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Versions: (draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-pim-snooping) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06

PALS Workgroup                                                 O. Dornon
Internet-Draft                                               J. Kotalwar
Intended status: Informational                                     Nokia
Expires: December 16, 2017                                     V. Hemige

                                                                  R. Qiu
                                                              mistnet.io
                                                                Z. Zhang
                                                  Juniper Networks, Inc.
                                                           June 14, 2017


 Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) over Virtual Private LAN Service
                                 (VPLS)
                  draft-ietf-pals-vpls-pim-snooping-06

Abstract

   This document describes the procedures and recommendations for
   Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Provider Edges (PEs) to facilitate
   replication of multicast traffic to only certain ports (behind which
   there are interested Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) routers
   and/or Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) hosts) via Protocol
   Independent Multicast (PIM) snooping and proxying.

   With PIM snooping, PEs passively listen to certain PIM control
   messages to build control and forwarding states while transparently
   flooding those messages.  With PIM proxying, Provider Edges (PEs) do
   not flood PIM Join/Prune messages but only generate their own and
   send out of certain ports, based on the control states built from
   downstream Join/Prune messages.  PIM proxying is required when PIM
   Join suppression is enabled on the Customer Equipment (CE) devices
   and useful to reduce PIM control traffic in a VPLS domain.

   The document also describes PIM relay, which can be viewed as light-
   weight proxying, where all downstream Join/Prune messages are simply
   forwarded out of certain ports but not flooded to avoid triggering
   PIM Join suppression on CE devices.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].







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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 16, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Multicast Snooping in VPLS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.3.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  PIM Snooping for VPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.1.  PIM protocol background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.2.  General Rules for PIM Snooping in VPLS  . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.2.1.  Preserving Assert Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.3.  Some Considerations for PIM Snooping  . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.3.1.  Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.3.2.  IPv4 and IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       2.3.3.  PIM-SM (*,*,RP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.4.  PIM Snooping vs PIM Proxying  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       2.4.1.  Differences between PIM Snooping, Relay and Proxying    9



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       2.4.2.  PIM Control Message Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.4.3.  When to Snoop and When to Proxy . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     2.5.  Discovering PIM Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     2.6.  PIM-SM and PIM-SSM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       2.6.1.  Building PIM-SM States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       2.6.2.  Explanation for per (S,G,N) states  . . . . . . . . .  16
       2.6.3.  Receiving (*,G) PIM-SM Join/Prune Messages  . . . . .  16
       2.6.4.  Receiving (S,G) PIM-SM Join/Prune Messages  . . . . .  18
       2.6.5.  Receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune Messages . . . . . . .  20
       2.6.6.  Sending Join/Prune Messages Upstream  . . . . . . . .  20
     2.7.  Bidirectional-PIM (BIDIR-PIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     2.8.  Interaction with IGMP Snooping  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     2.9.  PIM-DM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       2.9.1.  Building PIM-DM States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       2.9.2.  PIM-DM Downstream Per-Port PIM(S,G,N) State Machine .  23
       2.9.3.  Triggering ASSERT election in PIM-DM  . . . . . . . .  23
     2.10. PIM Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       2.10.1.  Upstream PIM Proxy behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     2.11. Directly Connected Multicast Source . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     2.12. Data Forwarding Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.12.1.  PIM-SM Data Forwarding Rules . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       2.12.2.  PIM-DM Data Forwarding Rules . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   3.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   5.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   Appendix A.  BIDIR-PIM Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     A.1.  BIDIR-PIM Data Forwarding Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   Appendix B.  Example Network Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     B.1.  PIM Snooping Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     B.2.  PIM Proxy Example with (S,G) / (*,G) interaction  . . . .  34
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39

1.  Introduction

   In Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS), the Provider Edge (PE) devices
   provide a logical interconnect such that Customer Edge (CE) devices
   belonging to a specific VPLS instance appear to be connected by a
   single LAN.  The Forwarding Information Base (FIB) for a VPLS
   instance is populated dynamically by MAC address learning.  Once a
   unicast MAC address is learned and associated with a particular
   Attachment Circuit (AC) or PseudoWire (PW), a frame destined to that
   MAC address only needs to be sent on that AC or PW.





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   For a frame not addressed to a known unicast MAC address, flooding
   has to be used.  This happens with the following so called BUM
   (Broadcast Unknown Multicast) traffic:

   o  B: The destination MAC address is a broadcast address,

   o  U: The destination MAC address is unknown (has not been learned),

   o  M: The destination MAC address is a multicast address.

   Multicast frames are flooded because a PE cannot know where
   corresponding multicast group members reside.  VPLS solutions (i.e.,
   RFC 4762 [VPLS-LDP] and RFC 4761 [VPLS-BGP]) perform replication for
   multicast traffic at the ingress PE devices.  As stated in the VPLS
   Multicast Requirements document RFC 5501 [VPLS-MCAST-REQ], there are
   two issues with VPLS multicast today:

   o  A.  Multicast traffic is replicated to non-member sites.

   o  B.  Multicast traffic may be replicated when several PWs share a
      physical path.

   Issue A can be solved by multicast snooping - PEs learn sites with
   multicast group members by snooping multicast protocol control
   messages on ACs and forward IP multicast traffic only to member
   sites.  This document describes the procedures to achieve this when
   CE devices are PIM adjacencies of each other.  Issue B is outside the
   scope of this document and discussed in RFC 7117 [VPLS-MCAST] .

   While this document is in the context of VPLS, the procedures also
   apply to regular layer-2 switches interconnected by physical
   connections, except that the PW related concept and procedures do not
   apply in that case.

1.1.  Multicast Snooping in VPLS

   IGMP snooping procedures described in RFC 4541 [IGMP-SNOOP] make sure
   that IP multicast traffic is only sent on the following:

   o  Attachment Circuits (ACs) connecting to hosts that report related
      group membership

   o  ACs connecting to routers that join related multicast groups

   o  PseudoWires (PWs) connecting to remote PEs that have the above
      described ACs





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   Notice that traffic is always sent on ports that have point-to-point
   connections to routers that are attached to a LAN on which there is
   at least one other router.  Because IGMP snooping alone can not
   determine if there are interested receivers beyond those routers we
   always need to send traffic to these ports, even if there are no
   snooped group memberships.  To further restrict traffic sent to those
   routers, PIM snooping can be used.  This document describes the
   procedures for PIM snooping, including the rules when both IGMP and
   PIM snooping are enabled in a VPLS instance, which are elaborated in
   sections Section 2.8 and Section 2.11.

   Note that for both IGMP and PIM, the term snooping is used loosely,
   referring to the fact that a layer-2 device peeks into layer-3
   routing protocol messages to build relevant control and forwarding
   states.  Depending on whether the control messages are transparently
   flooded, selectively forwarded, or aggregated, the processing may be
   called snooping or proxy in different contexts.

   We will use the term PIM snooping in this document; but, unless
   explicitly noted, the procedures apply equally to PIM snooping and
   PIM proxying.  The PIM proxying specific procedures are described in
   Section 2.6.6.  Differences that need to be observed while
   implementing one or the other and recommendations on which method to
   employ in different scenarios are noted in section Section 2.4.

