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Versions: 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 1894

Network Working Group                                        Keith Moore
Internet Draft                                   University of Tennessee
Expires: 21 December 1995                                 Greg Vaudreuil
                                                  Octel Network Services
                                                            21 June 1995


                      An Extensible Message Format
                   for Delivery Status Notifications

                 draft-ietf-notary-mime-delivery-06.txt


Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
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ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

Any questions, comments, and reports of defects or ambiguities in this
specification may be sent to the mailing list for the NOTARY working
group of the IETF, using the address <notifications@cs.utk.edu>.
Requests to subscribe to the mailing list should be addressed to
<notifications-request@cs.utk.edu>.  Implementors of this specification
are encouraged to subscribe to the mailing list, so that they will
quickly be informed of any problems which might hinder interoperability.


Abstract

This memo defines a MIME content-type that may be used by a message
transfer agent (MTA) or electronic mail gateway to report the result of
an attempt to deliver a message to one or more recipients.  This
content-type is intended as a machine-processable replacement for the
various types of delivery status notifications currently used in
Internet electronic mail.

Because many messages are sent between the Internet and other messaging
systems (such as X.400 or the so-called "LAN-based" systems), the DSN
protocol is designed to be useful in a multi-protocol messaging
environment.  To this end, the protocol described in this memo provides
for the carriage of "foreign" addresses and error codes, in addition to



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those normally used in Internet mail.  Additional attributes may also be
defined to support "tunneling" of foreign notifications through Internet
mail.


1. Introduction

This memo defines a MIME [1] content-type for delivery status
notifications (DSNs).  A DSN can be used to notify the sender of a
message of any of several conditions:  failed delivery, delayed
delivery, successful delivery, or the gatewaying of a message into an
environment that may not support DSNs.  The "message/delivery-status"
content-type defined herein is intended for use within the framework of
the "multipart/report" content type defined in [2].

This memo defines only the format of the notifications.  An extension to
the Simple Message Transfer Protocol (SMTP) [3] to fully support such
notifications is the subject of a separate memo [4].


1.1 Purposes

The DSNs defined in this memo are expected to serve several purposes:

(a) Inform human beings of the status of message delivery processing, as
    well as the reasons for any delivery problems or outright failures,
    in a manner which is largely independent of human language;

(b) Allow mail user agents to keep track of the delivery status of
    messages sent, by associating returned DSNs with earlier message
    transmissions;

(c) Allow mailing list exploders to automatically maintain their
    subscriber lists when delivery attempts repeatedly fail;

(d) Convey delivery and non-delivery notifications resulting from
    attempts to deliver messages to "foreign" mail systems via a
    gateway;

(e) Allow "foreign" notifications to be tunneled through a MIME-capable
    message system and back into the original messaging system that
    issued the original notification, or even to a third messaging
    system;

(f) Allow language-independent, yet reasonably precise, indications of
    the reason for the failure of a message to be delivered (once status
    codes of sufficient precision are defined); and

(g) Provide sufficient information to remote MTA maintainers (via
    "trouble tickets") so that they can understand the nature of



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    reported errors.  This feature is used in the case that failure to
    deliver a message is due to the malfunction of a remote MTA and the
    sender wants to report the problem to the remote MTA administrator.


1.2 Requirements

These purposes place the following constraints on the notification
protocol:

(a) It must be readable by humans as well as being machine-parsable.

(b) It must provide enough information to allow message senders (or the
    user agents) to unambiguously associate a DSN with the message that
    was sent and the original recipient address for which the DSN is
    issued (if such information is available), even if the message was
    forwarded to another recipient address.

(c) It must be able to preserve the reason for the success or failure of
    a delivery attempt in a remote messaging system, using the
    "language" (mailbox addresses and status codes) of that remote
    system.

(d) It must also be able to describe the reason for the success or
    failure of a delivery attempt, independent of any particular human
    language or of the "language" of any particular mail system.

(e) It must preserve enough information to allow the maintainer of a
    remote MTA to understand (and if possible, reproduce) the conditions
    that caused a delivery failure at that MTA.

(f) For any notifications issued by foreign mail systems, which are
    translated by a mail gateway to the DSN format, the DSN must
    preserve the "type" of the foreign addresses and error codes, so
    that these may be correctly interpreted by gateways.

A DSN contains a set of per-message fields which identify the message
and the transaction during which the message was submitted, along with
other fields that apply to all delivery attempts described by the DSN.
The DSN also includes a set of per-recipient fields to convey the result
of the attempt to deliver the message to each of one or more recipients.


1.3 Terminology

A message may be transmitted through several message transfer agents
(MTAs) on its way to a recipient.  For a variety of reasons, recipient
addresses may be rewritten during this process, so each MTA may
potentially see a different recipient address.  Depending on the purpose
for which a DSN is used, different formats of a particular recipient



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address will be needed.

Several DSN fields are defined in terms of the view from a particular
MTA in the transmission.  The MTAs are assigned the following names:

(a) Original MTA

The Original MTA is the one to which the message is submitted for
delivery by the sender of the message.

(b) Reporting MTA

For any DSN, the Reporting MTA is the one which is reporting the results
of delivery attempts described in the DSN.

If the delivery attempts described occurred in a "foreign" (non-
Internet) mail system, and the DSN was produced by translating the
foreign notice into DSN format, the Reporting MTA will still identify
the "foreign" MTA where the delivery attempts occurred.

(c) Received-From MTA

The Received-From MTA is the MTA from which the Reporting MTA received
the message, and accepted responsibility for delivery of the message.

(d) Remote MTA

If an MTA determines that it must relay a message to one or more
recipients, but the message cannot be transferred to its "next hop" MTA,
or if the "next hop" MTA refuses to accept responsibility for delivery
of the message to one or more of its intended recipients, the relaying
MTA may need to issue a DSN on behalf of the recipients for whom the
message cannot be delivered.  In this case the relaying MTA is the
Reporting MTA, and the "next hop" MTA is known as the Remote MTA.

Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between the various MTAs.


+-----+    +--------+           +---------+    +---------+      +------+
|     |    |        |           |Received-|    |         |      |      |
|     | => |Original| => ... => |  From   | => |Reporting| ===> |Remote|
| user|    |   MTA  |           |   MTA   |    |   MTA   | <No! |  MTA |
|agent|    +--------+           +---------+    +----v----+      +------+
|     |                                             |
|     | <-------------------------------------------+
+-----+      (DSN returned to sender by Reporting MTA)


     Figure 1.  Original, Received-From, Reporting and Remote MTAs




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Each of these MTAs may provide information which is useful in a DSN:

+ Ideally, the DSN will contain the address of each recipient as
  originally specified to the Original MTA by the sender of the message.
  This version of the address is needed (rather than a forwarding
  address or some modified version of the original address) so that the
  sender may compare the recipient address in the DSN with the address
  in the sender's records (e.g. an address book for an individual, the
  list of subscribers for a mailing list) and take appropriate action.

  Similarly, the DSN might contain an "envelope identifier" that was
  known to both the sender's user agent and the Original MTA at the time
  of message submission, and which, if included in the DSN, can be used
  by the sender to keep track of which messages were or were not
  delivered.

