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Versions: (draft-chowdhury-mip6-radius) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

Network Working Group                                            A. Lior
Internet-Draft                                       Bridgewater Systems
Intended status: Standards Track                            K. Chowdhury
Expires: August 28, 2008                                Starent Networks
                                                           H. Tschofenig
                                                                 Siemens
                                                       February 25, 2008


                       RADIUS Mobile IPv6 Support
                     draft-ietf-mip6-radius-04.txt

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 28, 2008.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).











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Abstract

   This document defines new attributes to facilitate Mobile IPv6
   operationrs using RADIUS infratstructure.  The operations include
   bootstrapping of information required by the Mobile and the interface
   between the Home Agent and the RADIUS server used to assist MIP6
   operations.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Solution Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  RADIUS Transaction in Integrated Scenario  . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  RADIUS Transactions in Split Scenario  . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  RADIUS Attribute Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.1.  MIP6-Feature-Vector  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.2.  MIP6-HA Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.3.  MIP6-HA-FQDN Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.4.  MIP6-HL-Prefix Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.5.  MIP6-HOA Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.6.  MIP6-DNS-MO Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.7.  MIP6-Careof-Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.8.  MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.9.  MIP6-Authenticator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.10. MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.11. MIP6-Timestamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.12. MIP6-MN-HA-SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.13. MIP6-Algorithm-Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.14. MIP6-Replay-Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.15. MIP6-Nonce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   5.  Use of existing RADIUS Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.1.  User-Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.2.  Service-Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.3.  NAS-Port-Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.4.  Calling-Station-Id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.5.  Use of MS-MPPE-Recv-Key and MS-MPPE-Send-Key . . . . . . . 14
     5.6.  Session-Timeout  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.7.  Message Authenticator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   6.  RADIUS attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     6.1.  MIP6-Feature-Vector Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     6.2.  MIP6-HA Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     6.3.  MIP6-HA-FQDN Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     6.4.  MIP6-HL-Prefix Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.5.  MIP6-HOA Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.6.  MIP6-DNS-MO Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     6.7.  MIP6-Careof-Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22



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     6.8.  MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     6.9.  MIP6-Authenticator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     6.10. MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     6.11. MIP6-Timestamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     6.12. MIP6-MN-HA-SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     6.13. MIP6-Algorithm-Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.14. MIP6-Replay-Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.15. MIP6-Nonce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   7.  Message Flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     7.1.  Use of RADIUS in Integrated Scenario (MSA=ASA) . . . . . . 29
       7.1.1.  HA allocation in the MSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       7.1.2.  HA allocation in the ASP (visited network) . . . . . . 31
     7.2.  Use of RADIUS In Split Scenario (MSA!=ASA) . . . . . . . . 31
       7.2.1.  Mobile Service Provider and Mobile Service
               Authorizer are the same entity.  . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       7.2.2.  Mobile Service Provider and Mobile Service
               Authorizer are different entities. . . . . . . . . . . 34
   8.  Goals for the HA-AAA Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.1.  General Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.2.  Service Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     8.3.  Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     8.4.  MN Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     8.5.  Provisioning of Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . 36
   9.  Table of Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   10. Diameter Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     12.1. Registration of new AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     12.2. New Registry: Mobility Capability  . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     12.3. Addition of existing values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 47















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1.  Introduction

   This document covers two aspects of MIP6 operations: bootstrapping of
   information required by a Mobile IPv6 Mobile using the AAA
   infrastructure and the interaction between the MIPv6 HA and the AAA
   infrastructure.

   Mobile IPv6 specification [10] requires a Mobile Node (MN) to perform
   registration with an HA with information about its current point of
   attachment (Care-of Address).  The HA creates and maintains binding
   between the MN's HOA and the MN's Care-of Address.

   In order to register with a HA, the MN needs to know some information
   such as, the Home Link prefix, the HA Address, the HOA, the Home Link
   prefix Length and security related information in order to secure the
   Binding Update.

   The aforementioned set of information may be statically provisioned
   in the MN.  However, static provisioning of this information has its
   drawbacks.  It increases provisioning and network maintenance burden
   for the operator.  Moreover, static provisioning does not allow load
   balancing, failover, opportunistic home link assignment etc.  For
   example, the user may be accessing the network from a location that
   may be geographically far away from the preconfigured home link; the
   administrative burden to configure the MN's with the respective
   addresses is large and the ability to react on environmental changes
   is minimal.  In these situations static provisioning may not be
   desirable.

   Dynamic assignment of Mobile IPv6 home registration information is a
   desirable feature for ease of deployment and network maintenance.
   For this purpose, the RADIUS infrastructure, which is used for access
   authentication, can be leveraged to assign some or all of the
   necessary parameters.  The RADIUS server in the Access Service
   Provider (ASP) or in the Mobility Service Provider's (MSP) network
   may return these parameters to the AAA client.  The AAA client might
   either be the NAS, in case of the integrated scenario, or the HA, in
   case of the split scenario.  The terms integrated and split are
   described in the terminology section and were introduced in [11].

   The second aspect of MIP6 and RADIUS interworking is the interaction
   between the HA and the AAA using the RADIUS AAA protocols.  From a
   mobility service provider (MSP) perspective, it is important to
   verify that the MN is authenticated and authorized to utilize Mobile
   IPv6 service and that such services are accounted for.  Thus, prior
   to processing the Mobile IPv6 registrations, the HA, participates in
   the authentication of the MN to verify the MN's identity.  The HA
   alsoparticipates in the Mobile IPv6 authorization process involving



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   the RADIUS infrastructure.  The HA, due to its role in traffic
   forwarding, may also perform accounting for the Mobile IPv6 service
   provided to the MN.  This document specifies the interaction between
   the HA and the RADIUS server and aligns with the work done in with
   the Diameter specifications described in [12].














































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2.  Terminology

   The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [1].

   General mobility terminology can be found in [13].  The following
   additional terms, as defined in [11], are used in this document:

   Access Service Authorizer (ASA):

      A network operator that authenticates a mobile node and
      establishes the mobile node's authorization to receive Internet
      service.

   Access Service Provider (ASP):

      A network operator that provides direct IP packet forwarding to
      and from the end host.

   Mobility Service Authorizer (MSA):

      A service provider that authorizes Mobile IPv6 service.

   Mobility Service Provider (MSP):

      A service provider that provides Mobile IPv6 service.  In order to
      obtain such service, the MN must be authenticated and authorized
      to obtain the Mobile IPv6 service.

   Split Scenario:

      A scenario where the mobility service and the network access
      service are authorized by different entities.

   Integrated Scenario:

      A scenario where the mobility service and the network access
      service are authorized by the same entity.












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3.  Solution Overview

   This document addresses the authentication, authorization and
   accounting functionality required by MIPv6 bootstrapping and
   Authentication as outlined in the MIPv6 bootstrapping problem
   statement document (see [11]).  As such, the AAA functionality for
   the integrated and the split scenario needs to be defined.  This
   requires the ability to offer support for the HA to AAA server and
   the network access server(NAS) to AAA server communication.

   To highlight the main use cases, we briefly describe the integrated
   and the split scenarios in Section 3.1 and Section 3.2, respectively.

3.1.  RADIUS Transaction in Integrated Scenario

   In the integrated scenario MIPv6 bootstrapping is provided as part of
   the network access authentication procedure.  Figure 1 shows the
   participating entity.

