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Versions: 00 01 02

Internet Research Task Force                  Thomas Hardjono (VeriSign)
INTERNET-DRAFT                                      Hugh Harney (Sparta)
draft-ietf-msec-gspt-00.txt                   Pat McDaniel (U. Michigan)
                                                Andrea Colgrove (Sparta)
                                                     Pete Dinsmore (NAI)

14 September 2001                                 Expires February 2002


                   Group Security Policy Token

                  <draft-ietf-msec-gspt-00.txt>

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
   with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
   documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-
   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
   "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


Abstract

This document provides a definition for Group Security Policy, describes
the set of elements that make-up an instance of group policy for a given
group, and provides an explanation of the intended functions of each
element of a group security policy as expressed in the form of the
Policy Token or Policy Certificate.


1. Introduction

Group communications, also commonly called multicast, refers to
communications in a group where the messages can be sent by any member
and are received by all members.  The applications and encryption can be
implemented in a variety of ways and at numerous levels on the network
stack.  They range from mailing lists to conference calls to IP
Multicasting.  Often the need for data protection arises, which requires
the group to handle the messages in a consistently secure manner.  To


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accomplish this, cryptographic mechanisms and security policy must be
shared and supported by the group as a whole.  Because of this, special
problems arise in managing the cryptographic and policy material as it
changes or as the group changes.



2. Framework for Group Security Policy

Group Security Policy represents an important building block within the
Secure Multicast Group Framework of [HCBD00].  The Framework of [HCBD00]
is broad in the sense that it incorporates entities, functions and
interfaces encompassing all aspects of secure groups.

2.1 The Secure Multicast Group Framework

   +---------------------------------------------------------+
   |   CENTRALIZED  \                          DISTRIBUTED   |
   |     DESIGNS     \                           DESIGNS     |
   |                  \                                      |
   |                   \                                     |
   |     +------+       \                        +------+    |
   |     |Policy|<-------\---------------------->|Policy|    |
   |     |      |         \                      |      |    |
   |     +------+          \                     +------+    |
   |         ^              \                        ^       |
   |         |               \                       |       |
   |         |                \                      |       |
   |         v                 \                     v       |
   |     +------+               \                +------+    |
   |     |Group |<-------------- \-------------> |Group |    |
   |     |Ctrl/ |<---------+      \              |Ctlr/ |    |
   |     |Key   |          |       \             |Key   |    |
   |     |Server|          V        \            |Server|    |
   |     +------+     +--------+     \           +------+    |
   |         ^        |        |      \              ^       |
   |         |        |Receiver|       \             |       |
   |         |        |        |        |            |       |
   |         v        +--------+        |            |       |
   |     +------+          ^            |            V       |
   |     |      |          |            |       +--------+   |
   |     |Sender|<---------+            |       |        |   |
   |     |      |<--------------------- |------>|Receiver|   |
   |     |      |                       |       |        |   |
   |     +------+                       |       +--------+   |
   +---------------------------------------------------------+
   FIGURE 1:  Secure Multicast Group Reference Framework





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Figure 1 shows the Secure Multicast Group Reference Framework of
functional entities and the interfaces between them [HCBD00].  These
entities and interfaces implement a secure group, which is defined as a
group of principals that share a secret.  Secure groups are needed by
unicast applications as well as multicast applications (single-source
and multiple-source).  The framework of Figure 1 identifies  three group
key management entities, namely the "Group Controller and  Key Server"
(GCKS) and two types of Members ("Receiver" and "Sender"). The GCKS
entity embodies both the physical entity and functions of the group
controller and the key server [RFC2093, RFC2094, RFC2627, OFT]. The
Member belongs to one or more groups and may exist at different layers
(e.g. user, host, process).


These entities (namely the GCKS, Sender and Receivers) represents the
entities upon which Group Security Policy immediately applies.  The
policies exist, among others, to regulate behavior of entities that
make-up a secure group.


2.2 Group Security Policy (GSP) Framework

The broad Reference Framework of [HCBD00] does not (and was not intended
to) provide a policy-specific view of group security.  Hence, to that
extent a further refinement of the Reference Framework is provided in
the following (Figure 2).

In Figure 2, the Group Owner is the entity defined to initiate the group
and set the policies for the group.  As such, the entity is the owner of
the group and of all the information that pertains to the group.

>From the perspective of verification of Policy Tokens, the Group Owner
is the root of all certificates that is used to verify Policy Tokens and
certificates that delegate authority to service entities such as GCKSs
or other intermediary entities.  This function is tied closely to the
fact of the Group Owner being the source of all authorizations for group
actions carried-out by group members.  The Group Owner being the source
of authorization, is derived from owning or having ultimate
responsibility for the data.

>From the perspective of access control to information about the group,
the Group Owner determines pieces of information that are accessible
service-entities (such as GCKS and Policy Repositories), group members
and external entities.  To this end, the Group Owner also decides form
and content of group announcements made through the appropriate
announcement protocols.  Such information may consists of certain parts
of the Policy Token or the entire Policy Token itself.  Similarly, the
Group Owner determines the information pertaining to a group that is
stored in the Policy Repository.

