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Versions: (draft-voit-netconf-restconf-notif) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

NETCONF                                                          E. Voit
Internet-Draft                                                 R. Rahman
Intended status: Standards Track                       E. Nilsen-Nygaard
Expires: March 16, 2019                                    Cisco Systems
                                                                A. Clemm
                                                                  Huawei
                                                              A. Bierman
                                                               YumaWorks
                                                      September 12, 2018


               RESTCONF Transport for Event Notifications
                  draft-ietf-netconf-restconf-notif-07

Abstract

   This document defines a RESTCONF binding to the dynamic subscription
   capability of both subscribed notifications and YANG-Push.
   Subscriptions to publisher defined event streams or nodes/subtrees of
   YANG Datastores is supported.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 16, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Dynamic Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Transport Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  RESTCONF RPCs and HTTP Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.4.  Call Flow for HTTP2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.5.  Call flow for HTTP1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  QoS Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Mandatory JSON and datastore support  . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Notification Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  YANG Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  YANG module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Appendix A.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     A.1.  Dynamic Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       A.1.1.  Establishing Dynamic Subscriptions  . . . . . . . . .  16
       A.1.2.  Modifying Dynamic Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       A.1.3.  Deleting Dynamic Subscriptions  . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     A.2.  Subscription State Notifications  . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       A.2.1.  subscription-started and subscription-modified  . . .  21
       A.2.2.  subscription-completed, subscription-resumed, and
               replay-complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       A.2.3.  subscription-terminated and subscription-suspended  .  22
   Appendix B.  Changes between revisions  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24

1.  Introduction

   Mechanisms to support event subscription and push are defined in
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications].  Enhancements to
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] which enable YANG
   datastore subscription and push are defined in
   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push].  This document provides a transport
   specification for dynamic subscriptions over RESTCONF [RFC8040].
   Driving these requirements is [RFC7923].



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   The streaming of notifications encapsulating the resulting
   information push can be done with either HTTP1.1 [RFC7231] or HTTP2
   [RFC7540].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   The following terms use the definitions from
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications]: dynamic
   subscription, event stream, notification message, publisher,
   receiver, subscriber, and subscription.

   Other terms reused include datastore, which is defined in [RFC8342],
   and HTTP2 stream which maps to the definition of "stream" within
   [RFC7540], Section 2.

   [ note to the RFC Editor - please replace XXXX within this document
   with the number of this document ]

3.  Dynamic Subscriptions

   This section provides specifics on how to establish and maintain
   dynamic subscriptions over HTTP 1.1 and HTTP2 via signaling messages
   transported over RESTCONF [RFC8040].  Subscribing to event streams is
   accomplished in this way via a RESTCONF POST into RPCs defined within
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] Section 2.4.  YANG
   datastore subscription is accomplished via augmentations to
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] as described within
   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] Section 4.4.

   Common across all HTTP based dynamic subscriptions is that a POST
   needs to be made against a specific URI on the Publisher.
   Subscribers cannot pre-determine the URI against which a subscription
   might exist on a publisher, as the URI will only exist after the
   "establish-subscription" has been accepted.  The subscription URI
   will be determined and sent as part of the response to the
   "establish-subscription", and a subsequent POST to this URI will be
   done in order to start the flow of notification messages back to the
   subscriber.  A subscription does not move to the active state as per
   Section 2.4.1. of [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications]
   until the POST is received.







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3.1.  Transport Connectivity

   For a dynamic subscription, where an HTTP client session doesn't
   already exist, a new client session is initiated from the subscriber.
   If the subscriber is unsure if HTTP2 is supported by the publisher,
   HTTP1.1 will be used for initial messages, and these messages will
   include an HTTP version upgrade request as per [RFC7230],
   Section 6.7.  If a publisher response indicates that HTTP2 is
   supported, HTTP2 will be used between subscriber and publisher for
   future HTTP interactions as per [RFC7540].

   A subscriber SHOULD establish the HTTP session over TLS [RFC5246] in
   order to secure the content in transit.

   Without the involvement of additional protocols, neither HTTP1.1 nor
   HTTP2 sessions by themselves allow for a quick recognition of when
   the communication path has been lost with the publisher.  Where quick
   recognition of the loss of a publisher is required, a subscriber
   SHOULD connect over TLS [RFC5246], and use a TLS heartbeat [RFC6520]
   to track HTTP session continuity.  In the case where a TLS heartbeat
   is included, it should be sent just from receiver to publisher.  Loss
   of the heartbeat MUST result in any subscription related TCP sessions
   between those endpoints being torn down.  A subscriber can then
   attempt to re-establish.