                      +---------------------------+  +-----------------+
                      |Access Service Provider    |  |ASA/MSA/(/MSP)   |
                      |(Mobility Service Provider)|  |                 |
                      |                           |  |    +-------+    |
                      | +-------+                 |  |    |Remote |    |
                      | |Local  |          RADIUS |  |    |RADIUS |    |
                      | |RADIUS |-------------------------|Server |    |
                      | |Proxy  |                 |  |    +-------+    |
                      | +-------+                 |  |        ^        |
                      |     ^  ^                  |  |        |RADIUS  |
                      |     |  |                  |  |        |        |
                      |     |  |                  |  |        v        |
                      |  RADIUS|                  |  |    +-------+    |
                      |     |  |        +-------+ |  |    |Local  |    |
                      |     |  | RADIUS |Home   | |  |    |Home   |    |
                      |     |  +------->|Agent  | |  |    |Agent  |    |
                      |     |           |in ASP | |  |    +-------+    |
                      |     v           +-------+ |  +-----------------+
   +-------+ IEEE     | +-----------+   +-------+ |
   |Mobile | 802.1X   | |NAS / Relay|   |DHCPv6 | |
   |Node   |----------+-|RADIUS     |---|Server | |
   |       | PANA,... | |Client     |   |       | |
   +-------+ DHCP     | +-----------+   +-------+ |
                      +---------------------------+

      Figure 1: Mobile IPv6 Service Access in the Integrated Scenario

   In the typical Mobile IPv6 access scenario as shown above, the MN
   attaches in the ASP's network.  During this network attachment



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   procedure, the NAS/RADIUS client interacts with the MN.  As shown in
   Figure 1, the authentication and authorization happens via a RADIUS
   infrastructure.

   At the time of authorizing the user for IPv6 access, the RADIUS
   server in the MSA detects that the user is authorized for Mobile IPv6
   access.  Based on the MSA's policy, the RADIUS server may allocate
   several parameters to the MN for use during the subsequent Mobile
   IPv6 protocol interaction with the HA.

   Depending on the details of the solution interaction with the DHCPv6
   server may be required, as described in [2].

3.2.  RADIUS Transactions in Split Scenario

   In the split scenario, Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping is not provided as
   part of the network access authentication procedure.  Other RADIUS
   transactions such as authentication and authorization, accounting and
   parameter configuration for MIP6 service is provided by the HA to
   RADIUS transactions.

   The Mobile IPv6 RADIUS transaction are executed with the Mobility
   Service Provider when desired by the MN.  Two variations can be
   considered:

   1.  the MSA and the MSP are the same entity.

   2.  the MSA and the MSP are different entities.

   Since scenario (2) is the more generic scenario we show it in
   Figure 2.




















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                                         +----------------------+
                                         |                      |
                                         |Mobility   +-------+  |
                                         |Service    |Remote |  |
                                         |Authorizer |RADIUS |  |
                                         |(MSA)      |Server |  |
                                         |           +-------+  |
                                         +---------------^------+
                                                         |
                                                         |RADIUS
                                                         |
                                                         |
                       +---------------------------------|------+
                       |Mobility Service Provider (MSP)  v      |
   +-------+           | +-----------+               +-------+  |
   |Mobile |  MIPv6 /  | |HA/        |     RADIUS    |Local  |  |
   |Node   |-------------|RADIUS     |-------------- |RADIUS |  |
   |       |  IKEv2    | |Client     |               |Proxy  |  |
   +-------+           | +-----------+               +-------+  |
                       +----------------------------------------+

    Figure 2: Mobile IPv6 service access in the split scenario (MSA !=
                                   MSP)

   As shown in Figure 2 the interaction between the RADIUS client and
   the RADIUS server is triggered by the protocol interaction between
   the MN and the HA/RADIUS client using IKEv2 [14] or MIPv6
   Authentication Protocol [3].  The important aspect is, however, that
   for these two approaches several different authentication and key
   exchange solutions are available.  To establish IPsec security
   associations, protecting of Mobile IPv6 signaling messages IKEv2 is
   used [14].  IKEv2 supports EAP-based authentication, certificates and
   pre-shared secrets.  For protecting using the MIPv6 Authentication
   Protocol [3] a mechanism has been designed that is very similar to
   the one used by Mobile IPv4.

   The ability to use different credentials has an impact on the
   interaction between the HA (acting as a Diameter client) and the
   RADIUS Server.  For that reason this document illustrates the usage
   of these authentication mechanisms with different subsections for:

   o  IKEv2 usage with EAP

   o  IKEv2 usage with certificates and pre-shared secrets

   o  MIPv6 Authentication Protocol

   For accounting of Mobile IPv6 services provided to the MN, this



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   specification uses the accounting application defined in [4].

   Additionally, the MN might instruct the RADIUS server (via the HA) to
   perform a dynamic DNS update.















































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4.  RADIUS Attribute Overview

4.1.  MIP6-Feature-Vector

   The MIP6-Feature-Vector when included in an Access-Request packet is
   used by the NAS or the HA to indicate supported MIP6 features.  For
   example, a NAS uses this attribute to indicate whether it can provide
   a local home agent.

   When included in an Access-Accept packet, the MIP6-Feature-Vector is
   used by the RADIUS Server to indicate supported MIP6 features and to
   select advetized feature by the NAS.  For example, if the NAS
   indicated support for local home agent assignment, the RADIUS server
   authorizes the NAS to support local home agent assignment by echoing
   the setting the same flag in the Access-Accept packet.

4.2.  MIP6-HA Attribute

   In the case of bootstrapping, the RADIUS server may decide to assign
   a HA to the MN that is in close proximity to the point of attachment
   (e.g., as determined by the NAS-ID).  There may be other reasons for
   dynamically assigning HAs to the MN, for example to share the traffic
   load.  The attribute also contains the prefix length so that the MN
   can easily infer the Home Link prefix from the HA address.

   The MIP-Home-Agent-Address AVP contains the IPv6 address of the Home
   Agent.  The Home Agent address is the same as in the received BU
   message.

4.3.  MIP6-HA-FQDN Attribute

   The RADIUS server may assign an FQDN of the HA to the MN.  The mobile
   node can perform DNS query with the FQDN to derive the HA address.

4.4.  MIP6-HL-Prefix Attribute

   For the same reason as the HA assignment, the RADIUS server may
   assign a Home Link that is in close proximity to the point of
   attachment (NAS-ID).  The MN can perform [10] specific procedures to
   discover other information for Mobile IPv6 registration.

4.5.  MIP6-HOA Attribute

   In the bootstrapping case, the RADIUS server may assign a HOA to the
   MN.  This allows the network operator to support mobile devices that
   are not configured with static addresses.  The attribute also
   contains the prefix length so that the MN can easily infer the Home
   Link prefix from the HA address.



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   In the case of interaction with the HA, the MIP6-HOA contains the
   Home Agent assigned IPv6 Home Address of the Mobile Node.

   If the MIP6-HOA AVP contains unspecified IPv6 address (0::0) in a
   request message, then the Home Agent expects the RADIUS server to
   assign the Home Address in a subsequent reply message.  In case the
   RADIUS server assigns only a Home Network Prefix to the Mobile Node
   the lower 64 bits of the MIP-Mobile-Node-Address AVP provided address
   MUST be set to zero.

4.6.  MIP6-DNS-MO Attribute

   By using this payload the RADIUS client instructs the RADIUS server
   to perform a dynamic DNS update.  When this payload is included in
   the reverse direction, i.e., from the RADIUS server to the RADIUS
   client, it informs about the status of the dynamic DNS update.  When
   the payload is sent from the RADIUS client to the RADIUS server then
   the response MUST include the MIP6-DNS-MO attribute.

