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Netext                                                    Ravi. Valmikam
Internet-Draft                                              Unaffiliated
Intended status: Informational                            Rajeev. Koodli
Expires: August 17, 2014                                           Intel
                                                       February 13, 2014


               EAP Attributes  for WiFi - EPC Integration
              draft-ietf-netext-wifi-epc-eap-attributes-05

Abstract

   With WiFi beginning to establishing itself as a trusted access
   network for service providers, it has become important to provide
   functions commonly available in 3G and 4G networks in WiFi access
   networks.  Such functions include Access Point Name (APN) Selection,
   multiple Packet Data Network (PDN) connections and seamless mobility
   between WiFi and 3G/4G networks.

   EAP/AKA (and EAP/AKA') is standardized by 3GPP as the access
   authentication protocol for trusted access networks.  This IETF
   specification is required for mobile devices to access the 3GPP
   Evolved Packet Core (EPC) networks.  This document defines a few new
   EAP attributes and procedures to provide the above-mentioned
   functions in trusted WiFi access networks.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 17, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  APN Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.2.  Multiple APN Connectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.3.  WiFi to EUTRAN mobility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Reference Architecture and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Protocol Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.1.  Brief Introduction to EAP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.2.  802.11 Authentication using EAP over 802.1X  . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Protocol Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  APN Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.  WiFi to UTRAN/EUTRAN Mobility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3.  Connectivity Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Attribute Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2.  AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.3.  AT_CONNECTIVITY_TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.4.  AT_HANDOVER_INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.5.  AT_HANDOVER_SESSION_ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix A.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13














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1.  Introduction

   The convergence of multiple access technologies is becoming more
   reality now than ever.  Specifically, WiFi has emerged as a trusted
   access technology for mobile service providers.  It has become
   important to provide certain functions in WiFi which are commonly
   supported in licensed-spectrum networks such as 3G and 4G networks.
   This draft specifies a few new EAP attributes and procedures for a
   Mobile Node (MN) to interact with the network to support some of the
   functions (see below).  These new attributes serve as a trigger for
   network nodes to undertake the relevant mobility operations.  For
   instance, when the Mobile Node indicates and the network agrees for a
   new IP session (i.e., a new APN in 3GPP), the corresponding attribute
   (defined below) can act as a trigger for the Mobile Anchor Gateway
   (MAG) to initiate a new mobility session with the Local Mobility
   Anchor (LMA).

   The 3GPP networks support many functions that are not commonly
   implemented in a WiFi network.  This draft specifically addresses the
   following functions and specifies methods to implement them using
   EAP-AKA' [RFC5448] and EAP-AKA [RFC4187].  Since the attributes share
   the same IANA registry, the methods are applicable to EAP-AKA', EAP-
   AKA and EAP-SIM [RFC4186], and with appropriate extensions, are
   possibly applicable for other EAP methods as well.

   The following sections will focus on implementation of the following
   functions in the context of a 802.1X/EAP based WiFi network.

      o APN Selection
      o Multiple APN Connectivity
      o WiFi to 3G/4G (UTRAN/EUTRAN) mobility

   EAP [RFC3748] is widely deployed in access networks to authenticate
   the user during network attach, and periodically afterwards.  Apart
   from being an authentication mechanism, EAP provides a conduit to
   propagate information between a MN and network elements such as a
   WiFi Access Controller.  Each of the addressed functions is described
   in detail below.

1.1.  APN Selection

   The 3GPP networks support the concept of an APN (Access Point Name).
   This is defined in [GPRS].  Each APN is an independent IP network
   with it's own set of IP services.  When the MN attaches to the
   network, it may select a specific APN to receive desired services.
   For example, to receive generic internet services, user device may
   select APN "Internet" and to receive IMS voice services, it may
   select APN "IMSvoice".



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   In a WiFi access scenario, a MN needs a way of sending the desired
   APN name to the network.  This draft specifies a method to propagate
   the APN information via EAP.

