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Versions: (draft-wu-model-driven-management-virtualization) 00 01 02 04

OPSAWG                                                        Q. Wu, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Informational                         M. Boucadair, Ed.
Expires: December 16, 2020                                        Orange
                                                                D. Lopez
                                                          Telefonica I+D
                                                                  C. Xie
                                                           China Telecom
                                                                 L. Geng
                                                            China Mobile
                                                           June 14, 2020


  A Framework for Automating Service and Network Management with YANG
            draft-ietf-opsawg-model-automation-framework-04

Abstract

   Data models provide a programmatic approach to represent services and
   networks.  Concretely, they can be used to derive configuration
   information for network and service components, and state information
   that will be monitored and tracked.  Data models can be used during
   the service and network management life cycle, such as service
   instantiation, provisioning, optimization, monitoring, diagnostic,
   and assurance.  Data models are also instrumental in the automation
   of network management, and they can provide closed-loop control for
   adaptive and deterministic service creation, delivery, and
   maintenance.

   This document describes an architecture for service and network
   management automation that takes advantage of YANG modeling
   technologies.  This architecture is drawn from a Network Operator
   perspective irrespective of the origin of a data module; it can thus
   accommodate modules that are developed outside the IETF.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any




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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 16, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology and Acronyms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Acronyms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Architectural Concepts and Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Data Models: Layering and Representation  . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Automation of Service Delivery Procedures . . . . . . . .   9
     3.3.  Service Fullfillment Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.4.  YANG Modules Integration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Functional Bocks and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  Service Lifecycle Management Procedure  . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.1.1.  Service Exposure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.1.2.  Service Creation/Modification . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.1.3.  Service Optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.1.4.  Service Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.1.5.  Service Decommission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.2.  Service Fullfillment Management Procedure . . . . . . . .  14
       4.2.1.  Intended Configuration Provision  . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.2.2.  Configuration Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.2.3.  Performance Monitoring/Model-driven Telemetry . . . .  16
       4.2.4.  Fault Diagnostic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.3.  Multi-Layer/Multi-Domain Service Mapping  . . . . . . . .  16
     4.4.  Service Decomposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   5.  YANG Data Model Integration Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.1.  L2VPN/L3VPN Service Delivery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.2.  VN Lifecycle Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19



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     5.3.  Event-based Telemetry in the Device Self Management . . .  20
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   9.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   Appendix A.  Layered YANG Modules Examples Overview . . . . . . .  32
     A.1.  Service Models: Definition and Samples  . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.2.  Network Models: Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     A.3.  Device Models: Samples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       A.3.1.  Model Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       A.3.2.  Device Models: Samples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40

1.  Introduction

   Service management systems usually comprise service activation/
   provision and service operation.  Current service delivery
   procedures, from the processing of customer's requirements and orders
   to service delivery and operation, typically assume the manipulation
   of data sequentially into multiple OSS/BSS applications that may be
   managed by different departments within the service provider's
   organization (e.g., billing factory, design factory, network
   operation center).  In addition, many of these applications have been
   developed in-house over the years and operate in a silo mode:

   o  The lack of standard data input/output (i.e., data model) raises
      many challenges in system integration and often results in manual
      configuration tasks.

   o  Service fulfillment systems might have a limited visibility on the
      network state and therefore have slow response to network changes.

   Software Defined Networking (SDN) becomes crucial to address these
   challenges.  SDN techniques are meant to automate the overall service
   delivery procedures and typically rely upon standard data models.
   These models are used to not only reflect service providers' savoir-
   faire, but also to dynamically instantiate and enforce a set of
   service-inferred policies that best accommodate what has been defined
   and possibly negotiated with the customer.  [RFC7149] provides a
   first tentative attempt to rationalize that service provider's view
   on the SDN space by identifying concrete technical domains that need
   to be considered and for which solutions can be provided:

   o  Techniques for the dynamic discovery of topology, devices, and
      capabilities, along with relevant information and data models that



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      are meant to precisely document such topology, devices, and their
      capabilities.

   o  Techniques for exposing network services [RFC8309] and their
      characteristics.

   o  Techniques used by service-derived dynamic resource allocation and
      policy enforcement schemes, so that networks can be programmed
      accordingly.

   o  Dynamic feedback mechanisms that are meant to assess how
      efficiently a given policy (or a set thereof) is enforced from a
      service fulfillment and assurance perspectives.

   Models are key for each of the aforementioned four technical items.
   Service and network management automation is an important step to
   improve the agility of network operations.  Models are also important
   to ease integrating multi-vendor solutions.

   YANG [RFC7950] module developers have taken both top-down and bottom-
   up approaches to develop modules [RFC8199] and to establish a mapping
   between a network technology and customer requirements at the top or
   abstracting common constructs from various network technologies at
   the bottom.  At the time of writing this document (2020), there are
   many data models including configuration and service models that have
   been specified or are being specified by the IETF.  They cover many
   of the networking protocols and techniques.  However, how these
   models work together to configure a device, manage a set of devices
   involved in a service, or provide a service is something that is not
   currently documented either within the IETF or other Standards
   Development Organizations (SDOs).

   This document describes an architectural framework for service and
   network management automation (Section 3) that takes advantage of
   YANG modeling technologies and investigates how different layer YANG
   data models interact with each other (e.g., service mapping, model
   composing) in the context of service delivery and fulfillment
   (Section 4).

   This framework is drawn from a Network Operator perspective
   irrespective of the origin of a data module; it can accommodate
   modules that are developed outside the IETF.

   The document identifies a list of use cases to exemplify the proposed
   approach (Section 5), but it does not claim nor aim to be exhaustive.






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2.  Terminology and Acronyms

2.1.  Terminology

   The following terms are defined in [RFC8309][RFC8199] and are not
   redefined here:

   o  Network Operator

   o  Customer

   o  Service

   o  Data Model

   o  Service Model

   o  Network Element Module

   In addition, the document makes use of the following terms:

   Network Model:  Describes a network level abstraction (or a subset of
      aspects of a network infrastructure), including devices and their
      subsystems, and relevant protocols operating at the link and
      network layers across multiple devices.  This model corresponds to
      the Network Configuration Model discussed in [RFC8309].

      It can be used by a Network Operator to allocate resources (e.g.,
      tunnel resource, topology resource) for the service or schedule
      resources to meet the service requirements defined in a Service
      Model.

   Device Model:  Refers to the Network Element YANG data model
      described in [RFC8199] or the Device Configuration Model discussed
      in [RFC8309].

      Device Models are also used to refer to model a function embedded
      in a device (e.g., Network Address Translation (NAT) [RFC8512],
      Access Control Lists (ACLs) [RFC8519]).

2.2.  Acronyms

   The following acronyms are used in the document:

   ACL     Access Control List
   CE      Customer Edge
   ECA     Event Condition Action
   L2VPN   Layer 2 Virtual Private Network



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   L3VPN   Layer 3 Virtual Private Network
   NAT     Network Address Translation
   OAM     Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
   OWD     One-Way Delay
   PE      Provider Edge
   QoS     Quality of Service
   RD      Route Distinguisher
   RT      Route Target
   SDN     Software Defined Networking
   TE      Traffic Engineering
   VN      Virtual Network
   VPN     Virtual Private Network
   VRF     Virtual Routing and Forwarding

3.  Architectural Concepts and Goals

3.1.  Data Models: Layering and Representation

   As described in Section 2 of [RFC8199], layering of modules allows
   for better reusability of lower-layer modules by higher-level modules
   while limiting duplication of features across layers.

   Data models can be classified into Service, Network, and Device
   Models.  Different Service Models may rely on the same set of Network
   and/or Device Models.

   Service Models traditionally follow top-down approach and are mostly
   customer-facing YANG modules providing a common model construct for
   higher level network services (e.g., Layer 3 Virtual Private Network
   (L3VPN)).  Such modules can be mapped to network technology-specific
   modules at lower layers (e.g., tunnel, routing, Quality of Service
   (QoS), security).  For example, the service level can be used to
   characterise the network service(s) to be ensured between service
   nodes (ingress/egress) such as:

   o  the communication scope (pipe, hose, funnel, ...),
   o  the directionality (inbound/outbound),
   o  the traffic performance guarantees (One-Way Delay (OWD) [RFC7679],
      One-Way Loss [RFC7680], ...),
   o  link capacity [RFC5136][I-D.ietf-ippm-capacity-metric-method],
   o  etc.

