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Versions: (draft-li-opsawg-ipfix-bgp-community) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

opsawg                                                             Z. Li
Internet-Draft                                                     R. Gu
Intended status: Standards Track                            China Mobile
Expires: May 29, 2019                                            J. Dong
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                       November 25, 2018


 Export BGP community information in IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
                draft-ietf-opsawg-ipfix-bgp-community-11

Abstract

   By introducing new Information Elements (IEs), this draft extends the
   existing BGP-related IEs to enable IPFIX [RFC7011] to export BGP
   community information, including BGP standard communities [RFC1997],
   BGP extended communities [RFC4360], and BGP large communities
   [RFC8092].  Network traffic information can then be accumulated and
   analyzed at the BGP community granularity, which represents the
   traffic of different kinds of customers, services, or geographical
   regions according to the network operator's BGP community planning.
   Network traffic information at the BGP community granularity is
   useful for network traffic analysis and engineering.

   To clarify, no new BGP community attribute is defined in this
   document and this document does not replace BGP Monitoring Protocol
   (BMP) defined in RFC7854.  The IEs introduced in this document are
   used by IPFIX, together with other IEs, to facilitate the IPFIX
   Collector analyzing network traffic at the BGP community granularity
   without needing to run the heavy BGP itself.  When needed, the IPFIX
   Mediator or Collector can use the IEs introduced in this document to
   report the BGP community-related traffic flow information it gets
   either from Exporters or through local correlation to other IPFIX
   devices.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any




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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 29, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  BGP Community-based Traffic Collection  . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  IEs for BGP Standard Community  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  IEs for BGP Extended Community  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  IEs for BGP Large Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Operational Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Encoding Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     A.1.  Template Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     A.2.  Data Set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) [RFC7011] provides network
   administrators with traffic flow information using the Information
   Elements (IEs) defined in [IANA-IPFIX] registries.  Based on the
   traffic flow information, network administrators know the amount and
   direction of the traffic in their network, and can then optimize
   their network when needed.  For example, they can shift some flows



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   from congested links to low utilized links through an SDN controller
   or PCE [RFC4655].

   [IANA-IPFIX] has already defined the following IEs for traffic flow
   information exporting in different granularities: sourceIPv4Address,
   sourceIPv4Prefix, destinationIPv4Address, destinationIPv4Prefix,
   bgpSourceAsNumber, bgpDestinationAsNumber, bgpNextHopIPv4Address,
   etc.  In some circumstances, however, especially when traffic
   engineering and optimization are executed in Tier 1 or Tier 2
   operators' backbone networks, traffic flow information based on these
   IEs may not be completely suitable or sufficient.  For example, flow
   information based on IP address or IP prefix may provide much too
   fine granularity for a large network.  On the contrary, flow
   information based on AS number may be too coarse.

   BGP community is a BGP path attribute that includes standard
   communities [RFC1997], extended communities [RFC4360], and large
   communities [RFC8092].  The BGP community attribute has a variety of
   use cases, one of which is to use BGP community with planned specific
   values to represent groups of customers, services, and geographical
   or topological regions, as used by operators in their networks.
   Detailed examples can be found in [RFC4384], [RFC8195] and Section 3
   of this document.  To understand the traffic generated by different
   kinds of customers, from different geographical or topological
   regions, by different kinds of customers in different regions, we
   need the corresponding community information related to the traffic
   flow information exported by IPFIX.  Network traffic statistics at
   the BGP community granularity are useful not only for the traffic
   analyzing, but also can then be used by other applications, such as
   traffic optimization applications located in an IPFIX Collector, SDN
   controller or PCE.  [Community-TE] also states that analyzing network
   traffic information at the BGP community granularity is preferred for
   inbound traffic engineering.  However, [IANA-IPFIX] lacks IEs defined
   for the BGP community attribute.