+ If a message was (a) forwarded to a different address than that
  specified by the sender, (b) gatewayed to a different mail system than
  that used by the sender, or (c) subjected to address rewriting during
  transmission, the "final" form of the recipient address (i.e. the one
  seen by the Reporting MTA) will be different than the original
  (sender-specified) recipient address.  Just as the sender's user agent
  (or the sender) prefers the original recipient address, so the "final"
  address is needed when reporting a problem to the postmaster of the
  site where message delivery failed, because only the final recipient
  address will allow her to reproduce the conditions that caused the
  failure.

+ A "failed" DSN should contain the most accurate explanation for the
  delivery failure that is available.  For ease of interpretation, this
  information should be a format which is independent of the mail
  transport system that issued the DSN.  However, if a foreign error
  code is translated into some transport-independent format, some
  information may be lost.  It is therefore desirable to provide both a
  transport-independent status code and a mechanism for reporting
  transport-specific codes.  Depending on the circumstances that
  produced delivery failure, the transport-specific code might be
  obtained from either the Reporting MTA or the Remote MTA.

Since different values for "recipient address" and "delivery status
code" are needed according to the circumstance in which a DSN will be
used, and since the MTA that issues the DSN cannot anticipate those
circumstances, the DSN format described here may contain both the
original and final forms of a recipient address, and both a transport-
independent and a transport-specific indication of delivery status.

Extension fields may also be added by the Reporting MTA as needed to
provide additional information for use in a trouble ticket or to
preserve information for tunneling of foreign delivery reports through
Internet DSNs.



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The Original, Reporting, and Remote MTAs may exist in very different
environments and use dissimilar transport protocols, MTA names, address
formats, and delivery status codes.  DSNs therefore do not assume any
particular format for mailbox addresses, MTA names, or transport-
specific status codes.  Instead, the various DSN fields that carry such
quantities consist of a "type" subfield followed by a subfield whose
contents may be any octet string, and whose format is indicated by the
"type" subfield.  This allows a DSN to convey these quantities
regardless of format.


2. Format of a Delivery Status Notification

A DSN is a MIME message with a top-level content-type of
multipart/report (defined in [2]).  When a multipart/report content is
used to transmit a DSN:

(a) The report-type parameter of the multipart/report content is
    "delivery-status".

(b) The first component of the multipart/report contains a human-
    readable explanation of the DSN, as described in [2].

(c) The second component of the multipart/report is of content-type
    message/delivery-status, described in section 2.1 of this document.

(d) If the original message or a portion of the message is to be
    returned to the sender, it appears as the third component of the
    multipart/report.

    NOTE: For delivery status notifications gatewayed from foreign
    systems, the headers of the original message may not be available.
    In this case the third component of the DSN may be omitted, or it
    may contain "simulated" RFC 822 headers which contain equivalent
    information.  In particular, it is very desirable to preserve the
    subject, date, and message-id (or equivalent) fields from the
    original message.

The DSN MUST be addressed (in both the message header and the transport
envelope) to the return address from the transport envelope which
accompanied the original message for which the DSN was generated.  (For
a message that arrived via SMTP, the envelope return address appears in
the MAIL FROM command.)

The From field of the message header of the DSN SHOULD contain the
address of a human who is responsible for maintaining the mail system at
the Reporting MTA site (e.g.  Postmaster), so that a reply to the DSN
will reach that person.  Exception: if a DSN is translated from a
foreign delivery report, and the gateway performing the translation
cannot determine the appropriate address, the From field of the DSN MAY



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be the address of a human who is responsible for maintaining the
gateway.

The envelope sender address of the DSN SHOULD be chosen to ensure that
no delivery status reports will be issued in response to the DSN itself,
and MUST be chosen so that DSNs will not generate mail loops.  Whenever
an SMTP transaction is used to send a DSN, the MAIL FROM command MUST
use a NULL return address, i.e. "MAIL FROM:<>".

A particular DSN describes the delivery status for exactly one message.
However, an MTA MAY report on the delivery status for several recipients
of the same message in a single DSN.  Due to the nature of the mail
transport system (where responsibility for delivery of a message to its
recipients may be split among several MTAs, and delivery to any
particular recipient may be delayed), multiple DSNs may be still be
issued in response to a single message submission.


2.1 The message/delivery-status content-type

The message/delivery-status content-type is defined as follows:

     MIME type name:                message
     MIME subtype name:             delivery-status
     Optional parameters:           none
     Encoding considerations:       "7bit" encoding is sufficient and
                                    MUST be used to maintain readability
                                    when viewed by non-MIME mail
                                    readers.
     Security considerations:       discussed in section 4 of this memo.

The message/delivery-status report type for use in the multipart/report
is "delivery-status".

The body of a message/delivery-status consists of one or more "fields"
formatted according to the ABNF of RFC 822 header "fields" (see [6]).
The per-message fields appear first, followed by a blank line.
Following the per-message fields are one or more groups of per-recipient
fields.  Each group of per-recipient fields is preceded by a blank line.
Using the ABNF of RFC 822, the syntax of the message/delivery-status
content is as follows:

     delivery-status-content =
          per-message-fields 1*( CRLF per-recipient-fields )

The per-message fields are described in section 2.2.  The per-recipient
fields are described in section 2.3.






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2.1.1 General conventions for DSN fields

Since these fields are defined according to the rules of RFC 822, the
same conventions for continuation lines and comments apply.
Notification fields may be continued onto multiple lines by beginning
each additional line with a SPACE or HTAB.  Text which appears in
parentheses is considered a comment and not part of the contents of that
notification field.  Field names are case-insensitive, so the names of
notification fields may be spelled in any combination of upper and lower
case letters.  Comments in DSN fields may use the "encoded-word"
construct defined in [7].


2.1.2 "*-type" subfields

Several DSN fields consist of a "-type" subfield, followed by a
semicolon, followed by "*text".  For these fields, the keyword used in
the address-type, diagnostic-type, or MTA-name-type subfield indicates
the expected format of the address, status-code, or MTA-name which
follows.

The "-type" subfields are defined as follows:

(a) An "address-type" specifies the format of a mailbox address.  For
    example, Internet mail addresses use the "rfc822" address-type.

         address-type = atom

(b) A "diagnostic-type" specifies the format of a status code.  For
    example, when a DSN field contains a reply code reported via the
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol [3], the "smtp" diagnostic-type is
    used.

         diagnostic-type = atom

(c) An "MTA-name-type" specifies the format of an MTA name.  For
    example, for an SMTP server on an Internet host, the MTA name is the
    domain name of that host, and the "dns" MTA-name-type is used.

         mta-name-type = atom

Values for address-type, diagnostic-type, and MTA-name-type are case-
insensitive.  Thus address-type values of "RFC822" and "rfc822" are
equivalent.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will maintain a registry
of address-types, diagnostic-types, and MTA-name-types, along with
descriptions of the meanings and acceptable values of each, or a
reference to a one or more specifications that provide such
descriptions.  (The "rfc822" address-type, "smtp" diagnostic-type, and



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"dns" MTA-name-type are defined in [4].)  Registration forms for
address-type, diagnostic-type, and MTA-name-type appear in section 8 of
this document.