4.7.  MIP6-Careof-Address

   The MIP6-Careof-Address contains the IPv6 Care-of Address of the
   Mobile Node.  The Home Agent extracts this IP address from the
   received BU message.

4.8.  MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI

   The MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI attribute contains an SPI code extracted from the
   Mobility Message Authentication Option included in the received BU
   message.

4.9.  MIP6-Authenticator

   The MIP6-Authenticator contains the Authenticator Data from the
   received BU message.  The Home Agent extracts this data from the MN-
   AAA Mobility Message Authentication Option included in the received
   BU message and sends it to the RADIUS Server.

   The RADIUS server computes its own version of the Authenticator Data
   from the received MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data (see below) and compares it
   to the value received in the MIP6-Authenticator from the HA.  If the
   values match then the Mobile Node is authenticated.

4.10.  MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data

   The MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data contains the calculated MAC_Mobility_Data,
   as defined in [3].




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4.11.  MIP6-Timestamp

   The MIP6-Timestamp contains the timestamp value from the Mobility
   message replay protection option, defined in [3].  The Home Agent
   extracts this value from the received BU message, if available.

   The support for replay protection is an optional feature in [3].
   When the RADIUS server checks the timestamp provided by the MN via
   the HA and recognizes a clock-drift (outside a locally defined replay
   protection window) then it MUST initiate the re-synchronization
   procedure by returning an Access-Accept packet with Result-Code set
   to MIP6-TIMESTAMP-MISMATCH and attaches the MIP6-Timestamp including
   it's current time back to the HA.

4.12.  MIP6-MN-HA-SPI

   The MIP6-MN-HA-SPI is part of a group of attributes used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication Protocol.  The attributes contains an SPI code
   provided by the RADIUS server for the Mobile IPv6 MN-HA.

4.13.  MIP6-Algorithm-Type

   The MIP6-Algorithm-Type is part of a group of attributes used with
   the MIPv6 Authentication protocol and contains Algorithm identifier
   for the associated Mobile IPv6 MN-HA Authentication Option.  The
   Diameter server selects the algorithm type.  Existing algorithm types
   are defined in RFC 4004 that also fulfill current RFC 4285
   requirements.

4.14.  MIP6-Replay-Mode

   The MIP6-Replay-Mode is part of a group of attributes used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication protocol and contains the replay modes as
   defined in RFC4004 to be used by the HA.

4.15.  MIP6-Nonce

   The MIP6-Nonce is part of a group of attributes used with the MIPv6
   Authentication protocol and contains the nonce to send to the Mobile.












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5.  Use of existing RADIUS Attributes

5.1.  User-Name

   If authentication via IKEv2 is used then the User-Name attribute
   SHALL be set to the IDi payload received in the IKE_AUTH exchange.

5.2.  Service-Type

   If the HA uses Service-Type(6) is SHALL set its value to "Framed"(2).

5.3.  NAS-Port-Type

   In order for the AAA to distingiues the source of the Access-Request
   NAS-Port-Type(61) is used as follows:

   When the Access-Request originates from an MIP6 HA, NAS-Port-Type
   MUST be included and its value set to HA6(IANA-TBD1).

5.4.  Calling-Station-Id

   In the split-scenario, the HA SHOULD use the Calling-Station-Id(31)
   to send the MN's COA to the AAA.  If used, the string value of the
   Calling-Station-Id(31) should be set to the 128-bit MN IPv6 COA.

5.5.  Use of MS-MPPE-Recv-Key and MS-MPPE-Send-Key

   To transport the MSK from the RADIUS to the HA, RADIUS SHALL utilize
   the MS-MPPE-Recv-Key and the MS-MPPE-Send-Key as defined in [5].  The
   first up to 32 octets of the MSK is stored into the MS-MPPE-Recv-Key,
   and the next up to 32 octets are stored into the MS-MPPE-Send-Key.
   The encryption of these attributes is described in [5].

5.6.  Session-Timeout

   The use of Session-Timeout attribue during bootstrapping operations
   is covered by various RFC's.

   The use of Session-Timeout attribute during the EAP exchanges between
   the HA and the RADIUS server are as per [6].

   In the case of the RADIUS server sending Session-Timeout to the HA in
   the Access-Accept packet, the HA SHALL use this time as the MIP
   Registration Lifetime.







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5.7.  Message Authenticator

   The use of Message Authenticator is mandated during EAP AAA
   procedures by [6].  In the case of the HA sending an Access-Request
   where EAP is not used, then the HA MUST also include the Message
   Autheticator attribute in the Access-Request packet.













































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6.  RADIUS attributes

   This section defines format and syntax for the attribute that carries
   the Mobile IPv6 parameters that are described in the previous
   section.

   The attributes MAY be present in Access-Request, Access-Accept, and
   Accounting-Request packets.

6.1.  MIP6-Feature-Vector Attribute

   Exactly one of this attribute MUST be sent by the NAS or HA in an
   Access-Request packet to inidcate support for MIP6.

   Exactly one of this attribute MUST be sent by the RADIUS server in an
   Access-Accept packet to indicate support for MIP6 and to select
   features advetized by the NAS or the HA.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |        MIP6 Features Vectors  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   MIP6 Features Vectors cont.                                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   MIP6 Features Vectors cont. |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Type:

         MIP6-FV-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         = 10 octets

      Feature Flags:

         This field is of type String.  Supporting the following values:

            MIP6_INTEGRATED (0x0000000000000001)

            When this flag is set by the NAS then it means that the
            Mobile IPv6 integrated scenario bootstrapping functionality
            is supported by the NAS.  When this flag is set by the
            RADIUS server then the Mobile IPv6 integrated scenario
            bootstrapping is supported by the RADIUS server.



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            LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT (0x0000000000000002)

            When this flag is set by the NAS then a local home agent can
            be assigned to the MN.  When this flag is set by the
            Diameter server then the assignment of location HAs is
            authorized by the Diameter server.

            RO_SUPPORTED (0x0000000800000000)

            Route optimization is supported.  When the Home Agent sets
            this bit, it indicates support for the route optimization.
            If this bit is unset in the returned Mobility-Capability
            AVP, the HAAA does not authorize route optimization for the
            MN.

            In a case the Home Agent or the HAAA cannot authorize the
            use of route optimization then the Home Agent will send a
            Binding Acknowledgement with a Status Code set to
            ACCEPTED_BUT_NO_ROUTE_OPTIMIZATION (status code TBD).  This
            Status Code indicates that the binding registration
            succeeded but the Home Agent will fail all possible
            subsequent route optimization attempts because of
            subscription or operator policy.

6.2.  MIP6-HA Attribute

   One or more of this attribute MAY be sent by the NAS to the RADIUS
   server in an Access-Request packet as a proposal by the NAS to
   allocate a local HA to the MN.

   One or more of this attribute MAY be sent by the RADIUS server to the
   NAS in an Access-Accept packet.  The attribute carries the HA address
   that may be assigned to the MN.

   [EDITOR: WHAT IS THIS ABOUT?]  This attribute MAY be MIP6-DNS-MO
   Attribute sent by the NAS to the RADIUS server in an Access-Request
   packet as a hint to suggest a dynamic HA that may be assigned to the
   MN.  The RADIUS server MAY use this value or may ignore this
   suggestion.

   If available at the NAS, at least MIP6-HA attribute and/or MIP6-HA-
   FQDN SHOULD appear in accounting packets to indicate the identity of
   the serving HA for this session.