   Flow information based on BGP community may be collected by an IPFIX
   Mediator defined in [RFC6183].  IPFIX Mediator is responsible for the
   correlation between flow information and BGP community.  However, no
   IEs are defined in [RFC6183] for exporting BGP community information
   in IPFIX.  Furthermore, to correlate the BGP community with the flow
   information, the IPFIX Mediator needs to learn BGP routes and perform
   lookups in the BGP routing table to get the matching entry for a
   specific flow.  Neither BGP route learning nor routing table lookup
   are trivial for an IPFIX Mediator.  The IPFIX Mediator is mainly
   introduced to reduce the performance requirement for the Exporter
   [RFC5982].  In fact, to obtain the information for the already
   defined BGP related IEs, such as bgpSourceAsNumber,
   bgpDestinationAsNumber, and bgpNextHopIPv4Address, etc, the Exporter



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   has to hold the up-to-date BGP routing table and perform lookups in
   the table.  The Exporter can obtain the BGP community information in
   the same procedure, thus the additional load added by exporting BGP
   community information is minimal if the Exporter is already exporting
   the existing BGP-related IEs.  It is RECOMMENDED that the BGP
   community information be exported by the Exporter directly using
   IPFIX.

   Through running BGP [RFC4271] or BMP [RFC7854] and performing lookups
   in the BGP routing table to correlate the matching entry for a
   specific flow, IPFIX Collectors and other applications, such as SDN
   controller or PCE, can determine the network traffic at the BGP
   community granularity.  However, neither running BGP or BMP protocol
   nor routing table lookup are trivial for the IPFIX Collectors and
   other applications.  Moreover, correlation between IPFIX flow
   information and the BGP RIB on the Exporter (such as a router) is
   more accurate, compared to the correlation on a Collector, since the
   BGP routing table may be updated when the IPFIX Collectors and other
   applications receive the IPFIX flow information.  And as stated
   above, the Exporter can obtain the BGP community information during
   the same procedure when it obtains other BGP related information.  So
   exporting the BGP community information directly by the Exporter to
   the Collector is both efficient and accurate.  If the IPFIX
   Collectors and other applications only want to determine the network
   traffic at the BGP community granularity, they do not need to run the
   full BGP or BMP protocols when the BGP community information can be
   obtained by IPFIX.  However, the BMP protocol has its own application
   scenario, and the mechanism introduced in this document is not meant
   to replace it.

   By introducing new IEs, this draft extends the existing BGP-related
   IEs to enable IPFIX [RFC7011] to export BGP community information,
   including the BGP standard communities [RFC1997], BGP extended
   communities [RFC4360], and BGP large communities [RFC8092].  Flow
   information, including packetDeltaCount, octetDeltaCount [RFC7012],
   etc., can then be accumulated and analyzed by the Collector or other
   applications, such as an SDN controller or PCE [RFC4655], at the BGP
   community granularity, which is useful for measuring the traffic
   generated by different kinds of customers, from different
   geographical or topological regions according to the operator's BGP
   community plan, and can then be used by the traffic engineering or
   traffic optimization applications, especially in the backbone
   network.

   The IEs introduced in this document are applicable for both IPv4 and
   IPv6 traffic.  Both the Exporter and the IPFIX Mediator can use these
   IEs to export BGP community information in IPFIX.  When needed, the
   IPFIX Mediator or Collector can use these IEs to report BGP community



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   related traffic flow information it gets either from Exporters or
   through local correlation to other IPFIX devices.

   As stated above, the method introduced in this document is not the
   definitive and the only one to obtain BGP community information
   related to a specific traffic flow, but a possible, efficient and
   accurate one.

   No new BGP community attributes are defined in this document.

   Note that this document does not update the IPFIX specification
   [RFC7011] and the Information Model [RFC7012].  Rather, IANA's IPFIX
   registry [IANA-IPFIX] contains the current complete Information
   Element reference, per Section 1 of [RFC7012].

   Please refer to [IANA-IPFIX] for the complete list of BGP-related
   IEs.

   Please refer to Appendix A of this document for the encoding example
   and Section 3 for a detailed use case.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   IPFIX-specific terminology used in this document is defined in
   Section 2 of [RFC7011] and Section 2 of [RFC6183].

   BGP standard community: The BGP Communities attribute defined in
   [RFC1997].  In order to distinguish it from BGP extended communities
   [RFC4360], and large communities [RFC8092], BGP Communities attribute
   is called BGP standard community in this document.

3.  BGP Community-based Traffic Collection

   [RFC4384] introduces the mechanism of using BGP standard community
   and extended community to collect the geographical and topological
   related information in the BGP routing system.  [RFC8195] gives some
   examples of the application of BGP large communities to represent the
   geographical regions.  Since the network traffic at the BGP community
   granularity represents the traffic generated by different kinds of
   customers, from different geographical regions according to the
   network operator's BGP community plan, it is useful for network
   operators to analyze and optimize the network traffic among different
   customers and regions.  This section gives a use case in which the




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   network operator uses the BGP community-based traffic information to
   adjust the network paths for different traffic flows.