   This document also describes PIM relay, which can be viewed as light-
   weight PIM proxying.  Unless explicitly noted, in the rest of the
   document proxying implicitly includes relay as well.  Please refer to
   Section 2.4.1 for an overview of the differences between snooping,
   proxying and relay.

1.2.  Assumptions

   This document assumes that the reader has good understanding of the
   PIM protocols.  This document is written in the same style as the PIM
   RFCs to help correlate the concepts and to make it easier to follow.
   In order to avoid replicating text related to PIM protocol handling
   from the PIM RFCs, this document cross references corresponding
   definitions and procedures in these RFCs.  Deviations in protocol
   handling specific to PIM snooping are specified in this document.

1.3.  Definitions

   There are several definitions referenced in this document that are
   well described in the PIM RFCs RFC 7761 [PIM-SM], RFC 5015
   [BIDIR-PIM] and RFC 3973 [PIM-DM].  The following definitions and
   abbreviations are used throughout this document:




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   o  A port is defined as either an attachment circuit (AC) or a
      pseudowire (PW).

   o  When we say a PIM message is received on a PE port, it means that
      the PE is processing the message for snooping/proxying or
      relaying.

   Abbreviations used in the document:

   o  S: IP address of the multicast source.

   o  G: IP address of the multicast group.

   o  N: Upstream neighbor field in a Join/Prune/Graft message.

   o  Port(N): Port on which neighbor N is learned, i.e. the port on
      which N's Hellos are received.

   o  rpt : Rendezvous Point Tree

   o  PIM-DM: Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode.

   o  PIM-SM: Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode.

   o  PIM-SSM: Protocol Independent Multicast - Source Specific Mode.

   Other definitions are explained in the sections where they are
   introduced.

2.  PIM Snooping for VPLS

2.1.  PIM protocol background

   PIM is a multicast routing protocol running between routers, which
   are CE devices in a VPLS.  It uses the unicast routing table to
   provide reverse path information for building multicast trees.  There
   are a few variants of PIM.  In RFC 3973 [PIM-DM], multicast datagrams
   are pushed towards downstream neighbors, similar to a broadcast
   mechanism, but in areas of the network where there are no group
   members, routers prune back branches of the multicast tree towards
   the source.  Unlike PIM-DM, other PIM flavors (RFC 7761 [PIM-SM], RFC
   4607 [PIM-SSM], and RFC 5015 [BIDIR-PIM]) employ a pull methodology
   via explicit joins instead of the push and prune technique.

   PIM routers periodically exchange Hello messages to discover and
   maintain stateful sessions with neighbors.  After neighbors are
   discovered, PIM routers can signal their intentions to join or prune
   specific multicast groups.  This is accomplished by having downstream



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   routers send an explicit Join/Prune message (for the sake of
   generalization, consider Graft messages for PIM-DM as Join messages)
   to their corresponding upstream router.  The Join/Prune message can
   be group specific (*,G) or group and source specific(S,G).

2.2.  General Rules for PIM Snooping in VPLS

   The following rules for the correct operation of PIM snooping MUST be
   followed.

   o  PIM snooping MUST NOT affect the operation of customer layer-2
      protocols or layer-3 protocols.

   o  PIM messages and multicast data traffic forwarded by PEs MUST
      follow the split-horizon rule for mesh PWs, as defined in RFC 4762
      [VPLS-LDP].

   o  PIM states in a PE MUST be per VPLS instance.

   o  PIM assert triggers MUST be preserved to the extent necessary to
      avoid sending duplicate traffic to the same PE (see
      Section 2.2.1).

2.2.1.  Preserving Assert Trigger

   In PIM-SM/DM, there are scenarios where multiple routers could be
   forwarding the same multicast traffic on a LAN.  When this happens,
   these routers start the PIM Assert election process by sending PIM
   Assert messages, to ensure that only the Assert winner forwards
   multicast traffic on the LAN.  The Assert election is a data driven
   event and happens only if a router sees traffic on the interface to
   which it should be forwarding the traffic.  In the case of VPLS with
   PIM snooping, two routers may forward the same multicast datagrams at
   the same time but each copy may reach different set of PEs, and that
   is acceptable from the point of view of avoiding duplicate traffic.
   If the two copies may reach the same PE then the sending routers must
   be able to see each other's traffic, in order to trigger Assert
   election and stop duplicate traffic.  To achieve that, PEs enabled
   with PIM-SSM/SM snooping MUST forward multicast traffic for an
   (S,G)/(*,G) not only on the ports on which they snooped
   Joins(S,G)/Joins(*,G), but also towards the upstream neighbor(s)).
   In other words, the ports on which the upstream neighbors are learned
   must be added to the outgoing port list along with the ports on which
   Joins are snooped.  Please refer to Section 2.6.1 for the rules that
   determine the set of upstream neighbors for a particular (x,G).

   Similarly, PIM-DM snooping SHOULD make sure that asserts can be
   triggered (Section 2.9.3).



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   The above logic needs to be facilitated without breaking VPLS split-
   horizon forwarding rules.  That is, traffic should not be forwarded
   on the port on which it was received, and traffic arriving on a PW
   MUST NOT be forwarded onto other PW(s).

2.3.  Some Considerations for PIM Snooping

   The PIM snooping solution described here requires a PE to examine and
   operate on only PIM Hello and PIM Join/Prune packets.  The PE does
   not need to examine any other PIM packets.

   Most of the PIM snooping procedures for handling Hello/Join/Prune
   messages are very similar to those executed in a PIM router.
   However, the PE does not need to have any routing tables like those
   required in PIM multicast routing.  It knows how to forward Join/
   Prunes only by looking at the Upstream Neighbor field in the Join/
   Prune packets, as described in Section 2.12.

   The PE does not need to know about Rendezvous Points (RP) and does
   not have to maintain any RP Set. All that is transparent to a PIM
   snooping PE.

   In the following sub-sections, we list some considerations and
   observations for the implementation of PIM snooping in VPLS.

2.3.1.  Scaling

   PIM snooping needs to be employed on ACs at the downstream PEs (PEs
   receiving multicast traffic across the VPLS core) to prevent traffic
   from being sent out of ACs unnecessarily.  PIM snooping techniques
   can also be employed on PWs at the upstream PEs (PEs receiving
   traffic from local ACs in a hierarchical VPLS) to prevent traffic
   from being sent to PEs unnecessarily.  This may work well for small
   to medium scale deployments.  However, if there are a large number of
   VPLS instances with a large number of PEs per instance, then the
   amount of snooping required at the upstream PEs can overwhelm the
   upstream PEs.

   There are two methods to reduce the burden on the upstream PEs.  One
   is to use PIM proxying as described in Section 2.6.6, to reduce the
   control messages forwarded by a PE.  The other is not to snoop on the
   PWs at all, but PEs signal the snooped states to other PEs out of
   band via BGP, as described in RFC 7117 [VPLS-MCAST].  In this
   document, it is assumed that snooping is performed on PWs.







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2.3.2.  IPv4 and IPv6

   In VPLS, PEs forward Ethernet frames received from CEs and as such
   are agnostic of the layer-3 protocol used by the CEs.  However, as a
   PIM snooping PE, the PE would have to look deeper into the IP and PIM
   packets and build snooping state based on that.  The PIM Protocol
   specifications handle both IPv4 and IPv6.  The specification for PIM
   snooping in this document can be applied to both IPv4 and IPv6
   payloads.

