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Versions: (draft-sarikaya-nvo3-vmm-dmm-pmip) 00 01 02 03 04

Network Working Group                                        B. Sarikaya
Internet-Draft                                       Denpel Informatique
Intended status: Best Current Practice                         L. Dunbar
Expires: February 10, 2019                                    Huawei USA
                                                           B. Khasnabish
                                                           ZTE (TX) Inc.
                                                              T. Herbert
                                                              Quantonium
                                                              S. Dikshit
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                          August 9, 2018


    Virtual Machine Mobility Protocol for L2 and L3 Overlay Networks
                       draft-ietf-nvo3-vmm-04.txt

Abstract

   This document describes a virtual machine mobility protocol commonly
   used in data centers built with overlay-based network virtualization
   approach.  For layer 2, it is based on using a Network Virtualization
   Authority (NVA)-Network Virtualization Edge (NVE) protocol to update
   Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table or neighbor cache entries at
   the NVA and the source NVEs tunneling in-flight packets to the
   destination NVE after the virtual machine moves from source NVE to
   the destination NVE.  For Layer 3, it is based on address and
   connection migration after the move.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 10, 2019.







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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Overview of the protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  VM Migration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Task Migration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.1.  Address and Connection Migration in Task Migration  .   7
   5.  Handling Packets in Flight  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Moving Local State of VM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Handling of Hot, Warm and Cold Virtual Machine Mobility . . .   9
   8.  Virtual Machine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.1.  Virtual Machine Lifecycle Management  . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   12. Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     13.2.  Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   Data center networks are being increasingly used by telecom operators
   as well as by enterprises.  In this document we are interested in
   overlay-based data center networks supporting multitenancy.  These
   networks are organized as one large Layer 2 network geographically
   distributed in several buildings.  In some cases geographical
   distribution can span across Layer 2 boundaries.  In that case need
   arises for connectivity between Layer 2 boundaries which can be
   achieved by the network virtualization edge (NVE) functioning as



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   Layer 3 gateway routing across bridging domain such as in Warehouse
   Scale Computers (WSC).

   Virtualization which is being used in almost all of today's data
   centers enables many virtual machines to run on a single physical
   computer or compute server.  Virtual machines (VM) need hypervisor
   running on the physical compute server to provide them shared
   processor/memory/storage.  Network connectivity is provided by the
   network virtualization edge (NVE) [RFC8014].  Being able to move VMs
   dynamically, or live migration, from one server to another allows for
   dynamic load balancing or work distribution and thus it is a highly
   desirable feature [RFC7364].

   There are many challenges and requirements related to migration,
   mobility, and interconnection of Virtual Machines (VMs)and Virtual
   Network Elements (VNEs).  Retaining IP addresses after a move is a
   key requirement [RFC7364].  Such a requirement is needed in order to
   maintain existing transport connections.

   In L3 based data networks, retaining IP addresses after a move is
   simply not possible.  This introduces complexity in IP address
   management and as a result transport connections need to be
   reestablished.

   In view of many virtual machine mobility schemes that exist today,
   there is a desire to define a standard control plane protocol for
   virtual machine mobility.  The protocol should be based on IPv4 or
   IPv6.  In this document we specify such a protocol for Layer 2 and
   Layer 3 data networks.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119] and
   [RFC8014].

   This document uses the terminology defined in [RFC7364].  In addition
   we make the following definitions:

   Tasks.  Tasks are the generalization of virtual machines.  Tasks in
   containers that can be migrated correspond to the virtual machines
   that can be migrated.  We use task and virtual machine
   interchangeably in this document.

   Hot VM Mobility.  A given VM could be moved from one server to
   another in running state.




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   Warm VM Mobility.  In case of warm VM mobility, the VM states are
   mirrored to the secondary server (or domain) at a predefined
   (configurable) regular intervals.  This reduces the overheads and
   complexity but this may also lead to a situation when both servers
   may not contain the exact same data (state information)

   Cold VM Mobility.  A given VM could be moved from one server to
   another in stopped or suspended state.