   Consider the following scenario, AS C provides a transit connection
   between ASes A and B.  By tagging with different BGP communities, the
   routes of AS A and B are categorized into several groups respectively
   in the operator's plan.  For example, communities A:X and A:Y are
   used for the routes originated from different geographical regions in
   AS A, and communities B:M and B:N are used for the routes
   representing the different kinds of customers in AS B, such as B:M is
   for the mobile customers and B:N is for the fixed line customers.  By
   default, all traffic originating from AS A and destined to AS B (we
   call it traffic A-B) goes through path C1-C2-C3 (call it Path-1) in
   AS C.  When the link between C1 and C2 is congested, we cannot simply
   steer all the traffic A-B from Path-1 to Path C1-C4-C3 (call it Path-
   2), because it will cause congestion in Path-2.

                                +----------+
                                | PCE/SDN  |
                        +-------|Controller|-------+
                        |       +----------+       |
                        |                          |
                        |           AS C           |
                |       |       +----------+       |       |
                |       |   +---|Router C2 |---+   |       |
                |       |   |   +----------+   |   |       |
       AS A     |       |   |100             50|   |       |     AS B
    +--------+  |  +---------+                +---------+  |  +--------+
    |Router A|--|--|Router C1|                |Router C3|--|--|Router B|
    +--------+  |  +---------+                +---------+  |  +--------+
    Community:  |           |100            100|           |  Community:
        A:X     |           |   +----------+   |           |     B:M
        A:Y     |           +---|Router C4 |---+           |     B:N
                                +----------+

             Figure 1: BGP Community based Traffic Collection

   If the PCE/SDN controller in AS C can obtain the network traffic
   information at the BGP community granularity, it can steer some
   traffic related to some BGP communities (when we consider only the
   source or destination of the traffic), or some BGP community pairs
   (when we consider both the source and the destination of the traffic)
   from Path-1 to Path-2 according to the utilization of different
   paths.  For instance, steer the traffic generated by community A:X
   from Path-1 to Path-2 by deploying a route policy at Router C1, or
   steer the traffic from community A:Y to community B:M from Path-1 to
   Path-2.  Using the IEs defined in this document, IPFIX can export the
   BGP community information related to a specific traffic flow together



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   with other flow information.  The traffic information can then be
   accumulated at the BGP community granularity and used by the PCE/SDN
   controller to steer the appropriate traffic from Path-1 to Path-2.

4.  IEs for BGP Standard Community

   [RFC1997] defines the BGP Communities attribute, called BGP Standard
   Community in this document, which describes a group of routes sharing
   some common properties.  BGP Standard Community is treated as 32 bit
   value as stated in [RFC1997].

   In order to export BGP standard community information along with
   other flow information defined by IPFIX, three new IEs are
   introduced.  One is bgpCommunity, which is used to identify that the
   value in this IE is a BGP standard community.  The other two are
   bgpSourceCommunityList and bgpDestinationCommunityList, which are
   both basicList [RFC6313] of bgpCommunity, and are used to export BGP
   standard community information corresponding to a specific flow's
   source and destination IP address respectively.

   The detailed information of the three new IEs are shown in Section 9,
   IANA Considerations.

5.  IEs for BGP Extended Community

   [RFC4360] defines the BGP Extended Communities attribute, which
   provides a mechanism for labeling the information carried in BGP.
   Each Extended Community is encoded as an 8-octet quantity with the
   format defined in [RFC4360].

   In order to export BGP Extended Community information together with
   other flow information by IPFIX, three new IEs are introduced.  The
   first one is bgpExtendedCommunity, which is used to identify that the
   value in this IE is a BGP Extended Community.  The other two are
   bgpSourceExtendedCommunityList and
   bgpDestinationExtendedCommunityList, which are both basicList
   [RFC6313] of bgpExtendedCommunity, and are used to export the BGP
   Extended Community information corresponding to a specific flow's
   source and destination IP address respectively.

   The detailed information of the three new IEs are shown in Section 9,
   IANA Considerations.

6.  IEs for BGP Large Community

   [RFC8092] defines the BGP Large Communities attribute, which is
   suitable for use with all Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) including




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   four-octet ASNs.  Each BGP Large Community is encoded as a 12-octet
   quantity with the format defined in [RFC8092].