2.3.3.  PIM-SM (*,*,RP)

   This document does not address (*,*,RP) states in the VPLS network,
   as they have been removed from the PIM protocol as described in RFC
   7761 [PIM-SM].

2.4.  PIM Snooping vs PIM Proxying

   This document has previously alluded to PIM snooping/relay/proxying.
   Details on the PIM relay/proxying solution are discussed in
   Section 2.6.6.  In this section, a brief description and comparison
   are given.

2.4.1.  Differences between PIM Snooping, Relay and Proxying

   Differences between PIM snooping and relay/proxying can be summarized
   as the following:

    +--------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
    |     PIM snooping   |    PIM relay        |    PIM proxying       |
    +====================|=====================|=======================+
    | Join/Prune messages| Join/Prune messages | Join/Prune messages   |
    | snooped and flooded| snooped; forwarded  | consumed. Regenerated |
    | according to VPLS  | as is out of certain| ones sent out of      |
    | flooding procedures| upstream ports      | certain upstream ports|
    +--------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
    | Hello messages     | Hello messages      | Hello messages        |
    | snooped and flooded| snooped and flooded | snooped and flooded   |
    | according to VPLS  | according to VPLS   | according to VPLS     |
    | flooding procedures| flooding procedures | flooding procedures   |
    +--------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
    | No PIM packets     | No PIM packets      | New Join/Prune        |
    | generated.         | generated           | messages generated    |
    +--------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
    | CE Join suppression| CE Join Suppression | CE Join suppression   |
    | not allowed        | allowed             | allowed               |
    +--------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+




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   Other than the above differences, most of the procedures are common
   to PIM snooping and PIM relay/proxying, unless specifically stated
   otherwise.

   Pure PIM snooping PEs simply snoop on PIM packets as they are being
   forwarded in the VPLS.  As such they truly provide transparent LAN
   services since no customer packets are modified or consumed or new
   packets introduced in the VPLS.  It is also simpler to implement than
   PIM proxying.  However for PIM snooping to work correctly, it is a
   requirement that CE routers MUST disable Join suppression in the
   VPLS.  Otherwise, most of the CE routers with interest in a given
   multicast data stream will fail to send Join/Prune messages for that
   stream, and the PEs will not be able to tell which ACs and/or PWs
   have listeners for that stream.

   Given that a large number of existing CE deployments do not support
   disabling of Join suppression and given the operational complexity
   for a provider to manage disabling of Join suppression in the VPLS,
   it becomes a difficult solution to deploy.  Another disadvantage of
   PIM snooping is that it does not scale as well as PIM proxying.  If
   there are a large number of CEs in a VPLS, then every CE will see
   every other CE's Join/Prune messages.

   PIM relay/proxying has the advantage that it does not require Join
   suppression to be disabled in the VPLS.  Multicast as a VPLS service
   can be very easily provided without requiring any changes on the CE
   routers.  PIM relay/proxying helps scale VPLS Multicast since Join/
   Prune messages are only sent to certain upstream ports instead of
   flooded, and in case of full proxying (vs. relay) the PEs
   intelligently generate only one Join/Prune message for a given
   multicast stream.

   PIM proxying however loses the transparency argument since Join/
   Prunes could get modified or even consumed at a PE.  Also, new
   packets could get introduced in the VPLS.  However, this loss of
   transparency is limited to PIM Join/Prune packets.  It is in the
   interest of optimizing multicast in the VPLS and helping a VPLS
   network scale much better, both for the provider and the customer.
   Data traffic will still be completely transparent.

2.4.2.  PIM Control Message Latency

   A PIM snooping/relay/proxying PE snoops on PIM Hello packets while
   transparently flooding them in the VPLS.  As such there is no latency
   introduced by the VPLS in the delivery of PIM Hello packets to remote
   CEs in the VPLS.





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   A PIM snooping PE snoops on PIM Join/Prune packets while
   transparently flooding them in the VPLS.  There is no latency
   introduced by the VPLS in the delivery of PIM Join/Prune packets when
   PIM snooping is employed.

   A PIM relay/proxying PE does not simply flood PIM Join/Prune packets.
   This can result in additional latency for a downstream CE to receive
   multicast traffic after it has sent a Join.  When a downstream CE
   prunes a multicast stream, the traffic SHOULD stop flowing to the CE
   with no additional latency introduced by the VPLS.

   Performing only proxying of Join/Prune and not Hello messages keeps
   the PE behavior very similar to that of a PIM router without
   introducing too much additional complexity.  It keeps the PIM
   proxying solution fairly simple.  Since Join/Prunes are forwarded by
   a PE along the slow-path and all other PIM packet types are forwarded
   along the fast-path, it is very likely that packets forwarded along
   the fast-path will arrive "ahead" of Join/Prune packets at a CE
   router (note the stress on the fact that fast-path messages will
   never arrive after Join/Prunes).  Of particular importance are Hello
   packets sent along the fast-path.  We can construct a variety of
   scenarios resulting in out of order delivery of Hellos and Join/Prune
   messages.  However, there should be no deviation from normal expected
   behavior observed at the CE router receiving these messages out of
   order.

2.4.3.  When to Snoop and When to Proxy

   From the above descriptions, factors that affect the choice of
   snooping/relay/proxying include:

   o  Whether CEs do Join Suppression or not

   o  Whether Join/Prune latency is critical or not

   o  Whether the scale of PIM protocol message/states in a VPLS
      requires the scaling benefit of proxying

   Of the above factors, Join Suppression is the hard one - pure
   snooping can only be used when Join Suppression is disabled on all
   CEs.  The latency associated with relay/proxying is implementation
   dependent and may not be a concern at all with a particular
   implementation.  The scaling benefit may not be important either, in
   that on a real LAN with Explicit Tracking (ET) a PIM router will need
   to receive and process all PIM Join/Prune messages as well.

   A PIM router indicates that Join Suppression is disabled if the T-bit
   is set in the LAN Prune Delay option of its Hello message.  If all



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   PIM routers on a LAN set the T-bit, Explicit Tracking is possible,
   allowing an upstream router to track all the downstream neighbors
   that have Join states for any (S,G) or (*,G).  That has two benefits:

   o  No need for PrunePending process - the upstream router may
      immediately stop forwarding data when it receives a Prune from the
      last downstream neighbor, and immediately prune to its upstream if
      that's for the last downstream interface.

   o  For management purpose, the upstream router knows exactly which
      downstream routers exist for a particular Join State.

   While full proxying can be used with or without Join Suppression on
   CEs and does not interfere with an upstream CE's bypass of
   PrunePending process, it does proxy all its downstream CEs as a
   single one to the upstream, removing the second benefit mentioned
   above.

   Therefore, the general rule is that if Join Suppression is enabled on
   one or more CEs then proxying or relay MUST be used, but if
   Suppression is known to be disabled on all CEs then either snooping,
   relay, or proxying MAY be used while snooping or relay SHOULD be
   used.

   An implementation MAY choose dynamic determination of which mode to
   use, through the tracking of the above mentioned T-bit in all snooped
   PIM Hello messages, or MAY simply require static provisioning.

