the
             time the packet is sent).  There are 2 special values
             defined. 0 means that route is no longer valid and must be
             removed by clients.  A value of all one bits (0xffffffff)
             represents infinity. means infinity.

   Prefix Length:  8-bit unsigned integer.  The length in bits of the IP
             Prefix.  The value ranges from 0 to 128.  This field
             represents the number of valid leading bits in the prefix.

   Resvd:    Reserved field.  Server MUST set this value to zero and
             client MUST ignore its content.

   Prf(Route Preference):  2-bit signed integer.  The Route Preference
             indicates whether to prefer the router associated with this
             prefix over others, when multiple identical prefixes (for
             different routers) have been received.  If the Reserved
             (10) value is received, the Route Information Option MUST
             be ignored.




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   Metric:   Route Metric. 8-bit signed integer.  The Route Metric
             indicates whether to prefer the next hop associated with
             this prefix over others, when multiple identical prefixes
             (for different next hops) have been received.

   Prefix:   a variable size field that specifies Rule IPv6 prefix.
             Length of the field is defined by prefix6-len field and is
             rounded up to the nearest octet boundary (if case when
             prefix6-len is not divisible by 8).  In such case
             additional padding bits must be zeroed.

   RT_PREFIX options:  Options specific to this particular prefix.

   Values for preference field have meaning identical to Route
   Information Option, defined in [RFC4191], Section 2.1:

   01 High

   00 Medium (default)

   11 Low

   10 Reserved - MUST NOT be sent


6.  DHCPv6 Server Behavior

   When configured to do so, a DHCPv6 server shall provide the Next Hop
   and Route Prefix Options in ADVERTISE and REPLY messages sent to a
   client that requested the route option.  Each Next Hop Option sent by
   the server must convey at least one Route Prefix Option.

   Server includes NEXT_HOP option with possible RT_PREFIX suboptions to
   designate that specific routes are available via routers.  Server
   includes RT_PREFIX options directly in Advertise and Reply messages
   to inform that specific routes are available directly on-link.

   If there is more than one route available via specific next hop,
   server MUST send only one NEXT_HOP for that next hop, which contains
   multiple RT_PREFIX options.  Server MUST NOT send more than one
   identical (i.e. with equal next hop address field) NEXT_HOP option.

   Servers SHOULD NOT send Route Option to clients that did not
   explicitly requested it, using the ORO.

   Servers MUST NOT send Route Option in messages other than ADVERTISE
   or REPLY.




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   Servers MAY also include Status Code Option, defined in Section 22.13
   of the [RFC3315] to indicate the status of the operation.

   Servers MUST include the Status Code Option, if the requested routing
   configuration was not successful and SHOULD use status codes as
   defined in [RFC3315] and [RFC3633].

   The maximum number of routing information in one DHCPv6 message
   depend on the maximum DHCPv6 message size defined in [RFC3315]


7.  DHCPv6 Client Behavior

   A DHCPv6 client compliant with this specification MUST request the
   NEXT_HOP and RT_PREFIX Options in an Option Request Option (ORO) in
   the following messages: Solicit, Request, Renew, Rebind, and
   Information-Request.  The messages are to be sent as and when
   specified by [RFC3315].

   When processing a received Route Options a client MUST substitute a
   received 0::0 value in the Next Hop Option with the source IPv6
   address of the received DHCPv6 message.  It MUST also associate a
   received Link Local next hop addresses with the interface on which
   the client received the DHCPv6 message containing the route option.
   Such a substitution and/or association is useful in cases where the
   DHCPv6 server operator does not directly know the IPv6 next-hop
   address, other than knowing it is that of a DHCPv6 relay agent on the
   client LAN segment.  DHCPv6 Packets relayed to the client are sourced
   by the relay using this relay's IPv6 address, which could be a link
   local address.

   The Client SHOULD refresh assigned route information periodically.
   The generic DHCPv6 Information Refresh Time Option, as specified in
   [RFC4242], can be used when it is desired for the client to
   periodically refresh of route information.

   The routes conveyed by the Route Option should be considered as
   complimentary to any other static route learning and maintenance
   mechanism used by, or on the client with one modification: The client
   MUST flush DHCPv6 installed routes following a link flap event on the
   DHCPv6 client interface over which the routes were installed.  This
   requirement is necessary to automate the flushing of routes for
   clients that may move to a different network.

   Client MUST confirm that routers announced over DHCPv6 are reachable,
   using one of methods suitable for specific network type.  The most
   common mechanism is Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD),
   specified in [RFC4861].  Client SHOULD use NUD to verify that



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   received routers are reachable before adjusting its routing tables.
   Client MAY use other reachibality verification mechanisms specific to
   used network technology.  To avoid potential long-lived routing black
   holes, client MAY periodically confirm that router is still
   reachable.

7.1.  Conflict resolution

   Information received via Route Options over DHCPv6 MUST be treated
   equally to routing information obtained via other sources.  In
   particular, from the RA perspective, DHCPv6 provisioning should be
   treated as if yet another RA was received.  Preference field should
   be taken into consideration during route information processing.  In
   particular, administrators are encouraged to read [RFC4191], Section
   4.1 for guidance.