3.2.  Discovery

   Subscribers can learn what event streams a RESTCONF server supports
   by querying the "streams" container of ietf-subscribed-
   notification.yang.  Subscribers can learn what datastores a RESTCONF
   server supports by following [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-nmda-restconf].

3.3.  RESTCONF RPCs and HTTP Status Codes

   Specific HTTP responses codes as defined in [RFC7231] section 6 will
   indicate the result of RESTCONF RPC requests with publisher.  An HTTP
   status code of 200 is the proper response to any successful RPC
   defined within [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] or
   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push].

   If a publisher fails to serve the RPC request for one of the reasons
   indicated in [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications]
   Section 2.4.6 or [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] Appendix A, this will
   be indicated by "406" status code transported in the HTTP response.

   When a "406" status code is returned, the RPC reply MUST include an
   "rpc-error" element per [RFC8040] Section 7.1 with the following
   parameter values:



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   o  an "error-type" node of "application".

   o  an "error-tag" node of "operation-failed".

   o  an "error-app-tag" node with the value being a string that
      corresponds to an identity associated with the error, as defined
      in [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] section 2.4.6
      for general subscriptions, and [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push]
      Appendix A.1, for datastore subscriptions.  The tag to use depends
      on the RPC for which the error occurred.  Viable errors for
      different RPCs are as follows:

            RPC                     select an identity with a base
            ----------------------  ------------------------------
            establish-subscription  establish-subscription-error
            modify-subscription     modify-subscription-error
            delete-subscription     delete-subscription-error
            kill-subscription       kill-subscription-error
            resynch-subscription    resynch-subscription-error

   Each error identity will be inserted as the "error-app-tag" using
   JSON encoding following the form <modulename>:<identityname>.  An
   example of such as valid encoding would be "ietf-subscribed-
   notifications:no-such-subscription".

   o  In case of error responses to an "establish-subscription" or
      "modify-subscription" request there is the option of including an
      "error-info" node.  This node may contain hints for parameter
      settings that might lead to successful RPC requests in the future.
      Following are the yang-data structures which may be returned:





















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      establish-subscription returns hints in yang-data structure
      ---------------------- ------------------------------------
      target: event stream   establish-subscription-stream-error-info
      target: datastore      establish-subscription-datastore-error-info

      modify-subscription    returns hints in yang-data structure
      ---------------------- ------------------------------------
      target: event stream   modify-subscription-stream-error-info
      target: datastore      modify-subscription-datastore-error-info

      The yang-data included within "error-info" SHOULD NOT include the
      optional leaf "error-reason", as such a leaf would be redundant
      with information that is already placed within the
      "error-app-tag".

      In case of an rpc error as a result of a "delete-subscription", a
      "kill-subscription", or a "resynch-subscription" request, no
      "error-info" needs to be included, as the "subscription-id" is
      the only RPC input parameter and no hints regarding this RPC input
      parameters need to be provided.

   Note that "error-path" does not need to be included with the "rpc-
   error" element, as subscription errors are generally not associated
   with nodes in the datastore but with the choice of RPC input
   parameters.

3.4.  Call Flow for HTTP2

   Requests to [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] or
   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] augmented RPCs are sent on one or more
   HTTP2 streams indicated by (a) in Figure 1.  A successful "establish-
   subscription" will result in an RPC response returned with both a
   subscription identifier which uniquely identifies a subscription, as
   well as a URI which uniquely identifies the location of subscription
   on the publisher.  This URI is defined via the "uri" leaf the Data
   Model in Section 8.

   An HTTP POST is then sent on a logically separate HTTP2 stream (b) to
   the URI on the publisher.  This initiates to initiate the flow of
   notification messages which are sent in HTTP Data frames as a
   response to the POST.  In the case below, a newly established
   subscription has its associated notification messages pushed over
   HTTP2 stream (7).  These notification messages are placed into a
   HTTP2 Data frame (see [RFC7540] Section 6.1).







