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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 RFC 5935

Network Working Group                                     B. Natale, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                     MITRE
Intended status: Standards Track                              Y. Li, Ed.
Expires: January 15, 2009                            Huawei Technologies
                                                           July 14, 2008


    Expressing SNMP SMI Datatypes in XML Schema Definition Language
             draft-ietf-opsawg-smi-datatypes-in-xsd-02.txt

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 15, 2009.

















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Abstract

   This memo (when approved as a standards-track RFC) defines the IETF
   standard expression of Structure of Management Information (SMI) base
   datatypes in Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema Definition (XSD)
   language.  The primary objective of this memo is to enable the
   production of XML documents that are as faithful to the SMI as
   possible, using XSD as the validation mechanism.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  XSD for SMI Base Datatypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Rationale  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.1.  Numeric Datatypes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.  OctetString  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.3.  Opaque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.4.  IpAddress  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.5.  ObjectIdentifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.1.  SMI Base Datatypes Namespace Registration  . . . . . . . . 14
     7.2.  SMI Base Datatypes Schema Registration . . . . . . . . . . 14
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     9.2.  Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   Appendix A.  Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Appendix B.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 20

















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1.  Introduction

   Numerous uses exist -- both within and outside the traditional IETF
   network management community -- for the expression of management
   information described in and accessible via SMI Management
   Information Base (MIB) modules as XML documents [ref.XML].  For
   example, XML-based management applications which want to incorporate
   MIB modules as data models and/or to access MIB module
   instrumentation via gateways to SNMP agents will benefit from an IETF
   standard mapping of SMI datatypes and structures to XML documents via
   XSD.

   MIB data models are described using SMIv2 [RFC2578] and, for legacy
   MIBs, SMIv1 [RFC1155].  MIB data is conveyed via SNMP using the base
   datatypes defined in the SMI.  The SMI allows for creation of
   derivative datatypes, termed "textual conventions" ("TCs"), each of
   which has a unique name, a syntax based on a core SMI datatype, and
   relatively precise application-level semantics.  TCs are used
   principally to facilitate correct application-level handling of MIB
   data and for the convenience of humans reading MIB modules and
   appropriately rendered MIB data output.

   Various independent schemes have been devised for expressing the SMI
   datatypes and TCs in XSD [ref.XMLSchema].  These schemes have
   exhibited a degree of commonality (especially concerning the numeric
   SMI datatypes), but also sufficient differences (especially
   concerning the non-numeric SMI datatypes) to preclude general
   interoperability.

   The primary purpose of this memo is to define a standard expression
   of SMI base datatypes in XSD to ensure uniformity and general
   interoperability in this respect.  Internet operators, management
   tool developers, and users will benefit from the wider selection of
   management tools and the greater degree of unified management -- with
   attendant improvements in timeliness and accuracy of management
   information -- which such a standard will facilitate.

   This memo is the first in a set of three related and (logically)
   ordered specifications:

      1.  SMI Base Datatypes [RFC2578] in XSD
      2.  SMI MIB Structure [RFC2578] in XSD
      3.  SNMP Textual Conventions [RFC2579] in XSD

   As a set, these documents define the XSD equivalent of SMIv2 to
   encourage XML-based protocols to carry, and XML-based applications to
   use, the information modeled in SMIv2-compliant MIB modules.




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   This work defines XSD equivalents of the datatypes and data
   structures [RFC2578] and the textual conventions [RFC2579] defined in
   the SMIv2 standard (STD58) to encourage efficient reuse of existing
   (including future) MIB modules and instrumentation by XML-based
   management protocols and applications.

   The goal of fidelity to the SMIv2 standard (STD58), as specified in
   the "Requirements" section below, is crucial to this effort to
   leverage the established "rough consensus" for the precise data
   modeling used in MIB modules, and to leverage existing "running code"
   for implemented SMIv2 data models.  This effort does not include
   redesign of SMIv2 datatypes or data structures or textual conventions
   to overcome known limitations -- that work can be pursued in other
   efforts.





































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2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].














































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3.  Requirements

   R1.  All SMI base datatypes MUST have a corresponding XSD datatype.
   R2.  SMIv2 is the normative SMI for this document -- SMIv1 modules,
        if encountered, MUST be converted (at least logically) in
        accordance with Section 2.1, inclusive, of the "Coexistence" RFC
        [RFC3584].
   R3.  The XSD datatype specified for a given SMI datatype MUST be able
        to represent all valid values for that SMI datatype.
   R4.  The XSD datatype specified for a given SMI datatype MUST
        represent any special encoding rules associated with that SMI
        datatype.
   R5.  The XSD datatype specified for a given SMI datatype MUST include
        any restrictions on values associated with the SMI datatype.
   R6.  The XSD datatype specified for a given SMI datatype MUST be the
        most direct XSD datatype, with the most parsimonious
        restrictions, which matches the foregoing requirements.
   R7.  The XML output produced as a result of meeting the foregoing
        requirements SHOULD be the most direct (i.e., avoiding
        superfluous "decoration") from the perspective of readability by
        humans.






