   One and only one of this attribute SHALL be sent to the RADIUS server
   by the HA.  The value is set to the value of the Home Agent address
   recieved in the BU.




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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |   Reserved    | Prefix-Length |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                   IPv6 address of assigned HA                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          IPv6 address of assigned HA cont.                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          IPv6 address of assigned HA cont.                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          IPv6 address of assigned HA cont.                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          IPv6 address of assigned HA cont.                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |          IPv6 address of assigned HA cont.                    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      Type:

         MIP6-HA-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         = 28 octets

      Reserved:

         Reserved for future use.  The bits MUST be set to zero by the
         sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

      Prefix-Length:

         This field indicates the prefix length of the Home Link.

      IPv6 address of assigned HA:

         128-bit IPv6 address of the assigned HA.

6.3.  MIP6-HA-FQDN Attribute

   One or more instance of this attribute MAY be sent by the NAS to the
   RADIUS server in an Access-Request packet as a hint to suggest a
   dynamic HA that may be assigned to the MN.  The RADIUS server MAY use
   this value or may ignore this suggestion.

   One or more of this attribute is sent by the RADIUS server to the NAS



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   in an Access-Accept packet.  The attribute carries the FQDN of the
   assigned HA.

   If available at the NAS, at least MIP6-HA-FQDN attribute and/or
   MIP6-HA SHOULD appear in accounting packets to indicate the identity
   of the serving HA for this session.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |   FQDN of the assigned HA .....
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-HA-FQDN-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         Variable length.

      FQDN of the assigned HA:

         The data field MUST contain a FQDN as described in [15].

6.4.  MIP6-HL-Prefix Attribute

   This attribute is sent by the RADIUS-MIP server to the NAS in an
   Access-Accept packet and carries the assigned Home Link prefix.

   This attribute MAY be sent by the NAS to the RADIUS server in an
   Access-Request packet along with the MIP6-HA and/or MIP6-HA-FQDN
   attribute as a hint to suggest a Home Link prefix that may be
   assigned to the MN.  The RADIUS server MUST use this value if it
   accepts the NAS's HA suggestion.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      | Reserved      | Prefix-Length |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      |                       Home Link Prefix                        |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





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      Type:

         ASSIGNED-HL-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         >= 4 octets + the minimum length of a prefix.

      Reserved:

         Reserved for future use.  The bits MUST be set to zero by the
         sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

      Prefix-Length:

         This field indicates the prefix length of the Home Link.

      Home Link Prefix:

         Home Link prefix (upper order bits) of the assigned Home Link
         where the MN should send binding update.

6.5.  MIP6-HOA Attribute

   This attribute is sent by the RADIUS server to the NAS in an Access-
   Accept packet.  The attribute carries the assigned Home IPv6 Address
   for the MN.

   This attribute MAY be sent by the NAS to the RADIUS server in an
   Access-Request packet along with the MIP6-HA and/or MIP6-HA-FQDN
   attribute as a hint to suggest a Home Address that may be assigned to
   the MN.  The RADIUS server MUST use this value if it accepts the
   NAS's HA suggestion.

   If available at the NAS, this attribute SHOULD appear in the
   accounting packets so that the IPv6 addressed used for this session
   is known in the accounting stream.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |   Reserved    | Prefix-Length |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      |                   Assigned IPv6 HOA                           |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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      Type:

         ASSIGNED-HOA-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         = 20 octets.

      Reserved:

         Reserved for future use.  The bits MUST be set to zero by the
         sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

      Prefix-Length:

         This field indicates the prefix length of the Home Link.

      Assigned IPv6 HOA:

         IPv6 HOA that is assigned to the MN.

6.6.  MIP6-DNS-MO Attribute

   The MIP6-DNS-MO attribute is used for triggering a DNS update by the
   RADIUS server and to return the result to the RADIUS client.  The
   request MUST carry the MN's FQDN but the attribute carried in
   response to the request MAY not carry a FQDN value.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |   Reserved-1  |     Status    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |R| Reserved-2  |   FQDN                                       ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         DNS-UPDATE-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         Variable length.

      Reserved-1:

         Reserved for future use.  The bits MUST be set to zero by the
         sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.



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      Status:

         This 8 bit unsigned integer field indicates the result of the
         dynamic DNS update procedure as defined in [7].  This field
         MUST be set to 0 and ignored by the RADIUS server when the
         MIP6-DNS-MO is sent from the RADIUS client to the RADIUS
         server.  When the MIP6-DNS-MO is provided in the response,
         values of the Status field less than 128 indicate that the
         dynamic DNS update was performed successfully by the RADIUS
         server.  Values greater than or equal to 128 indicate that the
         dynamic DNS update was not successfully completed.  The
         following values for the Status field are currently defined:

         0 DNS update performed

         128 Reason unspecified

         129 Administratively prohibited

         130 DNS Update Failed

      R flag:

         If this bit for the R flag is set then the RADIUS client
         requests the RADIUS server to remove the DNS entry identified
         by the FQDN included in this attribute.  If not set, the RADIUS
         client is requesting the RADIUS server to create or update a
         DNS entry with the FQDN specified in this attribute and the
         Home Address carried in another attribute specified in this
         document.

      Reserved-2:

         Reserved for future use.  The bits MUST be set to zero by the
         sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

      FQDN of the MN:

         In an Access-Request packet the data field MUST contain a FQDN.
         In an Access-Accept packet the data field MAY contain an FQDN.
         FQDN is described in [15].

6.7.  MIP6-Careof-Address

   This attribute is available to be sent from the HA to the RADIUS
   Server.  The value of the attribute is the IPv6 addresss of the
   Care-of Address of the MN extracted from the BU message.




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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |   Reserved    | Prefix-Length |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      |                   Assigned IPv6 COA                           |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-CAREOF-ADDRESS-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         = 20 octets.

      Reserved:

         Reserved for future use.  The bits MUST be set to zero by the
         sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

      Prefix-Length:

         This field indicates the prefix length of the COA Link.

      Assigned IPv6 COA:

         IPv6 COA that is assigned to the MN.

6.8.  MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI

   Is available to be sent in an Access-Accept packet from the RADIUS
   server to he HA.  It is part of a group of attributes used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication Protocol and contains the Security Parameter
   Index used to reference the MN-HA mobility security association.

   This attribute MUST be present in an Access-Request sent from the HA
   to the RADIUS Server when using MIPv6 Authentication Protocol.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     SPI                       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   SPI cont.                   |



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      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         6 octets

      Integer representing a Security Parameter Index.

6.9.  MIP6-Authenticator

   This attribute is sent from the HA to the RADIUS server and contains
   the Authenticator data from the BU message.  The HA extract the data
   form the MN-AAA Mobility Message Authentication Option if included in
   the received BU message.

   This attribute MUST be present in an Access-Request sent from the HA
   to the RADIUS Server when using MIPv6 Authentication Protocol.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     Authenticator Data        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Authenticator Data cont ....
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-AUTHENTICATOR-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         Variable length

      String.  An octetstring representing authenticator data.

6.10.  MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data

   Attribute is sent from the HA to the RADIUS Server.  The attribute
   contains the calculated MAC_Mobility_Data as defined in [3].

   This attribute MUST be present in an Access-Request sent from the HA
   to the RADIUS Server when using MIPv6 Authentication Protocol.