   In order to export BGP Large Community information together with
   other flow information by IPFIX, three new IEs are introduced.  The
   first one is bgpLargeCommunity, which is used to identify that the
   value in this IE is a BGP Large Community.  The other two are
   bgpSourceLargeCommunityList and bgpDestinationLargeCommunityList,
   which are both basicList [RFC6313] of bgpLargeCommunity, and are used
   to export the BGP Large Community information corresponding to a
   specific flow's source and destination IP address respectively.

   The detailed information of the three new IEs are shown in Section 9,
   IANA Considerations.

7.  Operational Considerations

   The maximum length of an IPFIX message is 65535 bytes as per
   [RFC7011] , and the maximum length of a normal BGP message is 4096
   bytes as per [RFC4271].  Since BGP communities, including standard,
   extended, and large communities , are BGP path attributes carried in
   BGP Update messages, the total length of these attributes can not
   exceed the length of a BGP message, i.e. 4096 bytes.  So one IPFIX
   message with a maximum length of 65535 bytes has enough space to fit
   all the communities related to a specific flow, relating to both the
   source and destination IP addresses.

   [I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-extended-messages] extends the maximum size of a
   BGP Update message to 65535 bytes.  In that case, the BGP community
   information related to a specific flow could theoretically exceed the
   length of one IPFIX message.  However, according to information
   regarding actual networks in the field, the number of BGP communities
   in one BGP route is usually no more than ten.  Nevertheless, BGP
   speakers that support the extended message SHOULD be careful to
   export the BGP communities in the IPFIX message properly, so that
   they only convey as many communities as possible in the IPFIX
   message.  The Collector which receives an IPFIX message with maximum
   length and BGP communities contained in its data set SHOULD be aware
   that the BGP communities may be truncated due to limited message
   space.  In this case, it is RECOMMENDED to configure the export
   policy of BGP communities to limit the BGP communities by including
   or excluding specific communities.

   If needed, the IPFIX message length could be extended from 16 bits to
   32 bits to solve this problem completely.  The details of increasing
   the IPFIX message length is out of scope of this document.





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   To align with the size of the BGP extended community and large
   community attributes, the size of IE bgpExtendedCommunity and
   bgpLargeCommunity is 8 octets and 12 octets respectively.  In the
   event that the bgpExtendedCommunity or bgpLargeCommunity IE is not of
   its expected size, the IPFIX Collector SHOULD ignore it.  This is
   intended to protect implementations using BGP logic from calling
   their parsing routines with invalid lengths.

   For the proper processing of the Exporter when it receives the
   template requesting to report the BGP community information (refer to
   Appendix A for an example), the Exporter SHOULD obtain the
   corresponding BGP community information through BGP lookup using the
   corresponding source or destination IP address of the specific
   traffic flow.  When exporting the IPFIX information to the Collector,
   the Exporter SHOULD include the corresponding BGP communities in the
   IPFIX message.

8.  Security Considerations

   This document only defines new IEs for IPFIX.  This document itself
   does not directly introduce any new security issues.  The same
   security considerations as for the IPFIX Protocol Specification
   [RFC7011] and Information Model [RFC7012] apply.

   As the BGP community information is deducible by other means, there
   are no increased privacy concerns as well.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This draft specifies the following IPFIX IEs to export BGP community
   information along with other flow information.

   The Element IDs for these IEs are requested to be assigned by IANA.
   The following table is for IANA's use to place in each field in the
   registry.

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  |ElementID|            Name           | Data Type|Data Type Semantics|
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA1  |        bgpCommunity       |unsigned32|     identifier    |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA2  |  bgpSourceCommunityList   | basicList|        list       |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA3  |bgpDestinationCommunityList| basicList|        list       |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA4  |     bgpExtendedCommunity  |octetArray|       default     |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA5  |      bgpSourceExtended    |          |                   |



