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Versions: (draft-ernst-nemo-terminology) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 4885

IETF NEMO Working Group                    Thierry Ernst, WIDE and INRIA
Internet-Draft                        Hong-Yon Lach, Motorola Labs Paris
                                                                May 2003

                  Network Mobility Support Terminology
                   draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-00.txt




Status of This Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Abstract

   This document defines a terminology for discussing network mobility
   problems and solution requirements. Network mobility arises when a
   router connecting an entire network to the Internet dynamically
   changes its point of attachment to the Internet therefrom causing the
   reachability of the entire network to be changed in the topology.
   Such kind of network is referred to as a mobile network. Without
   appropriate mechanisms, sessions established between nodes in the
   mobile network and the global Internet cannot be maintained while the
   mobile router changes its point of attachment.










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                             Table of Contents

Status of This Memo

Abstract

1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04

2.  Architecture Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05

3.  Functional Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07

    Local Fixed Node (LFN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07
    Local Mobile Node (LMN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07
    Visiting Mobile Node (VMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07
    NEMO-enabled (NEMO-node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07
    MIPv6-enabled (MIPv6-node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07

4.  Nested Mobility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09

    Nested Mobile Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09
    root-NEMO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    parent-NEMO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    sub-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    root-MR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    parent-MR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    sub-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5.  Multihoming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Multihomed Host. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-addressed host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-interfaced host. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    mutli-linked host. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-sited host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    Multihomed Mobile Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-egress-addressed MR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-egress-interfaced MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    mutli-egress-linked MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-egress-sited MR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    Multihomed Mobile Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    multi-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    Multihomed Nested Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    multi-root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    Multihoming Illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

6.  Miscellaneous Terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16




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    Host Mobility Support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Network Mobility Support (NEMO Support). . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    NEMO Basic Support  . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    NEMO Extended Support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Node behind the MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Correspondent Node (CN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    MNP . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Idle MNN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Idle Mobile Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

7.  Changes Since Previous Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

A.  Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

B.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

C.  Contact Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

D.  Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
































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 1. Introduction

   Network mobility support is concerned with managing the mobility of
   an entire network which changes its point of attachment to the
   Internet and thus its reachability in the Internet topology. If
   network mobility is not explicitly supported by some mechanisms,
   existing sessions break and connectivity to the global Internet is
   lost.

   This document defines the specific terminology needed to describe the
   problem space we face with network mobility and to edict the
   solutions and the requirements they must comply with. This
   terminology complies with the usual IPv6 terminology [RFC2460] and
   the generic mobility-related terms already defined in [Mobility] and
   in the Mobile IPv6 [MIPv6] specifications. Some terms introduced in
   the present version of the draft may only be useful for the purpose
   of defining the problem scope and functional requirements of network
   mobility support and shall be removed or refined once we agree on the
   requirements.

   The first section introduces terms to define the architecture
   components; the second introduces terms to discuss the requirements,
   the third, terms to discuss nested mobility; the forth defines
   multihoming, and the last, miscellaneous terms which do not fit in
   either sections. The overall terminology is summarized in fig.1 to 5.
   Fig.1 shows a single mobile subnetwork. Fig.2. shows a larger mobile
   network comprising several subnetworks, attached on a foreign link.
   Fig.3 illustrates a node changing its point of attachment within the
   mobile network. Fig.4 and 5 illustrate nested mobility whereas Fig.6
   to Fig.8 illustrate multihoming.





















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 2. Architecture Components

   Fig.1 and 2 illustrate the architecture components involved in
   network mobility. The terms "Fixed Node (FN)", "Mobile Node (MN)",
   "Mobile Network", "Mobile Router (MR)", "Mobile Network Node (MNN)",
   "home link", "foreign link", "ingress interface", "egress interface",
   access router (AR), home link, foreign link are defined in
   [Mobility].

   A mobile network is composed by one or more IP-subnet and is viewed
   as a single unit. It is connected to the Internet by means of mobile
   routers (MRs). Nodes behind the MR primarily comprise fixed nodes
   (nodes unable to change their point of attachment while maintaining
   ongoing sessions), and additionally mobile nodes (nodes able to
   change their point of attachment while maintaining ongoing sessions).
   In most cases, the internal structure of the mobile network will in
   effect be relatively stable (no dynamic change of the topology), but
   this is not a general assumption.