   Figure 1 depicts the example of a VoIP service that relies upon
   connectivity services offered by a Network Operator.  In this
   example, the VoIP service is offered to the Network Operator's
   customers by Service Provider (SP1).  In order to provide global VoIP
   reachability, SP1 service site interconnects with other Service
   Providers service sites typically by interconnecting Session Border



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   Elements (SBEs) and Data Border Elements (DBEs) [RFC5486][RFC6406].
   For other VoIP destinations, sessions are forwarded over the
   Internet.  These connectivity services can be captured in a YANG
   Service Module that reflects the service attributes that are shown in
   Figure 2.  This example follows the IP Connectivity Provisioning
   Profile template defined in [RFC7297].

                     ,--,--,--.              ,--,--,--.
                  ,-'    SP1   `-.        ,-'   SP2     `-.
                 ( Service Site   )      ( Service Site    )
                  `-.          ,-'        `-.          ,-'
                     `--'--'--'              `--'--'--'
                      x  | o *                  * |
                   (2)x  | o *                  * |
                     ,x-,--o-*-.    (1)     ,--,*-,--.
                  ,-' x    o  * * * * * * * * *       `-.
                 (    x    o       +----(     Internet    )
          User---(x x x      o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
                  `-.          ,-'       `-.          ,-'   (3)
                     `--'--'--'             `--'--'--'
                  Network Operator

          **** (1) Inter-SP connectivity
          xxxx (2) Customer to SP connectivity
          oooo (3) SP to any destination connectivity

          Figure 1: An Example of Service Connectivty Components
























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   Connectivity: Scope and Guarantees
      (1) Inter-SP connectivity
         - Pipe scope from the local to the remote SBE/DBE
         - Full guarantees class
      (2) Customer to SP connectivity
         - Hose/Funnel scope connecting the local SBE/DBE
           to the customer access points
         - Full guarantees class
      (3) SP to any destination connectivity
         - Hose/Funnel scope from the local SBE/DBE to the
           Internet gateway
         - Delay guarantees class
   Flow Identification
      * Destination IP address (SBE, DBE)
      * DSCP marking
   Traffic Isolation
      * VPN
   Routing & Forwarding
      * Routing rule to exclude some ASes from the inter-domain
        paths
   Notifications (including feedback)
      * Statistics on aggregate traffic to adjust capacity
      * Failures
      * Planned maintenance operations
      * Triggered by thresholds

          Figure 2: Sample Attributes Captured in a Service Model

   Network Models are mainly network resource-facing modules; they
   describe various aspects of a network infrastructure, including
   devices and their subsystems, and relevant protocols operating at the
   link and network layers across multiple devices (e.g., network
   topology and traffic-engineering tunnel modules).

   Device (and function) Models usually follow a bottom-up approach and
   are mostly technology-specific modules used to realize a service
   (e.g., BGP, NAT).

   Each level maintains a view of the supported YANG modules provided by
   low-levels (see for example, Appendix A).

   Figure 3 illustrates the overall layering model.  The reader may
   refer to Section 4 of [RFC8309] for an overview of "Orchestrator" and
   "Controller" elements.







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     +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
     | +-----------------------+                                       |
     | |    Orchestrator       |               Hierarchy Abstraction   |
     | |+---------------------+|                                       |
     | ||  Service Modeling   ||                 Service Model         |
     | |+---------------------+|               (Customer Oriented)     |
     | |                       |               Scope: "1:1" Pipe model |
     | |                       |                   Bidirectional       |
     | |+---------------------+|              +-+  Capacity,OWD  +-+   |
     | ||Service Orchestration||              | +----------------+ |   |
     | |+---------------------+|              +-+                +-+   |
     | +-----------------------+           1. Ingress        2. Egress |
     |                                                                 |
     |                                                                 |
     |                                                                 |
     | +-----------------------+                Network Model          |
     | |   Controller          |             (Operator Oriented)       |
     | |+---------------------+|           +-+    +--+    +---+   +-+  |
     | || Network Modeling    ||           | |    |  |    |   |   | |  |
     | |+---------------------+|           | o----o--o----o---o---o |  |
     | |+---------------------+|           +-+    +--+    +---+   +-+  |
     | ||Network Orchestration||           src                    dst  |
     | |+---------------------+|                L3VPN over TE          |
     | |                       |        Instance Name/Access Interface |
     | +-----------------------+      Protocol Type/Capacity/RD/RT/... |
     |                                        mapping for hop          |
     |                                                                 |
     |                                                                 |
     | +-----------------------+                                       |
     | |    Device             |                 Device Model          |
     | |+--------------------+ |                                       |
     | || Device Modeling    | |           Interface add, BGP Peer,    |
     | |+--------------------+ |              Tunnel ID, QoS/TE, ...   |
     | +-----------------------+                                       |
     +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

                   Figure 3: Layering and Representation

3.2.  Automation of Service Delivery Procedures

   Service Models can be used by a Network Operator to expose its
   services to its customers.  Exposing such models allows to automate
   the activation of service orders and thus the service delivery.  One
   or more monolithic Service Models can be used in the context of a
   composite service activation request (e.g., delivery of a caching
   infrastructure over a VPN).  Such models are used to feed a decision-
   making intelligence to adequately accommodate customer's needs.




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   Also, such models may be used jointly with services that require
   dynamic invocation.  An example is provided by the service modules
   defined by the DOTS WG to dynamically trigger requests to handle
   Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks [RFC8783].

   Network Models can be derived from Service Models and used to
   provision, monitor, instantiate the service, and provide lifecycle
   management of network resources.  Doing so is meant to:

   o  expose network resources to customers (including other Network
      Operators) to provide service fulfillment and assurance

   o  allow customers (or Network Operators) to dynamically adjust the
      network resources based on service requirements as described in
      Service Models (e.g., Figure 2) and the current network
      performance information described in the telemetry modules.

3.3.  Service Fullfillment Automation

   To operate a service, the settings of the parameters in the Device
   Models are derived from Service Models and/or Network Models and are
   used to:

   o  Provision each involved network function/device with the proper
      configuration information.

   o  Operate the network based on service requirements as described in
      the Service Model(s) and local operational guidelines.

   In addition, the operational state including configuration that is in
   effect together with statistics should be exposed to upper layers to
   provide better network visibility and assess to what extent the
   derived low level modules are consistent with the upper level inputs.

   Filters are enforced on the notifications that are communicated to
   Service layers.  The type and frequency of notifications may be
   agreed in the Service Model.

   Note that it is important to correlate telemetry data with
   configuration data to be used for closed loops at the different
   stages of service delivery, from resource allocation to service
   operation, in particular.

3.4.  YANG Modules Integration

   To support top-down service delivery, YANG modules at different
   levels or at the same level need to be integrated together for proper
   service delivery (including, proper network setup).  For example, the



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   service parameters captured in Service Models need to be decomposed
   into a set of configuration/notification parameters that may be
   specific to one or more technologies; these technology-specific
   parameters are grouped together to define technology-specific device
   level models or network level models.

   In addition, these technology-specific Device or Network Models can
   be further integrated with each other using the schema mount
   mechanism [RFC8528] to provision each involved network function/
   device or each involved administrative domain to support newly added
   module or features.  A collection of Device Models integrated
   together can be loaded and validated during the implementation time.

   High-level policies can be defined at Service or Network Models
   (e.g., "Autonomous System Number (ASN) Exclude" in the example
   depicted in Figure 2).  Device Models will be tweaked accordingly to
   provide policy-based management.  Policies can also be used for
   telemetry automation, e.g., policies that contain conditions can
   trigger the generation and pushing of new telemetry data.

   Performance measurement telemetry can be used to provide service
   assurance at Service and/or Network levels.  Performance measurement
   telemetry model can tie with Service or Network Models to monitor
   network performance or Service Level Agreement.

4.  Functional Bocks and Interactions

   The architectural considerations described in Section 3 lead to the
   architecture described in this section and illustrated in Figure 4.






















