[Docs] [txt|pdf|xml|html] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-ivov-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Network Working Group                                            E. Ivov
Internet-Draft                                                     Jitsi
Intended status: Standards Track                                T. Stach
Expires: December 24, 2018                                  Unaffiliated
                                                              E. Marocco
                                                          Telecom Italia
                                                             C. Holmberg
                                                                Ericsson
                                                           June 22, 2018


 A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Usage for Incremental Provisioning
 of Candidates for the Interactive Connectivity Establishment (Trickle
                                  ICE)
                  draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-18

Abstract

   The Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) protocol describes a
   Network Address Translator (NAT) traversal mechanism for UDP-based
   multimedia sessions established with the Offer/Answer model.  The ICE
   extension for Incremental Provisioning of Candidates (Trickle ICE)
   defines a mechanism that allows ICE Agents to shorten session
   establishment delays by making the candidate gathering and
   connectivity checking phases of ICE non-blocking and by executing
   them in parallel.

   This document defines usage semantics for Trickle ICE with the
   Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).  The document also defines a new
   SIP Info Package to support this usage together with the
   corresponding media type.  Additionally, a new SDP 'end-of-
   candidates' attribute and a new SIP Option Tag 'trickle-ice' are
   defined.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 1]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 24, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Discovery issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Relationship with the Offer/Answer Model  . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Incremental Signaling of ICE candidates . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Initial Offer/Answer Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.1.  Sending the Initial Offer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.2.  Receiving the Initial Offer . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.3.  Sending the Initial Answer  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.1.4.  Receiving the Initial Answer  . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Subsequent Offer/Answer Exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.3.  Establishing the Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.3.1.  Establishing Dialog State through Reliable
               Offer/Answer Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.2.  Establishing Dialog State through Unreliable
               Offer/Answer Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.3.  Initiating Trickle ICE without an SDP Answer  . . . .  14
     4.4.  Delivering Candidates in INFO Requests  . . . . . . . . .  16
   5.  Initial Discovery of Trickle ICE Support  . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.1.  Provisioning Support for Trickle ICE  . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.2.  Trickle ICE Discovery with Globally Routable User Agent
           URIs (GRUU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.3.  Fall-back to Half Trickle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   6.  Considerations for RTP and RTCP Multiplexing  . . . . . . . .  23
   7.  Considerations for Media Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   8.  SDP 'end-of-candidates' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.1.  Definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.2.  Offer/Answer Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 2]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   9.  Content Type 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag'  . . . . . . .  29
     9.1.  Overall Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     9.2.  Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   10. Info Package  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.1.  Rationale - Why INFO?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     10.2.  Overall Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     10.3.  Applicability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     10.4.  Info Package Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.5.  Info Package Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.6.  SIP Option Tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.7.  Info Request Body Parts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.8.  Info Package Usage Restrictions  . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.9.  Rate of INFO Requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.10. Info Package Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . .  35
   11. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     12.1.  SDP 'end-of-candidates' Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     12.2.  Media Type 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag' . . . . . .  36
     12.3.  SIP Info Package 'trickle-ice' . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     12.4.  SIP Option Tag 'trickle-ice' . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   14. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   15. Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   16. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     16.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     16.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46

1.  Introduction

   The Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) protocol
   [I-D.ietf-ice-rfc5245bis] describes a mechanism for Network Address
   Translator (NAT) traversal that consists of three main phases.

   During the first phase an agent gathers a set of candidate transport
   addresses (source IP address, port and transport protocol).  This is
   followed by a second phase where these candidates are sent to a
   remote agent within the Session Description Protocol (SDP) body of a
   SIP message.  At the remote agent the gathering procedure is repeated
   and candidates are sent to the first agent.  Once the candidate
   information is available, a third phase starts in parallel where
   connectivity between all candidates in both sets is checked
   (connectivity checks).  Once these phases have been completed, and
   only then, both agents can begin communication.

   According to [I-D.ietf-ice-rfc5245bis] the three phases above happen
   consecutively, in a blocking way, which can introduce undesirable
   setup delay during session establishment.  The Trickle ICE extension



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 3]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] defines generic semantics required for these
   ICE phases to happen in a parallel, non-blocking way and hence speed
   up session establishment.

   This specification defines a usage of Trickle ICE with the Session
   Initiation Protocol (SIP)[RFC3261].  It describes how ICE candidates
   are to be exchanged incrementally using SIP INFO requests [RFC6086]
   and how the Half Trickle and Full Trickle modes defined in
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] are to be used by SIP User Agents (UAs)
   depending on their expectations for support of Trickle ICE by a
   remote agent.

   This document defines a new Info Package as specified in [RFC6086]
   for use with Trickle ICE together with the corresponding media type,
   SDP attribute and SIP option tag.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119], [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   This specification makes use of terminology defined by the protocol
   for Interactive Connectivity Establishment in
   [I-D.ietf-ice-rfc5245bis] and its Trickle ICE extension
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].  It is assumed that the reader is familiar
   with the terminology from both documents.

   [I-D.ietf-ice-rfc5245bis] also describes how ICE makes use of the
   Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) protocol [RFC5389] and its
   extension Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) [RFC5766].

3.  Protocol Overview

   When using ICE for SIP according to [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp] the
   ICE candidates are exchanged solely via SDP Offer/Answer as per
   [RFC3264].  This specification defines an additional mechanism where
   candidates can be exchanged using SIP INFO messages and a newly
   defined Info Package [RFC6086].  This allows ICE candidates also to
   be sent in parallel to an ongoing Offer/Answer negotiation and/or
   after the completion of the Offer/Answer negotiation.

   Typically, in cases where Trickle ICE is fully supported, the Offerer
   sends an INVITE request containing a subset of candidates.  Once an
   early dialog is established the Offerer can continue sending
   candidates in INFO requests within that dialog.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 4]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   Similarly, an Answerer can send ICE candidates using INFO requests
   within the dialog established by its 18x provisional response.
   Figure 1 shows such a sample exchange:

      STUN/Turn                                                STUN/TURN
       Servers          Alice                      Bob          Servers
          |               |                         |                |
          |  STUN Bi.Req. |     INVITE (Offer)      |                |
          |<--------------|------------------------>|                |
          |               |      183 (Answer)       | TURN Alloc Req |
          | STUN Bi.Resp. |<------------------------|--------------->|
          |-------------->|  INFO/OK (SRFLX Cand.)  |                |
          |               |------------------------>| TURN Alloc Resp|
          |               |  INFO/OK (Relay Cand.)  |<---------------|
          |               |<------------------------|                |
          |               |                         |                |
          |               |  More Cands & ConnChecks|                |
          |               |<=======================>|                |
          |               |                         |                |
          |               |          200 OK         |                |
          |               |<------------------------|                |
          |               |            ACK          |                |
          |               |------------------------>|                |
          |               |                         |                |
          |               |<===== MEDIA FLOWS =====>|                |
          |               |                         |                |

          Note: SRFLX denotes server-reflexive candidates

              Figure 1: Sample Trickle ICE scenario with SIP

3.1.  Discovery issues

   In order to benefit from Trickle ICE's full potential and reduce
   session establishment latency to a minimum, Trickle ICE agents need
   to generate SDP Offers and Answers that contain incomplete,
   potentially empty sets of candidates.  Such Offers and Answers can
   only be handled meaningfully by agents that actually support
   incremental candidate provisioning, which implies the need to confirm
   such support before using it.

   Contrary to other protocols, where "in advance" capability discovery
   is widely implemented, the mechanisms that allow this for SIP (i.e.,
   a combination of UA Capabilities [RFC3840] and Globally Routable User
   Agent URIs (GRUU) [RFC5627]) have only seen low levels of adoption.
   This presents an issue for Trickle ICE implementations as SIP UAs do
   not have an obvious means of verifying that their peer will support
   incremental candidate provisioning.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 5]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   The Half Trickle mode of operation defined in the Trickle ICE
   specification [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] provides one way around this, by
   requiring the first Offer to contain a complete set of local ICE
   candidates and only using incremental provisioning of remote
   candidates for the rest of the session.

   While using Half Trickle does provide a working solution it also
   comes at the price of increased latency.  Section 5 therefore makes
   several alternative suggestions that enable SIP UAs to engage in Full
   Trickle right from their first Offer: Section 5.1 discusses the use
   of on-line provisioning as a means of allowing use of Trickle ICE for
   all endpoints in controlled environments.  Section 5.2 describes
   anticipatory discovery for implementations that actually do support
   GRUU and UA Capabilities and Section 5.3 discusses the implementation
   and use of Half Trickle by SIP UAs where none of the above are an
   option.

3.2.  Relationship with the Offer/Answer Model

   From the perspective of SIP middle boxes and proxies the Offer/Answer
   exchange for Trickle ICE looks partly similar to the Offer/Answer
   exchange for regular ICE for SIP [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp].
   However, in order to have the full picture of the candidate exchange,
   the newly introduced INFO messages need to be considered as well.



























Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 6]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   +-------------------------------+  +-------------------------------+
   |   Alice      +--------------+ |  | +--------------+       Bob    |
   |              | Offer/Answer | |  | | Offer/Answer |              |
   | +--------+   |    Module    | |  | |    Module    |   +--------+ |
   | |  ICE   |   +--------------+ |  | +--------------+   |  ICE   | |
   | | Module |         |          |  |        |           | Module | |
   | +--------+         |          |  |        |           +--------+ |
   +-------------------------------+  +-------------------------------+
         |              |                      |                |
         |              |    INVITE (Offer)    |                |
         |              |--------------------->|                |
         |              |     183 (Answer)     |                |
         |              |<---------------------|                |
         |              |                      |                |
         |                                                      |
         |             SIP INFO (more candidates)               |
         |----------------------------------------------------->|
         |             SIP INFO (more candidates)               |
         |<-----------------------------------------------------|
         |                                                      |
         |          STUN Binding Requests/Responses             |
         |----------------------------------------------------->|
         |          STUN Binding Requests/Responses             |
         |<-----------------------------------------------------|
         |                                                      |



       Figure 2: Distinguishing between Trickle ICE and traditional
                                signaling.

   From an architectural viewpoint, as displayed in Figure 2, exchanging
   candidates through SIP INFO requests could be represented as
   signaling between ICE modules and not between Offer/Answer modules of
   SIP User Agents.  Then, such INFO requests do not impact the state of
   the Offer/Answer transaction other than providing additional
   candidates.  Consequently, INFO requests are not considered Offers or
   Answers.  Nevertheless, candidates that have been exchanged using
   INFO requests SHALL be included in subsequent Offers or Answers.  The
   version number in the "o=" line of that subsequent Offer needs to be
   incremented by 1 per the rules in [RFC3264].

4.  Incremental Signaling of ICE candidates

   Trickle ICE Agents will exchange ICE descriptions compliant to
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] via Offer/Answer procedures and/or INFO
   request bodies.  This requires the following SIP-specific extensions:




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 7]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   1.  Trickle ICE Agents MUST indicate support for Trickle ICE by
       including the SIP option-tag 'trickle-ice' in a SIP Supported:
       header field within all SIP INVITE requests and responses.

   2.  Trickle ICE Agents MUST indicate support for Trickle ICE by
       including the ice-option 'trickle' within all SDP Offers and
       Answers in accordance to [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].

   3.  Trickle ICE Agents MAY include any number of ICE candidates, i.e.
       from zero to the complete set of candidates, in their initial
       Offer or Answer.  If the complete candidate set is included
       already in the initial Offer, this is called Half-Trickle.

   4.  Trickle ICE Agents MAY exchange additional ICE candidates using
       INFO requests within an existing INVITE dialog usage (including
       an early dialog) as specified in [RFC6086].  The INFO requests
       carry an Info-Package: trickle-ice.  Trickle ICE Agents MUST be
       prepared to receive INFO requests within that same dialog usage,
       containing additional candidates and/or an indication that
       trickling of such candidates has ended.

   5.  Trickle ICE Agents MAY exchange additional ICE candidates before
       the Answerer has sent the Answer provided that an invite dialog
       usage is established at both Trickle ICE Agents.  Note that in
       case of forking multiple early dialogs may exist.

   The following sections provide further details on how Trickle ICE
   Agents perform the initial Offer/Answer exchange (Section 4.1),
   perform subsequent Offer/Answer exchanges (Section 4.2) and establish
   the INVITE dialog usage (Section 4.3) such that they can
   incrementally trickle candidates (Section 4.4).

4.1.  Initial Offer/Answer Exchange

4.1.1.  Sending the Initial Offer

   If the Offerer includes candidates in its initial Offer, it MUST
   encode these candidates as specified in
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp].

   If the Offerer wants to send its initial Offer before knowing any
   candidate for one or more media descriptions, it MUST set the port to
   the default value '9' for these media descriptions.  If the Offerer
   does not want to include the host IP address in the corresponding
   c-line, e.g. due to privacy reasons, it SHOULD include a default
   address in the c-line, which is set to the IPv4 address 0.0.0.0 or to
   the IPv6 equivalent ::.




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 8]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   In this case, the Offerer obviously cannot know the RTCP transport
   address and, thus, MUST NOT include the "a=rtcp" attribute [RFC6086].
   This avoids potential ICE mismatch (see
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]) for the RTCP transport address.

   If the Offerer wants to use RTCP multiplexing [RFC5761] and/or
   exclusive RTCP multiplexing [I-D.ietf-mmusic-mux-exclusive], it still
   will include the "a=rtcp-mux" and/or "a=rctp-mux-only" attribute in
   the initial Offer.

   In any case, the Offerer MUST include the attribute "a=ice-
   options:trickle" in accordance to [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] and MUST
   include in each "m="-line a "a=mid:" attribute in accordance to
   [RFC5888].  The "a=mid:" attribute identifies the "m="-line to which
   a candidate belongs and helps in case of multiple "m="-lines, when
   candidates gathering could occur in a order different from the order
   of the "m="-lines.

4.1.2.  Receiving the Initial Offer

   If the initial Offer included candidates, the Answerer uses these
   candidates to start ICE processing as specified in
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].

   If the initial Offer included the attribute a=ice-options:trickle,
   the Answerer MUST be prepared for receiving trickled candidates later
   on.

   In case of a "m/c=" line with default values none of the eventually
   trickled candidates will match the default destination.  This
   situation MUST NOT cause an ICE mismatch (see
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]).

4.1.3.  Sending the Initial Answer

   If the Answerer includes candidates in its initial Answer, it MUST
   encode these candidates as specified in
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp].

   If the Answerer wants to send its initial Answer before knowing any
   candidate for one or more media descriptions, it MUST set the port to
   the default value '9' for these media descriptions.  If the Answerer
   does not want to include the host IP address in the corresponding
   c-line, e.g. due to privacy reasons, it SHOULD include a default
   address in the c-line, which is set to the IPv4 address 0.0.0.0 or to
   the IPv6 equivalent ::.





Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018               [Page 9]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   In this case, the Answerer obviously cannot know the RTCP transport
   address and, thus, MUST NOT include the "a=rtcp" attribute [RFC6086].
   This avoids potential ICE mismatch (see
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]) for the RTCP transport address.

   If the Answerer accepts to use RTCP multiplexing [RFC5761] and/or
   exclusive RTCP multiplexing [I-D.ietf-mmusic-mux-exclusive], it will
   include the "a=rtcp-mux" attribute in the initial Answer.

   In any case, the Answerer MUST include the attribute "a=ice-
   options:trickle" in accordance to [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] and MUST
   include in each "m="-line a "a=mid:" attribute in accordance to
   [RFC5888].

4.1.4.  Receiving the Initial Answer

   If the initial Answer included candidates, the Offerer uses these
   candidates to start ICE processing as specified in
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].

   In case of a "m/c=" line with default values none of the eventually
   trickled candidates will match the default destination.  This
   situation MUST NOT cause an ICE mismatch (see
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]).

4.2.  Subsequent Offer/Answer Exchanges

   Subsequent Offer/Answer exchanges are handled as for regular ICE (see
   section 4.2 of [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]).

   If an Offer or Answer needs to be sent while the ICE agents are in
   the middle of trickling section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp])
   applies.  This means that an ICE agent includes candidate attributes
   for all local candidates it had trickled previously for a specific
   media stream.

   [RFC EDITOR NOTE: The section 3.2 in above sentence is correct for
   version 20 of said I-D.  Authors need to cross-check during Auth48
   since it could have have changed in the meantime.]

4.3.  Establishing the Dialog

   In order to be able to start trickling, the following two conditions
   need to be satisfied at the SIP UAs:

   o  Trickle ICE support at the peer agent MUST be confirmed.

   o  A dialog MUST have been created between the peers.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 10]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   Section 5 discusses in detail the various options for satisfying the
   first of the above conditions.  Regardless of those mechanisms,
   however, agents are certain to have a clear understanding of whether
   their peers support trickle ICE once an Offer and an Answer have been
   exchanged, which also allows for ICE processing to commence (see
   Figure 3).

4.3.1.  Establishing Dialog State through Reliable Offer/Answer Delivery

                   Alice                      Bob
                     |                         |
                     |     INVITE (Offer)      |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |      183 (Answer)       |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |        PRACK/OK         |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |                         |
             +----------------------------------------+
             |Alice and Bob know that both can trickle|
             |and know that the dialog is in the early|
             |state. Send INFO!                       |
             +----------------------------------------+
                     |                         |
                     |  INFO/OK (+SRFLX Cand.) |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |  INFO/OK (+SRFLX Cand.) |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |                         |

           Note: SRFLX denotes server-reflexive candidates


    Figure 3: SIP Offerer can freely trickle as soon as it receives an
                                  Answer.

   As shown in Figure 3 satisfying both conditions is relatively trivial
   for ICE Agents that have sent an Offer in an INVITE and that have
   received an Answer in a reliable provisional response.  It is
   guaranteed to have confirmed support for Trickle ICE at the Answerer
   (or lack thereof) and to have fully initialized the SIP dialog at
   both ends.  Offerers and Answerers (after receipt of the PRACK
   request) in the above situation can therefore freely commence
   trickling within the newly established dialog.







Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 11]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


4.3.2.  Establishing Dialog State through Unreliable Offer/Answer
        Delivery

   The situation is a bit more delicate for agents that have received an
   Offer in an INVITE request and have sent an Answer in an unreliable
   provisional response because, once the response has been sent, the
   Answerer does not know when or if it has been received (Figure 4).

                   Alice                      Bob
                     |                         |
                     |     INVITE (Offer)      |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |      183 (Answer)       |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |                         |
                     |               +----------------------+
                     |               |Bob:  I don't know if |
                     |               |Alice got my 183 or if|
                     |               |her dialog is already |
                     |               |in the early state.   |
                     |               |  Can I send INFO???  |
                     |               +----------------------+
                     |                         |

    Figure 4: A SIP UA that sent an Answer in an unreliable provisional
    response does not know if it was received and if the dialog at the
              side of the Offerer has entered the early state

   In order to clear this ambiguity as soon as possible, the Answerer
   needs to retransmit the provisional response with the exponential
   back-off timers described in [RFC3262].  These retransmissions MUST
   cease on receipt of an INFO request carrying a 'trickle-ice' Info
   Package body, on receipt of any other in-dialog request from the
   offerer or on transmission of the Answer in a 2xx response.  The
   offerer cannot send in-dialog requests until it receives a response,
   so the arrival of such a request proves that the response has
   arrived.  Using the INFO request for dialog confirmation is similar
   to the procedure described in section 6.1.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp] except that the STUN binding Request is
   replaced by the INFO request.

   [RFC EDITOR NOTE: The section 6.1.1 in above sentence is correct for
   version 20 of said I-D.  Authors need to cross-check during Auth48
   since it could have have changed in the meantime.]

   The Offerer MUST send a Trickle ICE INFO request as soon as it
   receives an SDP Answer in an unreliable provisional response.  This
   INFO request MUST repeat the candidates that were already provided in



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 12]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   the Offer (as would be the case when Half Trickle is performed or
   when new candidates have not been learned since then).  The first
   case could happen when Half Trickle is used and all candidate are
   already in the initial offer.  The second case could happen when Full
   Trickle is used and the offerer is currently gathering additional
   candidates, but did not yet get them.  Also, if the initial Offer did
   not contain any candidates, depending on how the Offerer gathers its
   candidates and how long it takes to do so, this INFO could still
   contain no candidates.

   When Full Trickle is used and if newly learned candidates are
   available, the Offerer SHOULD also deliver these candidates in said
   INFO request, unless it wants to hold back some candidates in
   reserve, e.g. in case that these candidates are expensive to use and
   would only be trickled if all other candidates failed.

   The Offerer SHOULD include an end-of-candidates attribute in case
   candidate discovery has ended in the mean time and no further
   candidates are to be trickled.

   As soon as an Answerer has received such an INFO request, the
   Answerer has an indication that a dialog is established at both ends
   and can begin trickling (Figure 5).

   Note: The +SRFLX in Figure 5 indicates that additionally newly
   learned server-reflexive candidates are included.

























Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 13]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


                   Alice                      Bob
                     |                         |
                     |     INVITE (Offer)      |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |      183 (Answer)       |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |  INFO/OK (+SRFLX Cand.) |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |                         |
                     |               +----------------------+
                     |               |Bob:  Now I know Alice|
                     |               | is ready. Send INFO! |
                     |               +----------------------+
                     |  INFO/OK (+SRFLX Cand.) |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |                         |
                     |    200/ACK (Answer)     |
                     |<------------------------|

             Note: SRFLX denotes server-reflexive candidates


     Figure 5: A SIP UA that received an INFO request after sending an
   unreliable provisional response knows that the dialog at the side of
                 the receiver has entered the early state

   When sending the Answer in the 200 OK response to the INVITE request,
   the Answerer needs to repeat exactly the same Answer that was
   previously sent in the unreliable provisional response in order to
   fulfill the corresponding requirements in [RFC3264].  Thus, the
   Offerer needs to be prepared for receiving a different number of
   candidates in that repeated Answer than previously exchanged via
   trickling and MUST ignore the candidate information in that 200 OK
   response.

4.3.3.  Initiating Trickle ICE without an SDP Answer

   The ability to convey arbitrary candidates in INFO message bodies
   allows ICE Agents to initiate trickling without actually sending an
   Answer.  Trickle ICE Agents can therefore respond to an INVITE
   request with provisional responses without an SDP Answer [RFC3261].
   Such provisional responses serve for establishing an early dialog.

   Agents that choose to establish the dialog in this way, MUST
   retransmit these responses with the exponential back-off timers
   described in [RFC3262].  These retransmissions MUST cease on receipt
   of an INFO request carrying a 'trickle-ice' Info Package body, on
   receipt any in-dialog request from the offerer or on transmission of



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 14]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   the Answer in a 2xx response.  The offerer cannot send in-dialog
   requests until it receives a response, so the arrival of such a
   request proves that the response has arrived.  This is again similar
   to the procedure described in section 6.1.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp] except that an Answer is not yet
   provided.

   [RFC EDITOR NOTE: The section 6.1.1 in above sentence is correct for
   version 20 of said I-D.  Authors need to cross-check during Auth48
   since it could have have changed in the meantime.]

   Note: The +SRFLX in Figure 6 indicates that additionally newly
   learned server-reflexive candidates are included.

                   Alice                      Bob
                     |                         |
                     |     INVITE (Offer)      |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |      183 (-)            |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |  INFO/OK (SRFLX Cand.)  |
                     |------------------------>|
                     |                         |
                     |               +----------------------+
                     |               |Bob:  Now I know again|
                     |               | that Alice is ready. |
                     |               | Send INFO!           |
                     |               +----------------------+
                     |  INFO/OK (SRFLX Cand.)  |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |    183 (Answer) opt.    |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |  INFO/OK (SRFLX Cand.)  |
                     |<------------------------|
                     |    200/ACK (Answer)     |
                     |<------------------------|

          Note: SRFLX denotes server-reflexive candidates


    Figure 6: A SIP UA sends an unreliable provisional response without
                an Answer for establishing an early dialog

   When sending the Answer, the agent MUST repeat all currently known
   and used candidates, if any, and MAY include all newly gathered
   candidates since the last INFO request was sent.  However, if that
   Answer was already sent in a unreliable provisional response, the
   Answerers MUST repeat exactly the same Answer in the 200 OK response



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 15]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   to the INVITE request in order to fulfill the corresponding
   requirements in [RFC3264].  In case that trickling continued, an
   Offerer needs to be prepared for receiving fewer candidates in that
   repeated Answer than previously exchanged via trickling and MUST
   ignore the candidate information in that 200 OK response.

4.4.  Delivering Candidates in INFO Requests

   Whenever new ICE candidates become available for sending, agents
   encode them in "a=candidate:" attributes as described by
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp].  For example:


     a=candidate:1 1 UDP 2130706432 200a0b:12f0::1 5000 typ host


   The use of SIP INFO requests happens within the context of the Info
   Package as defined Section 10.  The Media Type [RFC6838] for their
   payload MUST be set to 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag' as defined
   in Section 9.  The Info request body adheres to the grammar as
   specified in Section 9.2.

   Since neither the "a=candidate:" nor the "a=end-of-candidates"
   attributes contain information that would allow correlating them to a
   specific "m=" line, this is handled through the use of pseudo "m="
   lines.

   Pseudo "m=" lines follow the SDP syntax for "m=" lines as defined in
   [RFC4566] and are linked to the corresponding "m=" line in the SDP
   Offer or Answer via the identification tag in a "a=mid:" attribute
   [RFC5888].  A pseudo "m=" line does not provide semantics other than
   indicating to which "m=" line a candidate belongs.  Consequently, the
   receiving agent MUST ignore any remaining content of the pseudo "m="
   line, which is not defined in this document.  This guarantees that
   the 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag' bodies do not interfere with
   the Offer/Answer procedures as specified in [RFC3264].

   When sending the INFO request, the agent MAY, if already known to the
   agent, include the same content into the pseudo "m=" line as for the
   "m=" line in the corresponding Offer or Answer.  However, since
   Trickle-ICE might be decoupled from the Offer/Answer negotiation this
   content might be unknown to the agent.  In this case, the agent MUST
   include the following default values.

   o  The media field is set to 'audio'.

   o  The port value is set to '9'.




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 16]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   o  The proto value is set to 'RTP/AVP'.

   o  The fmt field MUST appear only once and is set to '0'

   Agents MUST include a pseudo "m=" line and an identification tag in a
   "a=mid:" attribute for every "m=" line whose candidate list they
   intend to update.  Such "a=mid:" attributes MUST immediately precede
   the list of candidates for that specific "m=" line.

   All "a=candidate:" or "a=end-of-candidates" attributes following an
   "a=mid:" attribute, up until (and excluding) the next occurrence of a
   pseudo "m=" line, pertain to the "m=" line identified by that
   identification tag.

   Note, that there is no requirement that the Info request body
   contains as many pseudo m= lines as the Offer/Answer contains
   m=lines, nor that the pseudo m= lines be in the same order as the
   m=lines that they pertain to.  The correspondence can be made via the
   "a=mid:" attributes since candidates are grouped in sections headed
   by "pseudo" m=lines.  These sections contain "a=mid:" attribute
   values which point back to the true m=line.