            ____
           |    |
           | CN |
           |____|
          ___|____________________
         |                        |
         |                        |
         |       Internet         |
         |                        |
         |________________________|
            __|_            __|_
           |    |  Access  |    |
           | AR |  Router  | AR |
           |____|          |____|
        ______|__ foreign   __|_____________ home
                  link               __|_    link
                                    |    |
                                    | MR | Mobile Router
                                    |____|
                              _________|_______  internal
                               __|__     __|__   link
                              |     |   |     |
                              | MNN |   | MNN | Mobile Network Nodes
                              |_____|   |_____|

                        Fig.1: Architecture Components




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      At the network layer, MRs get access to the global Internet from
      the Access Routers (ARs) on the visited link. The MR maintains the
      Internet connectivity for the entire mobile network. It has one or
      more egress interface(s) and one or more ingress interface(s).
      When forwarding a packet to the Internet the packet is transmitted
      upstream through one of the MR's egress interfaces to the AR; when
      forwarding a packet from the AR down to the mobile network, the
      packet is transmitted downstream through one of the MR's ingress
      interfaces.

                  ________________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                         __|_
                Access  |    |
                Router  | AR |
                        |____|
             foreign _____|_____________
              link                   |
                                     | 'e'
                                   __|__
                             | 'i'|     |
                             |____| MR  | Mobile Router
                             |    |_____|
                             |       |'i'
                             |       |
                             |   ____|________________ internal
                             |     __|__         __|__  link 1
                     _____   |    |     |       |     |
                    |     |__|    | MNN |       | MNN |
                    | MNN |  |    |_____|       |_____|
                    |_____|  |
                             | internal       'i': MR ingress interface
                                link 2        'e': MR egress interface

                 Fig.2: Larger Mobile Network with 2 subnets












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 3. Functional Terms

   Within the term Mobile Network Node (MNN), we can distinguish between
   LFN, VMN and LMN. The distinction is a property of how different
   types of nodes can move in the topology and is necessary to discuss
   issues related to mobility management and access control, but does
   not preclude that mobility should be handled differently. Nodes are
   classified according to their function and capabilities with the
   rationale that nodes with different properties (may) have different
   requirements.

   Local Fixed Node (LFN)

      A fixed node (FN), either a host or a router, that belongs to the
      mobile network and which doesn't move topologically with respect
      to the MR.

   Local Mobile Node (LMN)

      A mobile node (MN), either a host or a router who can move
      topologically with respect to the MR and whose home link belongs
      to the mobile network.

   Visiting Mobile Node (VMN)

      A mobile node (MN), either a host or a router who can move
      topologically with respect to the MR and whose home link doesn't
      belong to the mobile network. A VMN that gets attached to a
      foreign link within the mobile network obtains an address on that
      link.

   NEMO-enabled (NEMO-node)

      A node that has been extended with network mobility support
      capabilities and that may take special actions based on that
      (details of the capabilities are not known yet, but it may be
      implementing some sort of Route Optimization).

   MIPv6-enabled (MIPv6-node)

      A node which has been extended with host mobility support
      capabilities as defined in [MIPv6] and that may take special
      actions based on that








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                  ________________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|_            __|_
                   |    |  Access  |    |
                   | AR |  Router  | AR |
                   |____|          |____|
                    __|_         _____|_____________ foreign
                   |    |                     _|__   link
                   | MN |                 |  |    |
                   |____|         _____   |__| MR | Mobile Router
                                 |     |__|  |____|
                           |-->  | LMN |  |   __|_____________ internal
                           |     |_____|  |   __|__       |     link 1
                           |      _____   |  |     |
                           |     |     |__|  | LFN |
                           |     | LFN |  |  |_____|      |
                           |     |_____|  |               |
                           |              | internal      |
                           |                 link 2       |
                           |------------------------------|


                   Fig.3: LFN and LMN: LMN changing subnet
























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 4. Nested Mobility

   Nested mobility occurs when there are more than one level of
   mobility. A MNN acts as an Access Router (AR) and allows visiting
   nodes to get attached to it. There are two cases of nested mobility:

      - when the attaching node is a single node: VMN (see figure 4).
      For instance, when a passenger carrying a mobile phone gets
      Internet access from the public access network deployed into a
      bus.