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4.  XSD for SMI Base Datatypes

   This document concerns only the SMI base datatypes -- i.e., the ten
   "ObjectSyntax" datatypes defined in RFC2578.  These datatypes -- via
   tag values defined in the SMI to identify them in varbinds --
   constrain values carried "on-the-wire" in SNMP PDUs between SNMP
   management applications and SNMP agents:

   o  INTEGER, Integer32
   o  Unsigned32, Gauge32
   o  Counter32
   o  TimeTicks
   o  Counter64
   o  OctetString
   o  Opague
   o  IpAddress
   o  ObjectIdentifier

   The "BITS" pseudo-type (also referred to as a "construct" in RFC2578)
   is treated as a Textual Convention for the purpose of this document
   and, therefore, will be defined in the "SNMP Textual Conventions in
   XSD" document.

   The following should be considered a "notional" XSD file for now,
   pending agreement on the actual datatype specifications.  An
   appropriate (official) targetNamespace must be designated (and
   approved) and agreement must be reached on whether any additional XSD
   content must be included (e.g., whether non-default values for
   elementFormDefault or attributeFormDefault or schemaLocation, etc.,
   need to be specified).


 BEGIN

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
 <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
 xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:opsawg:smi:base:1.0"
 targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:opsawg:smi:base:1.0"
 elementFormDefault="qualified"
 attributeFormDefault="unqualified"
 xml:lang="en">

   <xs:annotation>
     <xs:documentation>
         Mapping of SMIv2 base datatypes from RFC 2578.
     </xs:documentation>
   </xs:annotation>




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   <xs:simpleType name="INTEGER">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:int"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="Integer32">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:int"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="Unsigned32">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="Gauge32">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="Counter32">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="TimeTicks">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="Counter64">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedLong"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="OctetString">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:hexBinary">
       <xs:maxLength value="65535"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="Opaque">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:hexBinary"/>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="IpAddress">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
       <xs:pattern value=
       "((0|1[0-9]{0,2}|2([0-4][0-9]?|5[0-5]?|[6-9])?|[3-9][0-9]?)\.){3}
       (0|1[0-9]{0,2}|2([0-4][0-9]?|5[0-5]?|[6-9])?|[3-9][0-9]?)"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="ObjectIdentifier">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">



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       <xs:pattern value=
       "([0-1](\.[1-3]?[0-9]))|(2.(0|([1-9]\d*)))
       (\.(0|([1-9]\d*))){0,126}"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

 </xs:schema>
 END











































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5.  Rationale

   The XSD datatypes, including any specified restrictions, were chosen
   based on fit with the requirements specified earlier in this
   document, and with attention to simplicity while maintaining fidelity
   to the SMI.  Also, the "canonical representations" (i.e., refinements
   of the "lexical representations") documented in the W3C XSD
   specifications are assumed.

5.1.  Numeric Datatypes

   All of the numeric XSD datatypes specified in the previous section --
   INTEGER, Integer32, Unsigned32, Gauge32, Counter32, TimeTicks, and
   Counter64 -- comply with the relevant requirements:

   o  They cover all valid values for the corresponding SMI datatypes.
   o  They comply with the standard encoding rules associated with the
      corresponding SMI datatypes.
   o  They inherently match the range restrictions associated with the
      corresponding SMI datatypes.
   o  They are the most direct XSD datatype which exhibit the foregoing
      characteristics relative to the corresponding SMI datatypes (which
      is why no "restriction" statements -- other than the "base" XSD
      type -- are required in the XSD).
   o  The XML output produced from the canonical representation of these
      XSD datatypes is also the most direct from the perspective of
      readability by humans (i.e., no leading "+" sign and no leading
      zeros).

   Special note to application developers: Compliance with this schema
   in an otherwise correct translation from raw ("on-the-wire"
   representation) SNMP MIB data produces values that are faithful to
   the original.  However, the Gauge32 and Counter32 datatypes have
   special application semantics that must be considered when using
   their raw values for anything other than display, printing, storage,
   or transmission of the literal value.  This is particularly important
   for Counter32 values.  RFC 2578 provides the necessary details.

5.2.  OctetString

   This XSD datatype corresponds to the SMI "OCTET STRING" datatype.