   An "a=end-of-candidates" attribute, preceding the first pseudo "m="
   line, indicates the end of all trickling from that agent, as opposed
   to end of trickling for a specific "m=" line, which would be
   indicated by a media level "a=end-of-candidates" attribute.

   Refer to Figure 7 for an example of the INFO request content.

   The use of pseudo "m=" lines allows for a structure similar to the
   one in SDP Offers and Answers where separate media-level and session-
   level sections can be distinguished.  In the current case, lines
   preceding the first pseudo "m=" line are considered to be session-
   level.  Lines appearing in between or after pseudo "m=" lines will be
   interpreted as media-level.

      Note that while this specification uses the "a=mid:" attribute
      from [RFC5888], it does not define any grouping semantics.

   All INFO requests MUST carry the "a=ice-pwd:" and "a=ice-ufrag:"
   attributes that allow mapping them to a specific ICE generation.  An
   agent MUST discard any received INFO requests containing "a=ice-pwd:"
   and "a=ice-ufrag:" attributes that do not match those of the current
   ICE Negotiation Session.

   The "a=ice-pwd:" and "a=ice-ufrag:" attributes MUST appear at the
   same level as the ones in the Offer/Answer exchange.  In other words,
   if they were present as session-level attributes, they will also



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 17]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   appear at the beginning of all INFO request payloads, i.e. preceding
   the first pseudo "m=" line.  If they were originally exchanged as
   media level attributes, potentially overriding session-level values,
   then they will also be included in INFO request payloads following
   the corresponding pseudo "m=" lines.

   Note that [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] requires that when candidates are
   trickled, each candidate must be delivered to the receiving Trickle
   ICE implementation not more than once and in the same order as it was
   conveyed.  If the signaling protocol provides any candidate
   retransmissions, they need to be hidden from the ICE implementation.
   This requirement is fulfilled as follows.

   Since the agent is not fully aware of the state of the ICE
   Negotiation Session at its peer it MUST include all currently known
   and used local candidates in every INFO request.  I.e. the agent MUST
   repeat in the INFO request body all candidates that were previously
   sent under the same combination of "a=ice-pwd:" and "a=ice-ufrag:" in
   the same order as they were sent before.  In other words, the
   sequence of a previously sent list of candidates MUST NOT change in
   subsequent INFO requests and newly gathered candidates MUST be added
   at the end of that list.  Although repeating all candidates creates
   some overhead, it also allows easier handling of problems that could
   arise from unreliable transports, like e.g. loss of messages and
   reordering, which can be detected through the CSeq: header field in
   the INFO request.

   In addition, an ICE agent needs to adhere to section 17 of
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] on preserving candidate order while trickling.

   When receiving INFO requests carrying any candidates, agents MUST
   therefore first identify and discard the attribute lines containing
   candidates they have already received in previous INFO requests or in
   the Offer/Answer exchange preceding them.

   Such candidates are considered to be equal if their IP address port,
   transport and component ID are the same.  After identifying and
   discarding the known candidates, the agents MUST forward the actually
   new candidates to the ICE Agents in the same order as they were
   received in the INFO request body.  The ICE Agents will then process
   the new candidates according to the rules described in
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].

   Receiving an "a=end-of-candidates" attribute in an INFO request body
   - with the "a=ice-ufrag" and "a=ice-pwd" attributes matching the
   current ICE generation - is an indication from the peer agent that it
   will not send any further candidates.  When included at session
   level, i.e. before any pseudo "m=" line, this indication applies to



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 18]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   the whole session; when included at media level the indication
   applies only to the corresponding "m=" line.  Handling of such end-
   of-candidates indications is defined in [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].

   The example in Figure 7 shows the content of a candidate delivering
   INFO request.  In the example the "a=end-of-candidates" attributes
   indicate that the candidate gathering is finished and that no further
   INFO requests follow.


       INFO sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
       ...
       Info-Package: trickle-ice
       Content-type: application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag
       Content-Disposition: Info-Package
       Content-length: 862

       a=ice-pwd:asd88fgpdd777uzjYhagZg
       a=ice-ufrag:8hhY
       m=audio 9 RTP/AVP 0
       a=mid:1
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 2130706432 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::1 5000 typ host
       a=candidate:1 2 UDP 2130706432 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::1 5001 typ host
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 2130706431 192.0.2.1 5010 typ host
       a=candidate:1 2 UDP 2130706431 192.0.2.1 5011 typ host
       a=candidate:2 1 UDP 1694498815 192.0.2.3 5010 typ srflx
          raddr 192.0.2.1 rport 8998
       a=candidate:2 2 UDP 1694498815 192.0.2.3 5011 typ srflx
          raddr 192.0.2.1 rport 8998
       a=end-of-candidates
       m=audio 9 RTP/AVP 0
       a=mid:2
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 2130706432 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::1 6000 typ host
       a=candidate:1 2 UDP 2130706432 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::1 6001 typ host
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 2130706431 192.0.2.1 6010 typ host
       a=candidate:1 2 UDP 2130706431 192.0.2.1 6011 typ host
       a=candidate:2 1 UDP 1694498815 192.0.2.3 6010 typ srflx
          raddr 192.0.2.1 rport 9998
       a=candidate:2 2 UDP 1694498815 192.0.2.3 6011 typ srflx
          raddr 192.0.2.1 rport 9998
       a=end-of-candidates


       Note: In a real INFO request there will be no line breaks
             in the a=candidate: attributes


          Figure 7: An Example for the Content of an INFO Request



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 19]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


5.  Initial Discovery of Trickle ICE Support

   SIP User Agents (UAs) that support and intend to use trickle ICE are
   required by [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] to indicate that in their Offers
   and Answers using the attribute "a=ice-options:trickle" and MUST
   include the SIP option-tag "trickle-ice" in a SIP Supported: or
   Require: header field.  This makes discovery fairly straightforward
   for Answerers or for cases where Offers need to be generated within
   existing dialogs (i.e., when sending UPDATE or re-INVITE requests).
   In both scenarios prior SDP bodies will have provided the necessary
   information.

   Obviously, such information is not available at the time a first
   Offer is being constructed and it is therefore impossible for ICE
   Agents to determine support for incremental provisioning that way.
   The following options are suggested as ways of addressing this issue.

5.1.  Provisioning Support for Trickle ICE

   In certain situations it may be possible for integrators deploying
   Trickle ICE to know in advance that some or all endpoints reachable
   from within the deployment will support Trickle ICE.  This is the
   case, for example, if Session Border Controllers (SBC) with support
   for this specification are used to connect to UAs that do not support
   Trickle ICE.

   While the exact mechanism for allowing such provisioning is out of
   scope here, this specification encourages trickle ICE implementations
   to allow the option in the way they find most appropriate.

   However, an Offerer assuming Trickle ICE support MUST include a SIP
   Require: trickle-ice header field.  That way, if the provisioned
   assumption of Trickle ICE support ends up being incorrect, the
   failure is (a) operationally easy to track down, and (b) recoverable
   by the client, i.e., they can re-send the request without the SIP
   Require: header field and without the assumption of Trickle ICE
   support.

5.2.  Trickle ICE Discovery with Globally Routable User Agent URIs
      (GRUU)

   [RFC3840] provides a way for SIP User Agents to query for support of
   specific capabilities using, among others, OPTIONS requests.  Support
   for GRUU according to [RFC5627] on the other hand allows SIP requests
   to be addressed to specific UAs (as opposed to arbitrary instances of
   an address of record).  Combining the two and using the "trickle-ice"
   option tag defined in Section 10.6 provides SIP UAs with a way of
   learning the capabilities of specific SIP UA instances and then



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 20]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   addressing them directly with INVITE requests that require Trickle
   ICE support.

   Such learning of capabilities may happen in different ways.  One
   option for a SIP UA is to learn the GRUU instance ID of a peer
   through presence and then to query its capabilities with an OPTIONS
   request.  Alternatively, it can also just send an OPTIONS request to
   the Address of Record (AOR) it intends to contact and then inspect
   the returned response(s) for support of both GRUU and Trickle ICE
   (Figure 8).  It is noted that using the GRUU means that the INVITE
   request can go only to that particular device.  This prevents the use
   of forking for that request.

            Alice                                                Bob
              |                                                   |
              |        OPTIONS sip:b1@example.com SIP/2.0         |
              |-------------------------------------------------->|
              |                                                   |
              |                      200 OK                       |
              |    Contact: sip:b1@example.com;gr=hha9s8d-999a    |
              |            ;audio;video|;trickle-ice;...          |
              |<--------------------------------------------------|
              |                                                   |
              | INVITE sip:b1@example.com;gr=hha9s8d-999a SIP/2.0 |
              |             Supported: trickle-ice                |
              |                      (Offer)                      |
              |-------------------------------------------------->|
              |                                                   |
              |                  183 (Answer)                     |
              |<--------------------------------------------------|
              |                INFO/OK (Trickling)                |
              |<------------------------------------------------->|
              |                                                   |
              |                      ...                          |
              |                                                   |


       Figure 8: Trickle ICE support discovery with OPTIONS and GRUU

   Confirming support for Trickle ICE through [RFC3840] gives SIP UAs
   the options to engage in Full Trickle negotiation (as opposed to the
   more lengthy Half Trickle) from the very first Offer they send.