2.5.  Discovering PIM Routers

   A PIM snooping PE MUST snoop on PIM Hellos received on ACs and PWs.
   i.e., the PE transparently floods the PIM Hello while snooping on it.
   PIM Hellos are used by the snooping PE to discover PIM routers and
   their characteristics.

   For each neighbor discovered by a PE, it includes an entry in the PIM
   Neighbor Database with the following fields:

   o  Layer 2 encapsulation for the Router sending the PIM Hello.

   o  IP Address and address family of the Router sending the PIM Hello.

   o  Port (AC / PW) on which the PIM Hello was received.

   o  Hello TLVs






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   The PE should be able to interpret and act on Hello TLVs currently
   defined in the PIM RFCs.  The TLVs of particular interest in this
   document are:

   o  Hello-Hold-Time

   o  Tracking Support

   o  DR Priority

   Please refer to RFC 7761 [PIM-SM] for a list of the Hello TLVs.  When
   a PIM Hello is received, the PE MUST reset the neighbor-expiry-timer
   to Hello-Hold-Time.  If a PE does not receive a Hello message from a
   router within Hello-Hold-Time, the PE MUST remove that neighbor from
   its PIM Neighbor Database.  If a PE receives a Hello message from a
   router with Hello-Hold-Time value set to zero, the PE MUST remove
   that router from the PIM snooping state immediately.

   From the PIM Neighbor Database, a PE MUST be able to use the
   procedures defined in RFC 7761 [PIM-SM] to identify the PIM
   Designated Router in the VPLS instance.  It should also be able to
   determine if Tracking Support is active in the VPLS instance.

2.6.  PIM-SM and PIM-SSM

   The key characteristic of PIM-SM and PIM-SSM is explicit join
   behavior.  In this model, multicast traffic is only forwarded to
   locations that specifically request it.  All the procedures described
   in this section apply to both PIM-SM and PIM-SSM, except for the fact
   that there is no (*,G) state in PIM-SSM.

2.6.1.  Building PIM-SM States

   PIM-SM and PIM-SSM states are built by snooping on the PIM-SM Join/
   Prune messages received on AC/PWs.

   The downstream state machine of a PIM-SM snooping PE very closely
   resembles the downstream state machine of PIM-SM routers.  The
   downstream state consists of:

   Per downstream (Port, *, G):

   o  DownstreamJPState: One of { "NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J), "Prune
      Pending" (PP) }

   Per downstream (Port, *, G, N):

   o  Prune Pending Timer (PPT(N))



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   o  Join Expiry Timer (ET(N))

   Per downstream (Port, S, G):

   o  DownstreamJPState: One of { "NoInfo" (NI), "Join" (J), "Prune
      Pending" (PP) }

   Per downstream (Port, S, G, N):

   o  Prune Pending Timer (PPT(N))

   o  Join Expiry Timer (ET(N))

   Per downstream (Port, S, G, rpt):

   o  DownstreamJPRptState: One of { "NoInfo" (NI), "Pruned" (P), "Prune
      Pending" (PP) }

   Per downstream (Port, S, G, rpt, N):

   o  Prune Pending Timer (PPT(N))

   o  Join Expiry Timer (ET(N))

   Where S is the address of the multicast source, G is the Group
   address and N is the upstream neighbor field in the Join/Prune
   message.  Notice that unlike on PIM-SM routers where PPT and ET are
   per (Interface, S, G), PIM snooping PEs have to maintain PPT and ET
   per (Port, S, G, N).  The reasons for this are explained in
   Section 2.6.2.

   Apart from the above states, we define the following state
   summarization macros.

   UpstreamNeighbors(*,G): If there is one or more Join(*,G) received on
   any port with upstream neighbor N and ET(N) is active, then N is
   added to UpstreamNeighbors(*,G).  This set is used to determine if a
   Join(*,G) or a Prune(*,G) with upstream neighbor N needs to be sent
   upstream.

   UpstreamNeighbors(S,G): If there is one or more Join(S,G) received on
   any port with upstream neighbor N and ET(N) is active, then N is
   added to UpstreamNeighbors(S,G).  This set is used to determine if a
   Join(S,G) or a Prune(S,G) with upstream neighbor N needs to be sent
   upstream.

   UpstreamPorts(*,G): This is the set of all Port(N) ports where N is
   in the set UpstreamNeighbors(*,G).  Multicast Streams forwarded using



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   a (*,G) match MUST be forwarded to these ports.  So
   UpstreamPorts(*,G) MUST be added to OutgoingPortList(*,G).

   UpstreamPorts(S,G): This is the set of all Port(N) ports where N is
   in the set UpstreamNeighbors(S,G).  UpstreamPorts(S,G) MUST be added
   to OutgoingPortList(S,G).

   InheritedUpstreamPorts(S,G): This is the union of UpstreamPorts(S,G)
   and UpstreamPorts(*,G).

   UpstreamPorts(S,G,rpt): If PruneDesired(S,G,rpt) becomes true, then
   this set is set to UpstreamPorts(*,G).  Otherwise, this set is empty.
   UpstreamPorts(*,G) (-) UpstreamPorts(S,G,rpt) MUST be added to
   OutgoingPortList(S,G).

   UpstreamPorts(G): This set is the union of all the UpstreamPorts(S,G)
   and UpstreamPorts(*,G) for a given G. proxy (S,G) Join/Prune and
   (*,G) Join/Prune messages MUST be sent to a subset of
   UpstreamPorts(G) as specified in Section 2.6.6.1.

   PWPorts: This is the set of all PWs.

   OutgoingPortList(*,G): This is the set of all ports to which traffic
   needs to be forwarded on a (*,G) match.

   OutgoingPortList(S,G): This is the set of all ports to which traffic
   needs to be forwarded on an (S,G) match.

   See Section 2.12 on Data Forwarding Rules for the specification on
   how OutgoingPortList is calculated.

   NumETsActive(Port,*,G): Number of (Port,*,G,N) entries that have
   Expiry Timer running.  This macro keeps track of the number of
   Join(*,G)s that are received on this Port with different upstream
   neighbors.

   NumETsActive(Port,S,G): Number of (Port,S,G,N) entries that have
   Expiry Timer running.  This macro keeps track of the number of
   Join(S,G)s that are received on this Port with different upstream
   neighbors.

   JoinAttributeTlvs(*,G): Join Attributes RFC 5384 [JOIN-ATTR] are TLVs
   that may be present in received Join(*,G) messages, an example would
   be RPF Vectors RFC 5496 [RPF-VECTOR].  If present, they must be
   copied to JoinAttributeTlvs(*,G).






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   JoinAttributeTlvs(S,G): Join Attributes RFC 5384 [JOIN-ATTR] are TLVs
   that may be present in received Join(S,G) messages.  If present, they
   must be copied to JoinAttributeTlvs(S,G).

   Since there are a few differences between the downstream state
   machines of PIM-SM Routers and PIM-SM snooping PEs, we specify the
   details of the downstream state machine of PIM-SM snooping PEs at the
   risk of repeating most of the text documented in RFC 7761 [PIM-SM].