1.2.  Multiple APN Connectivity

   As an extension of APN Selection, a MN may choose to connect to
   multiple IP networks simultaneously. 3GPP provides this feature via
   Additional PDP contexts or Additional PDN connections.  The 3GPP
   defines extensive set of signaling procedures to implement these
   features.  In a trusted WiFi network, a MN connects to the first APN
   via DHCPv4 or IPv6 Router Solicitation.  For subsequent APN
   connections, a procedure is needed, which is expected to be
   standardized by 3GPP in its Release-12 specification.

1.3.  WiFi to EUTRAN mobility

   When operating in a multi-access network, a MN may want to gracefully
   handover it's IP attachment from one access to another.  For
   instance, a MN connected to 3GPP EUTRAN network may choose to move
   its connectivity to a trusted WiFi network.  Alternatively, the MN
   may choose to connect from both the access technologies
   simultaneously, and maintain two independent IP attachments.  To
   implement these scenarios, the MN needs a way to indicate seamless
   handover as well as a means to correlate the UTRAN/EUTRAN session
   with the new WiFi session.  This draft specifies a method to
   propagate EUTRAN session identification (GUTI) to the network via
   EAP.  This helps the network to correlate the sessions between the
   two RAN technologies and implement a handover.


2.  Reference Architecture and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3.  Protocol Overview

3.1.  Brief Introduction to EAP

   EAP is defined as a generic protocol in [RFC3748].  EAP, combined
   with one of the payload protocols such as EAP-AKA' [RFC5448] can
   accomplish several things in a network:






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   o  Establish identity of the user (MN) to the network.
   o  Authenticate the user during the first attach with the help of an
      authentication center that securely maintains the user
      credentials.  This process is called EAP Authentication.
   o  Re-authenticate the user periodically, but without the overhead of
      a round-trip to authentication center.  This process is called EAP
      Fast Re-Authentication.
   This draft makes use of the EAP Authentication procedure to implement
   the above-mentioned functions.  The use of EAP Fast Re-Authentication
   procedure is for further study.  Both the EAP Authentication and EAP
   Fast Re-Authentication procedures are specified for trusted access
   network use in 3GPP [3GPP-TS-33.402]

3.2.  802.11 Authentication using EAP over 802.1X

   In a WiFi network, EAP is carried over the IEEE 802.1X Authentication
   protocol.  The IEEE 802.1X Authentication is a transparent, payload-
   unaware mechanism to carry the authentication messages between the MN
   and the WiFi network elements.

   EAP, on the other hand, has multiple purposes.  Apart from it's core
   functions of communicating MN's identity to the network and proving
   MN's credentials, it also allows the MN to send arbitrary information
   elements to help establish the MN's IP session in the network.  The
   following figure shows an example end-to-end EAP flow in the context
   of an IEEE 802.11 WiFi network.

























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 MN                        WAP                        WAC          IPCN
                                                     (MAG)         (LMA)
 1)|<----------Beacon--------|                         |             |
 2)|<----------Probe-------->|                         |             |
   |                         |                         |             |
   |              802.11 Auth| (Open System)           |             |
 3)|<----------------------->|<----------------------->|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
   |                  802.11 | Association             |             |
 4)|<----------------------->|<----------------------->|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
   |           (802.1X)      |        (CAPWAP/802.1X)  |             |
 5)|<----EAP Req/Identity----|<----EAP Req/Identity----|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
 6)|----EAP Resp/Identity--->|----EAP Resp/Identity--->|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
 7)|<-EAP Req/AKA-Challenge--|<-EAP Req/AKA-Challenge--|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
 8)|-EAP Resp/AKA-Challenge->|-EAP Resp/AKA-Challenge->|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
 9)|<-----EAP Success--------|<-----EAP Success--------|             |
   |                         |                         |             |
10)|<====== 802.11 Data ====>|<=== CAPWAP(802.3 Data)=>|<=Tunnel to=>|
   |                         |                         | core network|
   |                         |                         |             |