IANA will not accept registrations for any address-type, diagnostic-
type, or MTA-name-type name that begins with "X-".  These type names are
reserved for experimental use.


2.1.3 Lexical tokens imported from RFC 822

The following lexical tokens, defined in [6], are used in the ABNF
grammar for DSNs: atom, CHAR, comment, CR, CRLF, DIGIT, LF, linear-
white-space, SPACE, text.  The date-time lexical token is defined in
[8].


2.2 Per-Message DSN Fields

Some fields of a DSN apply to all of the delivery attempts described by
that DSN.  These fields may appear at most once in any DSN.  These
fields are used to correlate the DSN with the original message
transaction and to provide additional information which may be useful to
gateways.

     per-message-fields =
          [ original-envelope-id-field CRLF ]
          reporting-mta-field CRLF
          [ dsn-gateway-field CRLF ]
          [ received-from-mta-field CRLF ]
          [ arrival-date-field CRLF ]
          *( extension-field CRLF )


2.2.1 The Original-Envelope-Id field

The optional Original-Envelope-Id field contains an "envelope
identifier" which uniquely identifies the transaction during which the
message was submitted, and was either (a) specified by the sender and
supplied to the sender's MTA, or (b) generated by the sender's MTA and
made available to the sender when the message was submitted.  Its
purpose is to allow the sender (or her user agent) to associate the
returned DSN with the specific transaction in which the message was
sent.

If such an envelope identifier was present in the envelope which
accompanied the message when it arrived at the Reporting MTA, it SHOULD
be supplied in the Original-Envelope-Id field of any DSNs issued as a
result of an attempt to deliver the message.  Except when a DSN is
issued by the sender's MTA, an MTA MUST NOT supply this field unless



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there is an envelope-identifier field in the envelope which accompanied
this message on its arrival at the Reporting MTA.

The Original-Envelope-Id field is defined as follows:

     original-envelope-id-field =
          "Original-Envelope-Id" ":" envelope-id

     envelope-id = *text

There may be at most one Original-Envelope-Id field per DSN.

The envelope-id is CASE-SENSITIVE.  The DSN MUST preserve the original
case and spelling of the envelope-id.

NOTE: The Original-Envelope-Id is NOT the same as the Message-Id from
the message header.  The Message-Id identifies the content of the
message, while the Original-Envelope-Id identifies the transaction in
which the message is sent.


2.2.2 The Reporting-MTA DSN field

     reporting-mta-field =
          "Reporting-MTA" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

     mta-name = *text

The Reporting-MTA field is defined as follows:

A DSN describes the results of attempts to deliver, relay, or gateway a
message to one or more recipients.  In all cases, the Reporting-MTA is
the MTA which attempted to perform the delivery, relay, or gateway
operation described in the DSN.  This field is required.

Note that if an SMTP client attempts to relay a message to an SMTP
server and receives an error reply to a RCPT command, the client is
responsible for generating the DSN, and the client's domain name will
appear in the Reporting-MTA field.  (The server's domain name will
appear in the Remote-MTA field.)

Note that the Reporting-MTA is not necessarily the MTA which actually
issued the DSN.  For example, if an attempt to deliver a message outside
of the Internet resulted in a nondelivery notification which was
gatewayed back into Internet mail, the Reporting-MTA field of the
resulting DSN would be that of the MTA that originally reported the
delivery failure, not that of the gateway which converted the foreign
notification into a DSN.  See Figure 2.





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sender's environment                            recipient's environment
............................ ..........................................
                           : :
                       (1) : :                             (2)
  +-----+  +--------+  +--------+  +---------+  +---------+   +------+
  |     |  |        |  |        |  |Received-|  |         |   |      |
  |     |=>|Original|=>|        |->|  From   |->|Reporting|-->|Remote|
  | user|  |   MTA  |  |        |  |   MTA   |  |   MTA   |<No|  MTA |
  |agent|  +--------+  |Gateway |  +---------+  +----v----+   +------+
  |     |              |        |                    |
  |     | <============|        |<-------------------+
  +-----+              |        |(4)                (3)
                       +--------+
                           : :
...........................: :.........................................

              Figure 2.  DSNs in the presence of gateways

     (1) message is gatewayed into recipient's environment
     (2) attempt to relay message fails
     (3) reporting-mta (in recipient's environment) returns nondelivery
         notification
     (4) gateway translates foreign notification into a DSN



The mta-name portion of the Reporting-MTA field is formatted according
to the conventions indicated by the mta-name-type subfield.  If an MTA
functions as a gateway between dissimilar mail environments and thus is
known by multiple names depending on the environment, the mta-name
subfield SHOULD contain the name used by the environment from which the
message was accepted by the Reporting-MTA.

Because the exact spelling of an MTA name may be significant in a
particular environment, MTA names are CASE-SENSITIVE.


2.2.3 The DSN-Gateway field

The DSN-Gateway field indicates the name of the gateway or MTA which
translated a foreign (non-Internet) delivery status notification into
this DSN.  This field MUST appear in any DSN which was translated by a
gateway from a foreign system into DSN format, and MUST NOT appear
otherwise.

dsn-gateway-field = "DSN-Gateway" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

For gateways into Internet mail, the MTA-name-type will normally be
"smtp", and the mta-name will be the Internet domain name of the



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gateway.


2.2.4 The Received-From-MTA DSN field

The optional Received-From-MTA field indicates the name of the MTA from
which the message was received.

     received-from-mta-field =
          "Received-From-MTA" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

If the message was received from an Internet host via SMTP, the contents
of the mta-name subfield SHOULD be the Internet domain name supplied in
the HELO or EHLO command, and the network address used by the SMTP
client SHOULD be included as a comment enclosed in parentheses.  (In
this case, the MTA-name-type will be "smtp".)

The mta-name portion of the Received-From-MTA field is formatted
according to the conventions indicated by the MTA-name-type subfield.

Since case is significant in some mail systems, the exact spelling,
including case, of the MTA name SHOULD be preserved.


2.2.5 The Arrival-Date DSN field

The optional Arrival-Date field indicates the date and time at which the
message arrived at the Reporting MTA.  If the Last-Attempt-Date field is
also provided in a per-recipient field, this can be used to determine
the interval between when the message arrived at the Reporting MTA and
when the report was issued for that recipient.

     arrival-date-field = "Arrival-Date" ":" date-time

The date and time are expressed in RFC 822 'date-time' format, as
modified by [8].  Numeric timezones ([+/-]HHMM format) MUST be used.


2.3 Per-Recipient DSN fields

A DSN contains information about attempts to deliver a message to one or
more recipients.  The delivery information for any particular recipient
is contained in a group of contiguous per-recipient fields.  Each group
of per-recipient fields is preceded by a blank line.