2.6.2.  Explanation for per (S,G,N) states

   In PIM Routing protocols, states are built per (S,G).  On a router,
   an (S,G) has only one RPF-Neighbor.  However, a PIM snooping PE does
   not have the Layer 3 routing information available to the routers in
   order to determine the RPF-Neighbor for a multicast flow.  It merely
   discovers it by snooping the Join/Prune message.  A PE could have
   snooped on two or more different Join/Prune messages for the same
   (S,G) that could have carried different Upstream-Neighbor fields.
   This could happen during transient network conditions or due to dual-
   homed sources.  A PE cannot make assumptions on which one to pick,
   but instead must allow the CE routers to decide which Upstream
   Neighbor gets elected the RPF-Neighbor.  And for this purpose, the PE
   will have to track downstream and upstream Join/Prune per (S,G,N).

2.6.3.  Receiving (*,G) PIM-SM Join/Prune Messages

   A Join(*,G) or Prune(*,G) is considered "received" if the following
   conditions are met:

   o  The port on which it arrived is not Port(N) where N is the
      upstream-neighbor N of the Join/Prune(*,G), or,

   o  if both Port(N) and the arrival port are PWs, then there exists at
      least one other (*,G,Nx) or (Sx,G,Nx) state with an AC
      UpstreamPort.

   For simplicity, the case where both Port(N) and the arrival port are
   PWs is referred to as PW-only Join/Prune in this document.  The PW-
   only Join/Prune handling is so that the Port(N) PW can be added to
   the related forwarding entries' OutgoingPortList to trigger Assert,
   but that is only needed for those states with AC UpstreamPort.  Note
   that in PW-only case, it is OK for the arrival port and Port(N) to be
   the same.  See Appendix B for examples.

   When a router receives a Join(*,G) or a Prune(*,G) with upstream
   neighbor N, it must process the message as defined in the state
   machine below.  Note that the macro computations of the various




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   macros resulting from this state machine transition is exactly as
   specified in the PIM-SM RFC 7761 [PIM-SM].

   We define the following per-port (*,G,N) macro to help with the state
   machine below.

   Figure 1 : Downstream per-port (*,G) state machine in tabular form

   +---------------++---------------------------------------------+
   |               ||          Previous State                     |
   |               ++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   | Event         ||NoInfo (NI) | Join (J)     | Prune-Pend (PP) |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   | Receive       ||-> J state  | -> J state   | -> J state      |
   | Join(*,G)     || Action     | Action       | Action          |
   |               || RxJoin(N)  | RxJoin(N)    | RxJoin(N)       |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |Receive        || -          | -> PP state  | -> PP state     |
   |Prune(*,G) and ||            | Start PPT(N) |                 |
   |NumETsActive<=1||            |              |                 |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |Receive        || -          | -> J state   | -               |
   |Prune(*,G) and ||            | Start PPT(N) |                 |
   |NumETsActive>1 ||            |              |                 |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |PPT(N) expires || -          | -> J state   | -> NI state     |
   |               ||            | Action       | Action          |
   |               ||            | PPTExpiry(N) |PPTExpiry(N)     |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |ET(N) expires  || -          | -> NI state  | -> NI state     |
   |and            ||            | Action       | Action          |
   |NumETsActive<=1||            | ETExpiry(N)  | ETExpiry(N)     |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |ET(N) expires  || -          | -> J state   | -               |
   |and            ||            | Action       |                 |
   |NumETsActive>1 ||            | ETExpiry(N)  |                 |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+

   Action RxJoin(N):

      If ET(N) is not already running, then start ET(N).  Otherwise
      restart ET(N).  If N is not already in UpstreamNeighbors(*,G),
      then add N to UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) and trigger a Join(*,G) with
      upstream neighbor N to be forwarded upstream.  If there are Join
      Attribute TLVs in the received (*,G) message and if they are
      different from the recorded JoinAttributeTlvs(*,G), then copy them
      into JoinAttributeTlvs(*,G).  In case of conflicting attributes




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      the PE will need to perform conflict resolution per (N) as
      described in RFC 5384 [JOIN-ATTR].

   Action PPTExpiry(N):

      Same as Action ETExpiry(N) below, plus Send a Prune-Echo(*,G) with
      upstream-neighbor N on the downstream port.

   Action ETExpiry(N):

      Disable timers ET(N) and PPT(N).  Delete neighbor state
      (Port,*,G,N).  If there are no other (Port,*,G) states with
      NumETsActive(Port,*,G) > 0, transition DownstreamJPState [PIM-SM]
      to NoInfo.  If there are no other (Port,*,G,N) state (different
      ports but for the same N), remove N from UpstreamPorts(*,G) - this
      also serves as a trigger for Upstream FSM (JoinDesired(*,G,N)
      becomes FALSE).

2.6.4.  Receiving (S,G) PIM-SM Join/Prune Messages

   A Join(S,G) or Prune(S,G) is considered "received" if the following
   conditions are met:

   o  The port on which it arrived is not Port(N) where N is the
      upstream-neighbor N of the Join/Prune(S,G), or,

   o  if both Port(N) and the arrival port are PWs, then there exists at
      least one other (*,G,Nx) or (S,G,Nx) state with an AC
      UpstreamPort.

   For simplicity, the case where both Port(N) and the arrival port are
   PWs is referred to as PW-only Join/Prune in this document.  The PW-
   only Join/Prune handling is so that the Port(N) PW can be added to
   the related forwarding entries' OutgoingPortList to trigger Assert,
   but that is only needed for those states with AC UpstreamPort.  See
   Appendix B for examples.

   When a router receives a Join(S,G) or a Prune(S,G) with upstream
   neighbor N, it must process the message as defined in the state
   machine below.  Note that the macro computations of the various
   macros resulting from this state machine transition is exactly as
   specified in RFC 7761 [PIM-SM].









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   Figure 2: Downstream per-port (S,G) state machine in tabular form

   +---------------++---------------------------------------------+
   |               ||              Previous State                 |
   |               ++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |   Event       ||NoInfo (NI) | Join (J)     | Prune-Pend (PP) |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   | Receive       ||-> J state  | -> J state   | -> J state      |
   | Join(S,G)     || Action     | Action       | Action          |
   |               || RxJoin(N)  | RxJoin(N)    | RxJoin(N)       |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |Receive        || -          | -> PP state  | -               |
   |Prune (S,G) and||            | Start PPT(N) |                 |
   |NumETsActive<=1||            |              |                 |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |Receive        || -          | -> J state   | -               |
   |Prune(S,G) and ||            | Start PPT(N) |                 |
    NumETsActive>1 ||            |              |                 |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |PPT(N) expires || -          | -> J state   | -> NI state     |
   |               ||            | Action       | Action          |
   |               ||            | PPTExpiry(N) |PPTExpiry(N)     |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |ET(N) expires  || -          | -> NI state  | -> NI state     |
   |and            ||            | Action       | Action          |
   |NumETsActive<=1||            | ETExpiry(N)  | ETExpiry(N)     |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+
   |ET(N) expires  || -          | -> J state   | -               |
   |and            ||            | Action       |                 |
   |NumETsActive>1 ||            | ETExpiry(N)  |                 |
   +---------------++------------+--------------+-----------------+

   Action RxJoin(N):

      If ET(N) is not already running, then start ET(N).  Otherwise,
      restart ET(N).