                     Figure 1: Example EAP Deployment

   Legend:

   o  MN: Mobile Node
   o  WAP: WiFi Access Point
   o  WAC: WiFi Access Controller.  In a PMIPv6-deployed network, hosts
      the MAG functionality or is assumed to have a suitable interface
      to the MAG.  In the following, we simply use "WAC" notation.  The
      MAG functionality within the WAC (or within the WiFi access
      network), or a suitable interface to MAG is assumed for PMIPv6
      deployments.
   o  IPCN: IP Core Network.  This includes the LMA function.  It
      generically also includes the AAA server function.
   o
   o  NOTE: The figure shows separate WiFi Access Point and WiFi Access
      Controller, following the split-MAC model of CAPWAP [RFC5415].  A
      particular deployment may have the two functions within a single
      node.

   Call Flow Description:




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   1.   MN detects a beacon from a WAP in the vicinity
   2.   MN probes the WAP to determine suitability to attach (Verify
        SSID list, authentication type and so on)
   3.   MN initiates the IEEE 802.11 Authentication with the WiFi
        network.  In WPA/WPA2 mode, this is an open authentication
        without any security credential verification.
   4.   MN initiates 802.11 Association with the WiFi network.
   5.   WiFi network initiates 802.1X/EAP Authentication procedures by
        sending EAP Request/Identity
   6.   MN responds with it's permanent or temporary identity
   7.   WiFi network challenges the MN to prove it's credentials by
        sending EAP Request/AKA-Challenge
   8.   MN calculates the security digest and responds with EAP
        Response/AKA-Challenge
   9.   If authentication is successful, WiFi network responds to MN
        with EAP Success.
   10.  End-to-End data path is available for MN to start IP level
        activity (DHCPv4, IPv6 Router Solicitation etc.,)


4.  Protocol Extensions

   The following sections define the new EAP attributes and their usage.

4.1.  APN Selection

   In a WiFi network, a MN includes AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID attribute in
   EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge to indicate the desired APN identity for
   the first PDN connection.

   If the MN does not include AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID attribute in EAP-
   Response/AKA-Challenge, the network may select an APN by other means.
   This selection mechanism is outside the scope of this draft.

4.2.  WiFi to UTRAN/EUTRAN Mobility

   When a multi-access MN enters a WiFi network, if MN intends to
   continue the IP session previously attached via UTRAN/EUTRAN, it
   shall include the following parameters in the EAP-Response/
   AKA-Challenge.

   o  AT_HANDOVER_INDICATION : This attribute indicates to the network
      that MN intends to continue the IP session from UTRAN/EUTRAN.  If
      a previous session can be located, network shall honor this
      request by connecting the WiFi access to the existing IP session.
   o  AT_HANDOVER_SESSION_ID: MN may use this attribute to identify the
      session on UTRAN/EUTRAN.  If used, this attribute shall contain
      P-TMSI if the previous session was on UTRAN or shall contain



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      M-TMSI if the previous session was on EUTRAN.  This attribute
      helps the network correlate the WiFi session to an existing UTRAN/
      EUTRAN session.

4.3.  Connectivity Type

   A Mobile Node indicates its preference for connectivity using the
   AT_CONNECTIVITY_TYPE attribute in the EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge
   message.  The preference indicates whether the MN wishes connectivity
   to the Evolved Packet Core (so-called "EPC PDN connectivity") or
   Internet Offload (termed as "Non-Seamless Wireless Offload").

   The network makes its decision and replies with the same attribute in
   the EAP Success message.


5.  Attribute Extensions

5.1.  AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID

   The AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID attribute identifies the virtual IP network
   that the MN intends to attach to.  The implementation of the virtual
   network on the core network side is technology specific.  For
   instance, in a 3GPP network, the virtual network is implemented based
   on the 3GPP APN primitive.

