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Versions: (draft-takahashi-mile-jsoniodef) 00 01 02 03 04 05

MILE                                                        T. Takahashi
Internet-Draft                                                      NICT
Intended status: Standards Track                              R. Danyliw
Expires: April 25, 2019                                             CERT
                                                               M. Suzuki
                                                                    NICT
                                                        October 22, 2018


                       CBOR/JSON binding of IODEF
                      draft-ietf-mile-jsoniodef-05

Abstract

   RFC7970 specified an information model and a corresponding XML data
   model for exchanging incident and indicator information.  This draft
   provides an alternative data model implementation in JSON.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of




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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  IODEF Data Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Abstract Data Type to JSON Data Type Mapping  . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Complex JSON Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.2.1.  Multilingual Strings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.2.2.  Software and SoftwareReference  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.2.3.  StructuredInfo  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.2.4.  EXTENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  IODEF JSON Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Classes and Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Mapping between JSON and XML IODEF  . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   4.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.1.  Minimal Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.2.  Indicators from a Campaign  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.  The IODEF Data Model (CDDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   9.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   Appendix A.  The IODEF Data Model (JSON Schema) . . . . . . . . .  35
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54

1.  Introduction

   [RFC7970] defines a data representation for security incident reports
   and indicators commonly exchanged by operational security teams.  It
   facilitates the automated exchange of this information to enable
   mitigation and watch-and-warning.  Section 3 of [RFC7970] defined an
   information model using Unified Modeling Language (UML) and a
   corresponding Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema data model in
   Section 8.  This UML-based information model and XML-based data model
   are referred to as IODEF UML and IODEF XML, respectively in this
   document.

   This document defines an alternate implementation of the IODEF UML
   information model by specifying a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
   data model using CDDL and JSON Schema [jsonschema].  This JSON data
   model is referred to as IODEF JSON in this document.

   IODEF JSON provides all of the expressivity of IODEF XML.  It gives
   implementers and operators an alternative format to exchange the same
   information.



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   The normative IODEF JSON data model is found in Section 5.  Section 2
   and Section 3 describe the data types and elements of this data
   model.  Section 4 provides examples.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  IODEF Data Types

   The abstract IODEF JSON implements the abstract data types specified
   in Section 2 of [RFC7970].

2.1.  Abstract Data Type to JSON Data Type Mapping

   IODEF JSON uses native and derived JSON data types.  Figure 1
   describes the mapping between the abstract data types in Section 2 of
   [RFC7970] and their corresponding implementations in IODEF JSON.































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 +-----------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+
 | IODEF Data Type |      [RFC7970]    |       JSON Data Type          |
 |                 |      Reference    |                               |
 +-----------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+
 | INTEGER         | Section 2.1       | "integer" per [jsonschema]    |
 | REAL            | Section 2.2       | "number" per [jsonschema]     |
 | CHARACTER       | Section 2.3       | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | STRING          | Section 2.3       | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | ML_STRING       | Section 2.4       | see Section 2.2.1             |
 | BYTE            | Section 2.5.1     | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | BYTE[]          | Section 2.5.1     | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | HEXBIN          | Section 2.5.2     | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | HEXBIN[]        | Section 2.5.2     | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | ENUM            | Section 2.6       | "enum" array per [jsonschema] |
 | DATETIME        | Section 2.7       | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | TIMEZONE        | Section 2.8       | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | PORTLIST        | Section 2.9       | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | POSTAL          | Section 2.10      | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 |                 |                   | / ML_STRING, Section 2.2.1    |
 | PHONE           | Section 2.11      | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | EMAIL           | Section 2.12      | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | URL             | Section 2.13      | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | ID              | Section 2.14      | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | IDREF           | Section 2.14      | "string" per [jsonschema]     |
 | SOFTWARE        | Section 2.15      | see Section 2.2.2             |
 | STRUCTURED      | RFC 7213          | see Section 2.2.3             |
 | EXTENSION       | Section 2.16      | see Section 2.2.4             |
 +-----------------+-------------------+-------------------------------+

                                 Figure 1





















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+-----------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
| IODEF Data Type |  CBOR Data Type  |          CDDL prelude               |
|                 |                  | [draft-ietf-cbor-cddl-05] Reference |
+-----------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
| INTEGER         | 6 tag 2, 6 tag 3 | integer                             |
| REAL            | 7 bits 26        | float32                             |
| CHARACTER       | 3 text string    | text                                |
| STRING          | 3 text string    | text                                |
| ML_STRING       | 5 map            | see Maps/Structs, Section 3.5.1     |
| BYTE            | 6 tag 22         | eb64legacy                          |
| BYTE[]          | 6 tag 22         | eb64legacy                          |
| HEXBIN          | 2 byte string    | bytes                               |
| HEXBIN[]        | 2 byte string    | bytes                               |
| ENUM            | -                | see Choices, Section 2.2.2          |
| DATETIME        | 6 tag 0          | tdate                               |
| TIMEZONE        | 3 text string    | text                                |
| PORTLIST        | 3 text string    | text                                |
| POSTAL          | 3 text string    | text                                |
|                 |                  | / see Maps/Structs, Section 3.5.1   |
| PHONE           | 3 text string    | text                                |
| EMAIL           | 3 text string    | text                                |
| URL             | 6 tag 32         | uri                                 |
| ID              | 3 text string    | text                                |
| IDREF           | 3 text string    | text                                |
| SOFTWARE        | 5 map            | see Maps/Structs, Section 3.5.1     |
| STRUCTURED      | 5 map            | see Maps/Structs, Section 3.5.1     |
| EXTENSION       | 5 map            | see Maps/Structs, Section 3.5.1     |
+-----------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+

                                 Figure 2

2.2.  Complex JSON Types

2.2.1.  Multilingual Strings

   A string that needs to be represented in a human-readable language
   different than the default encoding of the document is represented in
   the information model by the ML_STRING data type.  This data type is
   implemented as an object with "value", "lang", and "translation-id"
   elements as defined in Section 5.  Examples are shown below.

   "MLStringType": {
     "value": "free-form text",                              //STRING
     "lang": "en",                                             //ENUM
     "translation-id": "jp2en0023"                           //STRING
   }





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2.2.2.  Software and SoftwareReference

   A particular version of software is represented in the information
   model by the SOFTWARE data type.  This software can be described by
   using a reference, a URL, or with free-form text.  The SOFTWARE data
   type is implemented as an object with "SoftwareReference", "URL", and
   "Description" elements as defined in Section 5.  Examples are shown
   below.

   "SoftwareType": {
     "SoftwareReference": {...},          //SoftwareReference
     "Description": ["MS Windows"]        //STRING
   }

   SoftwareReference class is a reference to a particular version of
   software.  Examples are shown below.

   "SoftwareReference": {
     "value": "cpe:/a:google:chrome:59.0.3071.115 ",   //STRING
     "spec-name": "cpe",                                 //ENUM
     "dtype": "string",                                  //ENUM
   }

2.2.3.  StructuredInfo

   Information provided in a form of structured string, such as ID, or
   structured information, such as XML documents, is represented in the
   information model by the StructuredInfo data type.  Note that this
   type was originally specified in RFC7203.  The StructuredInfo data
   type is implemented as an object with "SpecID", "ext-SpecID",
   "ContentID", "RawData", "Reference" elements.  An example for
   embedding a structured ID is shown below.

   "StructuredInformation": {
     "SpecID": "cve",                                          //ENUM
     "ContentID": "CVE-2007-5000"                            //STRING
   }

   When embedding the raw data, base64 conversion should be used for
   encoding the data, as shown below.

   "StructuredInformation": {
     "SpecID": "oval",                                         //ENUM
     "RawData": "<<<strings encoded with base64>>>"            //BYTE
   }






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2.2.4.  EXTENSION

   Information not otherwise represented in the IODEF can be added using
   the EXTENSION data type.  This data type is a generic extension
   mechanism.  The EXTENSION data type is implemented as an
   ExtensionType object with "value", "name", "dtype", "ext-dtype",
   "meaning", "formatid", "restriction", "ext-restriction", and
   "observable-id" elements.  An example for embedding a structured ID
   is shown below.