      - when the attaching node is a router with nodes behind it, i.e. a
      mobile network (see figure 5). For instance, when a passenger
      carrying a PAN gets Internet access from the public access network
      deployed in the bus.

   For the second case, we introduce the following terms:

   Nested Mobile Network

      A mobile network is said to be nested when a mobile network is
      getting attached to a larger mobile network. The aggregated
      hierarchy of mobile networks becomes a single nested mobile
      network.

                  ________________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|_            __|_
                   |    |  Access  |    |
                   | AR |  Router  | AR |
                   |____|          |____|
                                _____|_____________ home
                     |                        _|__   link
                     |                    |  |    |
                     |            _____   |__| MR | Mobile Router
                     |           |     |__|  |____|
                     ----------> | VMN |  |   __|_____________ internal
                                 |_____|  |   __|__     __|__  link 1
                                  _____   |  |     |   |     |
                                 |     |__|  | LFN |   | LMN |
                                 | LFN |  |  |_____|   |_____|
                                 |_____|  |
                                          | internal link 2




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       Fig.4: Nested Mobility: single VMN attached to a mobile network

   root-NEMO

      The mobile network at the top of the hierarchy connecting the
      aggregated nested mobile network to the Internet.

   parent-NEMO

      The upstream mobile network providing Internet access to a mobile
      network down the hierarchy.

   sub-NEMO

      The downstream mobile network attached to a mobile network up the
      hierarchy. It becomes a subservient of the parent-NEMO. The sub-
      NEMO is getting Internet access through the parent-NEMO and does
      not provide Internet access to the parent-NEMO.

                  ________________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|__           __|__
                   |     |         |     |
                   | AR1 |         | AR2 |
                   |_____|         |_____|
                                 _____|_____________ foreign
                                             __|__   link
                                            |     |
                             |   _____   |__| MR1 | root-MR
                             |__|     |__|  |_____|
                             |  | MR2 |  |   __|_____________ internal
                             |  |_____|  |   __|__     __|__  link 1
                     _____   |           |  |     |   |     |
                    |     |  |  sub-MR   |  | LFN |   | LMN |
                    | LFN |__|           |  |_____|   |_____|
                    |_____|  |           |
                             |           | internal
                                           link 2
                    <-------------------> <--------------------------->
                          sub-NEMO                 root-NEMO


      Fig.5: Nested Mobility: sub-NEMO attached to a larger mobile network




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   root-MR

      The MR(s) of the root-NEMO used to connect the nested mobile
      network to the fixed Internet.

   parent-MR

      The MR(s) of the parent-NEMO.

   sub-MR

      The MR(s) of the sub-NEMO connected to a parent-NEMO







































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 5. Multihoming

   Multihoming, as currently defined by the IETF, covers site-
   multihoming [MULTI6] and host multihoming.

   Multihomed Host

      Within host-multihoming, a host may either be:

         - multi-addressed: multiple source addresses to choose between
         on a given interface; all IPv6 nodes are multi-addressed due to
         the presence of link-local addresses on all interfaces.

         - multi-interfaced: multiple interfaces to choose between, on
         the same link or not.

         - multi-linked: multiple links to choose between (just like
         multi-interfaced but all interfaces are NOT connected to the
         same link)

         - multi-sited: when using IPv6 site-local address and attached
         to different sites

   Multihomed Mobile Router

      A MR is multihomed when it has simultaneously more than one active
      connection to the Internet, that is when it is either:

         - multi-egress-addressed MR: the MR has simultaneously multiple
         active addresses to choose between on a given egress interface

         - multi-egress-interfaced MR: the MR has simultaneously
         multiple active egress intefaces on the same link or not

         - multi-egress-linked MR: the MR has simultaneously multiple
         active egress interfaces on distinct links

         - multi-egress-sited MR: the MR is simultaneously attached to
         different sites (possible distinct ISPs).