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   +---------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                         |
   |                     +-------------+                     |
   |                     |    Group    |                     |
   |        |----------->|Announcement |------------|        |
   |        |            +-------------+            |        |
   |        |                                       |        |
   |        |                                       |        |
   |        |                                       |        |
   |        |                                       |        |
   |    +-------+        +-------------+            |        |
   |    | Group | -----> |   Policy    |            |        |
   |    | Owner |        | Repository  |            |        |
   |    +-------+        +-------------+            |        |
   |        |                   |                   |        |
   |        |                   |                   |        |
   |        |                   |                   |        |
   |        |                   V                   V        |
   |        |            +-------------+        +-------+    |
   |        |----------->|     GCKS    |------->|Member |    |
   |                     |             |        |       |    |
   |                     +-------------+        +-------+    |
   |                                                         |
   +---------------------------------------------------------+
        Figure 2: Group Security Policy Framework




When a (candidate) member wishes to find-out about a given group, it
must learn about the existence of the group through the Group
Announcement facility.  Each group is associated with a unique Group
Announcements and is identified in the Group Announcement through the
Group IG (GID).  Furthermore, announcements for different groups may
carry different amounts of information regarding the groups in question.


2.3 Announcement of Group Policy Information

An important aspect of secure group communications is the availability
of enough information for potential newcomers to decide as to whether
they have sufficient permissions and suitable resources (e.g. crypto
ability) to join the group.

The level of availability of such information is highly-dependent on the
specific application employing secure groups.  In some applications, all
the required permissions and resources maybe pre-published in a
publicly-available location, protected using the group owner's digital


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signature.  In other applications, perhaps only limited information is
published (e.g. required certificate-class of newcomer) to allow
newcomers to decide whether or not to pursue further the act of joining
the group.

In this document, we do not address the issue of which parts of the
Group Policy Token are announced or be published to prospective
newcomers.



3. Elements of Group Security Policy

Security-related policies for groups of users and for group
communications are inherently more complex compared to policies for
pair-wise (unicast) secure communications between two end-points.  This
complexity arises due to the fact that multi-party interaction allows
for a number of situations and conditions to arise which are simply non-
existent in the two-party interaction.  Furthermore, in multi-party
communications an error or a security breach cause by one party may have
impact on the other parties in the group.  In the two-party scenario,
errors or security breaches may be dealt with simply by terminating the
communication and restarting it.

The complex nature of group communications requires an equally complex
set of elements that make-up the Group Security Policy.  These elements
(or categories in [polreq-draft]) specify the policies that are to be
followed by members of the group, and they consist of the following:


a. Policy Identification

A group must have some means by which it can identify an instance of
Group Security Policy in an unambiguous manner. Failure to correctly
identify the group policies, messages, and participants can lead to
incorrect and insecure operation.  In the simplest form, an instance of
a Policy Token must be associated with a unique Group Identifier (GID)
expressly found inside the Policy Token.


b. Authorization for Group Actions

A Group Security Policy must identify the entities allowed to perform
actions that affect group members. Group authorization partially
determines the trust embodied by the group as a whole, by defining the
parties or entities that are allowed to participate in group activities.
Because of the wide range of expected environments, flexible
identification of entity authorizations is highly desirable.
Authorization given to an entity must be shown as being true and
authentic coming from another entity that bequeathed that authority.


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c. Access Control to Group Information

Access control policy defines the entities that will have authorization
to hold the key protecting the group data.


d. Mechanisms for Group Security Services

Identification of the security services used to support group
communication is required. For example, policy must state the algorithms
used to derive session keys and the types of data transforms to be
applied to the group content. Each security service can have parameters
and policies specific to its implementation. Thus, for forward
compatibility with new approaches, service definitions should be
extensible.

Full specification of:
   - the group establishment mechanism
   - the data protection mechanism
   - the group management mechanism
is necessary to establish that the entire group SA is adequate to
protect the data. Weakness in any one part will effect the security of
the other parts.


e. Verification of Group Security Policy

Each policy must present evidence of its validity. The means by which
the origin, integrity, and freshness of the policy is asserted (for
example, via digital signature) must be known by each group member prior
to its acquisition.  In the simplest form, this consists of the Policy
Token being digitally-signed by the entity authorized to issue the Group
Security Policy.


4. Group Policy Token

The Group Policy Token is comprised of five fields corresponding to the
identification of the group, the authorizations in it, the access
control policies governing the group, the mechanisms supporting secure
communications, and the authentication of the contents of the token.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
|         |               |                |            |           |
|Token ID | Authorization | Access Control | Mechanisms | Signature |
|         |               |                |            |           |
---------------------------------------------------------------------
          Figure 3: Group Policy Token Overall Structure



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Each of the fields of the GSAKMP Policy Token is further expanded in
following sections.  The specific data formats can be seen in the ASN.1
Policy Token Specification in Appendix A.

4.1 Token ID Field and Sub-Fields

The Token ID Field explicitly identifies the protocol family to which
the Group Policy Token belongs (e.g. GSAKMP, GDOI). The Token ID Field
consists of a Version number indicating Token version, Protocol ID
indicating GSAKMP, Group ID consisting of IP Addresses and serial
numbers, and a Timestamp.

---------------------------------------------------
|         |                |          |           |
|Version  | Group Protocol | Group ID | Timestamp |
|         |                |          |           |
---------------------------------------------------
          Figure 4: Token ID sub-fields

The timestamp sub field of the TokenID is of particular interest in the
prevention of replay attacks.  A replay attack is when an adversary
inserts an authenticated message or portion of a message into a new run
of a protocol.  The timestamp sub-field helps to prevent such an attack.
The receiver of a new token can verify that the timestamp is both
appropriate for the policy token and generated at a time later than the
timestamp on any previous Policy Tokens for that group.  This will
prevent an adversary from successfully replaying an old token and having
it be accepted as a new one.  Additionally, an optional expiration time
field will limit the validity window of the token.