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                   +------------------+
 ................. |                  |
    Service level  |                  |
                   V                  |
     E2E          E2E                E2E              E2E
   Service --> Service --------->  Service   -----> Service -----+
   Exposure    Creation     ^    Optimization   ^  Diagnosis     |
              /Modification |                   |                |
                   |        |Diff               |                V
    Multi-layer    |        |         E2E       |               E2E
    Multi-domain   |        |        Service    |            Service
    Service Mapping|        +------ Assurance --+         Decommission
                   |                     ^
 ................. |<-----------------+  |
    Network level  |                  |  +-------+
                   V                  |          |
               Specific           Specific       |
               Service  -------->  Service <--+  |
               Creation     ^    Optimization |  |
             /Modification  |                 |  |
                   |        |Diff             |  |
                   |        |      Specific --+  |
          Service  |        |       Service      |
       Decomposing |        +----- Assurance ----+
                   |                  ^
 ................. |                  |  Aggregation
    Device level   |                  +------------+
                   V                               |
  Service       Intent                             |
  Fulfillment   Config  ----> Config  ----> Performance ----> Fault
                Provision     Validate        Monitoring      Diagnostic

            Figure 4: Service and Network Lifecycle Management

4.1.  Service Lifecycle Management Procedure

   Service lifecycle management includes end-to-end service lifecycle
   management at the service level and technology specific network
   lifecycle management at the network level.

   The end-to-end service lifecycle management is technology-independent
   service management and spans across multiple administrative domain or
   multiple layers while technology specific service lifecycle
   management is technology domain specific or layer specific service
   lifecycle management.






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4.1.1.  Service Exposure

   A service in the context of this document (sometimes called, Network
   Service) is some form of connectivity between customer sites and the
   Internet or between customer sites across the operator's network and
   across the Internet.

   Service exposure is used to capture services offered to customers
   (ordering and order handling).  One typical example is that a
   customer can use a L3VPN Service Model (L3SM) to request L3VPN
   service by providing the abstract technical characterization of the
   intended service between customer sites.

   Service Model catalogs can be created along to expose the various
   services and the information needed to invoke/order a given service.

4.1.2.  Service Creation/Modification

   A customer is usually unaware of the technology that the Network
   Operator has available to deliver the service, so the customer does
   not make requests specific to the underlying technology but is
   limited to making requests specific to the service that is to be
   delivered.  This service request can be issued using a Service Model.

   Upon receiving a service request, and assuming that appropriate
   authentication and authorization checks have been made, the service
   orchestrator/management system should verify whether the service
   requirements in the service request can be met (i.e., whether there
   is sufficient resources that can be allocated with the requested
   guarantees).

   If the request is accepted, the service orchestrator/management
   system maps such service request to its view.  This view can be
   described as a technology specific network model or a set of
   technology specific Device Models and this mapping may include a
   choice of which networks and technologies to use depending on which
   service features have been requested.

   In addition, a customer may require to change the underlying network
   infrastructure to adapt to new customer's needs and service
   requirements.  This service modification can be issued following the
   same Service Model used by the service request.

4.1.3.  Service Optimization

   Service optimization is a technique that gets the configuration of
   the network updated due to network changes, incidents mitigation, or
   new service requirements.  One typical example is once a tunnel or a



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   VPN is setup, Performance monitoring information or telemetry
   information per tunnel (or per VPN) can be collected and fed into the
   management system.  If the network performance doesn't meet the
   service requirements, the management system can create new VPN
   policies capturing network service requirements and populate them
   into the network.

   Both network performance information and policies can be modelled
   using YANG.  With Policy-based management, self-configuration and
   self-optimization behavior can be specified and implemented.

4.1.4.  Service Diagnosis

   Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) are important
   networking functions for service diagnosis that allow Network
   Operators to:

   o  monitor network communications (i.e., reachability verification
      and Continuity Check)

   o  troubleshoot failures (i.e., fault verification and localization)

   o  monitor service-level agreements and performance (i.e.,
      performance management)

   When the network is down, service diagnosis should be in place to
   pinpoint the problem and provide recommendations (or instructions)
   for the network recovery.

   The service diagnosis information can be modelled as technology-
   independent Remote Procedure Call (RPC) operations for OAM protocols
   and technology-independent abstraction of key OAM constructs for OAM
   protocols [RFC8531][RFC8533].  These models can be used to provide
   consistent configuration, reporting, and presentation for the OAM
   mechanisms used to manage the network.

4.1.5.  Service Decommission

   Service decommission allows a customer to stop the service by
   removing the service from active status and thus releasing the
   network resources that were allocated to the service.  Customers can
   also use the Service Model to withdraw the registration to a service.

4.2.  Service Fullfillment Management Procedure







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4.2.1.  Intended Configuration Provision

   Intended configuration at the device level is derived from Network
   Models at the network level or Service Model at the service level and
   represents the configuration that the system attempts to apply.  Take
   L3SM as a Service Model example to deliver a L3VPN service, we need
   to map the L3VPN service view defined in the Service Model into
   detailed intended configuration view defined by specific
   configuration models for network elements, configuration information
   includes:

   o  Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) definition, including VPN
      policy expression

   o  Physical Interface(s)

   o  IP layer (IPv4, IPv6)

   o  QoS features such as classification, profiles, etc.

   o  Routing protocols: support of configuration of all protocols
      listed in a service request, as well as routing policies
      associated with those protocols.

   o  Multicast support

   o  Address sharing (e.g., NAT)

   o  Security

   These specific configuration models can be used to configure Provider
   Edge (PE) and Customer Edge (CE) devices within a site, e.g., a BGP
   policy model can be used to establish VPN membership between sites
   and VPN Service Topology.

4.2.2.  Configuration Validation

   Configuration validation is used to validate intended configuration
   and ensure the configuration take effect.

   For example, a customer creates an interface "eth-0/0/0" but the
   interface does not physically exist at this point, then configuration
   data appears in the <intended> status but does not appear in
   <operational> datastore.







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4.2.3.  Performance Monitoring/Model-driven Telemetry

   When configuration is in effect in the device, <operational>
   datastore holds the complete operational state of the device
   including learned, system, default configuration, and system state.
   However, the configurations and state of a particular device does not
   have the visibility to the whole network or information of the flow
   packets are going to take through the entire network.  Therefore it
   becomes more difficult to operate the network without understanding
   the current status of the network.

   The management system should subscribe to updates of a YANG datastore
   in all the network devices for performance monitoring purpose and
   build a full topological visibility of the network by aggregating
   (and filtering) these operational state from different sources.

4.2.4.  Fault Diagnostic

   When configuration is in effect in the device, some devices may be
   mis-configured (e.g.,device links are not consistent in both sides of
   the network connection), network resources be mis-allocated and
   services may be negatively affected without knowing what is going on
   in the network.

   Technology-dependent nodes and RPC commands are defined in
   technology-specific YANG data models which can use and extend the
   base model described in Section 4.1.4 to deal with these issues.

   These RPC commands received in the technology-dependent node can be
   used to trigger technology-specific OAM message exchanges for fault
   verification and fault isolation For example, TRILL Multicast Tree
   Verification (MTV) RPC command [I-D.ietf-trill-yang-oam] can be used
   to trigger Multi-Destination Tree Verification Message defined in
   [RFC7455] to verify TRILL distribution tree integrity.

4.3.  Multi-Layer/Multi-Domain Service Mapping

   Multi-layer/Multi-domain Service Mapping allows to map an end-to-end
   abstract view of the service segmented at different layers or
   different administrative domains into domain-specific view.

   One example is to map service parameters in L3VPN service model into
   configuration parameters such as Route Distinguisher (RD), Route
   Target (RT), and VRF in L3VPN network model.

   Another example is to map service parameters in L3VPN service model
   into Traffic Engineered (TE) tunnel parameter (e.g., Tunnel ID) in TE
   model and Virtual Network (VN) parameters (e.g., Access Point (AP)



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   list, VN members) in the YANG data model for VN operation
   [I-D.ietf-teas-actn-vn-yang].

4.4.  Service Decomposing

   Service Decomposing allows to decompose service model at the service
   level or network model at the network level into a set of device/
   function models at the device level.  These Device Models may be tied
   to specific device types or classified into a collection of related
   YANG modules based on service types and features offered, and load at
   the implementation time before configuration is loaded and validated.

5.  YANG Data Model Integration Examples

   The following subsections provides some data models integration
   examples.