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   +------------+                                 +------------+
   | Subscriber |                                 | Publisher  |
   |HTTP2 Stream|                                 |HTTP2 Stream|
   |  (a)  (b)  |                                 |  (a)  (b)  |
   +------------+                                 +------------+
       | RESTCONF POST (RPC:establish-subscription)   |
       |--------------------------------------------->|
       |                          HTTP 200 OK (ID,URI)|
       |<---------------------------------------------|
       |   (7)HTTP POST (URI)                             (7)
       |    |--------------------------------------------->|
       |    |                                   HTTP 200 OK|
       |    |<---------------------------------------------|
       |    |                     HTTP Data (notif-message)|
       |    |<---------------------------------------------|
       | RESTCONF POST (RPC:modify-subscription)      |    |
       |--------------------------------------------->|    |
       |    |                              HTTP 200 OK|    |
       |<---------------------------------------------|    |
       |    |             HTTP Data (subscription-modified)|
       |    |<------------------------------------------(c)|
       |    |                     HTTP Data (notif-message)|
       |    |<---------------------------------------------|
       | RESTCONF POST (RPC:delete-subscription)      |    |
       |--------------------------------------------->|    |
       |    |                              HTTP 200 OK|    |
       |<---------------------------------------------|    |
       |    |                  HTTP Headers (end of stream)|
       |   (/7)<-----------------------------------------(/7)
       |

                       Figure 1: Dynamic with HTTP2

   Additional requirements for dynamic subscriptions over HTTP2 include:

   o  A unique HTTP2 stream MAY be used for each subscription.

   o  A single HTTP2 stream MUST NOT be used for subscriptions with
      different DSCP values.

   o  All subscription state notifications from a publisher MUST be
      returned in a separate HTTP Data frame within the HTTP2 stream
      used by the subscription to which the state change refers.

   o  In addition to an RPC response for a "modify-subscription" RPC
      traveling over (a), a "subscription-modified" state change
      notification must be sent within HTTP2 stream (b).  This allows
      the receiver to know exactly when the new terms of the



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      subscription have been applied to the notification messages.  See
      arrow (c).

   o  Additional RPCs for a particular subscription MUST NOT use the
      HTTP2 stream currently providing notification messages
      subscriptions.

   o  An HTTP end of stream message MUST not be sent until all
      subscriptions using that HTTP2 stream have completed.

3.5.  Call flow for HTTP1.1

   The call flow is defined in Figure 2.  Requests to
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] or
   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] augmented RPCs are sent on a TCP
   connection indicated by (a).  A successful "establish-subscription"
   will result in an RPC response returned with both a subscription
   identifier which uniquely identifies a subscription, as well as a URI
   which uniquely identifies the location of subscription on the
   publisher (b).  This URI is defined via the "uri" leaf the Data Model
   in Section 8.

   An HTTP POST is then sent on a logically separate TCP connection (b)
   to the URI on the publisher.  This initiates to initiate the flow of
   notification messages which are sent in SSE [W3C-20150203] as a
   response to the POST.

























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   +--------------+                             +--------------+
   |  Subscriber  |                             |   Publisher  |
   |TCP connection|                             |TCP connection|
   |  (a)  (b)    |                             |    (a)  (b)  |
   +--------------+                             +--------------+
       | RESTCONF POST (RPC:establish-subscription)   |
       |--------------------------------------------->|
       |                          HTTP 200 OK (ID,URI)|
       |<---------------------------------------------|
       |    |HTTP GET (URI)                                |
       |    |--------------------------------------------->|
       |    |                                   HTTP 200 OK|
       |    |<---------------------------------------------|
       |    |                           SSE (notif-message)|
       |    |<---------------------------------------------|
       | RESTCONF POST (RPC:modify-subscription)      |    |
       |--------------------------------------------->|    |
       |    |                              HTTP 200 OK|    |
       |<---------------------------------------------|    |
       |    |                   SSE (subscription-modified)|
       |    |<------------------------------------------(c)|
       |    |                           SSE (notif-message)|
       |    |<---------------------------------------------|
       | RESTCONF POST (RPC:delete-subscription)      |    |
       |--------------------------------------------->|    |
       |    |                              HTTP 200 OK|    |
       |<---------------------------------------------|    |
       |    |                                              |
       |    |

                      Figure 2: Dynamic with HTTP1.1

   Additional requirements for dynamic subscriptions over HTTP1.1
   include:

   o  All subscription state notifications from a publisher MUST be
      returned in a separate SSE message used by the subscription to
      which the state change refers.

   o  Subscription RPCs MUST NOT use the TCP connection currently
      providing notification messages for that subscription.

   o  In addition to an RPC response for a "modify-subscription" RPC
      traveling over (a), a "subscription-modified" state change
      notification must be sent within stream (b).  This allows the
      receiver to know exactly when the new terms of the subscription
      have been applied to the notification messages.  See arrow (c).