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The syntax for the group of per-recipient fields is as follows:


     per-recipient-fields =
          [ original-recipient-field CRLF ]
          final-recipient-field CRLF
          action-field CRLF
          status-field CRLF
          [ remote-mta-field CRLF ]
          [ diagnostic-code-field CRLF ]
          [ last-attempt-date-field CRLF ]
          [ will-retry-until-field CRLF ]
          *( extension-field CRLF )


2.3.1 Original-Recipient field

The Original-Recipient field indicates the original recipient address as
specified by the sender of the message for which the DSN is being
issued.

     original-recipient-field =
          "Original-Recipient" ":" address-type ";" generic-address

     generic-address = *text

The address-type field indicates the type of the original recipient
address.  If the message originated within the Internet, the address-
type field field will normally be "rfc822", and the address will be
according to the syntax specified in [6].  The value "unknown" should be
used if the Reporting MTA cannot determine the type of the original
recipient address from the message envelope.

This field is optional.  It should be included only if the sender-
specified recipient address was present in the message envelope, such as
by the SMTP extensions defined in [4].  This address is the same as that
provided by the sender and can be used to automatically correlate DSN
reports and message transactions.


2.3.2 Final-Recipient field

The Final-Recipient field indicates the recipient for which this set of
per-recipient fields applies.  This field MUST be present in each set of
per-recipient data.








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The syntax of the field is as follows:

     final-recipient-field =
          "Final-Recipient" ":" address-type ";" generic-address

The generic-address subfield of the Final-Recipient field MUST contain
the mailbox address of the recipient (from the transport envelope) as it
was when the message was accepted for delivery by the Reporting MTA.

The Final-Recipient address may differ from the address originally
provided by the sender, because it may have been transformed during
forwarding and gatewaying into an totally unrecognizable mess.  However,
in the absence of the optional Original-Recipient field, the Final-
Recipient field and any returned content may be the only information
available with which to correlate the DSN with a particular message
submission.

The address-type subfield indicates the type of address expected by the
reporting MTA in that context.  Recipient addresses obtained via SMTP
will normally be of address-type "rfc822".

NOTE: The Reporting MTA is not expected to ensure that the address
actually conforms to the syntax conventions of the address-type.
Instead, it MUST report exactly the address received in the envelope,
unless that address contains characters such as CR or LF which may not
appear in a DSN field.

Since mailbox addresses (including those used in the Internet) may be
case sensitive, the case of alphabetic characters in the address MUST be
preserved.



2.3.3 Action field

The Action field indicates the action performed by the Reporting-MTA as
a result of its attempt to deliver the message to this recipient
address.  This field MUST be present for each recipient named in the
DSN.

The syntax for the action-field is:

     action-field = "Action" ":" action-value

     action-value =
          "failed" / "delayed" / "delivered" / "relayed" / "expanded"

The action-value may be spelled in any combination of upper and lower
case characters.




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"failed"     indicates that the message could not be delivered to the
             recipient.  The Reporting MTA has abandoned any attempts to
             deliver the message to this recipient.  No further
             notifications should be expected.

"delayed"    indicates that the Reporting MTA has so far been unable to
             deliver or relay the message, but it will continue to
             attempt to do so.  Additional notification messages may be
             issued as the message is further delayed or successfully
             delivered, or if delivery attempts are later abandoned.

"delivered"  indicates that the message was successfully delivered to
             the recipient address specified by the sender, which
             includes "delivery" to a mailing list exploder.  It does
             not indicate that the message has been read.  This is a
             terminal state and no further DSN for this recipient should
             be expected.

"relayed"    indicates that the message has been relayed or gatewayed
             into an environment that does not accept responsibility for
             generating DSNs upon successful delivery.  This action-
             value SHOULD NOT be used unless the sender has requested
             notification of successful delivery for this recipient.

"expanded"   indicates that the message has been successfully delivered
             to the recipient address as specified by the sender, and
             forwarded by the Reporting-MTA beyond that destination to
             multiple additional recipient addresses.  An action-value
             of "expanded" differs from "delivered" in that "expanded"
             is not a terminal state.  Further "failed" and/or "delayed"
             notifications may be provided.

             Using the terms "mailing list" and "alias" as defined in
             [4], section 7.2.7:  An action-value of "expanded" is only
             to be used when the message is delivered to a multiple-
             recipient "alias".  An action-value of "expanded" SHOULD
             NOT be used with a DSN issued on delivery of a message to a
             "mailing list".


NOTE ON ACTION VS. STATUS CODES:  Although the 'action' field might seem
to be redundant with the 'status' field, this is not the case.  In
particular, a "temporary failure" ("4") status code could be used with
an action-value of either "delayed" or "failed".  For example, assume
that an SMTP client repeatedly tries to relay a message to the mail
exchanger for a recipient, but fails because a query to a domain name
server timed out.  After a few hours, it might issue a "delayed" DSN to
inform the sender that the message had not yet been delivered.  After a
few days, the MTA might abandon its attempt to deliver the message and
return a "failure" DSN.  The status code (which would begin with a "4"



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to indicate "temporary failure") would be the same for both DSNs.


2.3.4 Status field

The per-recipient Status field contains a transport-independent status
code which indicates the delivery status of the message to that
recipient.  This field MUST be present for each delivery attempt which
is described by a DSN.

The syntax of the status field is:

     status-field = "Status" ":" status-code

     status-code = DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT

          ; White-space characters and comments are NOT allowed within a
          ; status-code, though a comment enclosed in parentheses MAY follow
          ; the last numeric subfield of the status-code.  Each numeric
          ; subfield within the status-code MUST be expressed without
          ; leading zero digits.


Status codes thus consist of three numerical fields separated by ".".
The first sub-field indicates whether the delivery attempt was
successful (2 = success, 4 = persistent temporary failure, 5 = permanent
failure).  The second sub-field indicates the probable source of any
delivery anomalies, and the third sub-field denotes a precise error
condition, if known.

The initial set of status-codes is defined in [5].


2.3.5 Remote-MTA field

The value associated with the Remote-MTA DSN field is a printable ASCII
representation of the name of the "remote" MTA that reported delivery
status to the "reporting" MTA.

     remote-mta-field = "Remote-MTA" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

NOTE: The Remote-MTA field preserves the "while talking to" information
that was provided in some pre-existing nondelivery reports.

This field is optional.  It MUST NOT be included if no remote MTA was
involved in the attempted delivery of the message to that recipient.







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2.3.6 Diagnostic-Code field

For a "failed" or "delayed" recipient, the Diagnostic-Code DSN field
contains the actual diagnostic code issued by the mail transport.  Since
such codes vary from one mail transport to another, the diagnostic-type
subfield is needed to specify which type of diagnostic code is
represented.

     diagnostic-code-field =
          "Diagnostic-Code" ":" diagnostic-type ";" *text

NOTE:  The information in the Diagnostic-Code field may be somewhat
redundant with that from the Status field.  The Status field is needed
so that any DSN, regardless of origin, may be understood by any user
agent or gateway that parses DSNs.  Since the Status code will sometimes
be less precise than the actual transport diagnostic code, the
Diagnostic-Code field is provided to retain the latter information.
Such information may be useful in a trouble ticket sent to the
administrator of the Reporting MTA, or when tunneling foreign
nondelivery reports through DSNs.

If the Diagnostic Code was obtained from a Remote MTA during an attempt
to relay the message to that MTA, the Remote-MTA field should be
present.  When interpreting a DSN, the presence of a Remote-MTA field
indicates that the Diagnostic Code was issued by the Remote MTA.  The
absence of a Remote-MTA indicates that the Diagnostic Code was issued by
the Reporting MTA.