5.1.  L2VPN/L3VPN Service Delivery

   In reference to Figure 5, the following steps are performed to
   deliver the L3VPN service within the network management automation
   architecture defined in this document:

   1.  The Customer requests to create two sites (as per service
       creation operation in Section 4.2.1) relying upon a L3SM Service
       model with each having one network access connectivity, for
       example:

       *  Site A: Network-Access A, Link Capacity = 20 Mbps, for class
          "foo", guaranteed-capacity-percent = 10, average-One-Way-Delay
          = 70 ms.

       *  Site B: Network-Access B, Link Capacity = 30 Mbps, for class
          "foo1", guaranteed-capacity-percent = 15, average-One-Way-
          Delay = 60 ms.

   2.  The Orchestrator extracts the service parameters from the L3SM
       model.  Then, it uses them as input to translate ("service
       mapping operation" in Section 4.4) them into an orchestrated
       configuration of network elements (e.g., RD, RT, VRF) that are
       part of the L3VPN Network YANG Model specified in
       [I-D.ietf-opsawg-l3sm-l3nm].

   3.  The Controller takes orchestrated configuration parameters in the
       L3NM network model and translates them into orchestrated
       ("service decomposing operation" in ) configuration of network
       elements that are part of, e.g., BGP, QoS, Network Instance
       model, IP management, and interface models.



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   [I-D.ogondio-opsawg-uni-topology] can be used for representing,
   managing, and controlling the User Network Interface (UNI) topology.

                           L3SM    |
                         Service   |
                          Model    |
            +----------------------+--------------------------+
            |             +--------V--------+                 |
            |             | Service Mapping |                 |
            |             +--------+--------+                 |
            | Orchestrator         |                          |
            +----------------------+--------------------------+
                             L3NM  |       ^ UNI Topology Model
                            Network|       |
                             Model |       |
            +----------------------+--------------------------+
            |           +----------V-----------+              |
            |           | Service Decomposing  |              |
            |           +---++--------------++-+              |
            |               ||              ||                |
            | Controller    ||              ||                |
            +---------------++--------------++----------------+
                            ||              ||
                            ||     BGP,     ||
                            ||     QoS,     ||
                            ||   Interface, ||
               +------------+|      NI,     |+--------------+
               |             |      IP      |               |
            +--+--+       +--+--+        +--+--+         +--+--+
            | CE1 +-------+ PE1 |        | PE2 +---------+ CE2 |
            +-----+       +-----+        +-----+         +-----+

            Figure 5: L3VPN Service Delivery Example (Current)

   L3NM inherits some of data elements from the L3SM.  Nevertheless, the
   L3NM does not expose some information to the above layer such as the
   capabilities of an underlying network (which can be used to drive
   service order handling) or notifications (to notify subscribers about
   specific events or degradations as per agreed SLAs).  Some of this
   information can be provided using, e.g.,
   [I-D.www-bess-yang-vpn-service-pm].  A target overall model is
   depicted in Figure 6.









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                           L3SM    |     ^
                         Service   |     |  Notifications
                          Model    |     |
            +----------------------+--------------------------+
            |             +--------V--------+                 |
            |             | Service Mapping |                 |
            |             +--------+--------+                 |
            | Orchestrator         |                          |
            +----------------------+--------------------------+
                             L3NM  |       ^ UNI Topology Model
                            Network|       | L3NM Notifications
                             Model |       | L3NM Capabilities
            +----------------------+--------------------------+
            |           +----------V-----------+              |
            |           | Service Decomposing  |              |
            |           +---++--------------++-+              |
            |               ||              ||                |
            | Controller    ||              ||                |
            +---------------++--------------++----------------+
                            ||              ||
                            ||     BGP,     ||
                            ||     QoS,     ||
                            ||   Interface, ||
               +------------+|      NI,     |+--------------+
               |             |      IP      |               |
            +--+--+       +--+--+        +--+--+         +--+--+
            | CE1 +-------+ PE1 |        | PE2 +---------+ CE2 |
            +-----+       +-----+        +-----+         +-----+

             Figure 6: L3VPN Service Delivery Example (Target)

   Note that a similar analysis can be performed for Layer 2 VPNs
   (L2VPNs).  A L2VPN Service Model (L2SM) is defined in [RFC8466],
   while the L2VPN Network YANG Model (L2NM) is specified in
   [I-D.barguil-opsawg-l2sm-l2nm].

5.2.  VN Lifecycle Management

   In reference to Figure 7, the following steps are performed to
   deliver the VN service within the network management automation
   architecture defined in this document:

   1.  Customer requests (service exposure operation in Section 4.1.1)
       to create 'VN' based on Access point, association between VN and
       Access point, VN member defined in the VN YANG module.

   2.  The orchestrator creates the single abstract node topology based
       on the information captured in an VN YANG module.



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   3.  The Customer exchanges connectivity-matrix on abstract node and
       explicit path using TE topology model with the orchestrator.
       This information can be used to instantiate VN and setup tunnels
       between source and destination endpoints (service creation
       operation in Section 4.1.2).

   4.  The telemetry model which augments the VN model and corresponding
       TE tunnel model can be used to subscribe to performance
       measurement data and notify all the parameter changes and network
       performance change related to VN topology or Tunnel
       [I-D.ietf-teas-actn-pm-telemetry-autonomics] and provide service
       assurance (service optimization operation in Section 4.1.3).

                                   |
                            VN     |
                           Service |
                           Model   |
            +----------------------|--------------------------+
            | Orchestrator         |                          |
            |             +--------V--------+                 |
            |             | Service Mapping |                 |
            |             +-----------------+                 |
            +----------------------+--------------------^-----+
                           TE      |                Telemetry
                          Tunnel   |                  Model
                          Model    |                    |
            +----------------------V--------------------+-----+
            | Controller                                      |
            |                                                 |
            +-------------------------------------------------+

            +-----+      +-----+           +-----+      +-----+
            | CE1 +------+ PE1 |           | PE2 +------+ CE2 |
            +-----+      +-----+           +-----+      +-----+

                  Figure 7: A VN Service Delivery Example

5.3.  Event-based Telemetry in the Device Self Management

   In reference to Figure 8, the following steps are performed to
   monitor state changes of managed objects or resources in a network
   device and provide device self-management within the network
   management automation architecture defined in this document:

   1.  To control which state a network device should be in or is
       allowed to be in at any given time, a set of conditions and
       actions are defined and correlated with network events (e.g.,
       allow the NETCONF server to send updates only when the value



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       exceeds a certain threshold for the first time, but not again
       until the threshold is cleared), which constitute ECA policy or
       an event-driven policy control logic that can be executed on the
       device (e.g., [I-D.wwx-netmod-event-yang]).

   2.  To provide rapid autonomic response that can exhibit self-
       management properties, the controller pushes the ECA policy to
       the network device and delegates network control logic to the
       network device.

   3.  The network device uses the ECA model to subscribe to the event
       source, e.g., an event stream or datastore state data conveyed to
       the server via YANG Push subscription, monitors state parameters,
       and takes simple and instant actions when associated event
       condition on state parameters is met.  ECA notifications can be
       generated as the result of actions based on event stream
       subscription or datastore subscription (model-driven telemetry
       operation discussed in Section 4.2.3).

                      +----------------+
                      |                <----+
                      |   Controller   |    |
                      +-------+--------+    |
                              |             |
                              |             |
                          ECA |             | ECA
                        Model |             | Notification
                              |             |
                              |             |
                 +------------V-------------+-----+
                 |Device                    |     |
                 | +-------+ +---------+ +--+---+ |
                 | | Event +-> Event   +->Event | |
                 | | Source| |Condition| |Action| |
                 | +-------+ +---------+ +------+ |
                 +--------------------------------+

                      Figure 8: Event-based Telemetry

6.  Security Considerations

   The YANG modules cited in this document define schema for data that
   are designed to be accessed via network management protocols such as
   NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].  The lowest NETCONF layer is
   the secure transport layer, and the mandatory-to-implement secure
   transport is Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242].  The lowest RESTCONF layer
   is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement secure transport is TLS
   [RFC8446].



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   The NETCONF access control model [RFC8341] provides the means to
   restrict access for particular NETCONF or RESTCONF users to a
   preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or RESTCONF protocol
   operations and content.