5.3.  Fall-back to Half Trickle

   In cases where none of the other mechanisms in this section are
   acceptable, SIP UAs should use the Half Trickle mode defined in
   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].  With Half Trickle, agents initiate sessions



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 21]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   the same way they would when using ICE for SIP
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp].  This means that, prior to actually
   sending an Offer, agents first gather ICE candidates in a blocking
   way and then send them all in that Offer.  The blocking nature of the
   process implies that some amount of latency will be accumulated and
   it is advised that agents try to anticipate it where possible, for
   example, when user actions indicate a high likelihood for an imminent
   call (e.g., activity on a keypad or a phone going off-hook).

   Using Half Trickle results in Offers that are compatible with both
   ICE SIP endpoints and legacy [RFC3264] endpoints.








































Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 22]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   STUN/Turn                                                STUN/TURN
   Servers          Alice                      Bob          Servers
      |               |                             |               |
      |<--------------|                             |               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |   Candidate   |                             |               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |   Discovery   |                             |               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |-------------->|       INVITE (Offer)        |               |
      |               |---------------------------->|               |
      |               |        183 (Answer)         |-------------->|
      |               |<----------------------------|               |
      |               |  INFO (repeated candidates) |               |
      |               |---------------------------->|               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |               |    INFO (more candidates)   |   Candidate   |
      |               |<----------------------------|               |
      |               |    Connectivity Checks      |               |
      |               |<===========================>|   Discovery   |
      |               |   INFO (more candidates)    |               |
      |               |<----------------------------|               |
      |               |    Connectivity Checks      |<--------------|
      |               |<===========================>|               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |               |          200 OK             |               |
      |               |<----------------------------|               |
      |               |                             |               |
      |               |<======= MEDIA FLOWS =======>|               |
      |               |                             |               |


    Figure 9: Example - A typical (Half) Trickle ICE exchange with SIP

   It is worth reminding that once a single Offer or Answer had been
   exchanged within a specific dialog, support for Trickle ICE will have
   been determined.  No further use of Half Trickle will therefore be
   necessary within that same dialog and all subsequent exchanges can
   use the Full Trickle mode of operation.

6.  Considerations for RTP and RTCP Multiplexing

   The following consideration describe options for Trickle-ICE in order
   to give some guidance to implementors on how trickling can be
   optimized with respect to providing RTCP candidates.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 23]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   Handling of the "a=rtcp" attribute [RFC3605] and the "a=rtcp-mux"
   attribute for RTP/RTCP multiplexing [RFC5761] is already considered
   in section 5.1.1.1.  of [I-D.ietf-ice-rfc5245bis] and as well in
   [RFC5761] itself.  These considerations are still valid for Trickle
   ICE, however, trickling provides more flexibility for the sequence of
   candidate exchange in case of RTCP multiplexing.

   [RFC EDITOR NOTE: The section 5.1.1.1 in above sentence is correct
   for version 17 of said I-D.  Authors need to cross-check during
   Auth48 since it could have have changed in the meantime.]

   If the Offerer supports RTP/RTCP multiplexing exclusively as
   specified in [I-D.ietf-mmusic-mux-exclusive], the procedures in that
   document apply for the handling of the "a=rtcp-mux-only", "a=rtcp"
   and the "a=rtcp-mux" attributes.

   While a Half Trickle Offerer has to send an Offer compliant to
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp] and [RFC5761] including candidates for
   all components, the flexibility of a Full Trickle Offerer allows to
   send only RTP candidates (component 1) in the initial Offer assuming
   that RTCP multiplexing is supported by the Answerer.  A Full Trickle
   Offerer would need to start gathering and trickling RTCP candidates
   (component 2) only after having received an indication in the Answer
   that the Answerer unexpectedly does not support RTCP multiplexing.

   A Trickle Answerer MAY include an "a=rtcp-mux" attribute [RFC5761] in
   the application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag body if it supports and uses RTP
   and RTCP multiplexing.  The Trickle Answerer needs to follow the
   guidance on the usage of the "a=rtcp" attribute as given in
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp] and [RFC3605].  Receipt of this
   attribute at the Offerer in an INFO request prior to the Answer
   indicates that the Answerer supports and uses RTP and RTCP
   multiplexing.  The Offerer can use this information e.g. for stopping
   gathering of RTCP candidates and/or for freeing corresponding
   resources.

   This behavior is illustrated by the following example Offer that
   indicates support for RTP and RTCP multiplexing.













Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 24]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 atlanta.example.com
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::3
       t=0 0
       a=ice-pwd:777uzjYhagZgasd88fgpdd
       a=ice-ufrag:Yhh8
       m=audio 5000 RTP/AVP 0
       a=mid:1
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 1658497328 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::3 5000 typ host


   Once the dialog is established as described in section Section 4.3
   the Answerer sends the following INFO request.


       INFO sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
       ...
       Info-Package: trickle-ice
       Content-type: application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag
       Content-Disposition: Info-Package
       Content-length: 161

       a=ice-pwd:asd88fgpdd777uzjYhagZg
       a=ice-ufrag:8hhY
       m=audio 9 RTP/AVP 0
       a=mid:1
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 1658497382 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::4 6000 typ host


   This INFO request indicates that the Answerer supports and uses RTP
   and RTCP multiplexing as well.  It allows the Offerer to omit
   gathering of RTCP candidates or releasing already gathered RTCP
   candidates.  If the INFO request did not contain the a=rtcp-mux
   attribute, the Offerer has to gather RTCP candidates unless it wants
   to wait until receipt of an Answer that eventually confirms support
   or non-support for RTP and RTCP multiplexing.  In case the Offerer
   had sent RTCP candidates in a previous INFO request, it still needs
   to repeat them in subsequent INFO requests, even in case that support
   for RTCP multiplexing was confirmed by the Answerer and the Offerer
   has released its RTCP candidates.








Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 25]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


7.  Considerations for Media Multiplexing

   The following considerations describe options for Trickle-ICE in
   order to give some guidance to implementors on how trickling can be
   optimized with respect to providing candidates in case of Media
   Multiplexing [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation].  It is assumed
   that the reader is familiar with
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation].

   ICE candidate exchange is already considered in section 11 of
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation].  These considerations are
   still valid for Trickle ICE, however, trickling provides more
   flexibility for the sequence of candidate exchange, especially in
   Full Trickle mode.

   Except for bundle-only "m=" lines, a Half Trickle Offerer has to send
   an Offer with candidates for all bundled "m=" lines.  The additional
   flexibility, however, allows a Full Trickle Offerer to initially send
   only candidates for the "m=" line with the suggested Offerer BUNDLE
   address.

   On receipt of the Answer, the Offerer will detect if BUNDLE is
   supported by the Answerer and if the suggested Offerer BUNDLE address
   was selected.  In this case, the Offerer does not need to trickle
   further candidates for the remaining "m=" lines in a bundle.
   However, if BUNDLE is not supported, the Full Trickle Offerer needs
   to gather and trickle candidates for the remaining "m=" lines as
   necessary.  If the Answerer selects an Offerer BUNDLE address
   different from the suggested Offerer BUNDLE address, the Full Trickle
   Offerer needs to gather and trickle candidates for the "m=" line that
   carries the selected Offerer BUNDLE address.

   A Trickle Answerer SHOULD include an "a=group:BUNDLE" attribute
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation] at session level in the
   application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag body if it supports and uses
   bundling.  When doing so, the Answerer MUST include all
   identification-tags in the same order that is used or will be used in
   the Answer.

   Receipt of this attribute at the Offerer in an INFO request prior to
   the Answer indicates that the Answerer supports and uses bundling.
   The Offerer can use this information e.g. for stopping the gathering
   of candidates for the remaining "m=" lines in a bundle and/or for
   freeing corresponding resources.

   This behaviour is illustrated by the following example Offer that
   indicates support for Media Multiplexing.




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 26]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   In case the Offerer had sent already candidates for "m="-lines in a
   bundle in a previous INFO request, it still needs to repeat them in
   subsequent INFO requests, even in case that support for bundling was
   confirmed by the Answerer and the Offerer has released no longer
   needed candidates.


      v=0
      o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 atlanta.example.com
      s=
      c=IN IP6 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::3
      t=0 0
      a=group:BUNDLE foo bar
      a=ice-pwd:777uzjYhagZgasd88fgpdd
      a=ice-ufrag:Yhh8
      m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 0
      a=mid:foo
      a=rtcp-mux
      a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
      a=extmap 1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid
      a=candidate:1 1 UDP 1658497328 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::3 10000 typ host
      m=video 10002 RTP/AVP 31
      a=mid:bar
      a=rtcp-mux
      a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
      a=extmap 1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

   The example Offer indicates support for RTP and RTCP multiplexing and
   contains a "a=candidate:" attribute only for the "m="-line with the
   suggested Offerer bundle address.  Once the dialog is established as
   described in Section 4.3 the Answerer sends the following INFO
   request.



















Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 27]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


       INFO sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
       ...
       Info-Package: trickle-ice
       Content-type: application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag
       Content-Disposition: Info-Package
       Content-length: 219

       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar
       a=ice-pwd:asd88fgpdd777uzjYhagZg
       a=ice-ufrag:8hhY
       m=audio 9 RTP/AVP 0
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=candidate:1 1 UDP 1658497328 2001:db8:a0b:12f0::3 5000 typ host



   This INFO request indicates that the Answerer supports and uses Media
   Multiplexing as well.  Note that the Answerer only includes a single
   pseudo "m="-line since candidates matching those from the second
   "m="-line in the offer are not needed from the Answerer.

   The INFO request also indicates that the Answerer accepted the
   suggested Offerer Bundle Address.  This allows the Offerer to omit
   gathering of RTP and RTCP candidates for the other "m=" lines or
   releasing already gathered candidates.  If the INFO request did not
   contain the a=group:BUNDLE attribute, the Offerer has to gather RTP
   and RTCP candidates for the other "m=" lines unless it wants to wait
   until receipt of an Answer that eventually confirms support or non-
   support for Media Multiplexing.

   Independent of using Full Trickle or Half Trickle mode, the rules
   from [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-mux-attributes] apply to both, Offerer and
   Answerer, when putting attributes as specified in Section 9.2 in the
   application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag body.

8.  SDP 'end-of-candidates' Attribute

8.1.  Definition

   This section defines a new SDP media-level and session-level
   attribute [RFC4566] 'end-of-candidates'. 'end-of-candidates' is a
   property attribute [RFC4566], and hence has no value.  By including
   this attribute in an Offer or Answer the sending agent indicates that
   it will not trickle further candidates.  When included at session
   level this indication applies to the whole session, when included at
   media level the indication applies only to the corresponding media
   description.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 28]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


      Name: end-of-candidates

      Value: N/A

      Usage Level: media and session-level

      Charset Dependent: no

      Mux Category: IDENTICAL

      Example: a=end-of-candidates

8.2.  Offer/Answer Procedures

   The Offerer or Answerer MAY include an "a=end-of-candidates"
   attribute in case candidate discovery has ended and no further
   candidates are to be trickled.  The Offerer or Answerer MUST provide
   the "a=end-of-candidates" attribute together with the "a=ice-ufrag"
   and "a=ice-pwd" attributes of the current ICE generation as required
   by [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].  When included at session level this
   indication applies to the whole session; when included at media level
   the indication applies only to the corresponding media description.

   Receipt of an "a=end-of-candidates" attribute at an Offerer or
   Answerer - with the "a=ice-ufrag" and "a=ice-pwd" attributes matching
   the current ICE generation - indicates that gathering of candidates
   has ended at the peer, either for the session or only for the
   corresponding media description as specified above.  The receiving
   agent forwards an end-of-candidates indication to the ICE Agent,
   which in turn acts as specified in [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle].

9.  Content Type 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag'

9.1.  Overall Description

   A application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag body is used exclusively by the
   'trickle-ice' Info Package.  Other SDP related applications need to
   define their own media type.  The INFO request body uses a subset of
   the possible SDP lines as defined by the grammar defined in
   [RFC4566].  A valid body uses only pseudo "m=" lines and certain
   attributes that are needed and/or useful for trickling candidates.
   The content adheres to the following grammar.

9.2.  Grammar

   The grammar of an 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag' body is based on
   the following ABNF [RFC5234].  It specifies the subset of existing
   SDP attributes, that is needed or useful for trickling candidates.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 29]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   The grammar uses the indicator for case-sensitivity %s as defined in
   [RFC7405], but also imports grammars for other SDP attributes that
   precede the production of [RFC7405].  A sender SHOULD use lower-case
   for attributes from such earlier grammars, but a receiver MUST treat
   them case-insensitively.














































Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 30]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


      ;  Syntax
      trickle-ice-sdpfrag =   session-level-fields
                        pseudo-media-descriptions
      session-level-fields = *(session-level-field CRLF)

      session-level-field =  ice-lite-attribute /
                        ice-pwd-attribute /
                        ice-ufrag-attribute /
                        ice-options-attribute /
                        ice-pacing-attribute /
                        end-of-candidates-attribute /
                        bundle-group-attribute /
                        extension-attribute-fields
                                            ; for future extensions

      ice-lite-attribute     = %s"a" "=" ice-lite
      ice-pwd-attribute      = %s"a" "=" ice-pwd-att
      ice-ufrag-attribute    = %s"a" "=" ice-ufrag-att
      ice-pacing-attribute   = %s"a" "=" ice-pacing-att
      ice-options-attribute  = %s"a" "=" ice-options
      end-of-candidates-attribute  = %s"a" "=" end-of-candidates
      end-of-candidates            = %s"end-of-candidates"
      bundle-group-attribute = %s"a" "=" %s"group:" bundle-semantics
                                 *(SP identification-tag)
      bundle-semantics = "BUNDLE"
      extension-attribute-fields   = attribute-fields

      pseudo-media-descriptions    =  *( media-field
                                 trickle-ice-attribute-fields )
      trickle-ice-attribute-fields = *(trickle-ice-attribute-field CRLF)
      trickle-ice-attribute-field = mid-attribute /
                              candidate-attributes /
                              ice-pwd-attribute  /
                              ice-ufrag-attribute /
                              remote-candidate-attribute /
                              end-of-candidates-attribute /
                              rtcp-attribute /
                              rtcp-mux-attribute /
                              rtcp-mux-only-attribute /
                              extension-attribute-fields
                                              ; for future extensions

      rtcp-attribute                = %s"a" "=" %s"rtcp"
      rtcp-mux-attribute            = %s"a" "=" %s"rtcp-mux"
      rtcp-mux-only-attribute       = %s"a" "=" %s"rtcp-mux-only"
      candidate-attributes          = %s"a" "=" candidate-attribute
      remote-candidate-attribute    = %s"a" "=" remote-candidate-att




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 31]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   with ice-lite, ice-pwd-att, remote-candidate-att, ice-ufrag-att, ice-
   pacing-att, ice-options, candidate-attribute remote-candidate-att
   from [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp], identification-tag, mid-attribute
   ; from [RFC5888], media-field, attribute-fields from [RFC4566].  The
   "a=rtcp" attribute is defined in [RFC3605], the "a=rtcp-mux"
   attribute in [RFC5761] and the "a=rtcp-mux-only" attribute in
   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-mux-exclusive].  The latter attributes lack a formal
   grammar in their corresponding RFC and are reproduced here.

   The "a=ice-pwd:" and "a=ice-ufrag:" attributes MUST appear at the
   same level as the ones in the Offer/Answer exchange.  In other words,
   if they were present as session-level attributes, they will also
   appear at the beginning of all INFO request payloads, i.e. preceding
   all pseudo "m=" lines.  If they were originally exchanged as media
   level attributes, potentially overriding session-level values, then
   they will also be included in INFO request payloads following the
   corresponding pseudo "m=" lines.

   An Agent MUST ignore any received unknown extension-attribute-fields.

10.  Info Package

10.1.  Rationale - Why INFO?

   The decision to use SIP INFO requests as a candidate transport method
   is based primarily on their lightweight nature.  Once a dialog has
   been established, INFO requests can be exchanged both ways with no
   restrictions on timing and frequency and no risk of collision.

   A critical fact is that the sending of Trickle ICE candidates in one
   direction is entirely uncoupled from sending candidates in the other
   direction.  Thus, the sending of candidates in each direction can be
   done by a stream of INFO requests that is not correlated with the
   stream of INFO requests in the other direction.  And since each INFO
   request cumulatively includes the contents of all previous INFO
   requests in that direction, ordering between INFO requests need not
   be preserved.  All of this permits using largely-independent INFO
   requests.

   Contrarily, UPDATE or other offer/answer mechanisms assume that the
   messages in each direction are tightly coupled with messages in the
   other direction.  Using Offer/Answer and UPDATE requests [RFC3311]
   would introduce the following complications:

   Blocking of messages:   [RFC3264] defines Offer/Answer as a strictly
      sequential mechanism.  There can only be a maximum of one active
      exchange at any point of time.  Both sides cannot simultaneously
      send Offers nor can they generate multiple Offers prior to



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 32]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


      receiving an Answer.  Using UPDATE requests for candidate
      transport would therefore imply the implementation of a candidate
      pool at every agent where candidates can be stored until it is
      once again that agent's "turn" to emit an Answer or a new Offer.
      Such an approach would introduce non-negligible complexity for no
      additional value.

   Elevated risk of glare:   The sequential nature of Offer/Answer also
      makes it impossible for both sides to send Offers simultaneously.
      What's worse is that there are no mechanisms in SIP to actually
      prevent that.  [RFC3261], where the situation of Offers crossing
      on the wire is described as "glare", only defines a procedure for
      addressing the issue after it has occurred.  According to that
      procedure both Offers are invalidated and both sides need to retry
      the negotiation after a period between 0 and 4 seconds.  The high
      likelihood for glare to occur and the average two second back-off
      intervals implies that the duration of Trickle ICE processing
      would not only fail to improve but actually exceed those of
      regular ICE.