4.2 Authorization Field and Sub-Fields

The authorization field allows group members to ensure that security
relevant actions are being performed by authorized group entities. This
ensures that a rogue group member does not mislead other group members
into an insecure action.

The Authorization Field identifies those who are authorized to act in
the special roles of Group Owner, GCKS, and Re-key GCKS.  This
identification may be done explicitly as shown below, where the fields
contain actual identifiers, or implicitly, using sets of rules to define
the policy allowing one to assume the roles listed.  For example, a
policy rule might state that anyone in a particular domain except two
people is authorized to act as a Key Server. Such a rule might be stated
as "include {/o=acme/ou=responsible}, not {/o=acme/ou=responsible/s=bob,
{/o=acme/ou=responsible/s= ted}."

The Re-Key GCKS is included to cater for situations in which a back-up
GCKS (other than then one the member initially joined to) is specified
to handle emergency situations (e.g. Primary GCKS crashed, network
partitions, etc).

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Authorization Fields will fulfill various needs during the lifetime of a
group.  Both new and current members will need to make use of the
authorization field to maintain the level of security of the
communications group.

For new or potential members, this field of the group's token should be
used as input into the decision for joining a particular group and for
the acceptance of keying material.  Specifically, the rules should be
examined to determine whether they are stringent enough for the
potential member's security needs, and the member trusts the entities
that will be assuming the roles.  In the rule-based example above, Bob
might be known to have particularly shoddy security practices.  A new
member would be reassured that the secure distribution of the group's
encryption keys will not be managed by Bob.  Furthermore, upon
acceptance of the invitation to join the group, the member will receive
the group communication keys.  At that point, the member would need to
verify that the GCKS sending the keys fit the profile indicated by the
Authorization Field.  The integrity of keys received from someone not
entitled to act as Key Server should be considered suspect.

The most common use of this field will be by current group members.
Current group members use the Authorization Field upon receipt of key
management or administrative messages.  Before acting upon these
messages, it must be determined that the sender did indeed have the
necessary permissions to initiate a given action.  For example, an
unauthorized re-key message might have the result of placing a member on
an incorrect key, thereby denying him access to the group's
communications.

-----------------------------------------
|              |          |             |
| Group Owner  |   GCKS   | Re-Key GCKS |
|              |          |             |
-----------------------------------------
          Figure 5: Authorization sub-fields


4.3 Access Control Field and Sub-Fields

Access to a group implies that a potential group member is given
permission to receive an appropriate subset of the group's keys. This is
explicitly stated in the policy token to ensure a common access decision
space.

The Access Field defines who is permitted to join the group.  As with
authorizations, access controls can be defined by a combination of rules
and explicit names.  The rules portion of the Access Field is broken
down into a set of permissions that determine access into a group and
the definition (or pointer to the definition) of those permissions for a



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particular information domain.  The Permissions are hierarchical in the
traditional military sense where access at a higher level encompasses
all the access of the lower levels plus new ones and dominance rules
apply.  The Access List can also restrict access to those in a
particular knowledge group or groups.

As an example of how the Access Field might be filled, consider a
hypothetical group consisting of scientists with  research and
development permissions working on the company's new product .
Each scientist could be given a permission rating. This permission
rating would be reflected in that scientist's personnel certificate. The
access rule in the policy token could make it mandatory for a potential
group member to have a permission rating greater than or equal to "R&D".

In addition to the permission based access decisions, it may be desired
to restrict access to the group to scientists who are members of a
specific work group. This work group could have a common element in
their Distinguished Name fields in their common PKI. For example, the
scientist may all be working in the Emerald City, in the land of Oz. The
DN access rule could be {/o=acme/ou=Emerald City/ou=Oz/*}.

----------------------------
|              |           |
| Permissions  |   Access  |
|              |           |
----------------------------
          Figure 6: Access Control sub-fields


4.4 Mechanism Fields and Sub-Fields

The security services and related mechanisms used to protect the data
must be consistent throughout the group to maintain uniform data
protection throughout the data flow.  For example, if the
confidentiality of data is protected by the Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) at one point and by the Data Encryption Standard (DES) at another,
the overall protection afforded the data is only the strength offered by
the weakest mechanism.  The data mechanisms used to protect the various
phases of the group communications are specified in the Mechanisms Field
of the Group Policy Token.

The three Categories of SAs (REF[2]) are described in this field.

The Category-1 SA defines the information for a newcomer to join the
group by opening a secure channel to the GCKS.  The secure channel
establishment requirements and parameters are described in the Category-
1 SA sub-field.

The Category-2 SA (or Re-Key SA) describes the Security Association that
will be used by the GCKS to perform a re-key of the group-key (TEK


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and/or KEK vector) within the group. This sub-field is actually broken
down into further fields:  Protected Key Management and Bypass.  The
Protected Key Management SA identifies the security mechanisms set up
for key management messages.  For cases in which Protected Key
Management messages cannot be correctly received and read by all
members, the Bypass SA will allow particular messages through without
confidentiality processing.  Both of these correspond to the Category-2
SA (Re-Key SA) of the MSEC Key Management Architecture (GKM Arch [REF]).

The Category-3 SA (or Data Security SA) describes the protection
afforded Multicast Group Communications.  The actual format of this
field is largely determined by the choice of security protocol for the
protection of data.  Mechanism and mode choices for confidentiality and
authentication, key determination, key length, and rekey must all be
considered.  Furthermore, agreed upon key validity intervals
(cryptoperiods) and possible data source authentication must also be
specified.