   Several independent schemes for mapping SMI datatypes to XSD have
   used the XSD "string" type to represent "OCTET STRING", but this
   mapping does not conform to the requirements specified in this
   document.  Most notably, "string" cannot faithfully represent all
   valid values (0 thru 255) that each octet in an "OCTET STRING" can
   have -- or at least cannot do so in a way that provides for ready



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   human readability of the resulting XML output.

   Consequently, the XSD datatype "hexBinary" is specified as the
   standard mapping of the SMI "OCTET STRING" datatype.  In hexBinary,
   each octet is encoded as two hexadecimal digits; the canonical
   representation limits the set of allowed hexadecimal digits to 0-9
   and uppercase A-F.

   The hexBinary representation of OCTET STRING complies with the
   relevant requirements:

   o  It covers all valid values for the corresponding SMI datatype.
   o  It complies with the standard encoding rules associated with the
      corresponding SMI datatype.
   o  With the "maxLength" restriction to 65535 octets, the XSD datatype
      specification matches the restrictions associated with the
      corresponding SMI datatype.
   o  It is the most direct XSD datatype which exhibits the foregoing
      characteristics relative to the corresponding SMI datatype (which
      must allow for any valid binary octet value).
   o  The XML output produced from the canonical representation of this
      XSD datatype is not optimal with respect to readability by humans;
      however, that is a consequence of the SMI datatype itself.  Where
      human readability is more of a concern, it is likely that the
      actual MIB objects in question will be represented by textual
      conventions which limit the set of values that will be included in
      the OctetStrings and will, thus, bypass the hexBinary typing.

5.3.  Opaque

   The "hexBinary" XSD datatype is specified as the representation of
   the SMI "Opague" datatype generally for the same reasons as
   "hexBinary" is specified for the "OctetString" datatype.

   o  It covers all valid values for the corresponding SMI datatype.
   o  It complies with the standard encoding rules associated with the
      corresponding SMI datatype.
   o  There are no restriction issues associated with using "hexBinary"
      for "Opague".
   o  It is the most direct XSD datatype which exhibits the foregoing
      characteristics relative to the corresponding SMI datatype (which
      must allow for any valid binary octet value).
   o  The XML output produced from the canonical representation of this
      XSD datatype is not optimal with respect to readability by humans;
      however, that is a consequence of the SMI datatype itself.
      Unmediated "Opague" data is intended for consumption by
      applications, not humans.




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5.4.  IpAddress

   The XSD "string" datatype is the natural choice to represent an
   IpAddress as XML output.  The "pattern" restriction applied in this
   case results in a "dotted-decimal string of four values between "0"
   and "255" separated by a period (".") character.  This pattern also
   precludes leading zeros.

5.5.  ObjectIdentifier

   This XSD datatype corresponds to the SMI "OBJECT IDENTIFIER"
   datatype.

   The XSD "string" datatype is also the natural choice to represent an
   ObjectIdentifier as XML output, for the same reasons as for the
   IpAddress choice.  The "pattern" restriction applied in this case
   results in a dotted-decimal string of up to 128 elements (referred to
   as "sub-ids"), holding "Unsigned32" integer values.

   Note that, while not mentioned in Sec. 7.1.3 of RFC 2578, due to the
   use of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) Basic Encoding Rules
   (BER) the first two components of an "OBJECT IDENTIFIER" have limited
   value ranges and are encoded into a single sub-id value [Steedman].
   The ASN.1/BER standards specify that the numerical value of the first
   subidentifier is derived from the values of the first two object
   identifier components in the object identifier value being encoded,
   using the formula: (X*40) + Y, where X is the value of the first
   object identifier component and Y is the value of the second object
   identifier component.  This packing of the first two object
   identifier components recognizes that only three values are allocated
   from the root node, and at most 39 subsequent values from nodes
   reached by X = 0 and X = 1.  The minimum length of an "OBJECT
   IDENTIFIER" is two sub-ids (with a zero-valued "OBJECT IDENTIFIER"
   represented as "0.0").  No explicit "minLength" restriction (which
   would be "3" to allow for the minimum of two sub-ids and a single
   separating dot) is required, since the pattern itself enforces this
   restriction.














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6.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations for any given SMI MIB module are likely to be
   relevant to any XSD/XML mapping of that MIB module; however, the
   mapping defined in this document does not itself introduce any new
   security considerations.

   If and when proxies or gateways are developed to convey SNMP
   management information from SNMP agents to XML-based management
   applications via XSD/XML mapping of MIB modules based on this
   specification and its planned siblings, special care will need to be
   taken to ensure that all applicable SNMP security mechanisms are
   supported in an appropriate manner yet to be determined.






