   INFO messages decouple the exchange of candidates from the Offer/
   Answer negotiation and are subject to none of the glare issues
   described above, which makes them a very convenient and lightweight
   mechanism for asynchronous delivery of candidates.

   Using in-dialog INFO messages also provides a way of guaranteeing
   that candidates are delivered end-to-end, between the same entities
   that are actually in the process of initiating a session.  Out-of-
   dialog alternatives would have implied requiring support for Globally
   Routable UA URI (GRUU) [RFC5627] which, given GRUUs relatively low
   adoption levels, would have constituted too strong of a constraint to
   the adoption of Trickle ICE.

10.2.  Overall Description

   This specification defines an Info Package for use by SIP User Agents
   implementing Trickle ICE.  INFO requests carry ICE candidates
   discovered after the peer user agents have confirmed mutual support
   for Trickle ICE.

10.3.  Applicability

   The purpose of the ICE protocol is to establish a media path in the
   presence of NAT and firewalls.  The candidates are transported in
   INFO requests and are part of this establishment.

   Candidates sent by a Trickle ICE Agent after the Offer, follow the
   same signaling path and reach the same entity as the Offer itself.



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 33]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   While it is true that GRUUs can be used to achieve this, one of the
   goals of this specification is to allow operation of Trickle ICE in
   as many environments as possible including those without GRUU
   support.  Using out-of-dialog SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY requests would not
   satisfy this goal.

10.4.  Info Package Name

   This document defines a SIP Info Package as per [RFC6086].  The Info
   Package token name for this package is "trickle-ice"

10.5.  Info Package Parameters

   This document does not define any Info Package parameters.

10.6.  SIP Option Tags

   [RFC6086] allows Info Package specifications to define SIP option-
   tags.  This specification extends the option-tag construct of the SIP
   grammar as follows:

    option-tag /= "trickle-ice"

   SIP entities that support this specification MUST place the 'trickle-
   ice' option-tag in a SIP Supported: or Require: header field within
   all SIP INVITE requests and responses.

   When responding to, or generating a SIP OPTIONS request a SIP entity
   MUST also include the 'trickle-ice' option-tag in a SIP Supported: or
   Require: header field.

10.7.  Info Request Body Parts

   Entities implementing this specification MUST include a payload of
   type 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag' as defined in Section 9.2 in
   SIP INFO requests.  The payload is used to convey SDP-encoded ICE
   candidates.

10.8.  Info Package Usage Restrictions

   This document does not define any Info Package Usage Restrictions.

10.9.  Rate of INFO Requests

   Given that IP addresses may be gathered rapidly a Trickle ICE Agent
   with many network interfaces might create a high rate of INFO
   requests if every newly detected candidate is trickled individually
   without aggregation.  An implementation MUST aggregate ICE candidates



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 34]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   in case that an unreliable transport protocol such as UDP is used.  A
   Trickle ICE agent MUST NOT have more than one INFO request pending at
   any one time.  When INFO messages are sent over an unreliable
   transport, they are retransmitted according to the rules specified in
   [RFC3261] section 17.1.2.1."

   If the INFO requests are sent on top of TCP, which is probably the
   standard way, this is not an issue for the network anymore, but it
   can remain one for SIP proxies and other intermediaries forwarding
   the SIP INFO messages.  Also, an endpoint may not be able to tell
   that it has congestion controlled transport all the way.

10.10.  Info Package Security Considerations

   See Section 13

11.  Deployment Considerations

   Trickle ICE uses two mechanisms for exchange of candidate
   information.  This imposes new requirements to certain middleboxes
   that are used in some networks, e.g. for monitoring purposes.  While
   the first mechanism, SDP Offers and Answers, is already used by
   regular ICE and is assumed to be supported, the second mechanism,
   INFO request bodies, needs to be considered by such middleboxes as
   well when trickle ICE is used.  Such middleboxes need to make sure
   that they remain in the signaling path of the INFO requests and need
   to understand the INFO request body.

12.  IANA Considerations

   [RFC EDITOR NOTE: Please replace RFCXXXX with the RFC number of this
   document. ]

12.1.  SDP 'end-of-candidates' Attribute

   This section defines a new SDP media-level and session-level
   attribute [RFC4566] , 'end-of-candidates'. 'end-of-candidates' is a
   property attribute [RFC4566] , and hence has no value.













Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 35]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


     Name: end-of-candidates

      Value: N/A

      Usage Level: media and session

      Charset Dependent: no

      Purpose: The sender indicates that it will not trickle
               further ICE candidates.

      O/A Procedures: RFCXXX defines the detailed
                      SDP Offer/Answer procedures for
                      the 'end-of-candidates' attribute.

      Mux Category: IDENTICAL

      Reference: RFCXXXX

      Example:

      a=end-of-candidates


12.2.  Media Type 'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag'

   This document defines a new Media Type 'application/trickle-ice-
   sdpfrag' in accordance with [RFC6838].

      Type name: application

      Subtype name: trickle-ice-sdpfrag

      Required parameters: None.

      Optional parameters: None.

      Encoding considerations:



         The media contents follow the same rules as SDP, except as
         noted in this document.  The media contents are text, with the
         grammar specified in Section 9.2.

         Although the initially defined content of a trickle-ice-sdpfrag
         body does only include ASCII characters, UTF-8 encoded content
         might be introduced via extension attributes.  The "a=charset:"



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 36]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


         attribute may be used to signal the presence of other character
         sets in certain parts of a trickle-ice-sdpfrag body (see
         [RFC4566]).  Arbitrary binary content cannot be directly
         represented in SDP or a trickle-ice-sdpfrag body.

      Security considerations:



         See [RFC4566] and RFCXXXX

      Interoperability considerations:



         See RFCXXXX

      Published specification:



         See RFCXXXX

      Applications which use this Media Type:



         Trickle-ICE

      Fragment identifier considerations: N/A

      Additional information:



         Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A

         Magic number(s): N/A

         File extension(s): N/A

         Macintosh File Type Code(s): N/A

      Person and email address to contact for further information:



         The IESG (iesg@ietf.org)



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 37]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


      Intended usage:



         Trickle-ICE for SIP as specified in RFCXXXX.

      Restrictions on usage: N/A

      Author/Change controller:



         The IESG (iesg@ietf.org)

      Provisional registration? (standards tree only): N/A

12.3.  SIP Info Package 'trickle-ice'

   This document defines a new SIP Info Package named 'trickle-ice' and
   updates the Info Packages Registry with the following entry.

       +-------------+-----------+
       | Name        | Reference |
       +-------------+-----------+
       | trickle-ice | [RFCXXXX] |
       |             |           |
       +-------------+-----------+

12.4.  SIP Option Tag 'trickle-ice'

   This specification registers a new SIP option tag 'trickle-ice' as
   per the guidelines in Section 27.1 of [RFC3261] and updates the
   "Option Tags" section of the SIP Parameter Registry with the
   following entry:

       +-------------+-------------------------------------+-----------+
       | Name        | Description                         | Reference |
       +-------------+-------------------------------------+-----------+
       | trickle-ice | This option tag is used to indicate | [RFCXXXX] |
       |             | that a UA supports and understands  |           |
       |             | Trickle-ICE.                        |           |
       +-------------+-------------------------------------+-----------+

13.  Security Considerations

   The Security Considerations of [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp],
   [RFC6086] and [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle] apply.  This document clarifies




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 38]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   how the above specifications are used together for trickling
   candidates and does not create additional security risks.

   The new Info Package 'trickle-ice' and the new Media Type
   'application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag' do not introduce additional
   security considerations when used in the context of Trickle ICE.
   Both are not intended to be used for other applications, so any
   security considerations for its use in other contexts is out of the
   scope of this document

14.  Acknowledgements

   The authors like to thank Flemming Andreasen, Ayush Jain, Paul
   Kyzivat, Jonathan Lennox, Simon Perreault, Roman Shpount and Martin
   Thomson for reviewing and/or making various suggestions for
   improvements and optimizations.

   The authors also like to thank Flemming Andreasen for shepherding
   this document and Ben Campbell for his AD review and suggestions.  In
   addition, the author like to thank Benjamin Kaduk, Adam Roach, Mirja
   Kuehlewind and Eric Rescorla for their comments and/or text proposals
   for improving the document during IESG review.

   Many thanks to Dale Worley for Gen-Art review and proposed
   enhancements for several sections.

   Many thanks to Joerg Ott for TSV-Art review and suggested
   improvements.

   The authors thank Shawn Emery for Security Directorate review.

15.  Change Log

   [RFC EDITOR NOTE: Please remove this section when publishing].