      If N is not already in UpstreamNeighbors(S,G), then add N to
      UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) and trigger a Join(S,G) with upstream
      neighbor N to be forwarded upstream.  If there are Join Attribute
      TLVs in the received (S,G) message and if they are different from
      the recorded JoinAttributeTlvs(S,G), then copy them into
      JoinAttributeTlvs(S,G).  In case of conflicting attributes the PE
      will need to perform conflict resolution per (N) as described in
      RFC 5384 [JOIN-ATTR].

   Action PPTExpiry(N):




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      Same as Action ETExpiry(N) below, plus Send a Prune-Echo(S,G) with
      upstream-neighbor N on the downstream port.

   Action ETExpiry(N):

      Disable timers ET(N) and PPT(N).  Delete neighbor state
      (Port,S,G,N).  If there are no other (Port,S,G) states with
      NumETsActive(Port,S,G) > 0, transition DownstreamJPState to
      NoInfo.  If there are no other (Port,S,G,N) state (different ports
      but for the same N), remove N from UpstreamPorts(S,G) - this also
      serves as a trigger for Upstream FSM (JoinDesired(S,G,N) becomes
      FALSE).

2.6.5.  Receiving (S,G,rpt) Join/Prune Messages

   A Join(S,G,rpt) or Prune(S,G,rpt) is "received" when the port on
   which it was received is not also the port on which the upstream-
   neighbor N of the Join/Prune(S,G,rpt) was learned.

   While it is important to ensure that the (S,G) and (*,G) state
   machines allow for handling per (S,G,N) states, it is not as
   important for (S,G,rpt) states.  It suffices to say that the
   downstream (S,G,rpt) state machine is the same as what is defined in
   section 4.5.3 of the RFC 7761 [PIM-SM].

2.6.6.  Sending Join/Prune Messages Upstream

   This section applies only to a PIM relay/proxying PE and not to a PIM
   snooping PE.

   A full PIM proxying (not relay) PE MUST implement the Upstream FSM
   for which the procedures are similar to what is defined in section
   4.5.4 of RFC 7761 [PIM-SM].

   For the purposes of the Upstream FSM, a Join or Prune message with
   upstream neighbor N is "seen" on a PIM relay/proxying PE if the port
   on which the message was received is also Port(N), and the port is an
   AC.  The AC requirement is needed because a Join received on the
   Port(N) PW must not suppress this PE's Join on that PW.

   A PIM relay PE does not implement the Upstream FSM.  It simply
   forwards received Join/Prune messages out of the same set of upstream
   ports as in the PIM proxying case.

   In order to correctly facilitate assert among the CE routers, such
   Join/Prunes need to send not only towards the upstream neighbor, but
   also on certain PWs as described below.




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   If JoinAttributeTlvs(*,G) is not empty, then it must be encoded in a
   Join(*,G) message sent upstream.

   If JoinAttributeTlvs(S,G) is not empty, then it must be encoded in a
   Join(S,G) message sent upstream.

2.6.6.1.  Where to send Join/Prune messages

   The following rules apply, to both forwarded (in case of PIM relay),
   refresh and triggered (in case of PIM proxying) (S,G)/(*,G) Join/
   Prune messages.

   o  The upstream neighbor field in the Join/Prune to be sent is set to
      the N in the corresponding Upstream FSM.

   o  if Port(N) is an AC, send the message to Port(N).

   o  Additionally, if OutgoingPortList(x,G,N) contains at least one AC,
      then the message MUST be sent to at least all the PWs in
      UpstreamPorts(G) (for (*,G)) or InheritedUpstreamPorts(S,G) (for
      (S,G)).  Alternatively, the message MAY be sent to all PWs.

   Sending to a subset of PWs as described above guarantees that if
   traffic (of the same flow) from two upstream routers were to reach
   this PE, then the two routers will receive from each other,
   triggering assert.

   Sending to all PWs guarantees that if two upstream routers both send
   traffic for the same flow (even if it is to different sets of
   downstream PEs), then they'll receive from each other, triggering
   assert.

2.7.  Bidirectional-PIM (BIDIR-PIM)

   BIDIR-PIM is a variation of PIM-SM.  The main differences between
   PIM-SM and Bidirectional-PIM are as follows:

   o  There are no source-based trees, and source-specific multicast is
      not supported (i.e., no (S,G) states) in BIDIR-PIM.

   o  Multicast traffic can flow up the shared tree in BIDIR-PIM.

   o  To avoid forwarding loops, one router on each link is elected as
      the Designated Forwarder (DF) for each RP in BIDIR-PIM.

   The main advantage of BIDIR-PIM is that it scales well for many-to-
   many applications.  However, the lack of source-based trees means
   that multicast traffic is forced to remain on the shared tree.



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   As described in RFC 5015 [BIDIR-PIM], parts of a BIDIR-PIM enabled
   network may forward traffic without exchanging Join/Prune messages,
   for instance between DF's and the Rendezvous Point Link (RPL).

   As the described procedures for PIM snooping rely on the presence of
   Join/Prune messages, enabling PIM snooping on BIDIR-PIM networks
   could break the BIDIR-PIM functionality.  Deploying PIM snooping on
   BIDIR-PIM enabled networks will require some further study.  Some
   thoughts are gathered in Appendix A.

2.8.  Interaction with IGMP Snooping

   Whenever IGMP snooping is enabled in conjunction with PIM snooping in
   the same VPLS instance the PE SHOULD follow these rules:

   o  To maintain the list of multicast routers and ports on which they
      are attached, the PE SHOULD NOT use the rules as described in RFC
      4541 [IGMP-SNOOP] but SHOULD rely on the neighbors discovered by
      PIM snooping.  This list SHOULD then be used to apply the
      forwarding rule as described in 2.1.1.(1) of RFC 4541
      [IGMP-SNOOP].

   o  If the PE supports proxy-reporting, an IGMP membership learned
      only on a port to which a PIM neighbor is attached but not
      elsewhere SHOULD NOT be included in the summarized upstream report
      sent to that port.

2.9.  PIM-DM

   The characteristics of PIM-DM is flood and prune behavior.  Shortest
   path trees are built as a multicast source starts transmitting.

2.9.1.  Building PIM-DM States

   PIM-DM states are built by snooping on the PIM-DM Join, Prune, Graft
   and State Refresh messages received on AC/PWs and State- Refresh
   Messages sent on AC/PWs.  By snooping on these PIM-DM messages, a PE
   builds the following states per (S,G,N) where S is the address of the
   multicast source, G is the Group address and N is the upstream
   neighbor to which Prunes/Grafts are sent by downstream CEs:

   Per PIM (S,G,N):

      Port PIM (S,G,N) Prune State:







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      *  DownstreamPState(S,G,N,Port): One of {"NoInfo" (NI), "Pruned"
         (P), "PrunePending" (PP)}

      *  Prune Pending Timer (PPT)

      *  Prune Timer (PT)

      *  Upstream Port (valid if the PIM(S,G,N) Prune State is
         "Pruned").