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7.  IANA Considerations

   In accordance with RFC 3688, we will register namespaces and schemas
   for all three documents in this set with the IANA XML Registry.
   These entries -- corresponding to this base datatypes document and
   the future textual conventions and MIB structure documents -- will be
   as follows:

   o  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:opsawg:smi:base:[version_id]
   o  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:opsawg:smi:base:[version_id]
   o  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:opsawg:smi:tc:[version_id]
   o  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:opsawg:smi:tc:[version_id]
   o  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:opsawg:smi:structure:[version_id]
   o  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:opsawg:smi:structure:[version_id]

   The following sub-sections refer to the present document only.

7.1.  SMI Base Datatypes Namespace Registration

   This document registers a URI for the SMI Base Datatypes XML
   namespace in the IETF XML registry.  Following the format in RFC
   3688, IANA has made the following registration:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:opsawg:smi:base:1.0

   Registration Contact: The IESG.

   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

7.2.  SMI Base Datatypes Schema Registration

   This document registers a URI for the SMI Base Datatypes XML schema
   in the IETF XML registry.  Following the format in RFC 3688, IANA has
   made the following registration:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:opsawg:smi:base:1.0

   Registration Contact: The IESG.

   XML: Section 4 of this document.











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8.  Acknowledgements

   Dave Harrington provided strategic and technical leadership to the
   team which developed this particular specification.  Yan Li did much
   of the research into existing approaches that was used as a baseline
   for the recommendations in this particular specification.

   This document owes much to draft-romascanu-netconf-datatypes-xx and
   to many other sources (including libsmi and group discussions on the
   NETCONF mailing lists) developed by those who have researched and
   published candidate mappings of SMI datatypes and textual conventions
   to XSD.

   Individuals who participated in various discussions of this topic at
   IETF meetings and on IETF mailing lists include: Ray Atarashi,
   Yoshifumi Atarashi, Andy Bierman, Sharon Chisholm, Avri Doria, Mark
   Ellison, Rob Ennes, David Harrington, Eliot Lear, Chris Lonvick, Faye
   Ly, Randy Presuhn, Juergen Schoenwaelder, Andre Westerinen, and Bert
   Wijnen.  (Others who have been inadvertently omitted from this list
   should notify the editors.)































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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1155]  Rose, M. and K. McCloghrie, "Structure and identification
              of management information for TCP/IP-based internets",
              STD 16, RFC 1155, May 1990.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, s., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2579,
              April 1999.

9.2.  Informational References

   [RFC3584]  Frye, R., Levi, D., Routhier, S., and B. Wijnen,
              "Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3
              of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework",
              BCP 74, RFC 3584, August 2003.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [Steedman]
              Steedman, D., "ASN.1: The Tutorial and Reference".

   [ref.XML]  World Wide Web Consortium, "Extensible Markup Language
              (XML) 1.0", W3C XML, February 1998,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-xml-19980210>.

   [ref.XMLSchema]
              World Wide Web Consortium, "XML Schema Part 1: Structures
              Second Edition", W3C XML Schema, October 2004,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-1/>.

   [ref.XSDDatatype]
              World Wide Web Consortium, "XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes
              Second Edition", W3C XML Schema, October 2004,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/>.






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Appendix A.  Open Issues

   o  Confirm IANA XML registration values and process.
















































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Appendix B.  Change Log

   o  -00 Initial version
   o  -01 version:
   o
      *  Incorporated mailing list comments on -00 version from Juergen
         Schoenwaelder
      *  Incorporated mailing list comments on -00 version from David
         Harrington
   o  -02 version:
   o
      *  Fixed ObjectIdentifier pattern per correction from Juergen
         Schoenwaelder, and text in sec. 5.5 adjusted accordingly.
      *  Moved non-normative references to Informational section per
         David Harrington
      *  Tightened wording in to "XSD for SMI Datatypes" section per
         Mark Ellison
      *  Added a note about Gauge32 and Counter32 application semantics
         to the "Rationale" section per Mark Ellison
      *  Security section wording tightened per David Harrington
      *  The IANA Considerations section completed--will need
         adjustment.
      *  Acknowledgments entries expanded and alphabetized




























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Authors' Addresses

   Bob Natale (editor)
   MITRE
   7515 Colshire Dr
   MS H405
   McLean, VA  22102
   USA

   Phone: +1 703-983-2505
   Email: rnatale@mitre.org


   Yan Li (editor)
   Huawei Technologies
   No.3 Xinxi Road, Shangdi Information Industry Base
   Beijing, HaiDian District  100085
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86 10 8288 2008
   Email: liyan_77@huawei.com






























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Internet-Draft    Expressing SNMP SMI Datatypes in XSD         July 2008


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