   Source NVE refers to the old NVE where packets were forwarded to
   before migration.

   Destination NVE refers to the new NVE after migration.

   Packets in flight refers to the packets received by the source NVE
   sent by the correspondents that have old ARP or neighbor cache entry
   before VM or task migration.

   Users of VMs in diskless systems or systems not using configuration
   files are called end user clients.

3.  Requirements

   This section states requirements on data center network virtual
   machine mobility.

   Data center network SHOULD support virtual machine mobility in IPv6.

   IPv4 SHOULD also be supported in virtual machine mobility.

   Virtual machine mobility protocol MAY support host routes to
   accomplish virtualization.

   Virtual machine mobility protocol SHOULD not support triangular
   routing except for handling packets in flight.

   Virtual machine mobility protocol SHOULD not need to use tunneling
   except for handling packets in flight.

4.  Overview of the protocol

   Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols are described next.  In the following
   sections, we examine more advanced features.








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4.1.  VM Migration

   Being able to move Virtual Machines dynamically, from one server to
   another allows for dynamic load balancing or work distribution and
   thus it is a highly desirable feature.  In a Layer-2 based data
   center approach, virtual machine moving to another server does not
   change its IP address.  Because of this an IP based virtual machine
   mobility protocol is not needed.  However, when a virtual machine
   moves, NVEs need to change their caches associating VM Layer 2 or
   Medium Access Control (MAC) address with NVE's IP address.  Such a
   change enables NVE to send outgoing MAC frames addressed to the
   virtual machine.  VM movement across Layer 3 boundaries is not
   typical but the same solution applies if the VM moves in the same
   link such as in WSCs.

   Virtual machine moves from its source NVE to a new, destination NVE.
   After the move the virtual machine IP address(es) do not change but
   this virtual machine is now under a new NVE, previously communicating
   NVEs will continue to send their packets to the source NVE.  Address
   Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache in IPv4 [RFC0826] or neighbor cache
   in IPv6 [RFC4861] in the NVEs need to be updated.

   It may take some time to refresh ARP/ND cache when a VM is moved to a
   new destination NVE.  During this period, a tunnel is needed so that
   source NVE forwards packets to the destination NVE.

   In IPv4, the virtual machine immediately after the move should send a
   gratuitous ARP request message containing its IPv4 and Layer 2 or MAC
   address in its new NVE, destination NVE.  This message's destination
   address is the broadcast address.  Source NVE receives this message.
   source NVE should update VM's ARP entry in the central directory at
   the NVA.  Source NVE asks NVA to update its mappings to record IPv4
   address of the moving VM along with MAC address of VM, and NVE IPv4
   address.  An NVE-to-NVA protocol is used for this purpose [RFC8014].

   Reverse ARP (RARP) which enables the host to discover its IPv4
   address when it boots from a local server [RFC0903] is not used by
   VMs because the VM already knows its IPv4 address.  IPv4/v6 address
   is assigned to a newly created VM, possibly using Dynamic Host
   Configuration Protocol (DHCP).  Next, we describe a case where RARP
   is used.

   There are some vendor deployments (diskless systems or systems
   without configuration files) wherein VM users, i.e. end-user clients
   ask for the same MAC address upon migration.  This can be achieved by
   the clients sending RARP request reverse message which carries the
   old MAC address looking for an IP address allocation.  The server, in
   this case the new NVE needs to communicate with NVA, just like in the



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   gratuitous ARP case to ensure that the same IPv4 address is assigned
   to the VM.  NVA uses the MAC address as the key in the search of ARP
   cache to find the IP address and informs this to the new NVE which in
   turn sends RARP reply reverse message.  This completes IP address
   assignment to the migrating VM.

   All NVEs communicating with this virtual machine uses the old ARP
   entry.  If any VM in those NVEs need to talk to the new VM in the
   destination NVE, it uses the old ARP entry.  Thus the packets are
   delivered to the source NVE.  The source NVE MUST tunnel these in-
   flight packets to the destination NVE.