   "ExtensionType": {
     "value": "xxxxxxx",                                      //String
     "name": "Syslog",                                        //String
     "dtype": "string",                                       //String
     "meaning": "Syslog from the security appliance X",       //String
   }

3.  IODEF JSON Data Model

3.1.  Classes and Elements

   The following table shows the list of IODEF Classes, their elements,
   and the corresponding section in [RFC7970].  Note that the complete
   JSON schema is defined in Section 5 usind CDDL.

   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | IODEF Class                 | Class              | Corresponding |
   |                             | Elements and       | Section       |
   |                             | Attribute          | in [RFC7970]  |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | IODEF-Document              | version            | 3.1           |
   |                             | lang?              |               |
   |                             | format-id?         |               |
   |                             | private-enum-name? |               |
   |                             | private-enum-id?   |               |
   |                             | Incident+          |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Incident                    | purpose            | 3.2           |
   |                             | ext-purpose?       |               |
   |                             | status?            |               |
   |                             | ext-status?        |               |
   |                             | lang?              |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | IncidentID         |               |
   |                             | AlternativeID?     |               |



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   |                             | RelatedActivity*   |               |
   |                             | DetectTime?        |               |
   |                             | StartTime?         |               |
   |                             | EndTime?           |               |
   |                             | RecoveryTime?      |               |
   |                             | ReportTime?        |               |
   |                             | GenerationTime     |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | Discovery*         |               |
   |                             | Assessment*        |               |
   |                             | Method*            |               |
   |                             | Contact+           |               |
   |                             | EventData*         |               |
   |                             | Indicator*         |               |
   |                             | History?           |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | IncidentID                  | id                 | 3.4           |
   |                             | name               |               |
   |                             | instance?          |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | AlternativeID               | restriction?       | 3.5           |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | IncidentID+        |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | RelatedActivity             | restriction?       | 3.6           |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | IncidentID*        |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | ThreatActor*       |               |
   |                             | Campaign*          |               |
   |                             | IndicatorID*       |               |
   |                             | Confidence?        |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | ThreatActor                 | restriction?       | 3.7           |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | ThreatActorID*     |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Campaign                    | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | CampaignID*        |               |



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   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.8           |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Contact                     | role               |               |
   |                             | ext-role?          |               |
   |                             | type               |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | ContactName*,      |               |
   |                             | ContactTitle*      |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | RegistryHandle*    |               |
   |                             | PostalAddress*     |               |
   |                             | Email*             |               |
   |                             | Telephone*         |               |
   |                             | Timezone?          |               |
   |                             | Contact*           |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.9           |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | RegistryHandle              | handle             |               |
   |                             | registry           |               |
   |                             | ext-registry?      | 3.9.1         |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | PostalAddress               | type?              |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | PAddress           |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.9.2         |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Email                       | type?              |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | EmailTo            |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.9.3         |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Telephone                   | type?              |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | TelephoneNumber    |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.9.4         |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Discovery                   | source?            |               |
   |                             | ext-source?        |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | Contact*           |               |
   |                             | DetectionPattern*  | 3.10          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+



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   | DetectionPattern            | restriction?       | 3.10.1        |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | Application        |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | DetectionConfiguration*  |         |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Method                      | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | Reference*         |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | AttackPattern*     |               |
   |                             | Vulnerability*     |               |
   |                             | Weakness*          |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.11          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Reference                   | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | ReferenceName?     |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.11.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Assessment                  | occurence?         |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | IncidentCategory*  |               |
   |                             | SystemImpact*      |               |
   |                             | BusinessImpact*    |               |
   |                             | TimeImpact*        |               |
   |                             | MonetaryImpact*    |               |
   |                             | IntendedImpact*    |               |
   |                             | Counter*           |               |
   |                             | MitigatingFactor*  |               |
   |                             | Cause*             |               |
   |                             | Confidence?        |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.12          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | SystemImpact                | severity?          |               |
   |                             | completion?        |               |
   |                             | type               |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.12.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | BusinessImpact              | severity?          |               |
   |                             | ext-severity?      |               |
   |                             | type               |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.12.2        |



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   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | TimeImpact                  | value              |               |
   |                             | severity?          |               |
   |                             | metric             |               |
   |                             | ext-metric?        |               |
   |                             | duration?          |               |
   |                             | ext-duration?      | 3.12.3        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | MonetaryImpact              | value              |               |
   |                             | severity?          |               |
   |                             | currency?          | 3.12.4        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Confidence                  | value              |               |
   |                             | rating             |               |
   |                             | ext-rating?        | 3.12.5        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | History                     | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | HistoryItem+       | 3.13          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | HistoryItem                 | action             |               |
   |                             | ext-action?        |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | DateTime           |               |
   |                             | IncidentID?        |               |
   |                             | Contact?           |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | DefinedCOA*        |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.13.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | EventData                   | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | DetectTime?        |               |
   |                             | StartTime?         |               |
   |                             | EndTime?           |               |
   |                             | RecoveryTime?      |               |
   |                             | ReportTime?        |               |
   |                             | Contact*           |               |
   |                             | Discovery*         |               |
   |                             | Assessment?        |               |
   |                             | Method*            |               |
   |                             | System*            |               |
   |                             | Expectation*       |               |
   |                             | RecordData*        |               |



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   |                             | EventData*         |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.14          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Expectation                 | action?            |               |
   |                             | ext-action?        |               |
   |                             | severity?          |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | DefinedCOA*        |               |
   |                             | StartTime?         |               |
   |                             | EndTime?           |               |
   |                             | Contact?           | 3.15          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | System                      | category?          |               |
   |                             | ext-category?      |               |
   |                             | interface?         |               |
   |                             | spoofed?           |               |
   |                             | virtual?           |               |
   |                             | ownership?         |               |
   |                             | ext-ownership?     |               |
   |                             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | Node               |               |
   |                             | NodeRole*          |               |
   |                             | Service*           |               |
   |                             | OperatingSystem*   |               |
   |                             | Counter*           |               |
   |                             | AssetID*           |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.16          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Node                        | DomainData*        |               |
   |                             | Address*           |               |
   |                             | PostalAddress?     |               |
   |                             | Location*          |               |
   |                             | Counter*           | 3.17          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Address                     | value              |               |
   |                             | category           |               |
   |                             | ext-category?      |               |
   |                             | vlan-name?         |               |
   |                             | vlan-num?          |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     | 3.17.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | NodeRole                    | category           |               |
   |                             | ext-category?      |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.17.2        |



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   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Counter                     | value              |               |
   |                             | type               |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | unit               |               |
   |                             | ext-unit?          |               |
   |                             | meaning?           |               |
   |                             | duration?          |               |
   |                             | ext-duration?      | 3.17.3        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | DomainData                  | system-status      |               |
   |                             | ext-system-status? |               |
   |                             | domain-status      |               |
   |                             | ext-domain-status? |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | Name               |               |
   |                             | DateDomainWasChecked?|             |
   |                             | RegistrationDate?  |               |
   |                             | ExpirationDate?    |               |
   |                             | RelatedDNS*        |               |
   |                             | Nameservers*       |               |
   |                             | DomainContacts?    | 3.18          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Nameserver                  | Server             |               |
   |                             | Address*           | 3.18.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | DomainContacts              | SameDomainContact? |               |
   |                             | Contact+           | 3.18.2        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Service                     | ip-protocol?       |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | ServiceName?       |               |
   |                             | Port?              |               |
   |                             | Portlist?          |               |
   |                             | ProtoCode?         |               |
   |                             | ProtoType?         |               |
   |                             | ProtoField?        |               |
   |                             | ApplicationHeaderField*|           |
   |                             | EmailData?         |               |
   |                             | Application?       | 3.19          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | ServiceName                 | IANAService?       |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.19.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | EmailData                   | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | EmailTo*           |               |
   |                             | EmailFrom?         |               |