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   Open question, should we just eliminate this possibility of HTTP1.1
   for subscriptions?  It would make the design simpler.

4.  QoS Treatment

   To meet subscription quality of service promises, the publisher MUST
   take any existing subscription "dscp" and apply it to the DSCP
   marking in the IP header.

   In addition, where HTTP2 transport is available to a notification
   message queued for transport to a receiver, the publisher MUST:

   o  take any existing subscription "priority" and copy it into the
      HTTP2 stream priority, and

   o  take any existing subscription "dependency" and map the HTTP2
      stream for the parent subscription into the HTTP2 stream
      dependency.

5.  Mandatory JSON and datastore support

   A publisher supporting [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] MUST support the
   "operational" datastore as defined by [RFC8342].

   The "encode-json" feature of
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] is mandatory to
   support.  This indicates that JSON is a valid encoding for RPCs,
   state change notifications, and subscribed content.

6.  Notification Messages

   Notification messages transported over HTTP will be encoded using
   one-way operation schema defined within [RFC5277], section 4.

7.  YANG Tree

   The YANG model defined in Section 8 has one leaf augmented into four
   places of [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications], plus two
   identities.  As the resulting full tree is large, it will only be
   inserted at later stages of this document.

8.  YANG module

   This module references
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications].

<CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-restconf-subscribed-notifications@2018-09-12.yang"
module ietf-restconf-subscribed-notifications {



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  yang-version 1.1;
  namespace
    "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-subscribed-notifications";

  prefix rsn;

  import ietf-subscribed-notifications {
    prefix sn;
  }
  import ietf-inet-types {
    prefix inet;
  }

  organization "IETF NETCONF (Network Configuration) Working Group";
  contact
    "WG Web:   <http:/tools.ietf.org/wg/netconf/>
     WG List:  <mailto:netconf@ietf.org>

     Editor:   Eric Voit
               <mailto:evoit@cisco.com>

     Editor:   Alexander Clemm
               <mailto:ludwig@clemm.org>

     Editor:   Reshad Rahman
               <mailto:rrahman@cisco.com>";

  description
    "Defines RESTCONF as a supported transport for subscribed
    event notifications.

    Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as authors
    of the code.  All rights reserved.

    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to the license
    terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set forth in Section
    4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
    (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

    This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see the RFC
    itself for full legal notices.";

  revision 2018-09-12 {
    description
      "Initial version";
    reference
      "RFC XXXX: RESTCONF Transport for Event Notifications";



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  }

  grouping uri {
    description
      "Provides a reusable description of a URI.";
    leaf uri {
      type inet:uri;
      config false;
      description
        "Location of a subscription specific URI on the publisher.";
    }
  }

  augment "/sn:establish-subscription/sn:output" {
    description
      "This augmentation allows HTTP specific parameters for a
      response to a publisher's subscription request.";
    uses uri;
  }

  augment "/sn:subscriptions/sn:subscription" {
    description
      "This augmentation allows HTTP specific parameters to be
       exposed for a subscription.";
    uses uri;
  }

  augment "/sn:subscription-started" {
    description
      "This augmentation allows HTTP specific parameters to be included
      part of the notification that a subscription has started.";
    uses uri;
  }

  augment "/sn:subscription-modified" {
    description
      "This augmentation allows HTTP specific parameters to be included
      part of the notification that a subscription has been modified.";
    uses uri;
  }

}
<CODE ENDS>








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9.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers the following namespace URI in the "IETF XML
   Registry" [RFC3688]:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-subscribed-
   notifications
   Registrant Contact: The IESG.
   XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   This document registers the following YANG module in the "YANG Module
   Names" registry [RFC6020]:

   Name: ietf-restconf-subscribed-notifications
   Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-subscribed-
   notifications
   Prefix: rsn
   Reference: RFC XXXX: RESTCONF Transport for Event Notifications

10.  Security Considerations

   The YANG module specified in this document defines a schema for data
   that is designed to be accessed via network management transports
   such as NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].  The lowest NETCONF
   layer is the secure transport layer, and the mandatory-to-implement
   secure transport is Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242].  The lowest
   RESTCONF layer is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement secure
   transport is TLS [RFC5246].