---------------------------------------------------------
|               |               |                       |
| Category-3 SA | Category-1 SA |      Category-2 SA    |
|               |               | Protected      Bypass |
|               |               |                       |
---------------------------------------------------------
          Figure 7: Mechanism Sub-Fields


4.5 Signature Field and Sub-Fields

The signature field contains the information that verifies the
authenticity of the group policy token.  It clearly identifies the
signer of the token -- the Group Owner, the PKI information needed to
establish what is the proper certificate to use for the signature
verification, and the signature data.  The signature covers all of the
fields of the Group Policy Token except for the Signature Field itself.
Because of this, any unauthorized change in the group policy token will
invalidate the signature.

--------------------------------------------------
|           |                  |                 |
| Signer ID | Certificate-Info | Signature-Data  |
|           |                  |                 |
--------------------------------------------------
          Figure 8: Signature Sub-Fields






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5. Group Policy Token: Header and Payloads


5.1 Generic Payload Header

Each payload defined in the following sections begins with a generic
header, shown in Figure 3, which provides a payload ``chaining``
capability and clearly defines the boundaries of a payload.  The Generic
Payload Header fields are defined as follows:


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
    ! Next Payload  !   RESERVED    !         Payload Length        !
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!

                     Figure 3:  Generic Payload Header


Next Payload (1 octet)  - Identifier for the payload type of the next
    payload in the message.  If the current payload is the last in
    the message, then this field will be 0.  This field provides the
    ``chaining`` capability.

RESERVED (1 octet)  - Unused, set to 0.

Payload Length (2 octets)  - Length in octets of the current payload,
    including the generic payload header.


5.2 Policy Token Payload


The Policy Token Payload contains group specific information that
describes the group security relevant behaviors, access control
parameters, and security mechanisms.  This information may contain a
digital signature(s) to prove authority and integrity of the
information.  Figure 4 shows the format of the payload.


     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
    ! Next Payload  !   RESERVED    !         Payload Length        !
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!
    !   ID Type     !              Policy Token Data                ~
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-!

                   Figure 4:  Policy Token Payload Format

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The Policy Token Payload fields are defined as follows:


Next Payload (1 octet)  - Identifier for the payload type of the next
    payload in the message.  If the current payload is the last in the
    message, then this field will be 0.

RESERVED (1 octet)  - Unused, set to 0.

Payload Length (2 octets)  - Length in octets of the current payload,
    including the generic payload header.

ID Type (1 octet)  - Specifies the type of Policy Token being used.
    Table 12 identifies the types of policy tokens.


                       Table 1:  Policy Token Types

                           ID_Type       Value
                          ______________________
                           Group           0
                           Auxiliary       1
                           Reserved       2-63
                           Unassigned   64-255


Policy Token Data (variable length)  - Contains Policy Token
    information. The values for this field are group specific and the
    format is specified by the ID Type field.

    The payload type for the Policy Token Payload is one (1).



6. Example of Group Policy Tokens

The following section describes an example of a Group Policy Token.  The
full token is provided first, though the reader is encouraged first to
read the parts specific to each of the categories of SAs.

6.1 Description of Example

The this example the group security protocol (namely GSAKMP) creates an
association between multiple entities connected by the Internet.  The
intent of the group security protocol is to use existing protocol-
services that are standardized for the Internet to facilitate setting up
these secure groups.  IPsec is one of the standard secure services that
can be used, though others (e.g. S/MIME or even SSL) can be used as a
unicast security association mechanism.



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Additionally, the Group Policy Token defines the policy for protecting
the multicast data traffic (Category-3 SA).  Once again, IPsec can be
used to protect these messages, as can S/MIME.

In this particular example, IPsec is used as the underlying security
association protocol for both unicast (Cat-1) and multicast messages
(Cat-2 and Cat-3).

To configure IPsec, interaction will occur with the Security Policy
Database (SPD) and the Security Association Database (SAD). Since the
group security protocol exists above the IPsec network layer encryption
engine, configuration must include that of the appropriate databases
controlling IPsec.  This is to ensure that IPsec processes its messages
appropriately.

The current example requires a unicast SA to protect some of the
exchanges.  It also requires a bypass of IPsec processing for a subset
of messages.

Each group can have unique IPsec processing requirements for the unicast
and multicast messages pertaining to that particular group.  These group
unique configurations must be conveyed to the IPsec controlling
databases in a way that will allow correct IPsec processing for each
groups' message. Special attention must be paid to the IPsec selector
fields. The standard source and destination pair selectors are not
adequate for multicast groups where multiple groups share the same
destination address.

The example assumes the presence of IKE [5] as a unicast SA
establishment protocol for IPsec.


6.2 The IPsec Architecture

The IPsec architecture document [6] identifies two databases used by
IPsec - Security Policy Database (SPD) and Secure Association Database
(SAD). The former specifies the policies that determine the disposition
of all IP traffic (inbound or outbound) from a host, security gateway,
or BITS or BITW IPsec implementation. The latter database contains
parameters that are associated with each (active) security association.
The information in these databases allows the IPsec protocol to process
incoming and outgoing packets.

6.2.1 SPD Inputs

Purpose of the SPD (copied from RFC 2401):

"A security association is a management construct used to enforce
a security policy in the IPsec environment. Thus an essential
element of SA processing is an underlying Security Policy Database


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(SPD) that specifies what services are to be offered to IP
datagrams and in what fashion. The form of the database and its
interface are outside the scope of this specification. However,
this section does specify certain minimum management functionality
that must be provided, to allow a user or system administrator to
control how IPsec is applied to traffic transmitted or received by
a host or transiting a security gateway.