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   |                             | EmailSubject?      |               |
   |                             | EmailX-Mailer?     |               |
   |                             | EmailHeaderField*  |               |
   |                             | EmailHeaders?      |               |
   |                             | EmailBody?         |               |
   |                             | EmailMessage?      |               |
   |                             | HashData*          |               |
   |                             | Signature*         | 3.19.2        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | RecordData                  | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | DateTime?          |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | Application?       |               |
   |                             | RecordPattern*     |               |
   |                             | RecordItem*        |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | FileData*          |               |
   |                             | WindowsRegistryKeysModified*|      |
   |                             | CertificateData*   |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.19.3        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | RecordPattern               | type               |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | offset?            |               |
   |                             | offsetunit?        |               |
   |                             | ext-offsetunit?    |               |
   |                             | instance?          |               |
   |                             | value              | 3.19.4        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | WindowsRegistryKeysModified | observable-id?     | 3.20          |
   |                             | Key+               |               |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Key                         | registryaction?    |               |
   |                             | ext-registryaction?|               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | KeyName            |               |
   |                             | KeyValue?          | 3.20.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | CertificateData             | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | Certificate+       | 3.21          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Certificate                 | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | X509Data           |               |
   |                             | Description*       | 3.21.1        |



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   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | FileData                    | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | File+              | 3.22          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | File                        | observable-id?     |               |
   |                             | FileName?          |               |
   |                             | FileSize?          |               |
   |                             | FileType?          |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | HashData?          |               |
   |                             | Signature*         |               |
   |                             | AssociatedSoftware?|               |
   |                             | FileProperties*    | 3.22.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | HashData                    | scope              |               |
   |                             | HashTargetID?      |               |
   |                             | Hash*              |               |
   |                             | FuzzyHash*         | 3.23          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Hash                        | DigestMethod       |               |
   |                             | DigestValue        |               |
   |                             | CanonicalizationMethod?|           |
   |                             | Application?       | 3.23.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | FuzzyHash                   | FuzzyHashValue+    |               |
   |                             | Application?       |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.23.2        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Indicator                   | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | IndicatorID        |               |
   |                             | AlternativeIndicatorID*|           |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | StartTime?         |               |
   |                             | EndTime?           |               |
   |                             | Confidence?        |               |
   |                             | Contact*           |               |
   |                             | Observable?        |               |
   |                             | uid-ref?           |               |
   |                             | IndicatorExpression?|              |
   |                             | IndicatorReference?|               |
   |                             | NodeRole*          |               |
   |                             | AttackPhase*       |               |
   |                             | Reference*         |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.24          |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+



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   | IndicatorID                 | id                 |               |
   |                             | name               |               |
   |                             | version            | 3.24.1        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | AlternativeIndicatorID      | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | IndicatorReference+| 3.24.2        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Observable                  | restriction?       |               |
   |                             | ext-restriction?   |               |
   |                             | System?            |               |
   |                             | Address?           |               |
   |                             | DomainData?        |               |
   |                             | Service?           |               |
   |                             | EmailData?         |               |
   |                             | WindowsRegistryKeysModified?|      |
   |                             | FileData?          |               |
   |                             | CertificateData?   |               |
   |                             | RegistryHandle?    |               |
   |                             | RecordData?        |               |
   |                             | EventData?         |               |
   |                             | Incident?          |               |
   |                             | Expectation?       |               |
   |                             | Reference?         |               |
   |                             | Assessment?        |               |
   |                             | DetectionPattern?  |               |
   |                             | HistoryItem?       |               |
   |                             | BulkObservable?    |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.24.3        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | BulkObservable              | type?              |               |
   |                             | ext-type?          |               |
   |                             | BulkObservableFormat?|             |
   |                             | BulkObservableList |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.24.4        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | BulkObservableFormat        | Hash?              |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.24.5        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | IndicatorExpression         | operator?          |               |
   |                             | ext-operator?      |               |
   |                             | IndicatorExpression*|              |
   |                             | Observable*        |               |
   |                             | uid-ref*           |               |
   |                             | IndicatorReference*|               |
   |                             | Confidence?        |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.24.6        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+



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   | IndicatorReference          | uid-ref?           |               |
   |                             | euid-ref?          |               |
   |                             | version?           | 3.24.7        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+
   | AttackPhase                 | AttackPhaseID*     |               |
   |                             | URL*               |               |
   |                             | Description*       |               |
   |                             | AdditionalData*    | 3.24.8        |
   +-----------------------------+--------------------+---------------+

3.2.  Mapping between JSON and XML IODEF

   o  This document treats attributes and elements of each class defined
      in [RFC7970] equally and is agnostic on the order of their
      appearances.

   o  Flow class is deleted, and classes with its instances now directly
      have instances of EventData class that used to belong to the Flow
      classs.

   o  ApplicationHeader class is deleted, and classes with its instances
      now directly have instances of ApplicationHeaderField class that
      used to belong to the ApplicationHeader class.

   o  SignatureData class is deleted, and classes with its instances now
      directly have instance of Signature class that used to belong to
      the SignatureData class.

   o  IndicatorData class is deleted, and classes with its instances now
      directly have the instances of Indicator class that used to belong
      to the IndicatorData class.

   o  ObservableReference class is deleted, and classes with its
      instances now directly have uid-ref as an element.

   o  Record class is replaced by RecordData class, and RecordData class
      is renamed to Record class.

   o  Record class is deleted, and classes with its instances now
      directly have the instances of RecordData class that used to
      belong to the Record class.

   o  The elements of ML_STRING type are prepared as two separate
      elements: one of STRING type and another of ML_STRING type, in
      order to maintain the simplicity of IODEF documents when writing
      with only STRING type characters.





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4.  Examples

   This section provides example of IODEF documents.  These examples do
   not represent the full capabilities of the data model or the the only
   way to encode particular information.

4.1.  Minimal Example

   A document containing only the mandatory elements and attributes.

   {
     "version": "2.0",
     "lang": "en",
     "Incident": [{
         "purpose": "reporting",
         "restriction": "private",
         "IncidentID": {
           "id": "492382",
           "name": "csirt.example.com"
         },
         "GenerationTime": "2015-07-18T09:00:00-05:00",
         "Contact": [{
             "type": "organization",
             "role": "creator",
             "Email": [{
               "EmailTo": "contact@csirt.example.com"
             }]
         }]
     }]
   }

4.2.  Indicators from a Campaign

   An example of C2 domains from a given campaign.

{
  "version": "2.0",
  "lang": "en",
  "Incidents": [
    {
      "purpose": "watch",
      "restriction": "green",
      "IncidentID": {
        "id": "897923",
        "name": "csirt.example.com"
      },
      "RelatedActivity": [
        {



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          "ThreatActor": [
            {
              "ThreatActorID": "TA-12-AGGRESSIVE-BUTTERFLY",
              "Description": "Aggressive Butterfly"
            }
          ],
          "Campaign": [
            {
              "CampaignID": "C-2015-59405",
              "Description": "Orange Giraffe"
            }
          ]
        }
      ],
      "GenerationTime": "2015-10-02T11:18:00-05:00",
      "Description": [
        "Summarizes the Indicators of Compromise for the Orange Giraffe campaign of the Aggressive Butterfly crime gang."
      ],
      "Assessment": [
        {
          "BusinessImpact": {
            "type": "breach-proprietary"
          }
        }
      ],
      "Contacts": [
        {
          "type": "organization",
          "role": "creator",
          "ContactName": "CSIRT for example.com",
          "Email": {
            "emailTo": "contact@csirt.example.com"
          }
        }
      ],
      "IndicatorList": [
        {
          "IndicatorID": {
            "id": "G90823490",
            "name": "csirt.example.com",
            "version": "1"
          },
          "Description": "C2 domains",
          "StartTime": "2014-12-02T11:18:00-05:00",
          "Observable": {
            "BulkObservable": {
              "type": "fqdn"
            },



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            "BulkObservableList": [
              "kj290023j09r34.example.com",
              "09ijk23jfj0k8.example.net",
              "klknjwfjiowjefr923.example.org",
              "oimireik79msd.example.org"
            ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