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-01

   o  Editorial Clean up

   o  IANA Consideration added

   o  Security Consideration added

   o  RTCP and BUNDLE Consideration added with rules for including
      "a=rtcp-mux" and "a=group: BUNDLLE" attributes

   o  3PCC Consideration added




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 39]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   o  Clarified that 18x w/o answer is sufficient to create a dialog
      that allows for trickling to start

   o  Added remaining Info Package definition sections as outlined in
      section 10 of [RFC6086]

   o  Added definition of application/sdpfrag making draft-ivov-mmusic-
      sdpfrag obsolete

   o  Added pseudo m-lines as additional separator in sdpfrag bodies for
      Trickle ICE

   o  Added ABNF for sdp-frag bodies and Trickle-ICE package

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-02

   o  Removed definition of application/sdpfrag

   o  Replaced with new type application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag

   o  RTCP and BUNDLE Consideration enhanced with some examples

   o  draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation and RFC5761 changed to
      normative reference

   o  Removed reference to 4566bis

   o  Addressed review comment from Simon Perreault

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-03

   o  replaced reference to RFC5245 with draft-ietf-mmusic-rfc5245bis
      and draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp

   o  Corrected Figure 10, credits to Ayush Jain for finding the bug

   o  Referencing a=rtcp and a=rtcp-mux handling from draft-ietf-mmusic-
      ice-sip-sdp

   o  Referencing a=rtcp-mux-exclusive handling from draft-ietf-mmusic-
      mux-exclusive, enhanced ABNF to support a=rtcp-mux-exclusive

   o  Clarifying that draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-mux-attributes applies for
      the application/trickle-ice-sdpfrag body

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-04

   o  considered comments from Christer Holmberg



Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 40]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   o  corrected grammar for INFO package, such that ice-ufrag/pwd are
      also allowed on media-level as specified in
      [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]

   o  Added new ice-pacing-attribute fom [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]

   o  Added formal definition for the end-of-candidates attribute

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-05

   o  considered further comments from Christer Holmberg

   o  editorial comments on section 3 addressed

   o  moved section 3.1 to section 10.1 and applied some edits

   o  replaced the term "previously sent candidates" with "currently
      known and used candidates".

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-06

   o  editorial fixes

   o  additional text on the content of the INFO messages.

   o  recommendation on what to do if a previously sent candidate is
      unexpectedly missing in a subsequent INFO

   o  terminology alignment with draft-ietf-ice-trickle-07

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-07

   o  editorial fixes

   o  clarification on ordering of candidates for alignment with draft-
      ietf-ice-trickle-12

   o  O/A procedures for end-of-candidates attribute described here
      after corresponding procedures have been removed from draft-ietf-
      ice-trickle-11

   o  using IPv6 addresses in examples

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-08

   o  editorial fixes/clarification based on Flemmings review





Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 41]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   o  Description of Trickle specifics in O/A procedures for initial O/A
      exchange and specification of ICE mismatch exception

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-09

   o  editorial fixes/correction of references

   o  adding missing Ref to RFC3605 in section 6, 5th para

   o  replaced remaining IPv4 adresses with IPv6

   o  Added text for handling a=rtcp in case of default RTP address
      0.0.0.0:9 based on comment from Roman Shpount.

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-10

   o  editorial fixes due to idnits output

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-11

   o  addressing comments from Ben Campell's AD review and Christer's
      review

   o  Numerous editorial improvements/corrections

   o  Added [RFC8174] boiler plate and adapted usage of normative
      language

   o  Clarified terminology ICE modules .vs.  ICE agent

   o  Added more detailed OA procedures

   o  Corrected default values in m-line and usage of "a=mid:" attribute
      explicitly mentioned for offer/answer

   o  Removed explicit mentioning of XMPP

   o  Added Deployment Considerations section

   o  Fixed ref for rfc5245bis

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-12

   o  addressing comments from Gen-Art review, TSV-Art review and
      Security Directorate review

   o  Numerous editorial improvements/corrections/clarifications




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 42]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-13

   o  added expansions for SDP,GRUU, AOR, STUN, TURN

   o  some editorial corrections

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-14

   Addressing comments from IESG review

   o  Clarification/enhancement in section 5 and Fig. 10 based on
      comments from Benjamin Kaduk

   o  Clarification on sequence for sending candidates, definition of
      pseudo m-lines, usage of a=mid attribute, usage of INFO as ACK for
      receipt of 18x based on comments from Eric Rescorla

   o  Removal of 3PCC Section 3.4, removal of NATted IPv6 addresses,
      adding more flexibility to in the grammar, explicit mentioning of
      Require: header field, usage of Require: header field in case of
      provisioning, text on repetition of candidates in case of RTCP mux
      and Bundle, various other editorial improvements/corrections based
      on comments from Adam Roach

   o  Modified text on rate limitation of INFO requests based on
      comments of Mirja Kuehlewind, Adam Roach and Roman Shpount

   o  some editorial corrections

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-15

   o  Corrections in section 7 on Media Multiplexing

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-16

   o  some editorial corrections

   Changes from draft-ietf-mmusic-trickle-ice-sip-16

   o  Changed IPv6 candidate example from srflx to host

16.  References

16.1.  Normative References







Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 43]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   [I-D.ietf-ice-rfc5245bis]
              Keranen, A., Holmberg, C., and J. Rosenberg, "Interactive
              Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network
              Address Translator (NAT) Traversal", draft-ietf-ice-
              rfc5245bis-20 (work in progress), March 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-ice-trickle]
              Ivov, E., Rescorla, E., Uberti, J., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Trickle ICE: Incremental Provisioning of Candidates for
              the Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
              Protocol", draft-ietf-ice-trickle-21 (work in progress),
              April 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp]
              Petit-Huguenin, M., Nandakumar, S., and A. Keranen,
              "Session Description Protocol (SDP) Offer/Answer
              procedures for Interactive Connectivity Establishment
              (ICE)", draft-ietf-mmusic-ice-sip-sdp-20 (work in
              progress), April 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-mux-exclusive]
              Holmberg, C., "Indicating Exclusive Support of RTP/RTCP
              Multiplexing using SDP", draft-ietf-mmusic-mux-
              exclusive-12 (work in progress), May 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-negotiation]
              Holmberg, C., Alvestrand, H., and C. Jennings,
              "Negotiating Media Multiplexing Using the Session
              Description Protocol (SDP)", draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-bundle-
              negotiation-52 (work in progress), May 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-mmusic-sdp-mux-attributes]
              Nandakumar, S., "A Framework for SDP Attributes when
              Multiplexing", draft-ietf-mmusic-sdp-mux-attributes-17
              (work in progress), February 2018.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.





Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 44]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   [RFC3262]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Reliability of
              Provisional Responses in Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP)", RFC 3262, DOI 10.17487/RFC3262, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3262>.

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3264, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3264>.

   [RFC3605]  Huitema, C., "Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) attribute
              in Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3605,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3605, October 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3605>.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, DOI 10.17487/RFC4566,
              July 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4566>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [RFC5761]  Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Multiplexing RTP Data and
              Control Packets on a Single Port", RFC 5761,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5761, April 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5761>.

   [RFC5888]  Camarillo, G. and H. Schulzrinne, "The Session Description
              Protocol (SDP) Grouping Framework", RFC 5888,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5888, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5888>.

   [RFC6086]  Holmberg, C., Burger, E., and H. Kaplan, "Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP) INFO Method and Package
              Framework", RFC 6086, DOI 10.17487/RFC6086, January 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6086>.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>.

   [RFC7405]  Kyzivat, P., "Case-Sensitive String Support in ABNF",
              RFC 7405, DOI 10.17487/RFC7405, December 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7405>.




Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 45]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   [RFC8085]  Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
              Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, DOI 10.17487/RFC8085,
              March 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8085>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

16.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3311]  Rosenberg, J., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
              UPDATE Method", RFC 3311, DOI 10.17487/RFC3311, October
              2002, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3311>.

   [RFC3725]  Rosenberg, J., Peterson, J., Schulzrinne, H., and G.
              Camarillo, "Best Current Practices for Third Party Call
              Control (3pcc) in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
              BCP 85, RFC 3725, DOI 10.17487/RFC3725, April 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3725>.

   [RFC3840]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat,
              "Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3840, August 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3840>.

   [RFC5389]  Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and D. Wing,
              "Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5389,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5389, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5389>.

   [RFC5627]  Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User
              Agent URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP)", RFC 5627, DOI 10.17487/RFC5627, October 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5627>.

   [RFC5766]  Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and J. Rosenberg, "Traversal Using
              Relays around NAT (TURN): Relay Extensions to Session
              Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5766,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5766, April 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5766>.

Authors' Addresses








Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 46]


Internet-Draft             Trickle ICE for SIP                 June 2018


   Emil Ivov
   Jitsi
   Strasbourg  67000
   France

   Phone: +33 6 72 81 15 55
   Email: emcho@jitsi.org


   Thomas Stach
   Unaffiliated
   Vienna  1130
   Austria

   Email: thomass.stach@gmail.com


   Enrico Marocco
   Telecom Italia
   Via G. Reiss Romoli, 274
   Turin  10148
   Italy

   Email: enrico.marocco@telecomitalia.it


   Christer Holmberg
   Ericsson
   Hirsalantie 11
   Jorvas  02420
   Finland

   Email: christer.holmberg@ericsson.com


















Ivov, et al.            Expires December 24, 2018              [Page 47]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.127, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/