The SPD must be consulted during the processing of all traffic
(INBOUND and OUTBOUND), including non-IPsec traffic. In order to
support this, the SPD requires distinct entries for inbound and
outbound traffic. One can think of this as separate SPDs (inbound
vs. outbound). In addition, a nominally separate SPD must be
provided for each IPsec-enabled interface.

An SPD must discriminate among traffic that is afforded IPsec
protection and traffic that is allowed to bypass IPsec. This
applies to the IPsec protection to be applied by a sender and to
the IPsec protection that must be present at the receiver. For any
outbound or inbound datagram, three processing choices are
possible: discard, bypass IPsec, or apply IPsec. The first choice
refers to traffic that is not allowed to exit the host, traverse
the security gateway, or be delivered to an application at all.
The second choice refers to traffic that is allowed to pass
without additional IPsec protection. The third choice refers to
traffic that is afforded IPsec protection, and for such traffic
the SPD must specify the security services to be provided,
protocols to be employed, algorithms to be used, etc."

The critical elements of the SPD are
    - Destination IP Address
    - Source IP Address
    - Name
    - Data sensitivity level
    - Transport Layer Protocol
    - Source and Destination (e.g., TCP/UDP) Ports
    - Specific IPsec processing
    - Specific IPsec Algorithms (spi, service, algorithm, mode)

6.2.2 SAD Inputs

Purpose of the SAD (copied from RFC 2401):

"In each IPsec implementation there is a nominal Security
Association Database, in which each entry defines the parameters
associated with one SA. Each SA has an entry in the SAD. For
outbound processing, entries are pointed to by entries in the SPD.
Note that if an SPD entry does not currently point to an SA that
is appropriate for the packet, the implementation creates an



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appropriate SA (or SA Bundle) and links the SPD entry to the SAD
entry (see Section 5.1.1). For inbound processing, each entry in
the SAD is indexed by a destination IP address, IPsec protocol
type, and SPI. The following parameters are associated with each
entry in the SAD. This description does not purport to be a MIB,
but only a specification of the minimal data items required to
support an SA in an IPsec implementation."


The critical elements of the SAD are
    - SAD index
    - Outer Header's Destination IP address
    - IPsec Protocol
    - SPI
    - Sequence Number Counter
    - Sequence Counter Overflow [only outbound]
    - Anti-Replay Window: [only for inbound.]
    - AH Authentication algorithm, keys, etc. [REQUIRED for AH
      implementations]
    - ESP Encryption algorithm, keys, IV mode, IV, etc. [REQUIRED for
      ESP implementations]
    - ESP authentication algorithm, keys, etc [REQUIRED for ESP
      implementations]
    - Lifetime of this Security Association: Required
    - IPsec protocol mode: tunnel, transport or wildcard
    - Path MTU:  [REQUIRED for all implementations but used only
      for outbound traffic]

6.3 Mapping from Policy Token for Ipsec

One of the major components of the MSEC Key Management Architecture is
the definition of three distinct categories of Secure Association
bundles. All three bundles together define a GSA.

The GKM BB addresses three distinct interactions that make up a GSA:
   1. Cat-1: Unicast secure channel between key server and potential
             group member
   2. Cat-2: Key management messages over multicast communications (Key
             server to members)
   3. Cat-3: traffic data SA s (Sender to Receivers)

There are several messages that need to be configured into IPsec SPDs.
There is a need for some key management messages to bypass IPsec
processing. These messages are self-protecting or do not require
protection.  During the process of establishing the group there are
unicast messages between the key servers and the members -- these
messages may be sensitive in nature and require IPsec processing.  Once
a group has been established, there are messages that manage the group
as a single entity, some these messages (LKH rekey [10]) are self



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protecting and do not need IPsec, but other management messages like
policy updating or group deletion may be sensitive and need IPsec
protection.  Finally, the group key that is protecting the application
data, separate from GSAKMP data will need IPsec processing.  In each of
these instances, the group policy token will carry the configuration
information needed to configure their SPD and SAD.

There is an enumerated example policy token that follows this section.
We have included the field numbers from that example into the following
SDP and SAD table entries to allow a mapping from the policy token to
the databases.

6.4 Bypass

At least two types of messages need to bypass IPsec processing - request
to join and rekey.  The request to join message may be sent from the
member to the key server before any GSA or SA is created, so no
association may exist to encrypt this message. Another message that must
bypass IPsec is the group rekey message -- this message is self-
protecting and is sent to the entire group.  The group rekey message may
be used to restore cryptographic synchronization in a group. Processing
this message through IPsec would negate its ability to restore
synchronization.

  Bypass SPDs                 Incoming             Outgoing
  ----------------------      --------------       --------------
  Destination IP Address      From (102)           From (109)
  Source IP Address           From (101)           From (108)
  Name                        n/a                  n/a
  Data sensitivity level      n/a                  n/a
  Transport Layer Protocol    From (103)           From (110)

  Source and Destination      Source: */Dest       Source: */Dest
   (e.g., TCP/UDP) Ports:      from (104)            from(111)

  Specific IPsec processing:  From (105)           From (112)
  Specific IPsec Algo
  (spi, service, algo, mode): From (99)            From (106)


6.5 Category-1 SA

During the initial Regsitration phase between a newcomer/group member
and the GCKS, sensitive information will be exchanged.

The group policy token example will specify the exact IPsec services
that are required between key server and group member.  It will also
specify the key creation parameters that satisfy the group data security
requirements.