In addition to the Diagnostic-Code itself, additional textual
description of the diagnostic, MAY appear in a comment enclosed in
parentheses.

This field is optional, because some mail systems supply no additional
information beyond that which is returned in the 'action' and 'status'
fields.  However, this field SHOULD be included if transport-specific
diagnostic information is available.


2.3.7 Last-Attempt-Date field

The Last-Attempt-Date field gives the date and time of the last attempt
to relay, gateway, or deliver the message (whether successful or
unsuccessful) by the Reporting MTA.  This is not necessarily the same as
the value of the Date field from the header of the message used to
transmit this delivery status notification: In cases where the DSN was
generated by a gateway, the Date field in the message header contains
the time the DSN was sent by the gateway and the DSN Last-Attempt-Date
field contains the time the last delivery attempt occurred.

     last-attempt-date-field = "Last-Attempt-Date" ":" date-time



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This field is optional.  It MUST NOT be included if the actual date and
time of the last delivery attempt are not available (which might be the
case if the DSN were being issued by a gateway).

The date and time are expressed in RFC 822 'date-time' format, as
modified by [8].  Numeric timezones ([+/-]HHMM format) MUST be used.


2.3.8 Will-Retry-Until field

For DSNs of type "delayed", the Will-Retry-Until field gives the date
after which the Reporting MTA expects to abandon all attempts to deliver
the message to that recipient.  The Will-Retry-Until field is optional
for "delay" DSNs, and MUST NOT appear in other DSNs.

     will-retry-until-field = "Will-Retry-Until" ":" date-time

The date and time are expressed in RFC 822 'date-time' format, as
modified by [8].  Numeric timezones ([+/-]HHMM format) MUST be used.


2.4 Extension fields

Additional per-message or per-recipient DSN fields may be defined in the
future by later revisions or extensions to this specification.
Extension-field names beginning with "X-" will never be defined as
standard fields; such names are reserved for experimental use.  DSN
field names NOT beginning with "X-" MUST be registered with the Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and published in an RFC.

Extension DSN fields may be defined for the following reasons:

(a) To allow additional information from foreign delivery status reports
    to be tunneled through Internet DSNs.  The names of such DSN fields
    should begin with an indication of the foreign environment name
    (e.g.  X400-Physical-Forwarding-Address).

(b) To allow the transmission of diagnostic information which is
    specific to a particular mail transport protocol.  The names of such
    DSN fields should begin with an indication of the mail transport
    being used (e.g. SMTP-Remote-Recipient-Address).  Such fields should
    be used for diagnostic purposes only and not by user agents or mail
    gateways.

(c) To allow transmission of diagnostic information which is specific to
    a particular message transfer agent (MTA).  The names of such DSN
    fields should begin with an indication of the MTA implementation
    which produced the DSN.  (e.g. Foomail-Queue-ID).




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MTA implementors are encouraged to provide adequate information, via
extension fields if necessary, to allow an MTA maintainer to understand
the nature of correctable delivery failures and how to fix them.  For
example, if message delivery attempts are logged, the DSN might include
information which allows the MTA maintainer to easily find the log entry
for a failed delivery attempt.

If an MTA developer does not wish to register the meanings of such
extension fields, "X-" fields may be used for this purpose.  To avoid
name collisions, the name of the MTA implementation should follow the
"X-", (e.g.  "X-Foomail-Log-ID").


3. Conformance and Usage Requirements

An MTA or gateway conforms to this specification if it generates DSNs
according to the protocol defined in this memo.  For MTAs and gateways
that do not support requests for positive delivery notification (such as
in [4]), it is sufficient that delivery failure reports use this
protocol.

A minimal implementation of this specification need generate only the
Reporting-MTA per-message field, and the Final-Recipient, Action, and
Status fields for each attempt to deliver a message to a recipient
described by the DSN.  Generation of the other fields, when appropriate,
is strongly recommended.

MTAs and gateways MUST NOT generate the Original-Recipient field of a
DSN unless the mail transfer protocol provides the address originally
specified by the sender at the time of submission. (Ordinary SMTP does
not make that guarantee, but the SMTP extension defined in [4] permits
such information to be carried in the envelope if it is available.)

Each sender-specified recipient address SHOULD result in at most one
"delivered" or "failed" DSN for that recipient.  If a positive DSN is
requested (e.g. one using NOTIFY=SUCCESS in SMTP) for a recipient that
is forwarded to multiple recipients of an "alias" (as defined in [4],
section 7.2.7), the forwarding MTA SHOULD normally issue a "expanded"
DSN for the originally-specified recipient and not propagate the request
for a DSN to the forwarding addresses.  Alternatively, the forwarding
MTA MAY relay the request for a DSN to exactly one of the forwarding
addresses and not propagate the request to the others.

By contrast, successful submission of a message to a mailing list
exploder is considered final delivery of the message.  Upon delivery of
a message to a recipient address corresponding to a mailing list
exploder, the Reporting MTA SHOULD issue an appropriate DSN exactly as
if the recipient address were that of an ordinary mailbox.

NOTE:  This is actually intended to make DSNs usable by mailing lists



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themselves.  Any message sent to a mailing list subscriber should have
its envelope return address pointing to the list maintainer [see RFC
1123, section 5.3.7(E)].  Since DSNs are sent to the envelope return
address, all DSNs resulting from delivery to the recipients of a mailing
list will be sent to the list maintainer.  The list maintainer may elect
to mechanically process DSNs upon receipt, and thus automatically delete
invalid addresses from the list.  (See section 7 of this memo.)

This specification places no restrictions on the processing of DSNs
received by user agents or distribution lists.


4. Security considerations

The following security considerations apply when using DSNs:


4.1 Forgery

DSNs may be forged as easily as ordinary Internet electronic mail.  User
agents and automatic mail handling facilities (such as mail distribution
list exploders) that wish to make automatic use of DSNs should take
appropriate precautions to minimize the potential damage from denial-of-
service attacks.

Security threats related to forged DSNs include the sending of:

(a) A falsified delivery notification when the message is not delivered
    to the indicated recipient,
(b) A falsified non-delivery notification when the message was in fact
    delivered to the indicated recipient,
(c) A falsified Final-Recipient address,
(d) A falsified Remote-MTA identification,
(e) A falsified relay notification when the message is "dead ended".
(f) Unsolicited DSNs


4.2 Confidentiality

Another dimension of security is confidentiality.  There may be cases in
which a message recipient is autoforwarding messages but does not wish
to divulge the address to which the messages are autoforwarded.  The
desire for such confidentiality will probably be heightened as "wireless
mailboxes", such as pagers, become more widely used as autoforward
addresses.