   Security considerations specific to each of the technologies and
   protocols listed in the document are discussed in the specification
   documents of each of these protocols.

   Security considerations specific to this document are listed below:

   o  Create forwarding loops by mis-configuring the underlying network.

   o  Leak sensitive information: special care should be considered when
      translating between the various layers in Section 4 or when
      aggregating data retrieved from various sources.  The Network
      Operator must enforce means to protect privacy-related information
      included in cutsomer-facing models.

   o  Some Service Models may include a traffic isolation clause,
      appropriate technology-specific actions must be enforced to avoid
      that traffic is accessible to non-authorized parties.

7.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA requests or assignments included in this document.

8.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Joe Clark, Greg Mirsky, Shunsuke Homma, Brian Carpenter,
   and Adrian Farrel for the review.

9.  Contributors


















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      Christian Jacquenet
      Orange
      Rennes, 35000
      France
      Email: Christian.jacquenet@orange.com

      Luis Miguel Contreras Murillo
      Telifonica

      Email: luismiguel.contrerasmurillo@telefonica.com

      Oscar Gonzalez de Dios
      Telefonica
      Madrid
      ES

      Email: oscar.gonzalezdedios@telefonica.com

      Weiqiang Cheng
      China Mobile

      Email: chengweiqiang@chinamobile.com

      Young Lee
      Sung Kyun Kwan University

      Email: younglee.tx@gmail.com

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.



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   [RFC8341]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.barguil-opsawg-l2sm-l2nm]
              Barguil, S., Dios, O., Boucadair, M., Munoz, L., Jalil,
              L., and J. Ma, "A Layer 2 VPN Network YANG Model", draft-
              barguil-opsawg-l2sm-l2nm-02 (work in progress), May 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-bess-evpn-yang]
              Brissette, P., Shah, H., Hussain, I., Tiruveedhula, K.,
              and J. Rabadan, "Yang Data Model for EVPN", draft-ietf-
              bess-evpn-yang-07 (work in progress), March 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-bess-l2vpn-yang]
              Shah, H., Brissette, P., Chen, I., Hussain, I., Wen, B.,
              and K. Tiruveedhula, "YANG Data Model for MPLS-based
              L2VPN", draft-ietf-bess-l2vpn-yang-10 (work in progress),
              July 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-bess-l3vpn-yang]
              Jain, D., Patel, K., Brissette, P., Li, Z., Zhuang, S.,
              Liu, X., Haas, J., Esale, S., and B. Wen, "Yang Data Model
              for BGP/MPLS L3 VPNs", draft-ietf-bess-l3vpn-yang-04 (work
              in progress), October 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-bess-mvpn-yang]
              Liu, Y., Guo, F., Litkowski, S., Liu, X., Kebler, R., and
              M. Sivakumar, "Yang Data Model for Multicast in MPLS/BGP
              IP VPNs", draft-ietf-bess-mvpn-yang-02 (work in progress),
              December 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-bfd-yang]
              Rahman, R., Zheng, L., Jethanandani, M., Pallagatti, S.,
              and G. Mirsky, "YANG Data Model for Bidirectional
              Forwarding Detection (BFD)", draft-ietf-bfd-yang-17 (work
              in progress), August 2018.







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   [I-D.ietf-i2rs-yang-l2-network-topology]
              Dong, J., Wei, X., WU, Q., Boucadair, M., and A. Liu, "A
              YANG Data Model for Layer-2 Network Topologies", draft-
              ietf-i2rs-yang-l2-network-topology-13 (work in progress),
              March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-model]
              Jethanandani, M., Patel, K., Hares, S., and J. Haas, "BGP
              YANG Model for Service Provider Networks", draft-ietf-idr-
              bgp-model-08 (work in progress), February 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-ippm-capacity-metric-method]
              Morton, A., Geib, R., and L. Ciavattone, "Metrics and
              Methods for IP Capacity", draft-ietf-ippm-capacity-metric-
              method-01 (work in progress), March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-ippm-stamp-yang]
              Mirsky, G., Xiao, M., and W. Luo, "Simple Two-way Active
              Measurement Protocol (STAMP) Data Model", draft-ietf-ippm-
              stamp-yang-05 (work in progress), October 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-ippm-twamp-yang]
              Civil, R., Morton, A., Rahman, R., Jethanandani, M., and
              K. Pentikousis, "Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol
              (TWAMP) Data Model", draft-ietf-ippm-twamp-yang-13 (work
              in progress), July 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-mpls-base-yang]
              Saad, T., Raza, K., Gandhi, R., Liu, X., and V. Beeram, "A
              YANG Data Model for MPLS Base", draft-ietf-mpls-base-
              yang-14 (work in progress), March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-opsawg-l3sm-l3nm]
              Barguil, S., Dios, O., Boucadair, M., Munoz, L., and A.
              Aguado, "A Layer 3 VPN Network YANG Model", draft-ietf-
              opsawg-l3sm-l3nm-03 (work in progress), April 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-pim-igmp-mld-snooping-yang]
              Zhao, H., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Sivakumar, M., and A. Peter,
              "A Yang Data Model for IGMP and MLD Snooping", draft-ietf-
              pim-igmp-mld-snooping-yang-12 (work in progress), May
              2020.

   [I-D.ietf-pim-yang]
              Liu, X., McAllister, P., Peter, A., Sivakumar, M., Liu,
              Y., and f. hu, "A YANG Data Model for Protocol Independent
              Multicast (PIM)", draft-ietf-pim-yang-17 (work in
              progress), May 2018.



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   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-device-model]
              Lindem, A., Berger, L., Bogdanovic, D., and C. Hopps,
              "Network Device YANG Logical Organization", draft-ietf-
              rtgwg-device-model-02 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-policy-model]
              Qu, Y., Tantsura, J., Lindem, A., and X. Liu, "A YANG Data
              Model for Routing Policy Management", draft-ietf-rtgwg-
              policy-model-15 (work in progress), June 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-qos-model]
              Choudhary, A., Jethanandani, M., Strahle, N., Aries, E.,
              and I. Chen, "YANG Model for QoS", draft-ietf-rtgwg-qos-
              model-01 (work in progress), April 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-spring-sr-yang]
              Litkowski, S., Qu, Y., Lindem, A., Sarkar, P., and J.
              Tantsura, "YANG Data Model for Segment Routing", draft-
              ietf-spring-sr-yang-15 (work in progress), January 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-supa-generic-policy-data-model]
              Halpern, J. and J. Strassner, "Generic Policy Data Model
              for Simplified Use of Policy Abstractions (SUPA)", draft-
              ietf-supa-generic-policy-data-model-04 (work in progress),
              June 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-teas-actn-pm-telemetry-autonomics]
              Lee, Y., Dhody, D., Karunanithi, S., Vilata, R., King, D.,
              and D. Ceccarelli, "YANG models for VN/TE Performance
              Monitoring Telemetry and Scaling Intent Autonomics",
              draft-ietf-teas-actn-pm-telemetry-autonomics-02 (work in
              progress), March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-teas-actn-vn-yang]
              Lee, Y., Dhody, D., Ceccarelli, D., Bryskin, I., and B.
              Yoon, "A Yang Data Model for VN Operation", draft-ietf-
              teas-actn-vn-yang-08 (work in progress), March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-path-computation]
              Busi, I., Belotti, S., Lopezalvarez, V., Sharma, A., and
              Y. Shi, "Yang model for requesting Path Computation",
              draft-ietf-teas-yang-path-computation-09 (work in
              progress), June 2020.








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   [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-rsvp-te]
              Beeram, V., Saad, T., Gandhi, R., Liu, X., Bryskin, I.,
              and H. Shah, "A YANG Data Model for RSVP-TE Protocol",
              draft-ietf-teas-yang-rsvp-te-08 (work in progress), March
              2020.