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In this example, we assumed the use of IKE as the key creation and
negotiation protocol.  The group policy token will specify the correct
IKE parameters for the group.  IKE will create the pairwise key and
assign an appropriate SPI.

Two SPDs are required to completely specify this interaction -- one for
inbound messages in one for outbound messages.

Of special note: the standard selectors for IPsec are inadequate to
differentiate between multiple groups on a single multicast address.
One technique that can mitigate this problem is the assignment of a 4-
byte random number to a unique group on a multicast address.

  Cat-1 SPDs                  Outgoing             Incoming
  ----------------------      --------------       --------------
  Destination IP Address      From (79)            From (58)
  Source IP Address           From (78)            From (57)
  Name                        From (82)            From (61)
  Data sensitivity level      From (83)            From (62)
  Transport Layer Protocol    From (80)            From (59)
  Source & Destination Ports    Source: */ (81)      Source: */Dest: (60)
  Specific IPsec processing   IPsec process        IPsec process
  Specific IPsec Algo
  (spi, service, algo, mode): Spi: IKE             Spi: from IKE
               IPsec service: From (71,73-77)      From: (50,52-56)
              IKE attributes: From (84-91)         From: (63-70)



  Cat-1 SADs                  Outgoing             Incoming
  ----------------------      --------------       --------------
  SAD Index:
    Outer Dest. IP addr       * (w/ multicast      Local
                              addr masked out)
    Ipsec Protocol            From (71)            From (50)
    SPI                       From IKE             From IKE
  Sequence Number Counter     From IKE             From IKE
  Sequence Counter Overflow
             [only outbound]  From IKE             From IKE
  Anti-Replay Window
          [only for inbound]  From IKE             From IKE

  AH Authentication algo.,
    keys, etc. [REQUIRED
    for AH implementations]   n/a                  n/a

  ESP Encryption algorithm,
    keys, IV mode, IV, etc.
    [REQUIRED for ESP
           implementations]   From (73), IKE keys  From (52), IKE keys


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  ESP authentication alg.,
    keys, etc [REQUIRED for
       ESP implementations]   From (74), IKE keys  From (53), IKE keys

  Lifetime of this Security
      Association: Required   From (76)            From (55)

  IPsec protocol mode:
       tunnel, transport or
                   wildcard   From (75)            From (54)



6.6 Category-2 SA

In the management of groups, the GCKS uses the Category-2 SA to send out
control messages, which may contain keying material (re-key message) or
simply consists of commands (group maintenance).

The rekey messages will change the group traffic encryption keys and
associated rekey arrays in response to some problem with the group
security.  In the case of rekey messages, one cannot assume that a
single group traffic encryption key is available.  Therefore, the rekey
messages are self-protecting and bypass IPsec processing.

Normal group maintenance messages perform actions that apply to the
entire group -- policy updates, group synchronization, and group
deletion.  These messages may contain sensitive information and usually
are sent during times where the group is stable.  Therefore, IPsec
processes these messages.

IPsec will bypass the rekey messages as defined in the bypass SPD above.
The group security protocol (ie. GSAKMP, GDOI) must maintain internal
configurations for processing the rekey messages.

For rekey messages the Selectors are taken from the Policy Token (3),
while the Services are taken from the Policy Token (92-98).


6.7 Category-3 SA

Category 3 is the final set of IPsec  configurations (SPD and SAD
entries) used to protect the data traffic (nb. Hence also called "Data
Security SA").  Here, it is assumed that Ipsec will be used to protect
the data.

The group policy token will specify the IPsec parameters that are needed
to protect the data.  A group Security Parameter Index (SPI) will be
created and distributed across the entire group.



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  Cat-3 SPDs                  Outgoing             Incoming
  ----------------------      --------------       --------------
  Destination IP Addr.        From (32)          From (45)
  Source IP Addr.                   From (31)            From (44)
  Name                        From (34)            From (47)
  Data sensitivity level      From (35)            From (48)
  Transport Layer Protocol    From (33)            From (46)
  Src & Dest Ports            Src: */Dest:*        Src: */Dest:* mask
                                                   protocol bypass
  Specific IPsec processing   IPsec process        IPsec process
  Specific IPsec Algo         From (24a)           From (24a)
  (spi, service, algo, mode)
                              - IPsec service      - IPsec service
                                from (26,27,28)      from (39,40,41)
                              - Key attributes:    - Key attributes:
                                from protocol        from protocol


  Cat-3 SADs                  Outgoing             Incoming
  ----------------------      --------------       --------------
  Outer Dest. IP Addr.        Multicast from (32)  Multicast from (45)
  Ipsec Protocol              From (24)          From (24)
  SPI
  Sequence Number Counter     (only for 1-to-Many) (only for 1-to-many)
  Sequence Counter Overflow
            [only outbound]   (only for 1-to-Many) (only for 1-to-many)
  Anti-Replay Window
         [only for inbound]   (only for 1-to-Many) (only for 1-to-many)
  AH Auth. Algo., keys, etc    n/a                  n/a

  ESP Encryption algorithm,
    keys, IV mode, IV, etc.
    [REQUIRED for ESP
           implementations]   From (26)            From (39)
                              Keys from Cat-1       Keys from Cat-1

  ESP authentication alg.,
    keys, etc [REQUIRED for
       ESP implementations]   From (27)            From (40)
                              Keys from Cat-1       Keys from Cat-1

  Lifetime of this Security
      Association: Required   From (29, 30)         From (42, 43)

  IPsec protocol mode:
       tunnel, transport or
                   wildcard   From (28)            From (41)




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  Path MTU:  [REQUIRED for    ?                    ?
   all implementations but
    used only for outbound
                  traffic]


6.8 A Complete Group Policy Token

In the following, the complete group policy token is presented, parts
from which have been presented in then precious three subsections above.