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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     MAC Mobility Data         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     MAC Mobility Data cont ....
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-MAC-MOBILITY-DATA-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         Variable length

      String.  An octetstring representing authenticator data.

6.11.  MIP6-Timestamp

   This attribute is sent from the HA to the RADIUS server when
   performing MIP6 Authentication protocol.  The attribute MUST appear
   in the Access-Request if the attribute is present in the Mobility
   message replay protection.  Otherwise the attribute MUST NOT appear
   in the Access-Request packet.

   TBD there is an issue here.  In the diameter protocol, if there is a
   time mismatch we return a result code that states that there was a
   time mistmatch and we return this value.  In RADIUS land we return an
   Access-Reject but we cant really return any other attributes.

6.12.  MIP6-MN-HA-SPI

   Is available to be sent in an Access-Accept packet from the RADIUS
   server to he HA.  It is part of a group of attributes used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication Protocol and contains the Security Parameter
   Index used to reference the MN-HA mobility security association.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     SPI                       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   SPI cont.                   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






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      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-MN-HA-SPI-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         6 octets

      Integer representing a Security Parameter Index.

6.13.  MIP6-Algorithm-Type

   Is available to be sent in an Access-Accept packet from the RADIUS
   server to the HA.  It is part of a group of attributes used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication protocol and contains the algorith type.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     enumeration               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   enumeration cont.           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-ALGORITHM-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         6 octets

      Integer representing an enumeration as supported by [16]:

         2: HMAC-SHA-1 [8]

6.14.  MIP6-Replay-Mode

   Is available to be sent in an Access-Accept packet from the RADIUS
   server to the HA.  It is part of a group of attribute used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication protocol and contains the replay mode as defined
   in RFC4004 to be used by the HA.









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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     enumeration               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   enumeration cont.           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-REPLAY-MODE-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         6 octets

      Integer representing an enumeration as supported by [16]:

         1: None.

         2: Timestamps.

         3: Nonces.

6.15.  MIP6-Nonce

   Is available to be sent in an Access-Accpet packet from the RADIUS
   Server to the HA.  It is part of a group of attributes used with the
   MIPv6 Authentication protocol and contains the nonce to send to the
   MN.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      Type     |   Length      |     nonce                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                               ....
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type:

         ASSIGNED-MIP6-NONCE-TYPE to be defined by IANA.

      Length:

         Variable length





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      String.  A binary string repesenting a nonce.


















































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7.  Message Flows

7.1.  Use of RADIUS in Integrated Scenario (MSA=ASA)

   This section is based on [2] and uses the previously defined RADIUS
   attributes.

7.1.1.  HA allocation in the MSP

   RADIUS is used to authenticate the MN, to authorize it for the
   mobility service and to send information about the assigned HA to the
   NAS.


                                            |
                    --------------ASP------>|<--ASA+MSA--
                                            |
      +----+        +------+      +-------+   +-------+
      |    |        |RADIUS|      |       |   |       |
      |    |        |Client|      |       |   |       |
      | MN |        |NAS/  |      | DHCP  |   |Home   |
      |    |        |DHCP  |      | Server|   |RADIUS |
      |    |        |Relay |      |       |   |Server |
      +----+        +------+      +-------+   +-------+
        |               |             |          |
        |     1         |          1  |          |
        |<------------->|----------------------->|
        |               |             |          |
        |               |          2  |          |
        |               |<-----------------------|
        |               |             |          |
        |     3         |             |          |
        |-------------->|             |          |
        |               |             |          |
        |               |       4     |          |
        |               |------------>|          |
        |               |             |          |
        |               |       5     |          |
        |               |<------------|          |
        |               |             |          |
        |     6         |             |          |
        |<--------------|             |          |
        |               |             |          |

                         HA allocation in the MSP

   In step (1), the MN executes the normal network access authentication
   procedure (e.g., IEEE 802.11i/802.1x, PANA) with the NAS.  The NAS



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   acts as an authenticator in "pass-through" mode, i.e., the endpoint
   of the authentication dialogue is the MN's home RADIUS server.  This
   is the typical scenario in case the messages involved in the
   authentication protocol are transported in EAP.

   As per [6], the NAS encapsulates/decapsulates EAP packets into/from
   RADIUS packets until an Access-Response (either an Access-Accept or
   an Access/Reject packet is received by the NAS).  This concludes the
   network access authentication phase.

   If the NAS has the ability to support MIP6 Bootstrapping it includes
   the MIP6-Feature-Vector in the first Access-Request message and
   indicates whether it supports MIP6 bootstrapping and/or local home
   agent assignment by setting the appropriate flags therein.

   If the NAS indicates support for Local home agent assignment, then it
   may also include the MIP6-HA Attribute(s) and/or MIP6-HA-FQDN
   Attribute(s) as a proposal to the RADIUS server of the HA to assign
   in the ASP.

   In step (2), the RADIUS server sends an Access-Accept packet with the
   MIP6-Feature-Vector with the Local Home Agent Assignment flag set or
   cleared.  If the flag is cleared then the RADIUS server needs to
   provide one or more Home Agent(s) to be assigned to the MN.  If the
   flag is set, then it indicates to the NAS that it can assign HA to
   the MN; the RADIUS server may also include one or mroe HA addresses
   thus indicating that the NAS can either allocate a local HA or one
   specified by the RADIUS server.

   In step (3) the MN sends a DHCPv6 Information Request message to
   all_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers.  In the OPTION_ORO, Option Code
   for the Home Network Identifier Option shall be included in that
   message.  The Home Network Identifier Option should have id-type of
   1, the message is a request to discover home network information that
   pertains to the given realm, i.e., the user's home domain (identified
   by the NAI of the MN).  The OPTION_CLIENTID is set by the MN to
   identify itself to the DHCP server.

   In step (4) the DHCP relay agent forwards this request to the DHCP
   server.  The OPTION_MIP6-RELAY-Option is included in this forwarded
   message.  This option carries the RADIUS MIP6-HA Attribute from the
   Access-Accept packet.  If the NAS recieved the MIP6-HA-FQDN in the
   Access-Accept it peforms a DNS lookup to resolve the MIP6-HA address.

   In step (5), the DHCP server identifies the client (by DUID) and
   finds out that it requests HA information in the MSP (by the Home
   Network Identifier Option = 1).  The DHCP server extracts the HA
   address from OPTION_MIP6-RELAY-Option and places it into Home Network



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   Information Option in the Reply message.

   In step (6), the Relay Agent forwards the Reply Message to the MN.
   On reception of this message, the HA address or the FQDN of the HA is
   available at the MN.

7.1.2.  HA allocation in the ASP (visited network)

   This scenario is similar to the one described in Section 6.1.1.  The
   difference is in step (4), where the type-id field in the Home
   Network Identifier Option is set to zero, indicating that a HA is
   requested in the ASP instead of in the MSP.  Thus, the information
   received by the home RADIUS server, via the DHCP relay, in the
   OPTION_MIP6-RELAY-Option (Information Request) is ignored.  The DHCP
   server allocates a HA from its list of possible HAs and returns it in
   the Reply message (Home Network Information Option).

7.2.  Use of RADIUS In Split Scenario (MSA!=ASA)

7.2.1.  Mobile Service Provider and Mobile Service Authorizer are the
        same entity.

   The assumption in this scenario is that the MN has the domain name of
   the MSP preconfigured.

   In this scenario there is no relationship between the network access
   authentication procedure and the MIPv6 bootstrapping procedure.