   Multihomed Mobile Network

      A mobile network is multihomed when there more than one active
      interface connected to the global Internet, that is when either:

         - a MR is multihomed, or

         - mutlti-MR: the mobile network has more than one MR to choose



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         between

                  ________________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |        Internet        |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                   __|__            __|__
                  |     |          |     |
                  | AR1 |          | AR2 |
                  |_____|          |_____|
       foreign ______|_____      _____|______ foreign
       link 1          |    ____    |         link 2
                       |   |    |   |
                       |___| MR |___|
                           |____|
                       ______|_____ internal
                             __|__   link 1
                            |     |
                            | LFN |
                            |_____|

            Fig.6: Multihomed Mobile Network: multi-interfaced MR


                  ________________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |        Internet        |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                   __|__            __|__
                  |     |          |     |
                  | AR1 |          | AR2 |
                  |_____|          |_____|
       foreign ______|_____      _____|______ foreign
       link 1         __|__      __|__        link 2
                     |     |    |     |
                     | MR1 |    | MR2 |
                     |_____|    |_____|
                   _____|__________|_____ internal
                             __|__        link 1
                            |     |
                            | LFN |
                            |_____|

                  Fig.7: Multihomed Mobile Network: multi-MR



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   Multihomed Nested Mobile Network

      A nested mobile network is multihomed when there more than one
      active interface connected to the global Internet, that is when
      either:

         - a root-MR is multihomed, or

         - multi-root: there are more than one root-MR to choose between

   Illustration

      Fig.6 and 7 show two examples of multihomed mobile networks.
      Fig.8. shows two independent mobile networks. mobile_network_1 is
      single-homed to the Internet through MR1. mobile_network_2 is
      multihomed to the Internet through MR2a and MR2b.

      Let's consider the two following nested scenarios:

         Scenario 1: what happens when MR2a attaches to AR1 ?

            - mobile_network_2 becomes a subservient of mobile_network_1

            - mobile_network_1 is the parent-NEMO (and also the root-
            NEMO)

            - mobile_network_2 is the sub-NEMO

            - MR1 is the root-MR for the aggregated nested mobile
            network

            - MR2a is a sub-MR in the aggregated nested mobile network

            - mobile_network_2 is still multihomed to the Internet, but
            to AR1 and ARz

            - the aggregated nested mobile network is not multihomed


         Scenario 2: what happens when MR1 attaches to AR2 ?

            - mobile_network_1 becomes a subservient of mobile_network_2

            - mobile_network_1 is the sub-NEMO

            - mobile_network_2 is the parent_NEMO (and also the root-
            NEMO)




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            - MR2a and MR2b are both root_MRs for the aggregated nested
            mobile network

            - MR1 is a sub-MR in the aggregated nested mobile network

            - mobile_network_1 is not multihomed

            - the aggregated nested mobile network is multihomed


                      _____________________________
                     |                             |
                     |                             |
                     |         Internet            |
                     |                             |
                     |_____________________________|
                      __|__       __|__     __|__
                     |     |     |     |   |     |
                     | ARx |     | ARy |   | ARz |
                     |_____|     |_____|   |_____|
                  ______|__     ____|____  ___|____
                   __|__          __|___    __|___
                  |     |        |      |  |      |
                  | MR1 |        | MR2a |  | MR2b |
                  |_____|        |______|  |______|
       mobile   _____|____      ___|__________|___   mobile
       network1    __|__                __|__        network2
                  |     |              |     |
                  | LFN | AR1          | LFN | AR2
                  |_____|              |_____|

                   Fig.8: Multihomed Nested Mobile Network



















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 6. Miscellaneous Terms

   Host mobility support

      Host Mobility Support is a mechanmism which maintains session
      continuity between mobile nodes and their correspondents upon the
      mobile host's change of point of attachment. It could be achieved
      by Mobile IPv6.

   Network Mobility support (NEMO Support)
      Network Mobility Support is a mechanism which maintains session
      continuity between mobile network nodes and their correspondent
      upon a mobile router's change of point of attachment. Solutions
      for this problem are classified into NEMO Basic Support, and NEMO
      Extended Support.

   NEMO Basic Support
      NEMO Basic support is to preserve session continuity by means of
      bidirectional tunneling much like what is done using [MIPv6] for
      mobile nodes.

   NEMO Extended Support
      NEMO Extended support is to provide the necessary optimization,
      including routing optimization between arbitrary MNNs and CNs.