5.  The IODEF Data Model (CDDL)

start = iodef

;;; iodef.json: IODEF-Document

iodef = {
 version: text
 ? lang: lang
 ? format-id: text
 ? private-enum-name: text
 ? private-enum-id: text
 Incident: [+ Incident]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

duration = "second" / "minute" / "hour" / "day" / "month" / "quarter" /
           "year" / "ext-value"
lang = "" / text .regexp "[a-zA-Z]{1,8}(-[a-zA-Z0-9]{1,8})*"

restriction = "public" / "partner" / "need-to-know" / "private" /
              "default" / "white" / "green" / "amber" / "red" /
              "ext-value"
IDtype = text .regexp "[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_.-]*"
IDREFType = IDtype
TimeZonetype = text .regexp "Z|[\+\-](0[0-9]|1[0-4]):[0-5][0-9]"
PortlistType = text .regexp "\d+(\-\d+)?(,\d+(\-\d+)?)*"
action = "nothing" / "contact-source-site" / "cotact-target-site" /
         "contact-sender" / "investigate" / "block-host" /
         "block-network" / "block-port" / "rate-limit-host" /
         "rate-limit-network" / "rate-limit-port" / "redirect-traffic" /
         "honeypot" / "upgrade-software" / "rebuild-asset" /
         "harden-asset" / "remediate-other" / "status-triage" /
         "status-new-info" / "watch-and-report" / "training" /
         "defined-coa" / "other" / "ext-value"



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MLStringType = {
    value: text
    ?lang: lang
    ?translation-id: text
}

PositiveFloatType = {
    value: float32 .gt 0
}

PAddressType = MLStringType

ExtensionType  = {
 value: text
 ? Name: text
 dtype: "boolean" / "byte" / "bytes" / "character" / "date-time" /
          "ntpstamp" / "integer" / "portlist" / "real" / "string" /
          "file" / "path" / "frame" / "packet" / "ipv4-packet" /
          "ipv6-packet" / "url" / "csv" / "winreg" / "xml" / "ext-value" .default "string"
 ? ext-dtype: text
 ? meaning: text
 ? formatid: text
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
}

SoftwareType = {
 ? SoftwareReference: SoftwareReference
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

SoftwareReference = {
 ? value: text
 spec-name: "custom" / "cpe" / "swid" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-spec-name: text
 ? dtype: "bytes" / "integer" / "real" / "string" / "xml" / "ext-value" .default "string"
 ? ext-dtype: text
}

Incident = {
 purpose: "traceback" / "mitigation" / "reporting" / "watch" / "other" /
          "ext-value"
 ? ext-purpose: text
 ? status: "new" / "in-progress"/ "forwarded" / "resolved" / "future" /
           "ext-value"
 ? ext-status: text



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 ? lang: lang
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 IncidentID: IncidentID
 ? AlternativeID: AlternativeID
 ? RelatedActivity: [+ RelatedActivity]
 ? DetectTime: tdate
 ? StartTime: tdate
 ? EndTime: tdate
 ? RecoveryTime: tdate
 ? ReportTime: tdate
 GenerationTime: tdate
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? Discovery: [+ Discovery]
 ? Assessment: [+ Assessment]
 ? Method: [+ Method]
 Contact: [+ Contact]
 ? EventData: [+ EventData]
 ? Indicator: [+ Indicator]
 ? History: History
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

IncidentID = {
 id: text
 name: text
 ? instance: text
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
}

AlternativeID = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 IncidentID: [+ IncidentID]
}

RelatedActivity = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? IncidentID: [+ IncidentID]
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? ThreatActor: [+ ThreatActor]
 ? Campaign: [+ Campaign]
 ? IndicatorID: [+ IndicatorID]
 ? Confidence: Confidence
 ? Description: [+ text]



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 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

ThreatActor = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? ThreatActorID: [+ text]
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

Campaign  = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? CampaignID: [+ text]
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

Contact = {
 role: "creator" / "reporter" / "admin" / "tech" / "provider" / "user" /
       "billing" / "legal" / "irt" / "abuse" / "cc" / "cc-irt" / "leo" /
       "vendor" / "vendor-support" / "victim" / "victim-notified" /
       "ext-value"
 ? ext-role: text
 type: "person" / "organization" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-type: text
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? ContactName: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? ContactTitle: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? RegistryHandle: [+ RegistryHandle]
 ? PostalAddress: [+ PostalAddress]
 ? Email: [+ Email]
 ? Telephone: [+ Telephone]
 ? Timezone: TimeZonetype
 ? Contact: [+ Contact]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

RegistryHandle = {
 handle: text
 registry: "internic" / "apnic" / "arin" / "lacnic" / "ripe" / "afrinic" /
           "local" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-registry: text



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}

PostalAddress = {
 ? type: text
 ? ext-type: text
 PAddress: PAddressType
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringTYpe]
}

Email = {
 ? type: "direct" / "hotline" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-type: text
 EmailTo: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

Telephone = {
 ? type: "wired" / "mobile" / "fax" / "hotline" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-type: text
 TelephoneNumber: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

Discovery = {
 ? source: "nidps" / "hips" / "siem" / "av" / "third-party-monitoring" /
           "incident" / "os-log" / "application-log" / "device-log" /
           "network-flow" / "passive-dns" / "investiation" / "audit" /
           "international-notification" / "external-notification" /
           "leo" / "partner" / "actor" / "unknown" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-source: text
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? Contact: [+ Contact]
 ? DetectionPattern: [+ DetectionPattern]
}

DetectionPattern = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 Application: SoftwareType
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? DetectionConfiguration: [+ text]
}

Method = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"



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 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? Reference: [+ Reference]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? AttackPattern: [+ StructuredInformation]
 ? Vulnerability: [+ StructuredInformation]
 ? Weakness: [+ StructuredInformation]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

StructuredInformation = {
 specID: text
 ? ext-specID: text
 ? contentID: text
 ? RawData: any
 ? URL: uri
}

Reference = {
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? ReferenceName: ReferenceName
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

ReferenceName = {
 specIndex: integer
 ID: IDtype
}

Assessment = {
 ? occurrence: "actual" / "potential"
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? IncidentCategory: [+ text / MLStringType]
 Impact: [+ {SystemImpact: SystemImpact} / {BusinessImpact: BusinessImpact} /
            {TimeImpact: TimeImpact} / {MonetaryImpact: MonetaryImpact} /
            {MonetaryImpact: MonetaryImpact} / {IntendedImpact: BusinessImpact}]
 ? Counter: [+ Counter]
 ? MitigatingFactor: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? Cause: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? Confidence: Confidence
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

SystemImpact = {
 ? severity: "low" / "medium" / "high"
 ? completion: "failed" / "succeeded"



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 type: "takeover-account" / "takeover-service" / "takeover-system" /
       "cps-manipulation" / "cps-damage" / "availability-data" /
       "availability-account" / "availability-service" /
       "availability-system" / "damaged-system" / "damaged-data" /
       "breach-proprietary" / "breach-privacy" / "breach-credential" /
       "breack-configuration" / "integrity-data" /
       "integrity-configuration" / "integrity-hardware" /
       "traffic-redirection" / "monitoring-traffic" / "monitoring-host" /
       "policy" / "unknown" / "ext-value" .default "unknown"
 ? ext-type: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

BusinessImpact = {
 ? severity: "none" / "low" / "medium" / "high" / "unknown" / "ext-value" .default "unknown"
 ? ext-severity: text
 type: "breach-proprietary" / "breach-privacy" / "breach-credential" /
       "loss-of-integrity" / "loss-of-service" / "theft-financial" /
       "theft-service" / "degraded-reputation" / "asset-damage" /
       "asset-manipulation" / "legal" / "extortion" / "unknown" /
       "ext-value" .default "unknown"
 ? ext-type: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

TimeImpact = {
 value: PositiveFloatType
 ? severity: "low" / "medium" / "high"
 metric: "labor" / "elapsed" / "downtime" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-metric: text
 ? duration: duration .default "hour"
 ? ext-duration: text
}

MonetaryImpact = {
 value: PositiveFloatType
 ? severity: "low" / "medium" / "high"
 ? currency: text
}

Confidence = {
 value: float32
 rating: "low" / "medium" / "high" / "numeric" / "unknown" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-rating: text
}

History = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"