MTA authors are encouraged to provide a mechanism which enables the end
user to preserve the confidentiality of a forwarding address.  Depending
on the degree of confidentiality required, and the nature of the
environment to which a message were being forwarded, this might be



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accomplished by one or more of:

(a) issuing a "relayed" DSN (if a positive DSN was requested) when a
    message is forwarded to a confidential forwarding address, and
    disabling requests for positive DSNs for the forwarded message,

(b) declaring the message to be delivered, issuing a "delivered" DSN,
    re-sending the message to the confidential forwarding address, and
    arranging for no DSNs to be issued for the re-sent message,

(c) omitting "Remote-*" or extension fields of a DSN whenever they would
    otherwise contain confidential information (such as a confidential
    forwarding address),

(d) for messages forwarded to a confidential address, setting the
    envelope return address (e.g. SMTP MAIL FROM address) to the NULL
    reverse-path ("<>") (so that no DSNs would be sent from a downstream
    MTA to the original sender),

(e) for messages forwarded to a confidential address, disabling delivery
    notifications for the forwarded message (e.g. if the "next-hop" MTA
    uses ESMTP and supports the DSN extension, by using the NOTIFY=NEVER
    parameter to the RCPT command), or

(f) when forwarding mail to a confidential address, having the
    forwarding MTA rewrite the envelope return address for the forwarded
    message and attempt delivery of that message as if the forwarding
    MTA were the originator.  On its receipt of final delivery status,
    the forwarding MTA would issue a DSN to the original sender.

In general, any optional DSN field may be omitted if the Reporting MTA
site determines that inclusion of the field would impose too great a
compromise of site confidentiality.  The need for such confidentiality
must be balanced against the utility of the omitted information in
trouble reports and DSNs gatewayed to foreign environments.

Implementors are cautioned that many existing MTAs will send nondelivery
notifications to a return address in the message header (rather than to
the one in the envelope), in violation of SMTP and other protocols.  If
a message is forwarded through such an MTA, no reasonable action on the
part of the forwarding MTA will prevent the downstream MTA from
compromising the forwarding address.  Likewise, if the recipient's MTA
automatically responds to messages based on a request in the message
header (such as the nonstandard, but widely used, Return-Receipt-To
extension header), it will also compromise the forwarding address.








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4.3 Non-Repudiation

Within the framework of today's internet mail, the DSNs defined in this
memo provide valuable information to the mail user; however, even a
"failed" DSN can not be relied upon as a guarantee that a message was
not received by the recipient.  Even if DSNs are not actively forged,
conditions exist under which a message can be delivered despite the fact
that a failure DSN was issued.

For example, a race condition in the SMTP protocol allows for the
duplication of messages if the connection is dropped following a
completed DATA command, but before a response is seen by the SMTP
client.  This will cause the SMTP client to retransmit the message, even
though the SMTP server has already accepted it.[9] If one of those
delivery attempts succeeds and the other one fails, a "failed" DSN could
be issued even though the message actually reached the recipient.





































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5. Appendix - collected grammar

NOTE:  The following lexical tokens are defined in RFC 822:  atom, CHAR,
comment, CR, CRLF, DIGIT, LF, linear-white-space, SPACE, text.  The
date-time lexical token is defined in [8].

action-field = "Action" ":" action-value

action-value =
     "failed" / "delayed" / "delivered" / "relayed" / "expanded"

address-type = atom

arrival-date-field = "Arrival-Date" ":" date-time

delivery-status-content =
     per-message-fields 1*( CRLF per-recipient-fields )

diagnostic-code-field =
     "Diagnostic-Code" ":" diagnostic-type ";" *text

diagnostic-type = atom

dsn-gateway-field = "DSN-Gateway" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

envelope-id = *text

extension-field = extension-field-name ":" *text

extension-field-name = atom

final-recipient-field =
     "Final-Recipient" ":" address-type ";" generic-address

generic-address = *text

last-attempt-date-field = "Last-Attempt-Date" ":" date-time

mta-name = *text

mta-name-type = atom

original-envelope-id-field =
     "Original-Envelope-Id" ":" envelope-id

original-recipient-field =
     "Original-Recipient" ":" address-type ";" generic-address

per-message-fields =
     [ original-envelope-id-field CRLF ]



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     reporting-mta-field CRLF
     [ dsn-gateway-field CRLF ]
     [ received-from-mta-field CRLF ]
     [ arrival-date-field CRLF ]
     *( extension-field CRLF )

per-recipient-fields =
     [ original-recipient-field CRLF ]
     final-recipient-field CRLF
     action-field CRLF
     status-field CRLF
     [ remote-mta-field CRLF ]
     [ diagnostic-code-field CRLF ]
     [ last-attempt-date-field CRLF ]
     [ will-retry-until-field CRLF ]
     *( extension-field CRLF )

received-from-mta-field =
     "Received-From-MTA" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

remote-mta-field = "Remote-MTA" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

reporting-mta-field =
     "Reporting-MTA" ":" mta-name-type ";" mta-name

status-code = DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT "." 1*3DIGIT

     ; White-space characters and comments are NOT allowed within a
     ; status-code, though a comment enclosed in parentheses MAY follow
     ; the last numeric subfield of the status-code.  Each numeric
     ; subfield within the status-code MUST be expressed without
     ; leading zero digits.

status-field = "Status" ":" status-code

will-retry-until-field = "Will-Retry-Until" ":" date-time

















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6. Appendix - Guidelines for gatewaying DSNs

NOTE:  This section provides non-binding recommendations for the
construction of mail gateways that wish to provide semi-transparent
delivery reports between the Internet and another electronic mail
system.  Specific DSN gateway requirements for a particular pair of mail
systems may be defined by other documents.


6.1 Gatewaying from other mail systems to DSNs

A mail gateway may issue a DSN to convey the contents of a "foreign"
delivery or non-delivery notification over Internet mail.  When there
are appropriate mappings from the foreign notification elements to DSN
fields, the information may be transmitted in those DSN fields.
Additional information (such as might be useful in a trouble ticket or
needed to tunnel the foreign notification through the Internet) may be
defined in extension DSN fields.  (Such fields should be given names
that identify the foreign mail protocol, e.g. X400-* for X.400 NDN or DN
protocol elements)

The gateway must attempt to supply reasonable values for the Reporting-
MTA, Final-Recipient, Action, and Status fields.  These will normally be
obtained by translating the values from the remote delivery or non-
delivery notification into their Internet-style equivalents.  However,
some loss of information is to be expected.  For example, the set of
status-codes defined for DSNs may not be adequate to fully convey the
delivery diagnostic code from the foreign system.  The gateway should
assign the most precise code which describes the failure condition,
falling back on "generic" codes such as 2.0.0 (success), 4.0.0
(temporary failure), and 5.0.0 (permanent failure) when necessary.  The
actual foreign diagnostic code should be retained in the Diagnostic-Code
field (with an appropriate diagnostic-type value) for use in trouble
tickets or tunneling.

The sender-specified recipient address, and the original envelope-id, if
present in the foreign transport envelope, should be preserved in the
Original-Recipient and Original-Envelope-ID fields.

The gateway should also attempt to preserve the "final" recipient
addresses and MTA names from the foreign system.  Whenever possible,
foreign protocol elements should be encoded as meaningful printable
ASCII strings.

For DSNs produced from foreign delivery or nondelivery notifications,
the name of the gateway MUST appear in the DSN-Gateway field of the DSN.