   In order to learn the IP address of the HA, the MN either performs a
   DNS lookup of the HA Name or a DNS lookup by service name.  In the
   first case, the MN is preconfigured with the FQDN of the HA, and thus
   sends a DNS request, where QNAME = name of HA, QTYPE='AAAA' (request
   for IPv6 address of HA).  A DNS reply message is returned by the DNS
   server with the HA address.

   The MN then runs IKEv2 [17] with the HA in order to set up IPsec SAs
   (MN-HA).  As part of this,the MN authenticates itself to the RADIUS
   server in the MSA domain, and obtains authorization for mobility
   service (including the Home Address).

   The MN shares credentials with the RADIUS server in the MSA domain.
   The RADIUS communication between the HA and the this RADIUS server is
   also secured by RADIUS-specific mechanisms (e.g., IPsec).  Using EAP
   within IKEv2 [17], the MN is authenticated and authorized for the
   IPv6 mobility service and is also assigned a HOA.

   The setup of SAs and mutual authentication between MN and AAAH using
   RADIUS (and EAP) is similar to the one described for Diameter



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   protocol in [12].  The described mechanism ensureas that common
   keying material will be available at the MN and HA after successful
   completion.
















































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     ----------------------------ASP--------->|<-----MSA/MSP

  +----+      IKEv2  +----+    RADIUS (EAP)      +--------------------+
  | MN |<----------->| HA |<-------------------->|Remote RADIUS Server|
  +----+             +----+                      +--------------------+

   MN                             HA                Remote RADIUS server
   --                             --                --------------------
            IKE_SA_INIT
   <------------------------------>

    HDR, SK{IDi,[CERTREQ,] [IDr,]
            SAi2, TSi, TSr}
   ------------------------------->
                                   RADIUS Access-Request(EAP-Response)
                                   ---------------------------------->
                                   RADIUS Access-Challenge(EAP-Request)
                                   <-----------------------------------
    HDR, SK {IDr, [CERT,] AUTH,
             EAP }
   <-------------------------------
    HDR, SK {EAP}
   -------------------------------->
                                   RADIUS Access-Request(EAP-Response)
                                    ---------------------------------->
                                   RADIUS Access-Challenge(EAP-Request)
                                   <-----------------------------------
    HDR, SK{EAP-Request}
   <-------------------------------
    HDR, SK{EAP-Response}
   -------------------------------->
                                    RADIUS Access-Request(EAP-Response)
                                    ---------------------------------->
             ...                           ...


                                    RADIUS Access-Accept(EAP-Success)
                                    <------------------------

        HDR, SK{EAP-Success}
   <-------------------------------
    HDR, SK{AUTH}
   ------------------------------->
    HDR, SK {AUTH, SAr2, TSi, TSr }
   <-------------------------------

                          Split Scenario Exchange




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   MN and HA start with an IKE_SA_INIT to setup the IKE SA (messages
   defined in the IKEv2 specification [17], negotiating crypto
   algorithms and running DH key exchange).  IKEv2 supports integration
   with EAP.  The MN indicates its desire to use EAP by not including
   the AUTH payload in the third message.  However, it indicates its
   identity (NAI) by using the IDi field.  If the HA supports EAP for
   authentication, as per [6] it forwards the identity to the Remote
   RADIUS server by sending a RADIUS Access-Request packet containing
   the identity in the EAP-Payload AVP and in the RADIUS User-Name
   attribute.  Based on this identity, the Remote RADIUS server chooses
   authentication method and sends the first EAP-Request in the RADIUS
   Access-Challenge packet.  During the EAP authentication phase, the HA
   relays EAP packets between the MN and the Remote RADIUS server.  If
   the authentication succeeds and if the MN is authorized to use Mobile
   IPv6 service, the Remote RADIUS server sends a RADIUS Access-Accept
   packet containing the EAP-Success and the AAA-Key derived from the
   EAP authentication method.  EAP authentication methods that do not
   derive keys are not recommended.  This key is used by both MN and HA
   to generate the AUTH payload.  In subsequent messages, MN and HA
   setup IPsec SAs for Mobile IPv6.

7.2.2.  Mobile Service Provider and Mobile Service Authorizer are
        different entities.

   The HA address discovery is performed as described in Section 6.2.1.


-----------ASP--------->|<-----MSP------------------->|<-----MSA--------

  +----+      IKEv2  +----+ RADIUS (EAP)+------+ RADIUS(EAP)+------+
  | MN |<----------> | HA |<----------->|Local |<---------->|Remote|
  +----+             +----+             |RADIUS|            |RADIUS|
                                        |Proxy |            |Server|
                                        +------+            +------+

                             MSP#MSA Exchange

   The scenario is similar to previously described scenarios with the
   difference of utilizing AAA roaming agreements between the MSP and
   the MSA.











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8.  Goals for the HA-AAA Interface

   Here, we follow the classification and labels listed in the MIPv6-
   AAA-Goals document [18].

8.1.  General Goals

   G1.1-G1.4 Security

   These are standard requirements for a AAA protocol - mutual
   authentication, integrity, replay protection, confidentiality.  IPsec
   can be used to achieve the goals.  Goal G1.5 regarding inactive peer
   detection needs further investigations since heartbeat messages do
   not exist (like in the Diameter case, Watch-Dog-Request/Answer).

8.2.  Service Authorization

   G2.1.  The AAA-HA interface should allow the use of Network Access
   Identifier (NAI) to identify the MN.  The User-Name attribute can be
   used for the purpose to carry the NAI.

   G2.2 The HA should be able to query the AAAH server to verify Mobile
   IPv6 service authorization for the MN.  Any node implementing RADIUS
   functionality[9] can possibly initiate a request message.  In
   combination with the ability of the RADIUS protocol to carry EAP
   messages [6] , our solution will enable an HA to query a RADIUS
   server and verify MIPv6 authorization for the MN.

   G2.3 The AAAH server should be able to enforce explicit operational
   limitations and authorization restrictions on the HA (e.g., packet
   filters, QoS parameters).  Work in progress in the area, including
   NAS-Filter-Rule, RADIUS quality of service support, prepaid
   extensions etc. is performed.  The relevant attributes may be reused
   for providing required functionality over the AAAH-HA interface.

   G2.4 - G2.6.  Issues addressing the maintenance of a Mobile IPv6
   session by the AAAH server, e.g., authorization lifetime, extension
   of the authorization lifetime and explicit session termination by the
   AAAH server side.

   The attribute Session-Timeout may be sent in Access-Challenge or
   Access-Accept packet by the RADIUS server, thus limiting the
   authorization session duration.  In order to reauthenticate/
   reauthorize the user, the Termination-Action attribute can be
   included, with value 1, meaning the NAS should send a new RADIUS-
   Request packet.  Additional AVPs for dealing with pre-paid sessions
   (e.g,. volume, resource used--VolumeQuota AVP, ResourceQuota AVP) are
   specified in RADIUS prepaid extension.  Exchanging of application



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   specific authorization request/answer messages provides extension of
   the authorization session (e.g., Authorize Only Access-Request sent
   by the HA (NAS) to the RADIUS server).  Initiation of the re-
   authorization by both sides could be supported.  Both sides could
   initiate session termination - the RADIUS server by sending
   Disconnect message [19].

8.3.  Accounting

   G3.1 The AAA-HA interface must support the transfer of accounting
   records needed for service control and charging.  These include (but
   may not be limited to): time of binding cache entry creation and
   deletion, octets sent and received by the MN in bi-directional
   tunneling, etc.