   When an ARP entry in those VMs times out, their corresponding NVEs
   should access the NVA for an update.

   IPv6 operation is slightly different:

   In IPv6, the virtual machine immediately after the move sends an
   unsolicited neighbor advertisement message containing its IPv6
   address and Layer-2 MAC address in its new NVE, the destination NVE.
   This message is sent to the IPv6 Solicited Node Multicast Address
   corresponding to the target address which is VM's IPv6 address.  NVE
   receives this message.  NVE should update VM's neighbor cache entry
   in the central directory of the NVA.  IPv6 address of VM, MAC address
   of VM and NVE IPv6 address are recorded in the entry.  An NVE-to-NVA
   protocol is used for this purpose [RFC8014].

   All NVEs communicating with this virtual machine uses the old
   neighbor cache entry.  If any VM in those NVEs need to talk to the
   new VM in the destination NVE, it uses the old neighbor cache entry.
   Thus the packets are delivered to the source NVE.  The source NVE
   MUST tunnel these in-flight packets to the destination NVE.

   When a neighbor cache entry in those VMs times out, their
   corresponding NVEs should access the NVA for an update.

4.2.  Task Migration

   Virtualization in L2 based data center networks becomes quickly
   prohibitive because ARP/neighbor caches don't scale.  Scaling can be
   accomplished seamlessly in L3 data center networks by just giving
   each virtual network an IP subnet and a default route that points to
   NVE.  This means no explosion of ARP/ neighbor cache in VMs and NVEs
   (just one ARP/ neighbor cache entry for default route) and there is
   no need to have Ethernet header in encapsulation [RFC7348] which
   saves at least 16 bytes.





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   In L3 based data center networks, since IP address of the task has to
   change after move, an IP based task migration protocol is needed.
   The protocol mostly used is the identifier locator addressing or ILA
   [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila].  Address and connection migration introduce
   complications in task migration protocol as we discuss below.
   Especially informing the communicating hosts of the migration becomes
   a major issue.  Also, in L3 based networks, because broadcasting is
   not available, multicast of neighbor solicitations in IPv6 would need
   to be emulated.

   Task migration involves the following steps:

   Stop running the task.

   Package the runtime state of the job.

   Send the runtime state of the task to the destination NVE where the
   task is to run.

   Instantiate the task's state on the new machine.

   Start the tasks for the task continuing from the point at which it
   was stopped.

   Address migration and connection migration in moving tasks are
   addressed next.

4.2.1.  Address and Connection Migration in Task Migration

   Address migration is achieved as follows:

   Configure IPv4/v6 address on the target host.

   Suspend use of the address on the old host.  This includes handling
   established connections.  A state may be established to drop packets
   or send ICMPv4 or ICMPv6 destination unreachable message when packets
   to the migrated address are received.

   Push the new mapping to hosts.  Communicating hosts will learn of the
   new mapping via a control plane either by participation in a protocol
   for mapping propagation or by getting the new mapping from a central
   database such as Domain Name System (DNS).

   Connection migration involves reestablishing existing TCP connections
   of the task in the new place.

   The simplest course of action is to drop TCP connections across a
   migration.  Since migrations should be relatively rare events, it is



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   conceivable that TCP connections could be automatically closed in the
   network stack during a migration event.  If the applications running
   are known to handle this gracefully (i.e. reopen dropped connections)
   then this may be viable.

   More involved approach to connection migration entails pausing the
   connection, packaging connection state and sending to target,
   instantiating connection state in the peer stack, and restarting the
   connection.  From the time the connection is paused to the time it is
   running again in the new stack, packets received for the connection
   should be silently dropped.  For some period of time, the old stack
   will need to keep a record of the migrated connection.  If it
   receives a packet, it should either silently drop the packet or
   forward it to the new location, similarly as in Section 5.

5.  Handling Packets in Flight

   Source hypervisor may receive packets from the virtual machine's
   ongoing communications and these packets should not be lost and they
   should be sent to the destination hypervisor to be delivered to the
   virtual machine.  The steps involved in handling packets in flight
   are as follows:

   Preparation Step  It takes some time, possibly a few seconds for a VM
      to move from its source hypervisor to a new destination one.
      During this period, a tunnel needs to be established so that the
      source NVE forwards packets to the destination NVE.