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 ? ext-restriction: text
 HistoryItem: [+ HistoryItem]
}

HistoryItem = {
 action: action .default "other"
 ? ext-action: text
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 DateTime: tdate
 ? IncidentID: IncidentID
 ? Contact: Contact
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? DefinedCOA: [+ text]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

EventData = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "default"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? DetectTime: tdate
 ? StartTime: tdate
 ? EndTime: tdate
 ? RecoveryTime: tdate
 ? ReportTime: tdate
 ? Contact: [+ Contact]
 ? Discovery: [+ Discovery]
 ? Assessment: Assessment
 ? Method: [+ Method]
 ? System: [+ System]
 ? Expectation: [+ Expectation]
 ? RecordData: [+ RecordData]
 ? EventData: [+ EventData]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

Expectation = {
 ? action: action .default "other"
 ? ext-action: text
 ? severity: "low" / "medium" / "high"
 ? restriction: restriction .default "default"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? DefinedCOA: [+ text]



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 ? StartTime: tdate
 ? EndTime: tdate
 ? Contact: Contact
}

System = {
 ? category: "source" / "target" / "intermediate" / "sensor" /
"infrastructure" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-category: text
 ? interface: text
 ? spoofed: "unknown" / "yes" / "no" .default "unknown"
 ? virtual: "yes" / "no" / "unknown" .default "unknown"
 ? ownership: "organization" / "personal" / "partner" / "customer" /
              "no-relationship" / "unknown" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-ownership: text
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 Node: Node
 ? NodeRole: [+ NodeRole]
 ? Service: [+ Service]
 ? OperatingSystem: [+ SoftwareType]
 ? Counter: [+ Counter]
 ? AssetID: [+ text]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

Node = {
 ? DomainData: [+ DomainData]
 ? Address: [+ Address]
 ? PostalAddress: PAddressType
 ? Location: [+ text / MLSTringType]
 ? Counter: [+ Counter]
}

Address = {
 value: text
 category: "asn" / "atm" / "e-mail" / "ipv4-addr" / "ipv4-net" /
           "ipv4-net-masked" / "ipv4-net-mask" / "ipv6-addr" /
           "ipv6-net" / "ipv6-net-masked" / "mac" / "site-url" /
           "ext-value" .default "ipv6-addr"
 ? ext-category: text
 ? vlan-name: text
 ? vlan-num: integer
 ? observable-id: IDtype
}




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NodeRole = {
 category: "client" / "client-enterprise" / "clent-partner" /
           "client-remote" / "client-kiosk" / "client-mobile" /
           "server-internal" / "server-public" / "www" / "mail" /
           "webmail" / "messaging" / "streaming" / "voice" / "file" /
           "ftp" / "p2p" / "name" / "directory" / "credential" /
           "print" / "application" / "database" / "backup" / "dhcp" /
           "assessment" / "source-control" / "config-management" /
           "monitoring" / "infra" / "infra-firewall" / "infra-router" /
           "infra-switch" / "camera" / "proxy" / "remote-access" /
           "log" / "virtualization" / "pos" /  "scada" /
           "scada-supervisory" / "sinkhole" / "honeypot" /
           "anomyzation" / "c2-server" / "malware-distribution" /
           "drop-server" / "hot-point" / "reflector" /
           "phishing-site" / "spear-phishing-site" / "recruiting-site" /
           "fraudulent-site" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-category: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

Counter = {
 value: float32
 type: "count" / "peak" / "average" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-type: text
 unit: "byte" / "mbit" / "packet" / "flow" / "session" / "alert" /
       "message" / "event" / "host" / "site" / "organization" /
       "ext-value"
 ? ext-unit: text
 ? meaning: text / MLStringTYpe
 ? duration: duration .default "hour"
 ? ext-duration: text
}

DomainData = {
 system-status: "spoofed" / "fraudulent" / "innocent-hacked" /
                "innocent-hijacked" / "unknown" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-system-status: text
 domain-status: "reservedDelegation" / "assignedAndActive" /
                "assignedAndInactive" / "assignedAndOnHold" /
                "revoked" / "transferPending" / "registryLock" /
                "registrarLock" / "other" / "unknown" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-domain-status: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 Name: text
 ? DateDomainWasChecked: tdate
 ? RegistrationDate: tdate
 ? ExpirationDate: tdate
 ? RelatedDNS: [+ ExtensionType]



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 ? NameServers: [+ NameServers]
 ? DomainContacts: DomainContacts
}

NameServers = {
 Server: text
 Address: [+ Address]
}

DomainContacts = {
 ? SameDomainContact: text
 Contact: [+ Contact]
}

Service = {
 ? ip-protocol: integer
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? ServiceName: ServiceName
 ? Port: integer
 ? Portlist: PortlistType
 ? ProtoCode: integer
 ? ProtoType: integer
 ? ProtoField: integer
 ? ApplicationHeaderField: [+ ExtensionType]
 ? EmailData: EmailData
 ? Application: SoftwareType
}

ServiceName = {
 ? IANAService: text
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

EmailData = {
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? EmailTo: [+ text]
 ? EmailFrom: text
 ? EmailSubject: text
 ? EmailX-Mailer: text
 ? EmailHeaderField: [+ ExtensionType]
 ? EmailHeaders: text
 ? EmailBody: text
 ? EmailMessage: text
 ? HashData: [+ HashData]
 ? Signature: [+ text]
}




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RecordData = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? DateTime: tdate
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? Applicadtion: SoftwareType
 ? RecordPattern: [+ RecordPattern]
 ? RecordItem: [+ ExtensionType]
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? FileData: [+ FileData]
 ? WindowsRegistryKeysModified: [+ WindowsRegistryKeysModified]
 ? CertificateData: [+ CertificateData]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

RecordPattern = {
 value: text
 type: "regex" / "binary" / "xpath" / "ext-value"  .default "regex"
 ? ext-type: text
 ? offset: integer
 ? offsetunit: "line" / "byte" / "ext-value" .default "line"
 ? ext-offsetunit: text
 ? instance: integer
}

WindowsRegistryKeysModified = {
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 Key: [+ Key]
}

Key = {
 ? registryaction: "add-key" / "add-value" / "delete-key" /
                   "delete-value" / "modify-key" / "modify-value" /
                   "ext-value"
 ? ext-registryaction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 KeyName: text
 ? KeyValue: text
}

CertificateData = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 Certificate: [+ Certificate]
}




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Certificate = {
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 X509Data: text
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
}

FileData = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 File: [+ File]
}

File = {
 ? observable-id: IDtype
 ? FileName: text
 ? FileSize: integer
 ? FileType: text
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? HashData: HashData
 ? Signature: [+ text]
 ? AssociatedSoftware: SoftwareType
 ? FileProperties: [+ ExtensionType]
}

HashData = {
 scope: "file-contents" / "file-pe-section" / "file-pe-iat" /
        "file-pe-resource" / "file-pdf-object" / "email-hash" /
        "email-hash-header" / "email-hash-body"
 ? HashTargetID: text
 ? Hash: [+ Hash]
 ? FuzzyHash: [+ FuzzyHash]
}

Hash = {
 DigestMethod: text
 DigestValue: text
 ? CanonicalizationMethod: any
 ? Application: SoftwareType
}

FuzzyHash = {
 FuzzyHashValue: [+ ExtensionType]
 ? Application: SoftwareType
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

Indicator = {



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 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 IndicatorID: IndicatorID
 ? AlternativeIndicatorID: [+ AlternativeIndicatorID]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]
 ? StartTime: tdate
 ? EndTime: tdate
 ? Confidence: Confidence
 ? Contact: [+ Contact]
 ? Observable: Observable
 ? uid-ref: IDREFType
 ? IndicatorExpression: IndicatorExpression
 ? IndicatorReference: IndicatorReference
 ? NodeRole: [+ NodeRole]
 ? AttackPhase: [+ AttackPhase]
 ? Reference: [+ Reference]
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

IndicatorID = {
 id: IDtype
 name: text
 version: text
}

AlternativeIndicatorID = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 IndicatorReference: [+ IndicatorReference]
}