   To facilitate information merge between DHCPv6 and RA, DHCPv6 option
   conveys the same information as RIO, specified in [RFC4191], albeit
   on-wire format is slightly different.  The differences are:

   Metric field (available in previous version of this draft) has been
   replaced with 2-bit preference field that is in line with RIO
   information.

   RIO uses 128-length prefix field, while DHCPv6 option uses variable
   prefix length.  That difference is used to minimize packet size as it
   avoid transmitting zeroed octets.  Despite slightly different
   encoding, delivered information is exactly the same.

   If prefix is available directly on-link, Route Prefix option is
   conveyed directly in DHCPv6 message, not withing Next Hop option.
   That feature is considered a superset, compared to RIO.


8.  Raised concerns

   Opponents of this option proposed several alternative approaches.
   This section attempts to address raised issues.

8.1.  Vendor-specific option

   Claim: During discussion about route configuration, some opponents
   say that routing information should be defined as vendor specific
   option.

   Response: There are many ISPs, cellular and BBF network operators,
   CPE vendors, hardware vendors, DHCP implementors that want to
   implement and deploy this mechanism.  Using vendor-specific option



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   would severly limit interoperability and would make adoption and
   deployment much more complicated.

   This solution is not a technology-specific requirement, it is
   requested by wide variety of companies, so it is not a vendor
   specific.

8.2.  Unicast RA

   Claim: Some proponents insist that instead of using DHCPv6 solution,
   RA should be used instead.  Some propose to send unicast RA with RIO
   option on a per-host basis.

   Response: While this approach technically does not violate existing
   specs, it uses RA in a stateful way, thus the benefit of RA being
   stateless is lost.  Furthermore, it would require deploying
   additional mechanism, like RADIUS to deliver necessary information
   about hosts to routers.  Authors consider deploying such stateful RA
   server with RADIUS support more complicated to deploy than the
   solution it tries to avoid (DHCPv6).

   As there is no well-defined central management system for prefix
   delegation and routing options va RA, it seems that DHCPv6 is the
   only available solution.  It is better to have a generic option than
   a bunch of competing vendor options.

   Another concern raised is that RIO is not menadatory nor optional in
   3GPP system and there is currently not support in 29.061 RADIUS or
   Diameter profile, so use of that alternative is somewhat limited in
   some cases.

8.3.  DHCPv6 requires client to use one server

   Claim: DHCPv6 has less rich semantics as client has to pick one out
   of all available server.

   Response: While that is how currently most clients are implemented,
   there is nothing in [RFC3315] that mandates that.  It is true that
   DHCPv6 was not designed with several provisioning domains.  On the
   contrary, section 17.1.3 states that "Upon receipt of one or more
   valid Advertise messages, the client selects one or more Advertise
   messages based upon the following criteria.".  This means that DHCPv6
   client can obtain parameters from all available DHCPv6 servers, not
   just selected one.  As such, DHCPv6 may work with overlapping
   provisioning domains.  Authors acknowledge that this possibility is
   currently rather theoretical, as most known implementations do not
   take advantage of that possibility.




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8.4.  Use VLANs

   Claim: There was a proposal to use VLANs as a solution to lack of
   per-host capability in RA mechanism.

   Response: Deploying VLANs complicates network topology much more than
   adding a single DHCPv6 option.  Furthermore in many cases it is not
   possible to deploy VLANs in any reasonable way, e.g. in multihost
   environment.  Also, low cost devices (e.g.  CPE) often do not offer
   VLAN capabilities, but they are very much capable of supporting
   DHCPv6.  Another objection of estetic nature.  Using layer 2
   mechanisms to work around limitations in layer 3 is not elegant.

8.5.  Lack of link-layer address information

   Claim: This mechanism does not allow conveying link-layer (typically
   MAC address) information.  It may be beneficial in some cases.

   Response: Authors believe that such information does not belong here
   and should be obtained using Neighbor Discovery protocol [RFC4861].
   If proponents of adding MAC address to route options still believe
   that existence of such option is justified, the recommended path
   forward is to write a separate draft that defines a separate option.
   Such option would likely be a sub-option placed within NEXT_HOP
   option.  It is recommended to include justification section in such
   draft that would answer the question why ND is not sufficient.


9.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is kindly requested to allocate DHCPv6 option code TBD1 to the
   OPTION_NEXT_HOP and TBD2 to OPTION_RT_PREFIX.  Both values should be
   added to the DHCPv6 option code space defined in Section 24.3 of
   [RFC3315].


10.  Security Considerations

   The overall security considerations discussed in [RFC3315] apply also
   to this document.  The Route option could be used by malicious
   parties to misdirect traffic sent by the client either as part of a
   denial of service or man-in-the-middle attack.  An alternative denial
   of service attack could also be realized by means of using the route
   option to overflowing any known memory limitations of the client, or
   to exceed the client's ability to handle the number of next hop
   addresses.

   Neither of the above considerations are new and specific to the



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   proposed route option.  The mechanisms identified for securing DHCPv6
   as well as reasonable checks performed by client implementations are
   deemed sufficient in addressing these problems.