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6.2 Gatewaying from DSNs to other mail systems

It may be possible to gateway DSNs from the Internet into a foreign mail
system.  The primary purpose of such gatewaying is to convey delivery
status information in a form that is usable by the destination system.
A secondary purpose is to allow "tunneling" of DSNs through foreign mail
systems, in case the DSN may be gatewayed back into the Internet.

In general, the recipient of the DSN (i.e., the sender of the original
message) will want to know, for each recipient: the closest available
approximation to the original recipient address, the delivery status
(success, failure, or temporary failure), and for failed deliveries, a
diagnostic code that describes the reason for the failure.

If possible, the gateway should attempt to preserve the Original-
Recipient address and Original-Envelope-ID (if present), in the
resulting foreign delivery status report.

When reporting delivery failures, if the diagnostic-type subfield of the
Diagnostic-Code field indicates that the original diagnostic code is
understood by the destination environment, the information from the
Diagnostic-Code field should be used.  Failing that, the information in
the Status field should be mapped into the closest available diagnostic
code used in the destination environment.

If it is possible to tunnel a DSN through the destination environment,
the gateway specification may define a means of preserving the DSN
information in the delivery status reports used by that environment.

























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7. Appendix - Guidelines for use of DSNs by mailing list exploders

NOTE: This section pertains only to the use of DSNs by "mailing lists"
as defined in [4], section 7.2.7.

DSNs are designed to be used by mailing list exploders to allow them to
detect and automatically delete recipients for whom mail delivery fails
repeatedly.

When forwarding a message to list subscribers, the mailing list exploder
should always set the envelope return address (e.g. SMTP MAIL FROM
address) to point to a special address which is set up to received
nondelivery reports.  A "smart" mailing list exploder can therefore
intercept such nondelivery reports, and if they are in the DSN format,
automatically examine them to determine for which recipients a message
delivery failed or was delayed.

The Original-Recipient field should be used if available, since it
should exactly match the subscriber address known to the list.  If the
Original-Recipient field is not available, the recipient field may
resemble the list subscriber address.  Often, however, the list
subscriber will have forwarded his mail to a different address, or the
address may be subject to some re-writing, so heuristics may be required
to successfully match an address from the recipient field.  Care is
needed in this case to minimize the possibility of false matches.

The reason for delivery failure can be obtained from the Status and
Action fields, and from the Diagnostic-Code field (if the status-type is
recognized).  Reports for recipients with action values other than
"failed" can generally be ignored; in particular, subscribers should not
be removed from a list due to "delayed" reports.

In general, almost any failure status code (even a "permanent" one) can
result from a temporary condition.  It is therefore recommended that a
list exploder not delete a subscriber based on any single failure DSN
(regardless of the status code), but only on the persistence of delivery
failure over a period of time.

However, some kinds of failures are less likely than others to have been
caused by temporary conditions, and some kinds of failures are more
likely to be noticed and corrected quickly than others.  Once more
precise status codes are defined, it may be useful to differentiate
between the status codes when deciding whether to delete a subscriber.
For example, on a list with a high message volume, it might be desirable
to temporarily suspend delivery to a recipient address which causes
repeated "temporary" failures, rather than simply deleting the
recipient.  The duration of the suspension might depend on the type of
error.  On the other hand, a "user unknown" error which persisted for
several days could be considered a reliable indication that address were
no longer valid.



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8. Appendix - IANA registration forms for DSN types

The forms below are for use when registering a new address-type,
diagnostic-type, or MTA-name-type with the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA).  Each piece of information requested by a registration
form may be satisfied either by providing the information on the form
itself, or by including a reference to a published, publicly available
specification which includes the necessary information.  IANA MAY reject
DSN type registrations because of incomplete registration forms,
imprecise specifications, or inappropriate type names.

To register a DSN type, complete the applicable form below and send it
via Internet electronic mail to <IANA@IANA.ORG>.


8.1 IANA registration form for address-type

A registration for a DSN address-type MUST include the following
information:

(a) The proposed address-type name.

(b) The syntax for mailbox addresses of this type, specified using BNF,
    regular expressions, ASN.1, or other non-ambiguous language.

(c) If addresses of this type are not composed entirely of graphic
    characters from the US-ASCII repertoire, a specification for how
    they are to be encoded as graphic US-ASCII characters in a DSN
    Original-Recipient or Final-Recipient DSN field.

(d) [optional] A specification for how addresses of this type are to be
    translated to and from Internet electronic mail addresses.


8.2 IANA registration form for diagnostic-type

A registration for a DSN address-type MUST include the following
information:

(a) The proposed diagnostic-type name.

(b) A description of the syntax to be used for expressing diagnostic
    codes of this type as graphic characters from the US-ASCII
    repertoire.

(c) A list of valid diagnostic codes of this type and the meaning of
    each code.




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(d) [optional] A specification for mapping from diagnostic codes of this
    type to DSN status codes (as defined in [5]).


8.3 IANA registration form for MTA-name-type

A registration for a DSN MTA-name-type must include the following
information:

(a) The proposed MTA-name-type name.

(b) A description of the syntax of MTA names of this type, using BNF,
    regular expressions, ASN.1, or other non-ambiguous language.

(c) If MTA names of this type do not consist entirely of graphic
    characters from the US-ASCII repertoire, a specification for how an
    MTA name of this type should be expressed as a sequence of graphic
    US-ASCII characters.


9. Appendix - Examples

NOTE:  These examples are provided as illustration only, and are not
considered part of the DSN protocol specification.  If an example
conflicts with the protocol definition above, the example is wrong.

Likewise, the use of *-type subfield names or extension fields in these
examples is not to be construed as a definition for those type names or
extension fields.

These examples were manually translated from bounced messages using
whatever information was available.





















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Delivery Status Notifications                        21 June 1995



9.1  This is a simple DSN issued after repeated attempts to deliver a
message failed.  In this case, the DSN is issued by the same MTA from
which the message was originated.


Date: Thu, 7 Jul 1994 17:16:05 -0400
From: Mail Delivery Subsystem <MAILER-DAEMON@CS.UTK.EDU>
Message-Id: <199407072116.RAA14128@CS.UTK.EDU>
Subject: Returned mail: Cannot send message for 5 days
To: <owner-info-mime@cs.utk.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/report; report-type=delivery-status;
      boundary="RAA14128.773615765/CS.UTK.EDU"

--RAA14128.773615765/CS.UTK.EDU

The original message was received at Sat, 2 Jul 1994 17:10:28 -0400
from root@localhost

   ----- The following addresses had delivery problems -----
<louisl@larry.slip.umd.edu>  (unrecoverable error)

   ----- Transcript of session follows -----
<louisl@larry.slip.umd.edu>... Deferred: Connection timed out
      with larry.slip.umd.edu.
Message could not be delivered for 5 days
Message will be deleted from queue

--RAA14128.773615765/CS.UTK.EDU
content-type: message/delivery-status

Reporting-MTA: dns; cs.utk.edu

Original-Recipient: rfc822;louisl@larry.slip.umd.edu
Final-Recipient: rfc822;louisl@larry.slip.umd.edu
Action: failure
Status: 4.0.0
Diagnostic-Code: smtp; 426 connection timed out
Last-Attempt-Date: Thu, 7 Jul 1994 17:15:49 -0400

--RAA14128.773615765/CS.UTK.EDU
content-type: message/rfc822

[original message goes here]
--RAA14128.773615765/CS.UTK.EDU--








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Delivery Status Notifications                        21 June 1995



9.2  This is another DSN issued by the sender's MTA, which contains
details of multiple delivery attempts.  Some of these were detected
locally, and others by a remote MTA.