Observable = {
 ? restriction: restriction .default "private"
 ? ext-restriction: text
 ? System: System
 ? Address: Address
 ? DomainData: DomainData
 ? EmailData: EmailData
 ? Service: Service
 ? WindowsRegistryKeysModified: WindowsRegistryKeysModified
 ? FileData: FileData
 ? CertificateData: CertificateData
 ? RegistryHandle: RegistryHandle
 ? RecordData: RecordData
 ? EventData: EventData
 ? Incident: Incident
 ? Expectation: Expectation
 ? Reference: Reference



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 ? Assessment: Assessment
 ? DetectionPattern: DetectionPattern
 ? HistoryItem: HistoryItem
 ? BulkObservable: BulkObservable
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

BulkObservable = {
 ? type: "asn" / "atm" / "e-mail" / "ipv4-addr" / "ipv4-net" /
         "ipv4-net-mask" / "ipv6-addr" / "ipv6-net" / "ipv6-net-mask" /
         "mac" / "site-url" / "domain-name" / "domain-to-ipv4" /
         "domain-to-ipv6" / "domain-to-ipv4-timestamp" /
         "domain-to-ipv6-timestamp" / "ipv4-port" / "ipv6-port" /
         "windows-reg-key" / "file-hash" / "email-x-mailer" /
         "email-subject" / "http-user-agent" / "http-request-uri" /
         "mutex" / "file-path" / "user-name" / "ext-value"
 ? ext-type: text
 ? BulkObservableFormat: BulkObservableFormat
 BulkObservableList: text
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

BulkObservableFormat = {
 ? Hash: Hash
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

IndicatorExpression = {
 ? operator: "not" / "and" / "or" / "xor" .default "and"
 ? ext-operator: text
 ? IndicatorExpression: [+ IndicatorExpression]
 ? Observable: [+ Observable]
 ? uid-ref: [+ IDREFType]
 ? IndicatorReference: [+ IndicatorReference]
 ? Confidence: Confidence
 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

IndicatorReference = {
 ? uid-ref: IDREFType
 ? euid-ref: text
 ? version: text
}

AttackPhase = {
 ? AttackPhaseID: [+ text]
 ? URL: [+ uri]
 ? Description: [+ text / MLStringType]



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 ? AdditionalData: [+ ExtensionType]
}

                       Figure 3: Data Model in CDDL

6.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Yasuaki Morita, Henk Birkholz and Carsten
   Bormann for their insightful comments on CDDL.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers a JSON schema.

8.  Security Considerations

   This memo does not provide any further security considerations than
   the one described in [RFC7970].

9.  Normative References

   [jsonschema]
              "JSON Schema", 2006.

              http://json-schema.org/

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7970]  Danyliw, R., "The Incident Object Description Exchange
              Format Version 2", RFC 7970, DOI 10.17487/RFC7970,
              November 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7970>.

Appendix A.  The IODEF Data Model (JSON Schema)

   This section provides a JSON schema that defines the IODEF Data Model
   defined in this draft.

{ "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#",
  "definitions": {
    "action": {"enum": ["nothing","contact-source-site",
               "contact-target-site","contact-sender","investigate",
               "block-host","block-network","block-port","rate-limit-host",
               "rate-limit-network","rate-limit-port","redirect-traffic",
               "honeypot","upgrade-software","rebuild-asset","harden-asset",
               "remediate-other","status-triage","status-new-info",



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               "watch-and-report","training","defined-coa","ext-value"]},
    "duration": {"enum": ["second","minute","hour","day","month","quarter",
                 "year","ext-value"]},
    "lang": {"enum": ["en","jp"]},
    "purpose": {"enum": ["traceback","mitigation","reporting","watch",
                "other","ext-value"]},
    "restriction": {"enum": ["public","partner","need-to-know","private",
                   "default","white","green","amber","red","ext-value"]},
    "status": {"enum": ["new","in-progress","forwarded","resolved",
               "future","ext-value"]},
    "DATETIME": {"type": "string"},
    "PORTLIST": {"type": "string"},
    "URLtype": {"type": "string"},
    "IDtype": {"type": "string"},
    "ExtensionType": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "name": {"type": "string"},
        "dtype": {"enum": ["boolean","byte","bytes","character","date-time",
                  "ntpstamp","integer","portlist","real","string","file",
                  "path","frame","packet","ipv4-packet","ipv6-packet","url",
                  "csv","winreg","xml","ext-value"]},
        "ext-dtype": {"type": "string"},
        "meaning": {"type": "string"},
        "formatid": {"type": "string"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"}}},
    "ExtensionTypeList": {
      "type": "array",
      "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"}},
    "SoftwareType": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "SoftwareReference": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareReference"},
        "URL": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type":"string"}}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "SoftwareReference": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "string"},
        "spec-name": {"type": "string"},
        "ext-spec-name": {"type": "string"},
        "dtype": {"type": "string"},
        "ext-dtype": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["spec-name"],



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      "additionalProperties": false},
    "StructuredInfo": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "specID": {"type": "string"},
        "ext-specID": {"type": "string"},
        "contentID": {"type": "string"},
        "RawData": {"type": "string"},
        "URL": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"}},
      "required": ["specID"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Incident": {
      "title": "Incident",
      "description": "JSON schema for Incident class",
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "purpose": {"$ref": "#/definitions/purpose"},
        "ext-purpose": {"type": "string"},
        "status": {"$ref": "#/definitions/status"},
        "ext-status": {"type": "string"},
        "lang": {"$ref": "#/definitions/lang"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "IncidentID": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IncidentID"},
        "AlternativeID": {"$ref": "#/definitions/AlternativeID"},
        "RelatedActivity": {
          "type": "array",
          "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/RelatedActivity"}},
        "DetectTime": {"type": "string"},
        "StartTime": {"type": "string"},
        "EndTime": {"type": "string"},
        "RecoveryTime": {"type": "string"},
        "ReportTime": {"type": "string"},
        "GenerationTime": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Discovery": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Discovery"}},
        "Assessment": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Assessment"}},
        "Methods": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Method"}},
        "Contacts": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"}},
        "EventData": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/EventData"}},
        "IndicatorList": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Indicator"}},



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        "History": {"$ref": "#/definitions/History"},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["IncidentID","GenerationTime","Contacts","purpose"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "IncidentID": {
      "title": "IncidentID",
      "description": "JSON schema for IncidentID class",
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "id": {"type": "string"},
        "name": {"type": "string"},
        "instance": {"type": "string"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["name"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "AlternativeID": {
      "title": "AlternativeID",
      "description": "JSON schema for AlternativeID class",
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "IncidentID": {
          "type": "array","items":{"$ref": "#/definitions/IncidentID"}},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["IncidentID"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "RelatedActivity": {
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "IncidentID": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IncidentID"}},
        "URL": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "ThreatActor": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ThreatActor"}},
        "Campaign": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Campaign"}},
        "IndicatorID": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorID"}},
        "Confidence": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Confidence"},
        "Description": { "type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "ThreatActor": {
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},



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        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "ThreatActorID": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "URL": {"type":"array","items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Campaign": {
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "CampaignID": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "URL": {"type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}}},
    "Contact": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "role": {
          "enum": ["creator","reporter","admin","tech","provider","user",
                   "billing","legal","irt","abuse","cc","cc-irt","leo",
                   "vendor","vendor-support","victim","victim-notified",
                   "ext-value"]},
        "ext-role": {"type": "string"},
        "type": {"enum": ["person","organization","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "ContactName": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "ContactTitle": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "RegistryHandle": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/RegistryHandle"}},
        "PostalAddress": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/PostalAddress"}},
        "Email": {"type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Email"}},
        "Telephone": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Telephone"}},
        "Timezone": {"type": "string"},
        "Contact": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["role","type"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "RegistryHandle": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "handle": {"type": "string"},
        "registry": {