   The requirements for accounting over the AAAH-HA interface does not
   require enhancements to the existing accounting functionality.

8.4.  MN Authentication

   G4.1 The AAA-HA interface MUST support pass-through EAP
   authentication with the HA working as EAP authenticator operating in
   pass-through mode and the AAAH server working as back-end
   authentication server.

   These issues require the functionality of AAAH server working as a
   back-end authentication server and HA working as NAS and EAP
   authenticator in pass-through mode for providing a MN authentication.
   This document suggests this mode of operation in the context of the
   relevant scenarios.

8.5.  Provisioning of Configuration Parameters

   G5.1 The HA should be able to communicate to the AAAH server the HOA
   allocated to the MN (e.g. for allowing the AAAH server to perform DNS
   update on behalf of the MN).

   This document describes needed AVPs for this purpose, see section
   "DNS Update Mobility Option Attribute"












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9.  Table of Attributes

   The following tables provides a guide to which attributes may be
   found in RADIUS packet and in what number.



The following defines the meaning of the notation used in the following
tables:

   0     An instance of this attribute MUST NOT be present.
   1     Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present
   0-1   Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present.
   0+    Zero or more instance of this attriubte MAY be present

The table below describes the RADIUS messages used for bootstrapping and are
exchanged between the NAS and the RADIUS Server.

Request  Accept  Reject  Challenge  Type    Attribute
1          1       0       0        MIP6-FV-TYPE        MIP6-Feature-Vector
0+[ac]     0+[a]   0       0        MIP6-HA-TYPE        MIP6-HA
0+[ac]     0+[a]   0       0        MIP6-HA-FQDN-TYPE   MIP6-HA-FQDN
0-1[b]     0-1     0       0        MIP6-HL-PREFIX-TYPE MIP6-HL-Prefix
0-1[b]     0-1     0       0        MIP6-HOA-TYPE       MIP6-HOA
0-1        0-1     0       0        MIP6-DNS-MO-TYPE    MIP6-DNS-MO

Notes:

[a] Either MIP6-HA or MIP6-HA-FQDN MAY appear in a RADIUS packet.

[b] If MIP6-HA or MIP6-HA-FQDN are present in the Access-Request
    then these attributes MUST also be present in the Access-Request.
    If the RADIUS server accepts the NAS suggestion for the HA, then
    the RADIUS server MUST also include the values received for these
    attributes in the Access-Accept.

[c] If these attributes are present in an Access-Request, then
    LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT flag of the MIP6-Feature-Vector MUST be set.
    Otherwise these attributes are ignored.

The following tables lists the commands and attributes used in the interaction
between the HA and RADIUS server. Each table corresponds to the different
authentication modes supported.  These attributes are in addition to the any
other attributes specified by an other specification (for example, RADIUS EAP)


Table of attributes for IKEv2 and certificate or PSK-based Authentication:




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Request  Accept  Reject  Challenge  Type    Attribute
1          0       0       0        61                  NAS-Port-Type
0-1        0       0       0        80                  Message-Authenticator
0-1        0-1     0       0        MIP6-FV-TYPE        MIP6-Feature-Vector
1          0-1     0       0        MIP6-HOA-TYPE       MIP6-HOA
0          0       0       0        MIP6-CAREOF-ADDRESS-TYPE MIP6-Careof-Address
0          0       0       0        MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI-TYPE MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI
0-1        0       0       0        MIP6-HA-TYPE        MIP6-HA
0-1        0       0       0        MIP6-AUTHENTICATOR-TYPE MIP6-Authenticator
0-1        0       0       0 MIP6-MAC-MOBILITY-DATA-TYPE MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data
0          0       0       0        MIP6-TIMESTAMP-TYPE MIP6-Timestamp
0          0       0       0        MIP6-MN-HA-SPI-TYPE MIP6-MN-HA-SPI
0          0       0       0        MIP6-ALGORITH-TYPE  MIP6-Algorithm-Type
0          0       0       0        MIP6-REPLY-MODE     MIP6-Replay-Mode
0          0       0       0        MIP6-NONCE-TYPE     MIP6-Nonce

Table of attributes for IKEv2 and EAP-based Authentication:


Request  Accept  Reject  Challenge  Type    Attribute
1          0       0       0        61                  NAS-Port-Type
1          0       0       0        80                  Message-Authenticator
0-1        0-1     0       0        MIP6-FV-TYPE        MIP6-Feature-Vector
1          0-1     0       0        MIP6-HOA-TYPE       MIP6-HOA
0          0       0       0        MIP6-CAREOF-ADDRESS-TYPE MIP6-Careof-Address
0          0       0       0        MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI-TYPE MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI
0-1        0       0       0        MIP6-HA-TYPE        MIP6-HA
0-1        0       0       0        MIP6-AUTHENTICATOR-TYPE MIP6-Authenticator
0-1        0       0       0 MIP6-MAC-MOBILITY-DATA-TYPE MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data
0          0       0       0        MIP6-TIMESTAMP-TYPE MIP6-Timestamp
0          0       0       0        MIP6-MN-HA-SPI-TYPE MIP6-MN-HA-SPI
0          0       0       0        MIP6-ALGORITH-TYPE  MIP6-Algorithm-Type
0          0       0       0        MIP6-REPLY-MODE     MIP6-Replay-Mode
0          0       0       0        MIP6-NONCE-TYPE     MIP6-Nonce


Table of attribute for MIPv6 Authentication Protocol:

Request  Accept  Reject  Challenge  Type    Attribute
1          0       0       0        61                  NAS-Port-Type
0-1        0       0       0        80                  Message-Authenticator
0-1        0-1     0       0        MIP6-FV-TYPE        MIP6-Feature-Vector
1          0-1     0       0        MIP6-HOA-TYPE       MIP6-HOA
1          0       0       0        MIP6-CAREOF-ADDRESS-TYPE MIP6-Careof-Address
0-1        0       0       0        MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI-TYPE MIP6-MN-AAA-SPI
1          0       0       0        MIP6-HA-TYPE        MIP6-HA
0-1        0       0       0        MIP6-AUTHENTICATOR-TYPE MIP6-Authenticator
0-1        0       0       0 MIP6-MAC-MOBILITY-DATA-TYPE MIP6-MAC-Mobility-Data



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0-1        0       0-1[x]  0        MIP6-TIMESTAMP-TYPE MIP6-Timestamp
0          1       0       0        MIP6-MN-HA-SPI-TYPE MIP6-MN-HA-SPI
0          1       0       0        MIP6-ALGORITH-TYPE  MIP6-Algorithm-Type
0          1       0       0        MIP6-REPLY-MODE     MIP6-Replay-Mode
0          1       0       0        MIP6-NONCE-TYPE     MIP6-Nonce

[x]  THIS IS A PROBLEM. CANT HAVE ATTRIBS IN REJECT.