   The one new data node introduced in this YANG module may be
   considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  It
   is thus important to control read access (e.g., via get, get-config,
   or notification) to this data nodes.  These are the subtrees and data
   nodes and their sensitivity/vulnerability:

   Container: "/subscriptions"

   o  "uri": leaf will show where subscribed resources might be located
      on a publisher.  Access control must be set so that only someone
      with proper access permissions, and perhaps even HTTP session has
      the ability to access this resource.

11.  Acknowledgments

   We wish to acknowledge the helpful contributions, comments, and
   suggestions that were received from: Ambika Prasad Tripathy, Alberto
   Gonzalez Prieto, Susan Hares, Tim Jenkins, Balazs Lengyel, Kent
   Watsen, Michael Scharf, and Guangying Zheng.



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12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications]
              Voit, E., Clemm, A., Gonzalez Prieto, A., Tripathy, A.,
              and E. Nilsen-Nygaard, "Custom Subscription to Event
              Streams", draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications-13
              (work in progress), April 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push]
              Clemm, A., Voit, E., Gonzalez Prieto, A., Prasad Tripathy,
              A., Nilsen-Nygaard, E., Bierman, A., and B. Lengyel,
              "Subscribing to YANG datastore push updates", March 2017,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-ietf-netconf-yang-push/>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5277]  Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event
              Notifications", RFC 5277, DOI 10.17487/RFC5277, July 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5277>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.



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   [RFC6520]  Seggelmann, R., Tuexen, M., and M. Williams, "Transport
              Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS) Heartbeat Extension", RFC 6520,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6520, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6520>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

   [RFC7540]  Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8342]  Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
              (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.

   [W3C-20150203]
              "Server-Sent Events, World Wide Web Consortium CR CR-
              eventsource-20121211", February 2015,
              <https://www.w3.org/TR/2015/REC-eventsource-20150203/>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-netconf-event-notifications]
              Clemm, Alexander., Voit, Eric., Gonzalez Prieto, Alberto.,
              Nilsen-Nygaard, E., and A. Tripathy, "NETCONF support for
              event notifications", May 2018,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-ietf-netconf-netconf-event-notifications/>.

   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-nmda-restconf]
              Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "RESTCONF Extensions to Support the Network
              Management Datastore Architecture", April 2018,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/
              draft-ietf-netconf-nmda-restconf/>.






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   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.

   [RFC7923]  Voit, E., Clemm, A., and A. Gonzalez Prieto, "Requirements
              for Subscription to YANG Datastores", RFC 7923,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7923, June 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7923>.

Appendix A.  Examples

   This section is non-normative.  To allow easy comparison, this
   section mirrors the functional examples shown with NETCONF over XML
   within [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-netconf-event-notifications].  In
   addition, HTTP2 vs HTTP1.1 headers are not shown as the contents of
   the JSON encoded objects are identical within.

A.1.  Dynamic Subscriptions

A.1.1.  Establishing Dynamic Subscriptions

   The following figure shows two successful "establish-subscription"
   RPC requests as per
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications].  The first request
   is given a subscription identifier of 22, the second, an identifier
   of 23.
























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      +------------+                  +-----------+
      | Subscriber |                  | Publisher |
      +------------+                  +-----------+
            |                               |
            |establish-subscription         |
            |------------------------------>|  (a)
            |     HTTP 200 OK, id#22, URI#1 |
            |<------------------------------|  (b)
            |POST (URI#1)                   |
            |------------------------------>|  (c)
            | HTTP 200 OK,notif-mesg (id#22)|
            |<------------------------------|
            |                               |
            |                               |
            |establish-subscription         |
            |------------------------------>|
            |      HTTP 200 OK, id#23, URI#2|
            |<------------------------------|
            |POST (URI#2)                   |
            |------------------------------>|
            |                               |
            |                               |
            |             notif-mesg (id#22)|
            |<------------------------------|
            | HTTP 200 OK,notif-mesg (id#23)|
            |<------------------------------|
            |                               |

            Figure 3: Multiple subscriptions over RESTCONF/HTTP

   To provide examples of the information being transported, example
   messages for interactions in Figure 3 are detailed below:

   POST /restconf/operations/subscriptions:establish-subscription

   {
      "ietf-subscribed-notifications:input": {
         "stream": "NETCONF",
         "stream-xpath-filter": "/ex:foo/",
         "dscp": "10"
      }
   }

               Figure 4: establish-subscription request (a)

   As publisher was able to fully satisfy the request, the publisher
   sends the subscription identifier of the accepted subscription, and
   the URI:



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   HTTP status code - 200

   {
      "id": "22",
      "uri": "/subscriptions/22"
   }


               Figure 5: establish-subscription success (b)

   Upon receipt of the successful response, the subscriber POSTs to the
   provided URI to start the flow of notification messages.  When the
   publisher receives this, the subscription is moved to the active
   state (c).

   POST /restconf/operations/subscriptions/22


             Figure 6: establish-subscription subsequent POST

   While not shown in Figure 3, if the publisher had not been able to
   fully satisfy the request, or subscriber has no authorization to
   establish the subscription, the publisher would have sent an RPC
   error response.  For instance, if the "dscp" value of 10 asserted by
   the subscriber in Figure 4 proved unacceptable, the publisher may
   have returned:

         HTTP status code - 406

         { "ietf-restconf:errors" : {
             "error" : [
               {
                 "error-type": "application",
                 "error-tag": "operation-failed",
                 "error-severity": "error",
                 "error-app-tag":
                     "ietf-subscribed-notifications:dscp-unavailable"
               }
             ]
           }
         }


             Figure 7: an unsuccessful establish subscription

   The subscriber can use this information in future attempts to
   establish a subscription.




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A.1.2.  Modifying Dynamic Subscriptions

   An existing subscription may be modified.  The following exchange
   shows a negotiation of such a modification via several exchanges
   between a subscriber and a publisher.  This negotiation consists of a
   failed RPC modification request/response, followed by a successful
   one.

      +------------+                 +-----------+
      | Subscriber |                 | Publisher |
      +------------+                 +-----------+
            |                              |
            |  notification message (id#23)|
            |<-----------------------------|
            |                              |
            |modify-subscription (id#23)   |
            |----------------------------->|  (d)
            |    HTTP 406 error (with hint)|
            |<-----------------------------|  (e)
            |                              |
            |modify-subscription (id#23)   |
            |----------------------------->|
            |                  HTTP 200 OK |
            |<-----------------------------|
            |                              |
            |            notif-mesg (id#23)|
            |<-----------------------------|
            |                              |

   Figure 8: Interaction model for successful subscription modification

   If the subscription being modified in Figure 8 is a datastore
   subscription as per [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push], the modification
   request made in (d) may look like that shown in Figure 9.  As can be
   seen, the modifications being attempted are the application of a new
   xpath filter as well as the setting of a new periodic time interval.















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   POST /restconf/operations/subscriptions:modify-subscription

   {
    "ietf-subscribed-notifications:input": {
       "id": "23",
       "ietf-yang-push:datastore-xpath-filter":
         "/interfaces-state/interface/oper-status"
         "ietf-yang-push:periodic": {
          "ietf-yang-push:period": "500"
         }
    }
   }


              Figure 9: Subscription modification request (c)

   If the publisher can satisfy both changes, the publisher sends a
   positive result for the RPC.  If the publisher cannot satisfy either
   of the proposed changes, the publisher sends an RPC error response
   (e).  The following is an example RPC error response for (e) which
   includes a hint.  This hint is an alternative time period value which
   might have resulted in a successful modification:

         HTTP status code - 406

         { "ietf-restconf:errors" : {
             "error" : [
               "error-type": "application",
               "error-tag": "operation-failed",
               "error-severity": "error",
               "error-app-tag": "ietf-yang-push:period-unsupported",
               "error-info": {
                 "ietf-yang-push":
                 "modify-subscription-datastore-error-info": {
                    "period-hint": "3000"
                 }
               }
             ]
           }
         }

           Figure 10: Modify subscription failure with Hint (e)

A.1.3.  Deleting Dynamic Subscriptions

   The following demonstrates deleting a subscription.  This
   subscription may have been to either a stream or a datastore.




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   POST /restconf/operations/subscriptions:delete-subscription

   {
    "delete-subscription": {
       "id": "22"
    }
   }

                      Figure 11: Delete subscription

   If the publisher can satisfy the request, the publisher replies with
   success to the RPC request.