   [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te]
              Saad, T., Gandhi, R., Liu, X., Beeram, V., and I. Bryskin,
              "A YANG Data Model for Traffic Engineering Tunnels and
              Interfaces", draft-ietf-teas-yang-te-23 (work in
              progress), March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te-topo]
              Liu, X., Bryskin, I., Beeram, V., Saad, T., Shah, H., and
              O. Dios, "YANG Data Model for Traffic Engineering (TE)
              Topologies", draft-ietf-teas-yang-te-topo-22 (work in
              progress), June 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-trill-yang-oam]
              Kumar, D., Senevirathne, T., Finn, N., Salam, S., Xia, L.,
              and H. Weiguo, "YANG Data Model for TRILL Operations,
              Administration, and Maintenance (OAM)", draft-ietf-trill-
              yang-oam-05 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ogondio-opsawg-uni-topology]
              Dios, O., Barguil, S., WU, Q., and M. Boucadair, "A YANG
              Model for User-Network Interface (UNI) Topologies", draft-
              ogondio-opsawg-uni-topology-01 (work in progress), April
              2020.

   [I-D.www-bess-yang-vpn-service-pm]
              WU, Q., Boucadair, M., Dios, O., Wen, B., Liu, C., and H.
              Xu, "A YANG Model for Network and VPN Service Performance
              Monitoring", draft-www-bess-yang-vpn-service-pm-06 (work
              in progress), April 2020.

   [I-D.wwx-netmod-event-yang]
              Birkholz, H., WU, Q., Bryskin, I., Liu, X., and B. Claise,
              "A YANG Data model for ECA Policy Management", draft-wwx-
              netmod-event-yang-07 (work in progress), May 2020.

   [RFC4364]  Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
              Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, DOI 10.17487/RFC4364, February
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4364>.







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   [RFC4664]  Andersson, L., Ed. and E. Rosen, Ed., "Framework for Layer
              2 Virtual Private Networks (L2VPNs)", RFC 4664,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4664, September 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4664>.

   [RFC4761]  Kompella, K., Ed. and Y. Rekhter, Ed., "Virtual Private
              LAN Service (VPLS) Using BGP for Auto-Discovery and
              Signaling", RFC 4761, DOI 10.17487/RFC4761, January 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4761>.

   [RFC4762]  Lasserre, M., Ed. and V. Kompella, Ed., "Virtual Private
              LAN Service (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
              Signaling", RFC 4762, DOI 10.17487/RFC4762, January 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4762>.

   [RFC5136]  Chimento, P. and J. Ishac, "Defining Network Capacity",
              RFC 5136, DOI 10.17487/RFC5136, February 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5136>.

   [RFC5486]  Malas, D., Ed. and D. Meyer, Ed., "Session Peering for
              Multimedia Interconnect (SPEERMINT) Terminology",
              RFC 5486, DOI 10.17487/RFC5486, March 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5486>.

   [RFC5880]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD)", RFC 5880, DOI 10.17487/RFC5880, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5880>.

   [RFC6406]  Malas, D., Ed. and J. Livingood, Ed., "Session PEERing for
              Multimedia INTerconnect (SPEERMINT) Architecture",
              RFC 6406, DOI 10.17487/RFC6406, November 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6406>.

   [RFC7149]  Boucadair, M. and C. Jacquenet, "Software-Defined
              Networking: A Perspective from within a Service Provider
              Environment", RFC 7149, DOI 10.17487/RFC7149, March 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7149>.

   [RFC7276]  Mizrahi, T., Sprecher, N., Bellagamba, E., and Y.
              Weingarten, "An Overview of Operations, Administration,
              and Maintenance (OAM) Tools", RFC 7276,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7276, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7276>.

   [RFC7297]  Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., and N. Wang, "IP
              Connectivity Provisioning Profile (CPP)", RFC 7297,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7297, July 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7297>.



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   [RFC7455]  Senevirathne, T., Finn, N., Salam, S., Kumar, D., Eastlake
              3rd, D., Aldrin, S., and Y. Li, "Transparent
              Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL): Fault
              Management", RFC 7455, DOI 10.17487/RFC7455, March 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7455>.

   [RFC7679]  Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., and A. Morton,
              Ed., "A One-Way Delay Metric for IP Performance Metrics
              (IPPM)", STD 81, RFC 7679, DOI 10.17487/RFC7679, January
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7679>.

   [RFC7680]  Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., Zekauskas, M., and A. Morton,
              Ed., "A One-Way Loss Metric for IP Performance Metrics
              (IPPM)", STD 82, RFC 7680, DOI 10.17487/RFC7680, January
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7680>.

   [RFC8077]  Martini, L., Ed. and G. Heron, Ed., "Pseudowire Setup and
              Maintenance Using the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)",
              STD 84, RFC 8077, DOI 10.17487/RFC8077, February 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8077>.

   [RFC8194]  Schoenwaelder, J. and V. Bajpai, "A YANG Data Model for
              LMAP Measurement Agents", RFC 8194, DOI 10.17487/RFC8194,
              August 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8194>.

   [RFC8199]  Bogdanovic, D., Claise, B., and C. Moberg, "YANG Module
              Classification", RFC 8199, DOI 10.17487/RFC8199, July
              2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8199>.

   [RFC8299]  Wu, Q., Ed., Litkowski, S., Tomotaki, L., and K. Ogaki,
              "YANG Data Model for L3VPN Service Delivery", RFC 8299,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8299, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8299>.

   [RFC8309]  Wu, Q., Liu, W., and A. Farrel, "Service Models
              Explained", RFC 8309, DOI 10.17487/RFC8309, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8309>.

   [RFC8328]  Liu, W., Xie, C., Strassner, J., Karagiannis, G., Klyus,
              M., Bi, J., Cheng, Y., and D. Zhang, "Policy-Based
              Management Framework for the Simplified Use of Policy
              Abstractions (SUPA)", RFC 8328, DOI 10.17487/RFC8328,
              March 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8328>.

   [RFC8345]  Clemm, A., Medved, J., Varga, R., Bahadur, N.,
              Ananthakrishnan, H., and X. Liu, "A YANG Data Model for
              Network Topologies", RFC 8345, DOI 10.17487/RFC8345, March
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8345>.



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   [RFC8346]  Clemm, A., Medved, J., Varga, R., Liu, X.,
              Ananthakrishnan, H., and N. Bahadur, "A YANG Data Model
              for Layer 3 Topologies", RFC 8346, DOI 10.17487/RFC8346,
              March 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8346>.

   [RFC8349]  Lhotka, L., Lindem, A., and Y. Qu, "A YANG Data Model for
              Routing Management (NMDA Version)", RFC 8349,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8349, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8349>.

   [RFC8466]  Wen, B., Fioccola, G., Ed., Xie, C., and L. Jalil, "A YANG
              Data Model for Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (L2VPN)
              Service Delivery", RFC 8466, DOI 10.17487/RFC8466, October
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8466>.

   [RFC8512]  Boucadair, M., Ed., Sivakumar, S., Jacquenet, C.,
              Vinapamula, S., and Q. Wu, "A YANG Module for Network
              Address Translation (NAT) and Network Prefix Translation
              (NPT)", RFC 8512, DOI 10.17487/RFC8512, January 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8512>.

   [RFC8513]  Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., and S. Sivakumar, "A YANG
              Data Model for Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite)", RFC 8513,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8513, January 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8513>.

   [RFC8519]  Jethanandani, M., Agarwal, S., Huang, L., and D. Blair,
              "YANG Data Model for Network Access Control Lists (ACLs)",
              RFC 8519, DOI 10.17487/RFC8519, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8519>.

   [RFC8528]  Bjorklund, M. and L. Lhotka, "YANG Schema Mount",
              RFC 8528, DOI 10.17487/RFC8528, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8528>.

   [RFC8529]  Berger, L., Hopps, C., Lindem, A., Bogdanovic, D., and X.
              Liu, "YANG Data Model for Network Instances", RFC 8529,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8529, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8529>.

   [RFC8530]  Berger, L., Hopps, C., Lindem, A., Bogdanovic, D., and X.
              Liu, "YANG Model for Logical Network Elements", RFC 8530,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8530, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8530>.







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   [RFC8531]  Kumar, D., Wu, Q., and Z. Wang, "Generic YANG Data Model
              for Connection-Oriented Operations, Administration, and
              Maintenance (OAM) Protocols", RFC 8531,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8531, April 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8531>.

   [RFC8532]  Kumar, D., Wang, Z., Wu, Q., Ed., Rahman, R., and S.
              Raghavan, "Generic YANG Data Model for the Management of
              Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM)
              Protocols That Use Connectionless Communications",
              RFC 8532, DOI 10.17487/RFC8532, April 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8532>.