   It is essential that clients verify that announced routers are indeed
   reachable, as specified in Section 7.  Failing to do so may create
   black hole routing problem.

   This mechanism may introduce severe problems if deployed in networks
   that use dynamic routing protocols.  See Section 4.6 for details.

   DHCPv6 becomes a complete provisioning protocol with this mechanism,
   i.e. all necessary configuration parameters may be delivered using
   DHCPv6 only.  It was suggested that in some cases this may lead to
   decision of disabling RA.  While RA-less networks could offer lower
   operational expenses and protection against rogue RAs, they would not
   work with nodes that do not support this feature.  Therefore such
   decision is not recommended, unless all effects are carefully
   analyzed.  It is worth noting that disabling RA support in hosts
   would solve rogue RA problem, it would in fact only change the issue
   into rogue DHCPv6 problem.  That is somewhat beneficial, however, as
   rogue RA may affect all nodes immediately while rogue DHCPv6 server
   will affect only new nodes, that boot up after rogue server manifests
   itself.

   Reader is also encouraged to read DHCPv6 security considerations
   document [I-D.ietf-dhc-secure-dhcpv6].


11.  Contributors and Acknowledgements

   This document would not have been possible without the significant
   contribution provided by: Hui Deng, Richard Johnson, and Zhen Cao.

   The authors would also like to thank Alfred Hines, Ralph Droms, Ted
   Lemon, Ole Troan, Dave Oran, Dave Ward, Joel Halpern, Marcin
   Siodelski, Alexandru Petrescu, Roberta Maglione, Tim Chown, Brian
   Carpenter, Dave Thaler, Lorenzo Colitti and Leo Bicknell for their
   comments and useful suggestions.

   This work has been partially supported by Department of Computer
   Communications (a division of Gdansk University of Technology) and
   the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the
   European Regional Development Fund, Grant No.  POIG.01.01.02-00-045/
   09-00 (Future Internet Engineering Project).


12.  References



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12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              December 2003.

12.2.  Informative References

   [BBF-WT-124]
              Broadband Forum, "BBF WT-124 issue 3", BBF WT-124i3, 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-6man-addr-select-opt]
              Matsumoto, A., Fujisaki, T., and T. Chown, "Distributing
              Address Selection Policy using DHCPv6",
              draft-ietf-6man-addr-select-opt-05 (work in progress),
              August 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-dhc-secure-dhcpv6]
              Jiang, S. and S. Shen, "Secure DHCPv6 Using CGAs",
              draft-ietf-dhc-secure-dhcpv6-06 (work in progress),
              March 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-mif-dns-server-selection]
              Savolainen, T., Kato, J., and T. Lemon, "Improved
              Recursive DNS Server Selection for Multi-Interfaced
              Nodes", draft-ietf-mif-dns-server-selection-12 (work in
              progress), August 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ipv6-multihoming-without-ipv6nat]
              Matsushima, S., Okimoto, T., Troan, O., Miles, D., and D.
              Wing, "IPv6 Multihoming without Network Address
              Translation",
              draft-ietf-v6ops-ipv6-multihoming-without-ipv6nat-04 (work
              in progress), February 2012.

   [RFC3442]  Lemon, T., Cheshire, S., and B. Volz, "The Classless
              Static Route Option for Dynamic Host Configuration
              Protocol (DHCP) version 4", RFC 3442, December 2002.

   [RFC4191]  Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
              More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, November 2005.



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   [RFC4242]  Venaas, S., Chown, T., and B. Volz, "Information Refresh
              Time Option for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 4242, November 2005.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC6204]  Singh, H., Beebee, W., Donley, C., Stark, B., and O.
              Troan, "Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge
              Routers", RFC 6204, April 2011.

   [THREEGPP-23.853]
              Stojanovski, S., "3GPP TR 23.853: Operator Policies for IP
              Interface Selection (OPIIS)", 3GPP TR 23.853, August 2011,
              <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23853.htm>.

   [nanog-beijnum]
              van Beijnum, I., "",  , June 2011, <http://
              mailman.nanog.org/pipermail/nanog/2011-June/037242.html>.


Authors' Addresses

   Wojciech Dec
   Cisco Systems
   Haarlerbergweg 13-19
   1101 CH Amsterdam
   The Netherlands

   Email: wdec@cisco.com


   Tomasz Mrugalski
   Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
   950 Charter Street
   Redwood City, CA  94063
   USA

   Phone: +1 650 423 1345
   Email: tomasz.mrugalski@gmail.com










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   Tao Sun
   China Mobile
   Unit2, 28 Xuanwumenxi Ave
   Beijing, Xuanwu District  100053
   China

   Email: suntao@chinamobile.com


   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   1700 Alma Dr. Suite 500
   Plano, TX  75075
   United States

   Phone: +1 972-509-5599
   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org


   Arifumi Matsumoto
   NTT NT Lab
   Midori-Cho 3-9-11
   Musashino-shi, Tokyo  180-8585
   Japan

   Phone: +81 422 59 3334
   Email: arifumi@nttv6.net
























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