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  |         |        CommunityList      | basicList|        list       |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA6  |  bgpDestinationExtended   |          |                   |
  |         |       CommunityList       | basicList|        list       |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA7  |     bgpLargeCommunity     |octetArray|       default     |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA8  |bgpSourceLargeCommunityList| basicList|        list       |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA9  |    bgpDestinationLarge    |          |                   |
  |         |       CommunityList       | basicList|        list       |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  |ElementID|                 Description                  |   Units   |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA1  |    BGP community as defined in [RFC1997]     |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |  basicList of zero or more bgpCommunity IEs, |           |
  |   TBA2  |  containing the BGP communities corresponding|           |
  |         |  with source IP address of a specific flow   |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |  basicList of zero or more bgpCommunity IEs, |           |
  |   TBA3  |containing the BGP communities corresponding  |           |
  |         |with destination IP address of a specific flow|           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA4  |BGP Extended Community as defined in [RFC4360]|           |
  |         |The size of this IE MUST be 8 octets          |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |basicList of zero or more bgpExtendedCommunity|           |
  |   TBA5  |IEs, containing the BGP Extended Communities  |           |
  |         |corresponding with source IP address of       |           |
  |         |               a specific flow                |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |basicList of zero or more bgpExtendedCommunity|           |
  |   TBA6  |IEs, containing the BGP Extended Communities  |           |
  |         |  corresponding with destination IP address   |           |
  |         |              of a specific flow              |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA7  | BGP Large Community as defined in [RFC8092]  |           |
  |         | The size of this IE MUST be 12 octets.       |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |  basicList of zero or more bgpLargeCommunity |           |
  |         |  IEs, containing the BGP Large Communities   |           |
  |   TBA8  |    corresponding with source IP address      |           |
  |         |             of a specific flow               |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |  basicList of zero or more bgpLargeCommunity |           |



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  |         |  IEs, containing the BGP Large Communities   |           |
  |   TBA9  |   corresponding with destination IP address  |           |
  |         |              of a specific flow              |           |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  |ElementID|  Range  |   References  | Requester | Revision |   date  |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA1  |         |    RFC1997    |this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA2  |         |RFC6313,RFC1997|this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA3  |         |RFC6313,RFC1997|this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA4  |         |    RFC4360    |this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA5  |         |RFC6313,RFC4360|this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA6  |         |RFC6313,RFC4360|this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA7  |         |    RFC8092    |this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA8  |         |RFC6313,RFC8092|this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |   TBA9  |         |RFC6313,RFC8092|this draft |    0     |         |
  |--------------------------------------------------------------------|

                       Figure 2: IANA Considerations

10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Benoit Claise and Paul Aitken for
   their comments and suggestions to promote this document.  We also
   thank Tianran Zhou, Warren Kumari, Jeffrey Haas, Ignas Bagdonas,
   Stewart Bryant, Paolo Lucente, Job Snijders, Jared Mauch, Rudiger
   Volk, and Andrew Malis for their discussion, comments, and
   suggestions to improve this document..

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.





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   [RFC6313]  Claise, B., Dhandapani, G., Aitken, P., and S. Yates,
              "Export of Structured Data in IP Flow Information Export
              (IPFIX)", RFC 6313, DOI 10.17487/RFC6313, July 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6313>.

   [RFC7011]  Claise, B., Ed., Trammell, B., Ed., and P. Aitken,
              "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)
              Protocol for the Exchange of Flow Information", STD 77,
              RFC 7011, DOI 10.17487/RFC7011, September 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7011>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [Community-TE]
              Shao, W., Devienne, F., Iannone, L., and JL. Rougier, "On
              the use of BGP communities for fine-grained inbound
              traffic engineering", Computer Science 27392(1):476-487,
              November 2015.

   [I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-extended-messages]
              Bush, R., Patel, K., and D. Ward, "Extended Message
              support for BGP", draft-ietf-idr-bgp-extended-messages-26
              (work in progress), June 2018.

   [IANA-IPFIX]
              "IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Entities",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/>.

   [RFC1997]  Chandra, R., Traina, P., and T. Li, "BGP Communities
              Attribute", RFC 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC1997, August 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1997>.

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
              Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4271, January 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4271>.

   [RFC4360]  Sangli, S., Tappan, D., and Y. Rekhter, "BGP Extended
              Communities Attribute", RFC 4360, DOI 10.17487/RFC4360,
              February 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4360>.

   [RFC4384]  Meyer, D., "BGP Communities for Data Collection", BCP 114,
              RFC 4384, DOI 10.17487/RFC4384, February 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4384>.







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   [RFC4655]  Farrel, A., Vasseur, J., and J. Ash, "A Path Computation
              Element (PCE)-Based Architecture", RFC 4655,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4655, August 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4655>.

   [RFC5982]  Kobayashi, A., Ed. and B. Claise, Ed., "IP Flow
              Information Export (IPFIX) Mediation: Problem Statement",
              RFC 5982, DOI 10.17487/RFC5982, August 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5982>.