   This attribute can be included in any of the EAP Request messages
   that are integrity protected, such as the EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |AT_VIRTUAL     | Length        | Virtual Network Id            |
      |  _NETWORK_ID  |               |                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                  Virtual Network Id                           |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               Figure 2: AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID EAP Attribute

   Virtual Network Id:

   An arbitrary octet string that identifies a virtual network in the
   access technology MN is attaching to.  For instance, in 3GPP EUTRAN,
   this could be an APN.





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5.2.  AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_REQ

   When MN intends to connect an APN, MN shall use this attribute to
   indicate different capabilities to the network.  In turn, the network
   provides what is supported.

   From the MN, this attribute can be included only in EAP-Response/
   Identity.  From the network, it can be included in any suitable EAP
   message.  In the MN-to-network direction, the Type field (below)
   indicates MN's request.  In the network-to-MN direction, the Type
   field indicates network's willingness to support the request; a
   present Type field indicates the network support for that Type.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |AT_VIRTUAL_    |     Length    |     Type      | Sub-type      |
      |NETWORK_REQ    |               |               |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 3: AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_REQ EAP Attribute

   Type:

   Type shall have one of the following values:

   o  0 : Reserved
   o  1 : Single PDN connection
   o  2 : Multiple PDN connection.  Can request Non-Seamless WiFi
      Offload or EPC connectivity (see Connectivity Type attribute
      below)

   Sub-type:

   Sub-type shall have one of the following values:

   o  0 : Reserved
   o  1 : PDN Type: IPv4
   o  2 : PDN Type: IPv6
   o  3 : PDN Type: IPv4v6

5.3.  AT_CONNECTIVITY_TYPE

   For Multiple PDN Connections only, a Mobile Node uses this attribute
   to indicate whether it wishes the connectivity type to be Non-
   Seamless WLAN Offload or EPC.

   From the MN, this attribute can be included only in EAP-Response/



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   Identity.  The network can include this attribute in any suitable EAP
   message.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |AT_CONNECTIVITY|     Length    | Connectivity  | Reserved      |
      |_TYPE          |               | Type          |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               Figure 4: AT_CONNECTIVITY_TYPE EAP Attribute

   Connectivity Type:

   Connectivity Type shall have one of the following values:

   o  0 : Reserved
   o  1 : Non-Seamless WLAN Offload (NSWO)
   o  2 : EPC PDN connectivity

5.4.  AT_HANDOVER_INDICATION

   This attribute indicates a MN's handover intention of an existing IP
   attachment.

   This attribute can be included in any of the EAP Request messages
   that are integrity protected, such as EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |AT_HANDOVER_IND| Length = 1 +  | Handover      |   Pad         |
      |               | Session Id Len| Type          |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 5: AT_HANDOVER_INDICATION EAP Attribute

   Handover Type:

   o  0 - MN has no intention of handing over an existing IP session,
      i.e., MN is requesting an independent IP session with the WiFi
      network without disrupting the IP session with the UTRAN/EUTRAN.
      In this case, no Session Id (Section 5.5) may be included.
   o  1 - MN intends to handover an existing IP session.  In this case,
      MN may include a Session Id (Section 5.5) to correlate this WiFi
      session with a UTRAN/EUTRAN session.





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5.5.  AT_HANDOVER_SESSION_ID

   When MN intends to handover an earlier IP session to the current
   access network, it may propagate identity that can help identify the
   previous session from UTRAN/EUTRAN that MN intends to handover.  This
   attribute is defined as a generic octet string.  MN may include
   EUTRAN GUTI if the previous session was a EUTRAN session.  If the
   previous session was a UTRAN session, MN may include UTRAN Global RNC
   ID (MCC, MNC, RNC Id) and P-TMSI concatenated as an octet string.