   If the publisher cannot satisfy the request, the publisher sends an
   error-rpc element indicating the modification didn't work.  Figure 12
   shows a valid response for existing valid subscription identifier,
   but that subscription identifier was created on a different transport
   session:

         HTTP status code - 406

         {
           "ietf-restconf:errors" : {
             "error" : [
               "error-type": "application",
               "error-tag": "operation-failed",
               "error-severity": "error",
               "error-app-tag":
                  "ietf-subscribed-notifications:no-such-subscription"
             ]
           }
         }

                Figure 12: Unsuccessful delete subscription

A.2.  Subscription State Notifications

   A publisher will send subscription state notifications according to
   the definitions within
   [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications]).

A.2.1.  subscription-started and subscription-modified

   A "subscription-started" encoded in JSON would look like:







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   {
     "ietf-restconf:notification" : {
       "eventTime": "2007-09-01T10:00:00Z",
       "ietf-subscribed-notifications:subscription-started": {
         "id": "39",
         "transport": "HTTP2",
         "stream-xpath-filter": "/ex:foo",
         "stream": {
            "ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications" : "NETCONF"
         }
       }
     }
   }

      Figure 13: subscription-started subscription state notification

   The "subscription-modified" is identical to Figure 13, with just the
   word "started" being replaced by "modified".

A.2.2.  subscription-completed, subscription-resumed, and replay-
        complete

   A "subscription-completed" would look like:


   {
     "ietf-restconf:notification" : {
       "eventTime": "2007-09-01T10:00:00Z",
       "ietf-subscribed-notifications:subscription-completed": {
         "id": "39",
       }
     }
   }

          Figure 14: subscription-completed notification in JSON

   The "subscription-resumed" and "replay-complete" are virtually
   identical, with "subscription-completed" simply being replaced by
   "subscription-resumed" and "replay-complete".

A.2.3.  subscription-terminated and subscription-suspended

   A "subscription-terminated" would look like:








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   {
     "ietf-restconf:notification" : {
       "eventTime": "2007-09-01T10:00:00Z",
       "ietf-subscribed-notifications:subscription-terminated": {
         "id": "39",
         "error-id": "suspension-timeout"
       }
     }
   }

    Figure 15: subscription-terminated subscription state notification

   The "subscription-suspended" is virtually identical, with
   "subscription-terminated" simply being replaced by "subscription-
   suspended".

Appendix B.  Changes between revisions

   (To be removed by RFC editor prior to publication)

   v06 - v07

   o  Removed configured subscriptions.

   o  Subscription identifier renamed to id.

   v05 - v06

   o  JSON examples updated by Reshad.

   v04 - v05

   o  Error mechanisms updated to match embedded RESTCONF mechanisms

   o  Restructured format and sections of document.

   o  Added a YANG data model for HTTP specific parameters.

   o  Mirrored the examples from the NETCONF transport draft to allow
      easy comparison.

   v03 - v04

   o  Draft not fully synched to new version of subscribed-notifications
      yet.

   o  References updated




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   v02 - v03

   o  Event notification reframed to notification message.

   o  Tweaks to wording/capitalization/format.

   v01 - v02

   o  Removed sections now redundant with
      [I-D.draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] and
      [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] such as: mechanisms for subscription
      maintenance, terminology definitions, stream discovery.

   o  3rd party subscriptions are out-of-scope.

   o  SSE only used with RESTCONF and HTTP1.1 dynamic subscriptions

   o  Timeframes for event tagging are self-defined.

   o  Clean-up of wording, references to terminology, section numbers.

   v00 - v01

   o  Removed the ability for more than one subscription to go to a
      single HTTP2 stream.

   o  Updated call flows.  Extensively.

   o  SSE only used with RESTCONF and HTTP1.1 dynamic subscriptions

   o  HTTP is not used to determine that a receiver has gone silent and
      is not Receiving Event Notifications

   o  Many clean-ups of wording and terminology

Authors' Addresses

   Eric Voit
   Cisco Systems

   Email: evoit@cisco.com


   Reshad Rahman
   Cisco Systems

   Email: rrahman@cisco.com




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   Einar Nilsen-Nygaard
   Cisco Systems

   Email: einarnn@cisco.com


   Alexander Clemm
   Huawei

   Email: ludwig@clemm.org


   Andy Bierman
   YumaWorks

   Email: andy@yumaworks.com



































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