   [RFC6183]  Kobayashi, A., Claise, B., Muenz, G., and K. Ishibashi,
              "IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Mediation: Framework",
              RFC 6183, DOI 10.17487/RFC6183, April 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6183>.

   [RFC7012]  Claise, B., Ed. and B. Trammell, Ed., "Information Model
              for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC 7012,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7012, September 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7012>.

   [RFC7854]  Scudder, J., Ed., Fernando, R., and S. Stuart, "BGP
              Monitoring Protocol (BMP)", RFC 7854,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7854, June 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7854>.

   [RFC8092]  Heitz, J., Ed., Snijders, J., Ed., Patel, K., Bagdonas,
              I., and N. Hilliard, "BGP Large Communities Attribute",
              RFC 8092, DOI 10.17487/RFC8092, February 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8092>.

   [RFC8195]  Snijders, J., Heasley, J., and M. Schmidt, "Use of BGP
              Large Communities", RFC 8195, DOI 10.17487/RFC8195, June
              2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8195>.

Appendix A.  Encoding Example

   In this section, we provide an example to show the encoding format
   for the new introduced IEs.

   Flow information, including BGP communities, is shown in the
   following table.  In this example, all the fields are reported by
   IPFIX.









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  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  |  Source |Destination|    BGP community     |      BGP community    |
  |   IP    |    IP     |  corresponding with  |   corresponding with  |
  |         |           |      Source IP       |     Destination IP    |
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  | 1.1.1.1 |  2.2.2.2  | 1:1001,1:1002,8:1001 |     2:1002,8:1001     |
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  | 3.3.3.3 |  4.4.4.4  | 3:1001,3:1002,8:1001 |     4:1001,8:1001     |
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

           Figure 3: Flow information including BGP communities

A.1.  Template Record

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          SET ID = 2           |       Length = 24             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Template ID = 256        |        Field Count = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|    SourceIPv4Address = 8    |        Field length = 4       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0| DestinationIPv4Address = 12 |        Field length = 4       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0| bgpSourceCommunityList= TBA2|      Field length = 0xFFFF    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0| bgpDestinationCommunityList |      Field length = 0xFFFF    |
   | |         = TBA3              |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 4: Template Record Encoding Format

   In this example, the Template ID is 256, which will be used in the
   Data Record.  The field length for bgpSourceCommunityList and
   bgpDestinationCommunityList is 0xFFFF, which means the length of this
   IE is variable, and the actual length of this IE is indicated by the
   list length field in the basic list format as per [RFC6313].

A.2.  Data Set

   The data set is represented as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         SET ID = 256          |           Length = 92         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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   |                  SourceIPv4Address = 1.1.1.1                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               DestinationIPv4Address = 2.2.2.2                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      255      |        List length = 17       |semantic=allof |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      bgpCommunity = TBA1      |          Field Len = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        BGP Source Community Value 1 = 1:1001                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        BGP Source Community Value 2 = 1:1002                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        BGP Source Community Value 3 = 8:1001                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     255       |        List length = 13       |semantic =allof|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      bgpCommunity = TBA1      |          Field Len = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         BGP Destination Community Value 1 = 2:1002            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         BGP Destination Community Value 2 = 8:1001            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  SourceIPv4Address = 3.3.3.3                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               DestinationIPv4Address = 4.4.4.4                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     255       |        List length = 17       |semantic =allof|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      bgpCommunity = TBA1      |          Field Len = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        BGP Source Community Value 1  = 3:1001                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        BGP Source Community Value 2  = 3:1002                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        BGP Source Community Value 3  = 8:1001                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     255       |        List length = 13       |semantic =allof|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      bgpCommunity = TBA1      |          Field Len = 4        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         BGP Destination Community Value 1 = 4:1001            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         BGP Destination Community Value 2 = 8:1001            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 5: Data Set Encoding Format





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Authors' Addresses

   Zhenqiang Li
   China Mobile
   32 Xuanwumen West Ave, Xicheng District
   Beijing  100053
   China

   Email: li_zhenqiang@hotmail.com


   Rong Gu
   China Mobile
   32 Xuanwumen West Ave, Xicheng District
   Beijing  100053
   China

   Email: gurong_cmcc@outlook.com


   Jie Dong
   Huawei Technologies
   Huawei Campus, No. 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Beijing  100095
   China

   Email: jie.dong@huawei.com
























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