TOKEN-ID FIELD
(1)                  Version               v1.0
(2)                  Protocol              p1.0
(3)                  GroupID               IPv4, 224.0.1, 12345678
(4)                  Timestamp             20000316182632Z
(5)                  Expiration Date       20000616182632Z

AUTHORIZATION FIELD
(6)  Group Owner     Distinguished Name    /C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN=Jane Owner
(7)                  Serial Number         87654321
(8)                  Certificate Type      X.509v3-DSS-SHA1
(9)                  Key Length            1024
(10)                   Root CA               C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN =John Root

(11) GCKS            Distinguished Name    C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN = Sally Member

(12)                 Certificate Type      X.509v3-DSS-SHA1
(13)                 Key Length            1024
(14)                 Root CA               C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN =John Root

(15) Rekey GCKS      Distinguished Name    C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN = Johnny Member
(16)                 Certificate Type      X.509v3-DSS-SHA1
(17)                 Key Length            1024
(18)                 Root CA               C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN =John Root




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ACCESS CONTROL FIELD
(19)  Permissions    employee, projectA
(20)  Access List    Distinguished Name    C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./CN = *
(21)                 Certificate Type      X.509v3-DSS-SHA1
(22)                 Key Length            1024
(23)                 Root CA               C=US/ST=MD/L=Columbia/
                                           O=SPARTA,Inc./
                                           CN =John Root
MECHANISMS FIELD
(24a) Cat-3 SA       SPI                   4847474747474747 ...
(24)                 Security Protocol     ESP
(25)                 Processing Direction  Outgoing
(26)                 ESP Algorithm         ESP-DES
(27)                 ESP Authentication    HMAC-SHA
(28)                 Encapsulation Mode    Tunnel
(29)                 SA Lifetype           kilobytes
(30)                 SA Lifetime           1000
(31)                 Source Addr           *
(32)                 Destination Addr      224.0.1 (Multicast)
(33)                 Transport Protocol    UDP
(34)                 GroupID               224.0.1, 12345678
(35)                 Security Label        Reference [7]
(36)                 Key Creation          preplaced (via GSAKMP)
(24a)                SPI                   4847474747474747 ...
(37)                 Security Protocol     ESP
(38)                 Processing Direction  Incoming
(39)                 ESP Algorithm         ESP-DES
(40)                 ESP Authentication    HMAC-SHA
(41)                 Encapsulation Mode    Tunnel
(42)                 SA Lifetype           kilobytes
(43)                 SA Lifetime           1000
(44)                 Source Addr           *
(45)                 Destination Addr      224.0.1, 12345678
(46)                 Transport Protocol    UDP
(47)                 GroupID               224.0.1, 12345678
(48)                 Security Label        Reference [7]
(49)                 Key Creation          preplaced (via GSAKMP)

(50) Cat-1 SA        Security Protocol     ESP
(51)                 Processing Direction  Incoming
(52)                 ESP Algorithm         ESP-DES
(53)                 ESP Authentication    HMAC-SHA
(54)                 Encapsulation Mode    Tunnel
(55)                 SA Lifetype           seconds
(56)                 SA Lifelength         1000
(57)                 Source Addr           * (except multicast)
(58)                 Destination Addr      self
(59)                 Transport Protocol    TCP



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(60)                 Destination Port      555 (GSAKMP)
(61)                 GroupID               224.0.1, 12345678
(62)                 Security Label        Reference [7]
(63)                 Key Creation    IKE
(64)                 IKE Encr. Algorithm   DES-CBC
(65)                 IKE Hash Algorithm    SHA
(66)                 IKE Auth. Method      DSS-Signature
(67)                 IKE Group Desc.       MODP-1024
(68)                 IKE Group Type        MODP
(69)                 IKE Group Prime       7
(70)                 IKE Group Gen.        2
(71)                 Security Protocol     ESP
(72)                 Processing Direction  Outgoing
(73)                 ESP Algorithm         ESP-DES
(74)                 ESP Authentication    HMAC-SHA
(75)                 Encapsulation Mode    Tunnel
(76)                 SA Lifetype           seconds
(77)                 SA Lifelength         1000
(78)                 Source Addr           self
(79)                 Destination Addr      * (except Multicast)
(80)                 Transport Protocol    TCP
(81)                 Destination Port      555 (GSAKMP)
(82)                 GroupID               224.0.1, 12345678
(83)                 Security Label        Reference [7]
(84)                 Key Creation          IKE
(85)                 IKE Encr. Algorithm   DES-CBC
(86)                 IKE Hash Algorithm    SHA
(87)                 IKE Auth. Method      DSS-Signature
(88)                 IKE Group Desc.       MODP-1024
(89)                 IKE Group Type        MODP
(90)                 IKE Group Prime       7
(91)                 IKE Group Gen.        2

(92) Cat-2 SA        Key Creation Method   Diffie-Hellman
(93)                 D-H n                 779
(94)                 D-H q                 2
(95)                 Key Encr. Algorithm   Triple-DES-ECB
(96)                 Rekey Method          LKH
(97)                 Signature Algorithm   DSS
(98)                 Hash                  SHA

(99) Cat-2 Bypass    Security Protocol     IPsec None
(100)                Processing Direction  Incoming
(101)                Source Addr           *
(102)                Destination Addr      *
(103)                Transport Protocol    *
(104)                Destination Port      777
(105)                Processing            BYPASS



Group Security Policy Token                                  [PAGE 22]

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(106)                Security Protocol     IPsec None
(107)                Processing Direction  Outgoing
(108)                Source Addr           self
(109)                Destination Addr      *
(110)                Transport Protocol    *
(111)                Destination Port      777
(112)                Processing            BYPASS

SIGNATURE FIELD
(113)                Signature Algorithm   DSS
(114)                Hash                  SHA
(115)                Signature Data        948456945040...