   [RFC8533]  Kumar, D., Wang, M., Wu, Q., Ed., Rahman, R., and S.
              Raghavan, "A YANG Data Model for Retrieval Methods for the
              Management of Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
              (OAM) Protocols That Use Connectionless Communications",
              RFC 8533, DOI 10.17487/RFC8533, April 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8533>.

   [RFC8632]  Vallin, S. and M. Bjorklund, "A YANG Data Model for Alarm
              Management", RFC 8632, DOI 10.17487/RFC8632, September
              2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8632>.

   [RFC8652]  Liu, X., Guo, F., Sivakumar, M., McAllister, P., and A.
              Peter, "A YANG Data Model for the Internet Group
              Management Protocol (IGMP) and Multicast Listener
              Discovery (MLD)", RFC 8652, DOI 10.17487/RFC8652, November
              2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8652>.

   [RFC8675]  Boucadair, M., Farrer, I., and R. Asati, "A YANG Data
              Model for Tunnel Interface Types", RFC 8675,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8675, November 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8675>.

   [RFC8676]  Farrer, I., Ed. and M. Boucadair, Ed., "YANG Modules for
              IPv4-in-IPv6 Address plus Port (A+P) Softwires", RFC 8676,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8676, November 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8676>.

   [RFC8783]  Boucadair, M., Ed. and T. Reddy.K, Ed., "Distributed
              Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Data
              Channel Specification", RFC 8783, DOI 10.17487/RFC8783,
              May 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8783>.







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Appendix A.  Layered YANG Modules Examples Overview

   This appendix lists a set of data models that can be used for the
   delivery of connectivity services.  These models can be classified as
   Service, Network, or Device Models.

   It is not the intent of this appendix to provide an inventory of
   tools and mechanisms used in specific network and service management
   domains; such inventory can be found in documents such as [RFC7276].

A.1.  Service Models: Definition and Samples

   As described in [RFC8309], the service is "some form of connectivity
   between customer sites and the Internet and/or between customer sites
   across the Network Operator's network and across the Internet".  More
   concretely, an IP connectivity service can be defined as the IP
   transfer capability characterized by a (Source Nets, Destination
   Nets, Guarantees, Scope) tuple where "Source Nets" is a group of
   unicast IP addresses, "Destination Nets" is a group of IP unicast
   and/or multicast addresses, and "Guarantees" reflects the guarantees
   (expressed in terms of QoS, performance, and availability, for
   example) to properly forward traffic to the said "Destination"
   [RFC7297].

   For example:

   o  The L3SM model [RFC8299] defines the L3VPN service ordered by a
      customer from a Network Operator.

   o  The L2SM model [RFC8466] defines the L2VPN service ordered by a
      customer from a Network Operator.

   o  The Virtual Network (VN) model [I-D.ietf-teas-actn-vn-yang]
      provides a YANG data model applicable to any mode of VN operation.

   L2SM and L3SM are customer service models as per [RFC8309].

A.2.  Network Models: Samples

   L2NM [I-D.barguil-opsawg-l2sm-l2nm] and L3NM
   [I-D.ietf-opsawg-l3sm-l3nm] are examples of YANG Network Models.

   Figure 9 depicts a set of additional Network Models such as topology
   and tunnel models:







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     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
     |      Topology YANG modules    |     Tunnel YANG modules       |
     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
     |      +------------+           |                               |
     |      |Network Topo|           | +------+  +-----------+       |
     |      |   Model    |           | |Other |  | TE Tunnel |       |
     |      +----+-------+           | |Tunnel|  +----+------+       |
     |           |   +--------+      | +------+       |              |
     |           +---+Svc Topo|      |     +----------+---------+    |
     |           |   +--------+      |     |          |         |    |
     |           |   +--------+      |+----+---+ +----+---+ +---+---+|
     |           +---+L2 Topo |      ||MPLS-TE | |RSVP-TE | | SR-TE ||
     |           |   +--------+      || Tunnel | | Tunnel | |Tunnel ||
     |           |   +--------+      |+--------+ +--------+ +-------+|
     |           +---+TE Topo |      |                               |
     |           |   +--------+      |                               |
     |           |   +--------+      |                               |
     |           +---+L3 Topo |      |                               |
     |               +--------+      |                               |
     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+

     Legend:
       Topo: Topology
        Svc: Service

              Figure 9: Sample Resource Facing Network Models

   Examples of topology YANG modules are listed below:

   o  Network Topology Models: [RFC8345] defines a base model for
      network topology and inventories.  Network topology data include
      link resource, node resource, and terminate-point resources.

   o  TE Topology Models: [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te-topo] defines a data
      model for representing and manipulating TE topologies.

      This module is extended from network topology model defined in
      [RFC8345] with TE topologies specifics.  This model contains
      technology-agnostic TE Topology building blocks that can be
      augmented and used by other technology-specific TE topology
      models.

   o  Layer 3 Topology Models:

      [RFC8346] defines a data model for representing and manipulating
      Layer 3 topologies.  This model is extended from the network
      topology model defined in [RFC8345] with Layer 3 topologies
      specifics.



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   o  Layer 2 Topology Models:

      [I-D.ietf-i2rs-yang-l2-network-topology] defines a data model for
      representing and manipulating Layer 2 topologies.  This model is
      extended from the network topology model defined in [RFC8345] with
      Layer 2 topologies specifics.

   Examples of tunnel YANG modules are provided below:

   o  Tunnel identities to ease manipulating extensions to specific
      tunnels [RFC8675].

   o  TE Tunnel Model:

      [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te] defines a YANG module for the
      configuration and management of TE interfaces, tunnels, and LSPs.

   o  Segment Routing (SR) Traffic Engineering (TE) Tunnel Model:

      [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te] augments the TE generic and MPLS-TE
      model(s) and defines a YANG module for SR-TE specific data.

   o  MPLS-TE Model:

      [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te] augments the TE generic and MPLS-TE
      model(s) and defines a YANG module for MPLS-TE configurations,
      state, RPC and notifications.

   o  RSVP-TE MPLS Model:

      [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-rsvp-te] augments the RSVP-TE generic module
      with parameters to configure and manage signaling of MPLS RSVP-TE
      LSPs.

   Other sample Network Models are listed hereafter:

   o  Path Computation API Model:

      [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-path-computation] YANG module for a stateless
      RPC which complements the stateful solution defined in
      [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te].

   o  OAM Models (including Fault Management (FM) and Performance
      Monitoring):

      [RFC8532] defines a base YANG module for the management of OAM
      protocols that use Connectionless Communications.  [RFC8533]
      defines a retrieval method YANG module for connectionless OAM



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      protocols.  [RFC8531] defines a base YANG module for connection
      oriented OAM protocols.  These three models are intended to
      provide consistent reporting, configuration, and representation
      for connection-less OAM and Connection oriented OAM separately.

      Alarm monitoring is a fundamental part of monitoring the network.
      Raw alarms from devices do not always tell the status of the
      network services or necessarily point to the root cause.
      [RFC8632] defines a YANG module for alarm management.

   o  Generic Policy Model:

      The Simplified Use of Policy Abstractions (SUPA) policy-based
      management framework [RFC8328] defines base YANG modules
      [I-D.ietf-supa-generic-policy-data-model] to encode policy.  These
      models point to other device-, technology-, and service-specific
      YANG modules.  Policy rules within an operator's environment can
      be used to express high-level, possibly network-wide, policies to
      a network management function (within a controller, an
      orchestrator, or a network element).  The network management
      function can then control the configuration and/or monitoring of
      network elements and services.  This document describes the SUPA
      basic framework, its elements, and interfaces.

A.3.  Device Models: Samples

   Network Element models (Figure 10) are used to describe how a service
   can be implemented by activating and tweaking a set of functions
   (enabled in one or multiple devices, or hosted in cloud
   infrastructures) that are involved in the service delivery.
   Figure 10 uses IETF-defined models as an example.




