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          "enum": ["internic","apnic","arin","lacnic","ripe","afrinic",
                   "local","ext-value"]},
        "ext-registry": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["registry"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "PostalAddress": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "type": {"type": "string"},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "PAddress": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["PAddress"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Email": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "type": {
          "enum":["direct","hotline","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "EmailTo": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["EmailTo"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Telephone": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "type": {
          "enum":["wired","mobile","fax","hotline","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "TelephoneNumber": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["TelephoneNumber"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Discovery": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "source": {
          "enum":["nidps","hips","siem","av","third-party-monitoring",
                  "incident","os-log","application-log","device-log",
                  "network-flow","passive-dns","investigation","audit",
                  "internal-notification","external-notification","leo",
                  "partner","actor","unknown","ext-value"]},
        "ext-source": {"type": "string"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Contact": {



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          "type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"}},
        "DetectionPattern": {
          "type":"array",
          "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/DetectionPattern"}}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "DetectionPattern": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Application": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "DetectionConfiguration": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["Application"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Method": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "References": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Reference"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AttackPattern": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/StructuredInfo"}},
        "Vulnerability": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/StructuredInfo"}},
        "Weakness": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/StructuredInfo"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Reference": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "ReferenceName": {"type": "string"},
        "URL":{"type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Assessment": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "occurrence": {"enum":["actual","potential"]},



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        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "IncidentCategory": {"type": "array", "items": {"type": "string"}},
        "SystemImpact": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SystemImpact"}},
        "BusinessImpact": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/BusinessImpact"}},
        "TimeImpact": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/TimeImpact"}},
        "MonetaryImpact": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/MonetaryImpact"}},
        "IntendedImpact": {
          "type":"array", "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/BusinessImpact"}},
        "Counter": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Counter"}},
        "MitigatingFactor": {
          "type": "array", "items": {"$type": "string"}},
        "Cause": {"type": "array", "items": {"$type": "string"}},
        "Confidence": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Confidence"},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "SystemImpact": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "severity": {
          "enum":["low","medium","high"]},
        "completion": {"enum":["failed","succeeded"]},
        "type": {
          "enum":["takeover-account","takeover-service","takeover-system",
                  "cps-manipulation","cps-damage","availability-data",
                  "availability-account","availability-service",
                  "availability-system","damaged-system","damaged-data",
                  "breach-proprietary","breach-privacy","breach-credential",
                  "breach-configuration","integrity-data",
                  "integrity-configuration","integrity-hardware",
                  "traffic-redirection","monitoring-traffic",
                  "monitoring-host","policy","unknown","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["type"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "BusinessImpact": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "severity": {
          "enum":["none","low","medium","high","unknown","ext-value"]},



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        "ext-severity": {"type":"string"},
        "type": {
          "enum":["breach-proprietary","breach-privacy","breach-credential",
                  "loss-of-integrity","loss-of-service","theft-financial",
                  "theft-service","degraded-reputation","asset-damage",
                  "asset-manipulation","legal","extortion","unknown",
                  "ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["type"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "TimeImpact": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "number"},
        "severity": {"enum": ["low","medium","high"]},
        "metric": {"enum": ["labor","elapsed","downtime","ext-value"]},
        "ext-metric": {"type": "string"},
        "duration": {"$ref":"#/definitions/duration"},
        "ext-duration": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["metric"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "MonetaryImpact": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "number"},
        "severity": {"enum":["low","medium","high"]},
        "currency": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Confidence": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "number"},
        "rating": {
          "enum": ["low","medium","high","numeric","unknown","ext-value"]},
        "ext-rating": {"type":"string"}},
      "required": ["rating"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "History": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "HistoryItem": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/HistoryItem"}}},
      "required": ["HistoryItem"],
      "additionalProperties": false},



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    "HistoryItem": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "action": {"$ref": "#/definitions/action"},
        "ext-action": {"type": "string"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "DateTime": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "IncidentID": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IncidentID"},
        "Contact": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "DefinedCOA": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["DateTime","action"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "EventData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "DetectTime": {"type": "string"},
        "StartTime": {"type": "string"},
        "EndTime": {"type": "string"},
        "RecoveryTime": {"type": "string"},
        "ReportTime": {"type": "string"},
        "Contact": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"}},
        "Discovery": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Discovery"}},
        "Assessment": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Assessment"},
        "Method": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Method"}},
        "System": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/System"}},
        "Expectation": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Expectation"}},
        "RecordData": {"type": "array",
                       "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/RecordData"}},
        "EventData": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/EventData"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["ReportTime"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Expectation": {
      "type": "object",



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      "properties": {
        "action": {"$ref":"#/definitions/action"},
        "ext-action": {"type": "string"},
        "severity": {"enum": ["low","medium","high"]},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "DefinedCOA": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "StartTime": {"type": "string"},
        "EndTime": {"type": "string"},
        "Contact": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "System": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "category": {
          "enum": ["source","target","intermediate","sensor",
                   "infrastructure","ext-value"]},
        "ext-category": {"type": "string"},
        "interface": {"type": "string"},
        "spoofed": {"enum": ["unknown","yes","no"]},
        "virtual": {"enum": ["yes","no","unknown"]},
        "ownership": {
          "enum":["organization","personal","partner","customer",
                  "no-relationship","unknown","ext-value"]},
        "ext-ownership": {"type": "string"},
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Node": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Node"},
        "NodeRole": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/NodeRole"}},
        "Service": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Service"}},
        "OperatingSystem": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"}},
        "Counter": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Counter"}},
        "AssetID": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["Node"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Node": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {



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        "DomainData": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DomainData"}},
        "Address": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Address"}},
        "PostalAddress": {"type": "string"},
        "Location": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Counter": {"type":"array",
                    "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/Counter"}}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Address": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "string"},
        "category": {
           "enum":["asn","atm","e-mail","ipv4-addr","ipv4-net",
                   "ipv4-net-masked","ipv4-net-mask","ipv6-addr","ipv6-net",
                   "ipv6-net-masked","mac","site-url","ext-value"]},
        "ext-category": {"type": "string"},
        "vlan-name": {"type": "string"},
        "vlan-num": {"type": "integer"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"}},
      "required": ["category"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "NodeRole": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "category": {
          "enum":["client","client-enterprise","clent-partner",
                  "client-remote","client-kiosk","client-mobile",
                  "server-internal","server-public","www","mail","webmail",
                  "messaging","streaming","voice","file","ftp","p2p","name",
                  "directory","credential","print","application","database",
                  "backup","dhcp","assessment","source-control",
                  "config-management","monitoring","infra","infra-firewall",
                  "infra-router","infra-switch","camera","proxy",
                  "remote-access","log","virtualization","pos", "scada",
                  "scada-supervisory","sinkhole","honeypot","anomyzation",
                  "c2-server","malware-distribution","drop-server",
                  "hot-point","reflector","phishing-site",
                  "spear-phishing-site","recruiting-site",
                  "fraudulent-site","ext-value"]},
        "ext-category": {"type": "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["category"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Counter": {
      "type": "object",



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      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "string"},
        "type": {"enum": ["count","peak","average","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "unit": {"enum": ["byte","mbit","packet","flow","session","alert",
                 "message","event","host","site","organization",
                 "ext-value"]},
        "ext-unit": {"type": "string"},
        "meaning": {"type": "string"},
        "duration": {"$ref":"#/definitions/duration"},
        "ext-duration": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["type","unit"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "DomainData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "system-status": {
          "enum": ["spoofed","fraudulent","innocent-hacked",
                   "innocent-hijacked","unknown","ext-value"]},
        "ext-system-status": {"type": "string"},
        "domain-status": {
          "enum": [
            "reservedDelegation","assignedAndActive","assignedAndInactive",
            "assignedAndOnHold","revoked","transferPending","registryLock",
            "registrarLock","other","unknown","ext-value"]},
        "ext-domain-status": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Name": {"type": "string"},
        "DateDomainWasChecked": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "RegistrationDate": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "ExpirationDate": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "RelatedDNS": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"}},
        "NameServers": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/NameServers"}},
        "DomainContacts": {
          "$ref": "#/definitions/DomainContacts"}},
      "required": ["Name","system-status","domain-status"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "NameServers": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "Server": {"type": "string"},
        "Address": {"type":"array",
                    "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/Address"}}},
      "required": ["Server","Address"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "DomainContacts": {