   Tunnel Establishment - IPv6  Inflight packets are tunneled to the
      destination NVE using the encapsulation protocol such as VXLAN in
      IPv6.  Source NVE gets destination NVE address from NVA in the
      request to move the virtual machine.

   Tunnel Establishment - IPv4  Inflight packets are tunneled to the
      destination NVE using the encapsulation protocol such as VXLAN in
      IPv4.  Source NVE gets destination NVE address from NVA when NVA
      requests NVE to move the virtual machine.

   Tunneling Packets - IPv6  IPv6 packets are received for the migrating
      virtual machine encapsulated in an IPv6 header at the source NVE.
      Destination NVE decapsulates the packet and sends IPv6 packet to
      the migrating VM.

   Tunneling Packets - IPv4  IPv4 packets are received for the migrating
      virtual machine encapsulated in an IPv4 header at the source NVE.
      Destination NVE decapsulates the packet and sends IPv4 packet to
      the migrating VM.




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   Stop Tunneling Packets  When source NVE stops receiving packets
      destined to the virtual machine that has just moved to the
      destination NVE.

6.  Moving Local State of VM

   After VM mobility related signaling (VM Mobility Registration
   Request/Reply), the virtual machine state needs to be transferred to
   the destination Hypervisor.  The state includes its memory and file
   system.  Source NVE opens a TCP connection with destination NVE over
   which VM's memory state is transferred.

   File system or local storage is more complicated to transfer.  The
   transfer should ensure consistency, i.e. the VM at the destination
   should find the same file system it had at the source.  Precopying is
   a commonly used technique for transferring the file system.  First
   the whole disk image is transferred while VM continues to run.  After
   the VM is moved any changes in the file system are packaged together
   and sent to the destination Hypervisor which reflects these changes
   to the file system locally at the destination.

7.  Handling of Hot, Warm and Cold Virtual Machine Mobility

   Cold Virtual Machine mobility is facilitated by the VM initially
   sending an ARP or Neighbor Discovery message at the destination NVE
   but the source NVE not receiving any packets inflight.  Cold VM
   mobility also allows all previous source NVEs and all communicating
   NVEs to time out ARP/neighbor cache entries of the VM and then get
   NVA to push to NVEs or get NVEs to pull the updated ARP/neighbor
   cache entry from NVA.

   The VMs that are used for cold standby receive scheduled backup
   information but less frequently than that would be for warm standby
   option.  Therefore, the cold mobility option can be used for non-
   critical applications and services.

   In cases of warm standby option, the backup VMs receive backup
   information at regular intervals.  The duration of the interval
   determines the warmth of the standby option.  The larger the
   duration, the less warm (and hence cold) the standby option becomes.

   In case of hot standby option, the VMs in both primary and secondary
   domains have identical information and can provide services
   simultaneously as in load-share mode of operation.  If the VMs in the
   primary domain fails, there is no need to actively move the VMs to
   the secondary domain because the VMs in the secondary domain already
   contain identical information.  The hot standby option is the most
   costly mechanism for providing redundancy, and hence this option is



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   utilized only for mission-critical applications and services.  In hot
   standby option, regarding TCP connections, one option is to start
   with and maintain TCP connections to two different VMs at the same
   time.  The least loaded VM responds first and pickup providing
   service while the sender (origin) still continues to receive Ack from
   the heavily loaded (secondary) VM and chooses not use the service of
   the secondary responding VM.  If the situation (loading condition of
   the primary responding VM) changes the secondary responding VM may
   start providing service to the sender (origin).

8.  Virtual Machine Operation

   Virtual machines are not involved in any mobility signalling.  Once
   VM moves to the destination NVE, VM IP address does not change and VM
   should be able to continue to receive packets to its address(es).
   This happens in hot VM mobility scenarios.