   This attribute can be included in any of the EAP Request message that
   are integrity protected, such as EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |AT_HANDOVER_   |   Length      |  Access       |  Reserved     |
      |  SESSION_ID   |               |  Technology   |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           Session Id                          |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 6: AT_HANDOVER_SESSION_ID EAP Attribute

   Access Technology:

   This field represents the RAN technology from which the MN is
   undergoing a handover.

   o  0 - Reserved
   o  1 - UTRAN
   o  2 - EUTRAN

   Session Id:

   An arbitrary octet string that identifies the session in the source
   access technology.  As defined at the begining of this section, the
   actual value is RAN technology dependent.  For EUTRAN, the value is
   GUTI.  For UTRAN, the value is Global RNC Id (6 bytes) followed by
   P-TMSI (4 bytes).


6.  Security Considerations

   This documents defines a new EAP attribute to extend the capability
   of EAP-AKA protocol as specified in Section 8.2 of RFC 4187
   [RFC4187].  This attribute is passed from the MN to the AAA server.



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   The document does not specify any new messages or options to the EAP-
   AKA protocol.


7.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines the following new skippable EAP-AKA attributes.
   These attributes need assignments from the "EAP-AKA and EAP-SIM
   Parameters" registry at https://www.iana.org/assignments/
   eapsimaka-numbers/eapsimaka-numbers.xhtml

   o  AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_ID (Section 5.1) - TBA by IANA
   o  AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_REQ (Section 5.2) - TBA by IANA
   o  AT_CONNECTIVITY_TYPE (Section 5.3) - TBA IANA
   o  AT_HANDOVER_INDICATION (Section 5.4) - TBA by IANA
   o  AT_HANDOVER_SESSION_ID (Section 5.5) - TBA by IANA


8.  Acknowledgment

   Thanks to Sebastian Speicher for the review and suggesting
   improvements.


9.  Informative References

   [3GPP-TS-33.402]
              "3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE); Security
              aspects of non-3GPP accesses, 3GPP TS 33.402 8.6.0,
              December 2009.",  ,
              <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/33402.htm>.

   [EPC]      "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);enhancements for
              Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
              (E-UTRAN) access", 3GPP TS 23.401 8.8.0, December 2009.",
               , <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23401.htm>.

   [GPRS]     "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description;
              Stage 2, 3GPP TS 23.060, December 2006",  ,
              <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23060.htm>.

   [RFC3748]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
              Levkowetz, Ed., "Extensible Authentication Protocol
              (EAP)",  RFC3748, June 2004,
              <http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3748.txt>.

   [RFC4186]  Haverinen, H. and J. Salowey, "Extensible Authentication
              Protocol Method for Global System for Mobile



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              Communications (GSM) Subscriber Identity Modules (EAP-
              SIM)", RFC 4186, January 2006.

   [RFC4187]  Arkko, J. and H. Haverinen, "Extensible Authentication
              Protocol Method for 3rd Generation Authentication and Key
              Agreement (EAP-AKA)",  RFC4187, January 2006,
              <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4187>.

   [RFC5415]  Calhoun, P., Montemurro, M., and D. Stanley, "Control And
              Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol
              Specification",  RFC5415, January 2009,
              <http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5415.txt>.

   [RFC5448]  Arkko, J., Lehtovirta, V., and P. Eronen, "Improved
              Extensible Authentication Protocol Method for 3rd
              Generation Authentication and Key Agreement (EAP-AKA')",
              RFC 5448, May 2009.


Appendix A.  Change Log

      o: Initial Draft
      o: v01: status to Informational, Updated References, Revised the
      Figure
      o: No changes from 01 to 02
      o: Per recent 3GPP updates, added the Connectivity Type attribute
      to allow indicating Non-Seamless WLAN Offload or EPC connectivity
      o: version-04: Revised AT_VIRTUAL_NETWORK_REQ to include 1) single
      PDN vs Multiple PDN connections, 2) PDN Types, and referred to
      NSWO Connectivity Type attribute
      o: version 05: Revised the IANA Considerations section


Authors' Addresses

   Ravi Valmikam
   Unaffiliated
   USA

   Email: valmikam@gmail.com


   Rajeev Koodli
   Intel
   USA

   Email: rajeev.koodli@intel.com




Valmikam & Koodli        Expires August 17, 2014               [Page 13]


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