2.9.2.  PIM-DM Downstream Per-Port PIM(S,G,N) State Machine

   The downstream per-port PIM(S,G,N) state machine is as defined in
   section 4.4.2 of RFC 3973 [PIM-DM] with a few changes relevant to PIM
   snooping.  When reading section 4.4.2 of RFC 3973 [PIM-DM] for the
   purposes of PIM-snooping please be aware that the downstream states
   are built per (S, G, N, Downstream-Port} in PIM-snooping and not per
   {Downstream- Interface, S, G} as in a PIM-DM router.  As noted in the
   previous Section 2.9.1, the states (DownstreamPState) and timers (PPT
   and PT) are per (S,G,N,P).

2.9.3.  Triggering ASSERT election in PIM-DM

   Since PIM-DM is a flood-and-prune protocol, traffic is flooded to all
   routers unless explicitly pruned.  Since PIM-DM routers do not prune
   on non-RPF interfaces, PEs should typically not receive Prunes on
   Port(RPF-neighbor).  So the asserting routers should typically be in
   pim_oiflist(S,G).  In most cases, assert election should occur
   naturally without any special handling since data traffic will be
   forwarded to the asserting routers.

   However, there are some scenarios where a prune might be received on
   a port which is also an upstream port (UP).  If we prune the port
   from pim_oiflist(S,G), then it would not be possible for the
   asserting routers to determine if traffic arrived on their downstream
   port.  This can be fixed by adding pim_iifs(S,G) to pim_oiflist(S,G)
   so that data traffic flows to the UP ports.

2.10.  PIM Proxy

   As noted earlier, PIM snooping will work correctly only if Join
   Suppression is disabled in the VPLS.  If Join Suppression is enabled
   in the VPLS, then PEs MUST do PIM relay/proxying for VPLS multicast
   to work correctly.  This section applies specifically to the full
   proxying case and not relay.






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2.10.1.  Upstream PIM Proxy behavior

   A PIM proxying PE consumes Join/Prune messages and regenerates PIM
   Join/Prune messages to be sent upstream by implementing Upstream FSM
   as specified in the PIM RFC.  This is the only difference from PIM
   relay.

   The source IP address in PIM packets sent upstream SHOULD be the
   address of a PIM downstream neighbor in the corresponding join/prune
   state.  The address picked MUST NOT be the upstream neighbor field to
   be encoded in the packet.  The layer 2 encapsulation for the selected
   source IP address MUST be the encapsulation recorded in the PIM
   Neighbor database for that IP address.

2.11.  Directly Connected Multicast Source

   PIM snooping/relay/proxying could be enabled on a LAN that connects a
   multicast source and a PIM First Hop Router (FHR).  As the FHR will
   not send any downstream Join/Prune messages we will not be able to
   establish any forwarding states for that source.  Therefore, if there
   is a source in the CE network that connects directly into the VPLS
   instance, then multicast traffic from that source MUST be sent to all
   PIM routers on the VPLS instance in addition to the IGMP receivers in
   the VPLS.  If there is already (S,G) or (*,G) snooping state that is
   formed on any PE, this will not happen per the current forwarding
   rules and guidelines.  So, in order to determine if traffic needs to
   be flooded to all routers, a PE must be able to determine if the
   traffic came from a host on that LAN.  There are three ways to
   address this problem:

   o  The PE would have to do IPv4 ARP snooping and/or IPv6 Neighbor
      Discovery snooping, to determine if a source is directly
      connected.

   o  Another option is to have configuration on all PEs to say there
      are CE sources that are directly connected to the VPLS instance
      and disallow snooping for the groups for which the source is going
      to send traffic.  This way traffic from that source to those
      groups will always be flooded within the provider network.

   o  A third option is to require that sources of CE multicast traffic
      must be behind a router.

   This document recommends the third option - sources traffic must be
   behind a router.






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2.12.  Data Forwarding Rules

   First we define the rules that are common to PIM-SM and PIM-DM PEs.
   Forwarding rules for each protocol type is specified in the sub-
   sections.

   If there is no matching forwarding state, then the PE SHOULD discard
   the packet, i.e., the UserDefinedPortList below SHOULD be empty.

   The following general rules MUST be followed when forwarding
   multicast traffic in a VPLS:

   o  Traffic arriving on a port MUST NOT be forwarded back onto the
      same port.

   o  Due to VPLS Split-Horizon rules, traffic ingressing on a PW MUST
      NOT be forwarded to any other PW.

2.12.1.  PIM-SM Data Forwarding Rules

   Per the rules in RFC 7761 [PIM-SM] and per the additional rules
   specified in this document,

   OutgoingPortList(*,G) = immediate_olist(*,G) (+)
                           UpstreamPorts(*,G) (+)
                           Port(PimDR)

   OutgoingPortList(S,G) = inherited_olist(S,G) (+)
                           UpstreamPorts(S,G) (+)
                           (UpstreamPorts(*,G) (-)
                            UpstreamPorts(S,G,rpt)) (+)
                           Port(PimDR)

   RFC 7761 [PIM-SM] specifies how immediate_olist(*,G) and
   inherited_olist(S,G) are built.  PimDR is the IP address of the PIM
   DR in the VPLS.

   The PIM-SM snooping forwarding rules are defined below in pseudocode:













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   BEGIN
       iif is the incoming port of the multicast packet.
       S is the Source IP Address of the multicast packet.
       G is the Destination IP Address of the multicast packet.

       If there is (S,G) state on the PE
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList(S,G)
       Else if there is (*,G) state on the PE
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList(*,G)
       Else
           OutgoingPortList = UserDefinedPortList
       Endif

       If iif is an AC
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList (-) iif
       Else
           ## iif is a PW
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList (-) PWPorts
       Endif

       Forward the packet to OutgoingPortList.
   END

   First if there is (S,G) state on the PE, then the set of outgoing
   ports is OutgoingPortList(S,G).

   Otherwise if there is (*,G) state on the PE, the set of outgoing
   ports is OutgoingPortList(*,G).

   The packet is forwarded to the selected set of outgoing ports while
   observing the general rules above in Section 2.12

2.12.2.  PIM-DM Data Forwarding Rules

   The PIM-DM snooping data forwarding rules are defined below in
   pseudocode:












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   BEGIN
       iif is the incoming port of the multicast packet.
       S is the Source IP Address of the multicast packet.
       G is the Destination IP Address of the multicast packet.

       If there is (S,G) state on the PE
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = olist(S,G)
       Else
           OutgoingPortList = UserDefinedPortList
       Endif

       If iif is an AC
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList (-) iif
       Else
           ## iif is a PW
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList (-) PWPorts
       Endif

       Forward the packet to OutgoingPortList.
   END

   If there is forwarding state for (S,G), then forward the packet to
   olist(S,G) while observing the general rules above in section
   Section 2.12

   RFC 3973 [PIM-DM] specifies how olist(S,G) is constructed.

3.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.

4.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations provided in VPLS solution documents (i.e.,
   RFC 4762 [VPLS-LDP] and RFC 4761 [VPLS-BGP]) apply to this document
   as well.

5.  Contributors

   Yetik Serbest, Suresh Boddapati co-authored earlier versions.






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   Karl (Xiangrong) Cai and Princy Elizabeth made significant
   contributions to bring the specification to its current state,
   especially in the area of Join forwarding rules.