   Virtual machine sends a gratuitous Address Resolution Protocol or
   unsolicited Neighbor Advertisement message upstream after each move.

8.1.  Virtual Machine Lifecycle Management

   Managing the lifecycle of VM includes creating a VM with all of the
   required resources, and managing them seamlessly as the VM migrates
   from one service to another during its lifetime.  The on-boarding
   process includes the following steps:

   1.  Sending an allowed (authorized/authenticated) request to Network
       Virtualization Authority (NVA) in an acceptable format with
       mandatory/optional virtualized resources {cpu, memory, storage,
       process/thread support, etc.} and interface information

   2.  Receiving an acknowledgement from the NVA regarding availability
       and usability of virtualized resources and interface package

   3.  Sending a confirmation message to the NVA with request for
       approval to adapt/adjust/modify the virtualized resources and
       interface package for utilization in a service.

9.  Security Considerations

   Security threats for the data and control plane are discussed in
   [RFC8014].  There are several issues in a multi-tenant environment
   that create problems.  In L2 based data center networks, lack of
   security in VXLAN, corruption of VNI can lead to delivery to wrong
   tenant.  Also, ARP in IPv4 and ND in IPv6 are not secure especially
   if we accept gratuitous versions.  When these are done over a UDP




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   encapsulation, like VXLAN, the problem is worse since it is trivial
   for a non trusted application to spoof UDP packets.

   In L3 based data center networks, the problem of address spoofing may
   arise.  As a result the destinations may contain untrusted hosts.
   This usually happens in cases like the virtual machines running third
   part applications.  This requires the usage of stronger security
   mechanisms.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request to IANA.

11.  Acknowledgements

   The authors are grateful to Dave R.  Worley, Qiang Zu, Andrew Malis
   for helpful comments.

12.  Change Log

   o  submitted version -00 as a working group draft after adoption

   o  submitted version -01 with these changes: references are updated,
      added packets in flight definition to Section 2

   o  submitted version -02 with updated address.

   o  submitted version -03 to fix the nits.

   o  submitted version -04 in reference to the WG Last call comments.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0826]  Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
              Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
              Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37,
              RFC 826, DOI 10.17487/RFC0826, November 1982,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc826>.

   [RFC0903]  Finlayson, R., Mann, T., Mogul, J., and M. Theimer, "A
              Reverse Address Resolution Protocol", STD 38, RFC 903,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0903, June 1984,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc903>.






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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2629, June 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2629>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC7348]  Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P., Kreeger,
              L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright, "Virtual
              eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN): A Framework for
              Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3
              Networks", RFC 7348, DOI 10.17487/RFC7348, August 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7348>.

   [RFC7364]  Narten, T., Ed., Gray, E., Ed., Black, D., Fang, L.,
              Kreeger, L., and M. Napierala, "Problem Statement:
              Overlays for Network Virtualization", RFC 7364,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7364, October 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7364>.

   [RFC8014]  Black, D., Hudson, J., Kreeger, L., Lasserre, M., and T.
              Narten, "An Architecture for Data-Center Network
              Virtualization over Layer 3 (NVO3)", RFC 8014,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8014, December 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8014>.

13.2.  Informative references

   [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila]
              Herbert, T. and P. Lapukhov, "Identifier-locator
              addressing for IPv6", draft-herbert-nvo3-ila-04 (work in
              progress), March 2017.

Authors' Addresses

   Behcet Sarikaya
   Denpel Informatique

   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org





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   Linda Dunbar
   Huawei USA
   5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
   Plano, TX  75024

   Email: linda.dunbar@huawei.com


   Bhumip Khasnabish
   ZTE (TX) Inc.
   55 Madison Avenue, Suite 160
   Morristown, NJ  07960

   Email: vumip1@gmail.com, bhumip.khasnabish@ztetx.com


   Tom Herbert
   Quantonium

   Email: tom@herbertland.com


   Saumya Dikshit
   Cisco Systems
   Cessna Business Park
   Bangalore, Karnataka, India  560 087

   Email: sadikshi@cisco.com























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