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      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "SameDomainContact": {"type": "string"},
        "Contact": {"type":"array",
                    "items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/Contact"}}},
      "required": ["Contact"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Service": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "ip-protocol": {"type": "integer"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "ServiceName": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ServiceName"},
        "Port": {"type": "integer"},
        "Portlist": {"$ref": "#/definitions/PORTLIST"},
        "ProtoCode": {"type": "integer"},
        "ProtoType": {"type": "integer"},
        "ProtoField": {"type": "integer"},
        "ApplicationHeaderField":{"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"},
        "EmailData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/EmailData"},
        "Application": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "ServiceName": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "IANAService": {"type": "string"},
        "URL": {"type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "EmailData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "EmailTo": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "EmailFrom": {"type": "string"},
        "EmailSubject": {"type": "string"},
        "EmailX-Mailer": {"type": "string"},
        "EmailHeaderField": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"}},
        "EmailHeaders": {"type": "string"},
        "EmailBody": {"type": "string"},
        "EmailMessage": {"type": "string"},
        "HashData": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/HashData"}},
        "Signature": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": [],



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      "additionalProperties": false},
    "RecordData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "DateTime": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "Applicadtion": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"},
        "RecordPattern": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/RecordPattern"}},
        "RecordItem": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"}},
        "URL": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "FileData": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/FileData"}},
        "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {
          "type": "array",
          "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/WindowsRegistryKeysModified"}},
        "CertificateData": {
          "type":"array","items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/CertificateData"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false
    },
    "RecordPattern": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "value": {"type": "string"},
        "type": {"enum": ["regex","binary","xpath","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "offset": {"type": "integer"},
        "offsetunit": {"enum":["line","byte","ext-value"]},
        "ext-offsetunit": {"type": "string"},
        "instance": {"type": "integer"}},
      "required": ["type"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "observabile-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Key": {"type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Key"}}},
      "required": ["Key"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Key": {
      "type": "object",



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      "properties": {
        "registryaction": {"enum": ["add-key","add-value","delete-key",
                          "delete-value","modify-key","modify-value",
                          "ext-value"]},
        "ext-registryaction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "KeyName": {"type":"string"},
        "KeyValue": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["KeyName"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "CertificateData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "Certificate": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Certificate"}}},
      "required": ["Certificate"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Certificate": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "X509Data": {type: "string"},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}}},
      "required": ["X509Data"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "FileData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "observable-id": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IDtype"},
        "File": {"type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/File"}}},
      "required": ["File"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "File": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "FileName": {"type": "string"},
        "FileSize": {"type": "integer"},
        "FileType": {"type": "string"},
        "URL": {"type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "HashData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/HashData"},
        "Signature": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AssociatedSoftware": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"},
        "FileProperties": {



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          "type":"array","items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionType"}}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "HashData": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "scope": {"enum": ["file-contents","file-pe-section","file-pe-iat",
                 "file-pe-resource","file-pdf-object","email-hash",
                 "email-hash-header","email-hash-body"]},
        "HashTargetID": {"type": "string"},
        "Hash": {"type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Hash"}},
        "FuzzyHash": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/FuzzyHash"}}},
      "required": ["scope"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Hash": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "DigestMethod": {"type": "string"},
        "DigestValue": {"type": "string"},
        "CanonicalizationMethod": {},
        "Application": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"}},
      "required": ["DigestMethod","DigestValue"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "FuzzyHash": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "FuzzyHashValue": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/ExtensionType"}},
        "Application": {"$ref": "#/definitions/SoftwareType"},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["FuzzyHashValue"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Indicator": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "IndicatorID": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorID"},
        "AlternativeIndicatorID": {
          "type": "array",
          "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/AlternativeIndicatorID"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "StartTime": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "EndTime": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DATETIME"},
        "Confidence": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Confidence"},
        "Contact": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Contact"}},



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        "Observable": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Observable"},
        "uid-ref": {"type": "string"},
        "IndicatorExpression":{"$ref":"#/definitions/IndicatorExpression"},
        "IndicatorReference": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorReference"},
        "NodeRole": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/NodeRole"}},
        "AttackPhase": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/AttackPhase"}},
        "Reference": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Reference"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": ["IndicatorID"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "IndicatorID": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "id": {"type": "string"},
        "name": {"type": "string"},
        "version": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": ["name","version"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "AlternativeIndicatorID": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "IndicatorReference": {
          "type": "array",
          "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorReference"}}},
      "required": ["IndicatorReference"],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "Observable": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "restriction": {"$ref": "#/definitions/restriction"},
        "ext-restriction": {"type": "string"},
        "System": {"$ref": "#/definitions/System"},
        "Address": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Address"},
        "DomainData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DomainData"},
        "EmailData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/EmailData"},
        "Service": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Service"},
        "WindowsRegistryKeysModified": {
          "$ref": "#/definitions/WindowsRegistryKeysModified"},
        "FileData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/FileData"},
        "CertificateData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/CertificateData"},
        "RegistryHandle": {"$ref": "#/definitions/RegistryHandle"},
        "RecordData": {"type": "array",
                       "item": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Record"}},



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        "EventData": {"$ref": "#/definitions/EventData"},
        "Incident": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Incident"},
        "Expectation": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Expectation"},
        "Reference": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Reference"},
        "Assessment": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Assessment"},
        "DetectionPattern": {"$ref": "#/definitions/DetectionPattern"},
        "HistoryItem": {"$ref": "#/definitions/HistoryItem"},
        "BulkObservable": {"$ref": "#/definitions/BulkObservable"},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "BulkObservable": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "type": {"enum": ["asn","atm","e-mail","ipv4-addr","ipv4-net",
                 "ipv4-net-mask","ipv6-addr","ipv6-net","ipv6-net-mask",
                 "mac","site-url","domain-name","domain-to-ipv4",
                 "domain-to-ipv6","domain-to-ipv4-timestamp",
                 "domain-to-ipv6-timestamp","ipv4-port","ipv6-port",
                 "windows-reg-key","file-hash","email-x-mailer",
                 "email-subject","http-user-agent","http-request-url",
                 "mutex","file-path","user-name","ext-value"]},
        "ext-type": {"type": "string"},
        "BulkObservableFormant":{
          "$ref": "#/definitions/BulkObservableFormat"},
        "BulkObservableList": {"type": "array", "item":{"type": "string"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "BulkObservableFormat": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "Hash": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Hash"},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "IndicatorExpression": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "operator": {"enum": ["not","and","or","xor"]},
        "ext-operator": {"type": "string"},
        "IndicatorExpression": {
          "type": "array",
          "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorExpression"}},
        "Observable": {
          "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Observable"}},
        "uid-ref": {"type": "string"},
        "IndicatorReference": {



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          "type": "array",
         "items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/IndicatorReference"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "IndicatorReference": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "uid-ref": {"type": "string"},
        "euid-ref": {"type": "string"},
        "version": {"type": "string"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false},
    "AttackPhase": {
      "type": "object",
      "properties": {
        "AttackPhaseID": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "URL": {"type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/URLtype"}},
        "Description": {"type": "array","items": {"type": "string"}},
        "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
      "required": [],
      "additionalProperties": false}},
  "title": "IODEF-Document",
  "description": "JSON schema for IODEF-Document class",
  "type": "object",
  "properties": {
    "version": {"type": "string"},
    "lang": {"$ref": "#/definitions/lang"},
    "format-id": {"type": "string"},
    "private-enum-name": {"type": "string"},
    "private-enum-id": {"type": "string"},
    "Incident": {
      "type": "array","items": {"$ref": "#/definitions/Incident"}},
      "AdditionalData": {"$ref":"#/definitions/ExtensionTypeList"}},
  "required": ["version","Incident"],
  "additionalProperties": false}

                           Figure 4: JSON schema

Authors' Addresses











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   Takeshi Takahashi
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795
   Japan

   Phone: +81 42 327 5862
   Email: takeshi_takahashi@nict.go.jp


   Roman Danyliw
   CERT, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University
   4500 Fifth Avenue
   Pittsburgh, PA
   USA

   Email: rdd@cert.org


   Mio Suzuki
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Koganei, Tokyo  184-8795
   Japan

   Email: mio@nict.go.jp

























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