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                                           +------------------------+
                                         +-+     Device Model       |
                                         | +------------------------+
                                         | +------------------------+
                     +---------------+   | |   Logical Network      |
                     |               |   +-+     Element Model      |
                     | Architecture  |   | +------------------------+
                     |               |   | +------------------------+
                     +-------+-------+   +-+ Network Instance Model |
                             |           | +------------------------+
                             |           | +------------------------+
                             |           +-+   Routing Type Model   |
                             |             +------------------------+
     +-------+----------+----+------+------------+-----------+------+
     |       |          |           |            |           |      |
   +-+-+ +---+---+ +----+----+   +--+--+    +----+----+   +--+--+   |
   |ACL| |Routing| |Transport|   | OAM |    |Multicast|   |  PM | Others
   +---+ +-+-----+ +----+----+   +--+--+    +-----+---+   +--+--+
           | +-------+  | +------+  | +--------+  | +-----+  | +-----+
           +-+Core   |  +-+ MPLS |  +-+  BFD   |  +-+IGMP |  +-+TWAMP|
           | |Routing|  | | Base |  | +--------+  | |/MLD |  | +-----+
           | +-------+  | +------+  | +--------+  | +-----+  | +-----+
           | +-------+  | +------+  +-+LSP Ping|  | +-----+  +-+OWAMP|
           +-+  BGP  |  +-+ MPLS |  | +--------+  +-+ PIM |  | +-----+
           | +-------+  | | LDP  |  | +--------+  | +-----+  | +-----+
           | +-------+  | +------+  +-+MPLS-TP |  | +-----+  +-+LMAP |
           +-+  ISIS |  | +------+    +--------+  +-+ MVPN|    +-----+
           | +-------+  +-+ MPLS |                  +-----+
           | +-------+    |Static|
           +-+  OSPF |    +------+
           | +-------+
           | +-------+
           +-+  RIP  |
           | +-------+
           | +-------+
           +-+  VRRP |
           | +-------+
           | +-------+
           +-+SR/SRv6|
           | +-------+
           | +-------+
           +-+ISIS-SR|
           | +-------+
           | +-------+
           +-+OSPF-SR|
             +-------+

                Figure 10: Network Element Modules Overview



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A.3.1.  Model Composition

   o  Device Model

      [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-device-model] presents an approach for organizing
      YANG modules in a comprehensive logical structure that may be used
      to configure and operate network devices.  The structure is itself
      represented as an example YANG module, with all of the related
      component models logically organized in a way that is
      operationally intuitive, but this model is not expected to be
      implemented.

   o  Logical Network Element Model

      [RFC8530] defines a logical network element module which can be
      used to manage the logical resource partitioning that may be
      present on a network device.  Examples of common industry terms
      for logical resource partitioning are Logical Systems or Logical
      Routers.

   o  Network Instance Model

      [RFC8529] defines a network instance module.  This module can be
      used to manage the virtual resource partitioning that may be
      present on a network device.  Examples of common industry terms
      for virtual resource partitioning are VRF instances and Virtual
      Switch Instances (VSIs).

A.3.1.1.  Schema Mount

   Modularity and extensibility were among the leading design principles
   of the YANG data modeling language.  As a result, the same YANG
   module can be combined with various sets of other modules and thus
   form a data model that is tailored to meet the requirements of a
   specific use case.  [RFC8528] defines a mechanism, denoted schema
   mount, that allows for mounting one data model consisting of any
   number of YANG modules at a specified location of another (parent)
   schema.

   That capability does not cover design time.

A.3.2.  Device Models: Samples

   The following provides an overview of some Device Models that can be
   used within a network.  This list is not comprehensive.

   BGP:       [I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-model] defines a YANG module for
              configuring and managing BGP, including protocol, policy,



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              and operational aspects based on data center, carrier, and
              content provider operational requirements.

   MPLS:      [I-D.ietf-mpls-base-yang] defines a base model for MPLS
              which serves as a base framework for configuring and
              managing an MPLS switching subsystem.  It is expected that
              other MPLS technology YANG modules (e.g., MPLS LSP Static,
              LDP, or RSVP-TE models) will augment the MPLS base YANG
              module.

   QoS:       [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-qos-model] describes a YANG module of
              Differentiated Services for configuration and operations.

   ACL:       Access Control List (ACL) is one of the basic elements
              used to configure device forwarding behavior.  It is used
              in many networking technologies such as Policy Based
              Routing, Firewalls, etc.  [RFC8519] describes a data model
              of ACL basic building blocks.

   NAT:       For the sake of network automation and the need for
              programming Network Address Translation (NAT) function in
              particular, a data model for configuring and managing the
              NAT is essential.

              [RFC8512] defines a YANG module for the NAT function
              covering a variety of NAT flavors such as Network Address
              Translation from IPv4 to IPv4 (NAT44), Network Address and
              Protocol Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers
              (NAT64), customer-side translator (CLAT), Stateless IP/
              ICMP Translation (SIIT), Explicit Address Mappings (EAM)
              for SIIT, IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation (NPTv6),
              and Destination NAT.

              [RFC8513] specifies a DS-Lite YANG module.

   Stateless Address Sharing:  [RFC8676] specifies a YANG module for A+P
              address sharing, including Lightweight 4over6, Mapping of
              Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E), and Mapping
              of Address and Port using Translation (MAP-T) softwire
              mechanisms.

   Multicast: [I-D.ietf-pim-yang] defines a YANG module that can be used
              to configure and manage Protocol Independent Multicast
              (PIM) devices.

              [RFC8652] defines a YANG module that can be used to
              configure and manage Internet Group Management Protocol
              (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) devices.



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              [I-D.ietf-pim-igmp-mld-snooping-yang] defines a YANG
              module that can be used to configure and manage Internet
              Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and Multicast Listener
              Discovery (MLD) Snooping devices.

              [I-D.ietf-bess-mvpn-yang] defines a YANG data model to
              configure and manage Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs
              (MVPNs).

   EVPN:      [I-D.ietf-bess-evpn-yang] defines a YANG module for
              Ethernet VPN services.  The model is agnostic of the
              underlay.  It applies to MPLS as well as to VxLAN
              encapsulation.  The module is also agnostic to the
              services, including E-LAN, E-LINE, and E-TREE services.

   L3VPN:     [I-D.ietf-bess-l3vpn-yang] defines a YANG module that can
              be used to configure and manage BGP L3VPNs [RFC4364].  It
              contains VRF specific parameters as well as BGP specific
              parameters applicable for L3VPNs.

   L2VPN:     [I-D.ietf-bess-l2vpn-yang] defines a YANG module for MPLS
              based Layer 2 VPN services (L2VPN) [RFC4664] and includes
              switching between the local attachment circuits.  The
              L2VPN model covers point-to-point VPWS and Multipoint VPLS
              services.  These services use signaling of Pseudowires
              across MPLS networks using LDP [RFC8077][RFC4762] or BGP
              [RFC4761].

   Routing Policy:  [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-policy-model] defines a YANG module
              for configuring and managing routing policies based on
              operational practice.  The module provides a generic
              policy framework which can be augmented with protocol-
              specific policy configuration.

   BFD:       Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) [RFC5880] is a
              network protocol which is used for liveness detection of
              arbitrary paths between systems.  [I-D.ietf-bfd-yang]
              defines a YANG module that can be used to configure and
              manage BFD.

   SR/SRv6:   [I-D.ietf-spring-sr-yang] a YANG module for segment
              routing configuration and operation.


   Core Routing:  [RFC8349] defines the core routing data model, which
              is intended as a basis for future data model development
              covering more-sophisticated routing systems.  It is
              expected that other Routing technology YANG modules (e.g.,



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              VRRP, RIP, ISIS, OSPF models) will augment the Core
              Routing base YANG module.

   PM:        [I-D.ietf-ippm-twamp-yang] defines a data model for client
              and server implementations of the Two-Way Active
              Measurement Protocol (TWAMP).

              [I-D.ietf-ippm-stamp-yang] defines the data model for
              implementations of Session-Sender and Session-Reflector
              for Simple Two-way Active Measurement Protocol (STAMP)
              mode using YANG.

              [RFC8194] defines a data model for Large-Scale Measurement
              Platforms (LMAPs).

Authors' Addresses

   Qin Wu (editor)
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012
   China

   Email: bill.wu@huawei.com


   Mohamed Boucadair (editor)
   Orange
   Rennes 35000
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com


   Diego R. Lopez
   Telefonica I+D
   Spain

   Email: diego.r.lopez@telefonica.com


   Chongfeng Xie
   China Telecom
   Beijing
   China

   Email: xiechf@chinatelecom.cn




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   Liang Geng
   China Mobile

   Email: gengliang@chinamobile.com















































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