Date: Fri, 8 Jul 1994 09:21:47 -0400
From: Mail Delivery Subsystem <MAILER-DAEMON@CS.UTK.EDU>
Subject: Returned mail: User unknown
To: <owner-ups-mib@CS.UTK.EDU>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/report; report-type=delivery-status;
      boundary="JAA13167.773673707/CS.UTK.EDU"

--JAA13167.773673707/CS.UTK.EDU
content-type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

   ----- The following addresses had delivery problems -----
<arathib@vnet.ibm.com>  (unrecoverable error)
<wsnell@sdcc13.ucsd.edu>  (unrecoverable error)

--JAA13167.773673707/CS.UTK.EDU
content-type: message/delivery-status

Reporting-MTA: dns; cs.utk.edu

Original-Recipient: rfc822;arathib@vnet.ibm.com
Final-Recipient: rfc822;arathib@vnet.ibm.com
Action: failure
Status: 5.0.0 (permanent failure)
Diagnostic-Code: smtp;
 550 'arathib@vnet.IBM.COM' is not a registered gateway user
Remote-MTA: dns; vnet.ibm.com

Original-Recipient: rfc822;johnh@hpnjld.njd.hp.com
Final-Recipient: rfc822;johnh@hpnjld.njd.hp.com
Action: delayed
Status: 4.0.0 (hpnjld.njd.jp.com: host name lookup failure)

Original-Recipient: rfc822;wsnell@sdcc13.ucsd.edu
Final-Recipient: rfc822;wsnell@sdcc13.ucsd.edu
Action: failure
Status: 5.0.0
Diagnostic-Code: smtp; 550 user unknown
Remote-MTA: dns; sdcc13.ucsd.edu

--JAA13167.773673707/CS.UTK.EDU
content-type: message/rfc822

[original message goes here]
--JAA13167.773673707/CS.UTK.EDU--



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Delivery Status Notifications                        21 June 1995



9.3 A delivery report generated by Message Router (MAILBUS) and
gatewayed by PMDF_MR to a DSN.  In this case the gateway did not have
sufficient information to supply an original-recipient address.


Disclose-recipients: prohibited
Date: Fri, 08 Jul 1994 09:21:25 -0400 (EDT)
From: Message Router Submission Agent <AMMGR@corp.timeplex.com>
Subject: Status of : Re: Battery current sense
To: owner-ups-mib@CS.UTK.EDU
Message-id: <01HEGJ0WNBY28Y95LN@mr.timeplex.com>
MIME-version: 1.0
content-type: multipart/report; report-type=delivery-status;
      boundary="84229080704991.122306.SYS30"

--84229080704991.122306.SYS30
content-type: text/plain

Invalid address - nair_s
%DIR-E-NODIRMTCH, No matching Directory Entry found

--84229080704991.122306.SYS30
content-type: message/delivery-status

Reporting-MTA: mailbus; SYS30

Final-Recipient: unknown; nair_s
Status: 5.0.0 (unknown permanent failure)
Action: failure
--84229080704991.122306.SYS30--























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Delivery Status Notifications                        21 June 1995



9.4 A delay report from a multiprotocol MTA.  Note that there is no
returned content, so no third body part appears in the DSN.


From: <postmaster@nsfnet-relay.ac.uk>
Message-Id: <199407092338.TAA23293@CS.UTK.EDU>
Received: from nsfnet-relay.ac.uk by sun2.nsfnet-relay.ac.uk
          id <g.12954-0@sun2.nsfnet-relay.ac.uk>;
Sun, 10 Jul 1994 00:36:51 +0100
To: owner-info-mime@cs.utk.edu
Date: Sun, 10 Jul 1994 00:36:51 +0100
Subject: WARNING: message delayed at "nsfnet-relay.ac.uk"
content-type: multipart/report; report-type=delivery-status;
      boundary=foobar

--foobar
content-type: text/plain

The following message:

UA-ID:  Reliable PC (...
Q-ID:   sun2.nsf:77/msg.11820-0

has not been delivered to the intended recipient:

thomas@de-montfort.ac.uk

despite repeated delivery attempts over the past 24 hours.

The  usual cause of this problem is that the remote system is
temporarily unavailable.

Delivery will continue to be attempted up to a total elapsed
time of  168 hours, ie 7 days.

You  will  be  informed  if  delivery proves to be impossible
within this time.

Please quote the Q-ID in any queries regarding this mail.

--foobar
content-type: message/delivery-status

Reporting-MTA: dns; sun2.nsfnet-relay.ac.uk

Final-Recipient: rfc822;thomas@de-montfort.ac.uk
Status: 4.0.0 (unknown temporary failure)
Action: delayed

--foobar--



Moore/Vaudreuil      Expires 21 December 1995           [Page 33]

Delivery Status Notifications                        21 June 1995





10. Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the following people for their reviews of
earlier drafts of this document and their suggestions for improvement:
Eric Allman, Harald Alvestrand, Allan Cargille, Jim Conklin, Peter
Cowen, Dave Crocker, Roger Fajman, Ned Freed, Marko Kaittola, Steve
Kille, John Klensin, John Gardiner Myers, Mark Nahabedian, Julian
Onions, Jacob Palme, Jean Charles Roy, and Gregory Sheehan.


11. References

[1] Borenstein, N., Freed, N. "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions",
    RFC 1521, Bellcore, Innosoft, September 1993.

[2] Vaudreuil, G. "The Multipart/Report Content Type for the Reporting
    of Mail System Administrative Messages", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-
    notary-mime-report-03.txt, 5 May 1995.

[3] Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", STD 10, RFC 821,
    USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1982.

[4] Moore, K.  "SMTP Service Extension for Delivery Status
    Notifications", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-notary-smtp-drpt-04.txt,
    29 May 1995.

[5] Vaudreuil, G.  "Enhanced Mail System Status Codes", Internet-Draft
    draft-ietf-notary-status-03.txt, 5 May 1995.

[6] Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text
    Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, UDEL, August 1982.

[7] Moore, K. "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Two:
    Message Header Extensions for Non-Ascii Text", RFC 1522, University
    of Tennessee, September 1993.

[8] Braden, R. (ed.)  "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and
    Support", RFC 1123, October 1989.

[9] Partridge, C.  "Duplicate messages and SMTP", RFC 1047, February
    1988.










Moore/Vaudreuil      Expires 21 December 1995           [Page 34]

Delivery Status Notifications                        21 June 1995



11. Author's Addresses

Keith Moore
University of Tennessee
107 Ayres Hall
Knoxville, TN 37996-1301
USA
email: moore@cs.utk.edu
voice: +1 615 974 3126
fax: +1 615 974 8296

Gregory M. Vaudreuil
Octel Network Services
17080 Dallas Parkway
Dallas, TX 75248-1905
USA
email: Greg.Vaudreuil@Octel.Com




































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