REFERENCES

[BF99] B. Briscoe, I. Fairman, Nark: Receiver-based Multicast, Non-
repudiation and Key Management, Proceedings of ACM E-Commerce'99,
rbriscoe@bt.co.uk.

[BMS99] D. Balenson, D. McGrew, A. Sherman, Key Management for Large
Dynamic Groups: One-Way Function Trees and Amortized Initialization,
http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-balenson-groupkeymgmt-oft-
00.txt, February 1999, Work in Progress.

[BR93] M. Bellare, P. Rogaway, Entity Authentication and Key
Distribution, Advances in Cryptology - Crypto '93 Proceedings, Springer-
Verlag, 1993.

[Bris99] B. Briscoe, MARKS: Zero Side Effect Multicast Key Management
using Arbitrarily Revealed Key Sequences, Proceedings of NGC'99,
rbriscoe@bt.co.uk.

[CP99] R. Canetti and B. Pinkas, A taxonomy of multicast security
issues, http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-irtf-smug-taxonomy-
01.txt, April 1999, Work in Progress.

[DVW92] Diffie, P. van Oorschot, M. J. Wiener, Authentication and
Authenticated Key Exchanges, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 2, 107-125
(1992), Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[FS00] N. Ferguson and B. Schneier, A Cryptographic Evaluation of IPsec,
CounterPane, http://www.counterpane.com/ipsec.html.

[HCBD99] T. Hardjono, R. Canetti, M. Baugher, P. Disnmore, Secure IP
Multicast: Problem areas, Framework, and Building Blocks,
http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-irtf-smug-framework-00.txt,
Work in Progress 1999.

Group Security Policy Token                                  [PAGE 23]

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[HCD99] T. Hardjono, B. Cain, N. Doraswamy, A framework for group key
management for multicast security, http://www.ietf.org/internet-
drafts/draft-ietf-ipsec-gkmframework-01.txt, July 1999, Work in
Progress.

[HH99a] H. Harney, E. Harder, Multicast Security Management Protocol
(MSMP) Requirements and Policy, draft-harney-msmp-sec-00.txt, March
1999, Work in Progress.

[HH99b] H. Harney, E. Harder, Group Secure Association Key Management
Protocol, http://search.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-harney-sparta-
gsakmp-sec-00.txt, April 1999, Work in Progress.

[Kraw96] H. Krawczyk, SKEME: A Versatile Secure Key Exchange Mechanism
for Internet, ISOC Secure Networks and Distributed Systems Symposium,
San Diego, 1996.

[RFC1889] H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, V. Jacobson, RTP: A
Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications, January 1996.

[RFC2093] Harney, H., and Muckenhirn, C., "Group Key Management Protocol
(GKMP) Specification," RFC 2093, July 1997.

[RFC2094] Harney, H., and Muckenhirn, C., "Group Key Management Protocol
(GKMP) Architecture," RFC 2094, July 1997.

[RFC2401] S. Kent, R. Atkinson, Security Architecture for the Internet
Protocol, November 1998

[RFC2407] D. Piper, The Internet IP Domain of Interpretation for ISAKMP,
November 1998.

[RFC2408] D. Maughan, M. Shertler, M. Schneider, J. Turner, Internet
Security Association and Key Management Protocol, November 1998.

[RFC2409] D. Harkins, D. Carrel, The Internet Key Exchange (IKE),
November, 1998.

[RFC2412] H. Orman, The OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol, November
1998.

[RFC2522] P. Karn, W. Simpson, Photuris: Session-Key Management
Protocol, March 1999.

[RFC2627] D. M. Wallner, E. Harder, R. C. Agee, Key Management for
Multicast: Issues and Architectures, September 1998.

[SDNS88] H. L. Rogers, An Overview of the CANEWARE Program, 10th
National Security Conference, National Security Agency, 1988.



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[WL98] C.K.Wong, S.S. Lam, Digital Signatures for Flows and Multicasts,
Proceedings of IEEE ICNP'98, October 14-16, 1998.



Authors Address:

Thomas Hardjono
VeriSign
401 Edgewater Pl, Suite 280
Wakefield, MA 01880, USA
thardjono@verisign.com

Hugh Harney
SPARTA, Inc.
Secure Systems Engineering Division
9861 Broken Land Parkway, Suite 300
Columbia, MD 21046-1170, USA
+1 410 381 9400 (ext.  203)
hh@columbia.sparta.com

Patrick McDaniel
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of Michigan
3115 EECS Building
1301 Beal Avenue
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
pdmcdan@eecs.umich.edu

Andrea Colgrove
SPARTA, Inc.
Secure Systems Engineering Division
9861 Broken Land Parkway, Suite 300
Columbia, MD 21046-1170, USA
+1 410 381 9400 (ext.  203)
ac@columbia.sparta.com

Peter Dinsmore
NAI Labs
3060 Washington Road,
Glenwood, MD 21738
(443) 259-2346
Pete_Dinsmore@NAI.com








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