   Node behind the MR
      Any MNN in a mobile network, beside the MRs connecting the mobile
      network to the Internet.

   Correspondent Node (CN)
      Any node that is communicating with one or more MNNs. A CN could
      either be located in the fixed network or within the mobile
      network, and could be either fixed or mobile.

   MNP
      An acronym for Mobile Network Prefix (defined in [Mobility])

   Idle MNN
      A MNN that does not engage in any communication.

   Idle Mobile Network

      A mobile network that does not engage in any communication outside
      the network may be considered idle from the global Internet. This
      doesn't preclude that MNNs are themselves idle. Internal traffic
      between any two MNNs located in the same mobile network is not
      concerned by this statement.




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 7. Changes since draft-ernst-nemo-terminology-01.txt

   - removed terms "inter-domain mobility" and "intra-domain mobility".
   Those are replaced with terms "Global mobility" and "Local mobility"
   from [Mobility]

   - removed terms "access router", "mobile network prefix", "home
   subnet prefix", "foreign subnet prefix", "fixed node", "mobile node",
   "mobile network", "mobile network node". "ingress interface", "egress
   interface" to avoid redundancy with [Mobility] where those terms are
   defined.

   - MIPv6-enabled not anymore restricted to the MN Operation

   - removed section "applications" to avoid redundancy with
   [Requirements]

   - more text for multi-homing

A. Acknowledgments

   The material presented in this document takes most of the text from
   our former internet-drafts submitted to MobileIP WG and to the former
   MONET BOF. Authors would therefore like to thank both Motorola Labs
   Paris and INRIA (PLANETE team, Grenoble, France), for the opportunity
   to bring this terminology to the IETF, and particularly Claude
   Castelluccia (INRIA) for his advices, suggestions, and direction,
   Alexandru Petrescu (Motorola) and Christophe Janneteau (Motorola). We
   also acknowledge the input from Hesham Soliman (Ericsson), Mattias
   Petterson (Ericsson), and numerous other people on the NEMO mailing
   list.

B. References


   [Requirements] Thierry Ernst
                  "Network Mobility Support Requirements"
                  draft-ietf-nemo-requirements.txt
                  Work in progress.

   [MIPv6]        David B. Johnson and C. Perkins.
                  "Mobility Support in IPv6".
                  Internet Draft draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6.txt,
                  Work in progress.

   [Mobility]     J. Manner and M. Kojo
                  "Mobility Related Terminology
                  draft-ietf-seamoby-mobility-terminology.txt



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                  Work in progress

   [MULTI6]       B. Black, V. Gill and J. Abley
                  "Requirements for IPv6 Site-Multihoming Architectures"
                  draft-ietf-multi6-multihoming-requirements.txt
                  Work in progress

   [IPv6-NODE]    John Loughney
                  "IPv6 Node Requirements"
                  draft-ietf-ipv6-node-requirements.txt
                  Work in progress.

   [Perkins]      C. E. Perkins.
                  "Mobile IP, Design Principles and Practices."
                  Wireless Communications Series.
                  Addison-Wesley, 1998. ISBN 0-201-63469-4.

   [RFC1726]      C. Partridge
                  "Technical Criteria for Choosing IP the Next
   Generation",
                  IETF RFC 1726 section 5.15, December 1994.

   [RFC2460]      S. Deering and R. Hinden.
                  "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification".
                  IETF RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2002]      C. Perkins (Editor).
                  "IP Mobility Support".
                  IETF RFC 2002,October 1996.

C. Contact Address

   Questions about this document can be directed to the authors:

      Thierry Ernst,
      Keio University.
      5322 Endo, Fujisawa-shi,
      Kanagawa 252-8520, Japan.
      Phone : +81-466-49-1100
      Fax   : +81-466-49-1395
      Email : ernst@sfc.wide.ad.jp

      Hong-Yon Lach
      Motorola Labs Paris, Lab Manager,
      Networking and Applications Lab (NAL)
      Espace Technologique - Saint Aubin
      91193 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
      Phone: +33-169-35-25-36



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      Email: Hong-Yon.Lach@crm.mot.com


D. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and
   distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind,
   provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing
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   in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to
   translate it into languages other than English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT
   NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN
   WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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   Funding for the RFC editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.



















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