As used in accounting packets:

   Request  Interim  Stop    Type    Attribute

   0-1        0-1     0-1    MIP6-HA-TYPE        MIP6-HA Attribute
   0-1        0-1     0-1    MIP6-HA-FQDN-TYPE   MIP6-HA-FQDN Attribute
   0          0       0      MIP6-HL-PREFIX-TYPE MIP6-HL-Prefix Attribute
   0-1        0-1     0-1    MIP6-HOA-TYPE       MIP6-HOA Attribute
   0          0       0      MIP6-DNS-MO-TYPE    MIP6-DNS-MO Attribute


































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10.  Diameter Considerations

   When used in Diameter, the attributes defined in this specification
   can be used as Diameter AVPs from the Code space 1-255 (RADIUS
   attribute compatibility space).  No additional Diameter Code values
   are therefore allocated.  The data types and flag rules for the
   attributes are as follows:



                                     +---------------------+
                                     |    AVP Flag rules   |
                                     |----+-----+----+-----|----+
                                     |    |     |SHLD| MUST|    |
      Attribute Name      Value Type |MUST| MAY | NOT|  NOT|Encr|
      -------------------------------|----+-----+----+-----|----|
      MIP6-HA             Address    | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
      MIP6-HA-FQDN        UTF8String | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
      MIP6-HL-Prefix      OctetString| M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
      MIP6-HOA            Address    | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
      MIP6-DNS-MO         OctetString| M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
      -------------------------------|----+-----+----+-----|----|

   Other than MIP6-HA and HOA-IPv6, the attributes in this specification
   have no special translation requirements for Diameter to RADIUS or
   RADIUS to Diameter gateways; they are copied as is, except for
   changes relating to headers, alignment, and padding.  See also [4]
   Section 4.1 and [20] Section 9.  MIP6-HA and HOA-IPv6 must be
   translated between their RADIUS representation of String to a
   Diameter Address format which requires that the AddressType field be
   set to 2 for IP6 (IP version 6)

   What this specification says about the applicability of the
   attributes for RADIUS Access-Request packets applies in Diameter to
   AA-Request [20] or Diameter-EAP-Request [21].  What is said about
   Access-Challenge applies in Diameter to AA-Answer [20] or Diameter-
   EAP-Answer [21] with Result-Code AVP set to
   DIAMETER_MULTI_ROUND_AUTH.

   What is said about Access-Accept applies in Diameter to AA-Answer or
   Diameter-EAP-Answer messages that indicate success.  Similarly, what
   is said about RADIUS Access-Reject packets applies in Diameter to AA-
   Answer or Diameter-EAP-Answer messages that indicate failure.

   What is said about Accounting-Request applies to Diameter Accounting-
   Request [20] as well.





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11.  Security Considerations

   Assignment of these values to a user should be based on successful
   authentication of the user at the NAS and/or at the HA.  The RADIUS
   server should only assign these values to a user who is authorized
   for Mobile IPv6 service (this check could be performed with the
   user's subscription profile in the Home Network).

   The NAS and the HA to the RADIUS server transactions must be
   adequately secured.  Otherwise there is a possibility that the user
   may receive fraudulent values from a rogue RADIUS server potentially
   hijacking the user's Mobile IPv6 session.

   These new attributes do not introduce additional security
   considerations besides the ones identified in [9].




































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12.  IANA Considerations

12.1.  Registration of new AVPs

   This specification defines the following new RADIUS attributes:

      MIP6-Feature-Vector is set to MIP6-FV-TYPE

      MIP6-HA is set to MIP6-HA-TYPE

      MIP6-HA-FQDN is set to MIP6-HA-FQDN-TYPE

      MIP6-HL-Prefix is set to MIP6-HL-PREFIX-TYPE

      MIP6-HOA is set to MIP6-HOsA-TYPE

      MIP6-DNS-MO is set to MIP6-DNS-MO-TYPE

12.2.  New Registry: Mobility Capability

   For MIP6-FV-TYPE flag values must be generated:


  Token                             | Value                | Description
  ----------------------------------+----------------------+------------
  MIP6_INTEGRATED                   | 0x0000000000000001   | [RFC TBD]
  LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT       | 0x0000000000000002   | [RFC TBD]
  Available for Assignment via IANA | 2^x                  |


   Allocation rule: Only numeric values that are 2^x (power of two) are
   allowed based on the allocation policy described below.

   Following the policies outlined in [1] new values with a description
   of their semantic for usage with the MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP together
   with a Token will be assigned after Expert Review initiated by the
   O&M Area Directors in consultation with the DIME working group chairs
   or the working group chairs of a designated successor working group.
   Updates can be provided based on expert approval only.  A designated
   expert will be appointed by the O&M Area Directors.  No mechanism to
   mark entries as "deprecated" is envisioned.  Based on expert approval
   it is possible to delete entries from the registry.

12.3.  Addition of existing values

   A new value HA6(IANA-TBD1) MUST be assigned to NAS-Port-Type(61)





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13.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank the following individuals for their review and
   constructive comments during the development of this document:

   Florian Kohlmayer, Mark Watson, Jayshree Bharatia, Dimiter Milushev,
   Andreas Pashalidis, Rafa Marin Lopez and Pasi Eronen.












































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14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]   Chowdhury, K. and A. Yegin, "MIP6-bootstrapping for the
         Integrated Scenario",
         draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-integrated-dhc-05 (work in
         progress), July 2007.

   [3]   Patel, A., "Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPv6",
         draft-patel-mip6-rfc4285bis-00 (work in progress),
         October 2006.

   [4]   Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. Arkko,
         "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

   [5]   Zorn, G., "Microsoft Vendor-specific RADIUS Attributes",
         RFC 2548, March 1999.

   [6]   Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial
         In User Service) Support For Extensible Authentication Protocol
         (EAP)", RFC 3579, September 2003.

   [7]   Giaretta, G., "Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping in split scenario",
         draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-split-07 (work in progress),
         July 2007.

   [8]   Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-Hashing
         for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, February 1997.

   [9]   Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson, "Remote
         Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2865,
         June 2000.

14.2.  Informative References

   [10]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
         IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [11]  Patel, A. and G. Giaretta, "Problem Statement for bootstrapping
         Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)", RFC 4640, September 2006.

   [12]  Tschofenig, H., "Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping using Diameter",
         draft-tschofenig-mip6-aaa-ha-diameter-01 (work in progress),
         October 2005.



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   [13]  Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology",
         RFC 3753, June 2004.

   [14]  Dupont, F. and V. Devarapalli, "Mobile IPv6 Operation with
         IKEv2 and the revised IPsec Architecture",
         draft-ietf-mip6-ikev2-ipsec-08 (work in progress),
         December 2006.

   [15]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
         specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [16]  Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
         August 2002.

   [17]  Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
         RFC 4306, December 2005.

   [18]  Giaretta, G., "AAA Goals for Mobile IPv6",
         draft-ietf-mip6-aaa-ha-goals-03 (work in progress),
         September 2006.

   [19]  Chiba, M., Dommety, G., Eklund, M., Mitton, D., and B. Aboba,
         "Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial
         In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 3576, July 2003.

   [20]  Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton, "Diameter
         Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005, August 2005.

   [21]  Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible
         Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
         August 2005.

   [22]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose,
         "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033,
         March 2005.

   [23]  Arkko, J., Devarapalli, V., and F. Dupont, "Using IPsec to
         Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling Between Mobile Nodes and Home
         Agents", RFC 3776, June 2004.

   [24]  Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound, "Dynamic
         Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)", RFC 2136,
         April 1997.








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Authors' Addresses

   Avi Lior
   Bridgewater Systems
   303 Terry Fox Drive, Suite 100
   Ottawa, Ontario
   Canada K2K 3J1

   Phone: +1 613-591-6655
   Email: avi@bridgewatersystems.com


   Kuntal Chowdhury
   Starent Networks
   30 International Place
   Tewksbury, MA  01876
   US

   Phone: +1 214-550-1416
   Email: kchowdhury@starentnetworks.com


   Hannes Tschofenig
   Siemens
   Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
   Munich, Bavaria  81739
   Germany

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@siemens.com






















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