6.  Acknowledgements

   Many members of the former L2VPN and PIM working groups have
   contributed to and provided valuable comments and feedback to this
   document, including Vach Kompella, Shane Amante, Sunil Khandekar, Rob
   Nath, Marc Lassere, Yuji Kamite, Yiqun Cai, Ali Sajassi, Jozef Raets,
   Himanshu Shah (Ciena), Himanshu Shah (Alcatel-Lucent).

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [BIDIR-PIM]
              Handley, M., Kouvelas, I., Speakman, T., and L. Vicisano,
              "Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicast (BIDIR-
              PIM)", RFC 5015, 2007.

   [JOIN-ATTR]
              Boers, A., Wijnands, I., and E. Rosen, "The Protocol
              Independent Multicast (PIM) Join Attribute Format",
              RFC 5384, 2008.

   [PIM-DM]   Adams, A., Nicholas, J., and W. Siadak, "Protocol
              Independent Multicast Version 2 - Dense Mode
              Specification", RFC 3973, 2005.

   [PIM-SM]   Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., Kouvelas, I.,
              Parekh, R., Zhang, Z., and L. Zheng, "Protocol Independent
              Multicast- Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification
              (Revised)", RFC 7761, 2016.

   [PIM-SSM]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, 2006.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, 1997.

   [RPF-VECTOR]
              Wijnands, I., Boers, A., and E. Rosen, "The Reverse Path
              Forwarding (RPF) Vector TLV", RFC 5496, 2009.







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7.2.  Informative References

   [IGMP-SNOOP]
              Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and F. Solensky,
              "Considerations for IGMP and MLD snooping PEs", RFC 4541,
              2006.

   [VPLS-BGP]
              Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Virtual Private LAN Service
              using BGP for Auto-Discovery and Signaling", RFC 4761,
              2007.

   [VPLS-LDP]
              Lasserre, M. and V. Kompella, "Virtual Private LAN
              Services using LDP Signaling", RFC 4762, 2007.

   [VPLS-MCAST]
              Aggarwal, R., Kamite, Y., Fang, L., and Y. Rekhter,
              "Multicast in Virtual Private LAN Servoce (VPLS)",
              RFC 7117, 2014.

   [VPLS-MCAST-REQ]
              Kamite, Y., Wada, Y., Serbest, Y., Morin, T., and L. Fang,
              "Requirements for Multicast Support in Virtual Private LAN
              Services", RFC 5501, 2009.

Appendix A.  BIDIR-PIM Considerations

   This section describes some guidelines that may be used to preserve
   BIDIR-PIM functionality in combination with PIM snooping.

   In order to preserve BIDIR-PIM PIM snooping routers need to set up
   forwarding states so that :

   o  on the RPL all traffic is forwarded to all Port(N)

   o  on any other interface traffic is always forwarded to the DF

   The information needed to setup these states may be obtained by :

   o  determining the mapping between group(range) and RP

   o  snooping and storing DF election information

   o  determining where the RPL is, this could be achieved by static
      configuration, or by combining the information mentioned in
      previous bullets.




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A.1.  BIDIR-PIM Data Forwarding Rules

   The BIDIR-PIM snooping forwarding rules are defined below in
   pseudocode:

   BEGIN
       iif is the incoming port of the multicast packet.
       G is the Destination IP Address of the multicast packet.

       If there is forwarding state for G
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = olist(G)
       Else
           OutgoingPortList = UserDefinedPortList
       Endif

       If iif is an AC
       Then
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList (-) iif
       Else
           ## iif is a PW
           OutgoingPortList = OutgoingPortList (-) PWPorts
       Endif

       Forward the packet to OutgoingPortList.
   END

   If there is forwarding state for G, then forward the packet to
   olist(G) while observing the general rules above in Section 2.12

   RFC 5015 [BIDIR-PIM] specifies how olist(G) is constructed.

Appendix B.  Example Network Scenario

   Let us consider the scenario in Figure 3.
















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   Figure 3: An Example Network for Triggering Assert

                                                  +------+ AC3 +------+
                                                  |  PE2 |-----| CE3  |
                                                 /|      |     +------+
                                                / +------+         |
                                               /     |             |
                                              /      |             |
                                             /PW12   |             |
                                            /        |           /---\
                                           /         |PW23       | S |
                                          /          |           \---/
                                         /           |             |
                                        /            |             |
                                       /             |             |
                             +------+ /           +------+         |
                +------+     |  PE1 |/   PW13     |  PE3 |     +------+
                | CE1  |-----|      |-------------|      |-----| CE4  |
                +------+ AC1 +------+             +------+ AC4 +------+
                                 |
                                 |AC2
                             +------+
                             | CE2  |
                             +------+

   In the examples below, JT(Port,S,G,N) is the downstream Join Expiry
   Timer on the specified Port for the (S,G) with upstream neighbor N.

B.1.  PIM Snooping Example

   In the network depicted in Figure 3, S is the source of a multicast
   stream (S,G).  CE1 and CE2 both have two ECMP routes to reach the
   source.

    1. CE1 Sends a Join(S,G) with Upstream Neighbor(S,G) = CE3.
    2. PE1 snoops on the Join(S,G) and builds forwarding states since it
       is received on an AC. It also floods the Join(S,G) in the VPLS.
       PE2 snoops on the Join(S,G) and builds forwarding state since the
       Join(S,G)is targeting a neighbor residing on an AC. PE3 does not
       create forwarding state for (S,G) because this is a PW-only join
       and there is neither existing (*,G) state with an AC in
       UpstreamPorts(*,G) nor an existing (S,G) state with an AC in
       UpstreamPorts(S,G). Both PE2 and PE3 will also flood the
       Join(S,G) in the VPLS

       The resulting states at the PEs is as follows:

        At PE1:



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              JT(AC1,S,G,CE3)        = JP_HoldTime
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW12 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { AC1, PW12 }

          At PE2:
              JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)       = JP_HoldTime
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC3 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW12, AC3 }

          At PE3:
              No (S,G) state

    3. The multicast stream (S,G) flows along
       CE3 -> PE2 -> PE1 -> CE1
    4. Now CE2 sends a Join(S,G) with Upstream Neighbor(S,G) = CE4.
    5. All PEs snoop on the Join(S,G), build forwarding state and
       flood the Join(S,G) in the VPLS. Note that for PE2 even though
       this is a PW-only join, forwarding state is built on this
       Join(S,G) since PE2 has existing (S,G) state with an AC in
       UpstreamPorts(S,G)

       The resulting states at the PEs:

          At PE1:
              JT(AC1,S,G,CE3)        = active
              JT(AC2,S,G,CE4)        = JP_HoldTime
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3, CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW12, PW13 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { AC1, PW12, AC2, PW13 }

          At PE2:
              JT(PW12,S,G,CE4)       = JP_HoldTime
              JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)       = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3, CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC3, PW23 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW12, AC3, PW23 }

          At PE3:
              JT(PW13,S,G,CE4)       = JP_HoldTime
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC4 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW13, AC4 }

    6. The multicast stream (S,G) flows into the VPLS from the two CEs
       CE3 and CE4. PE2 forwards the stream received from CE3 to PW23
       and PE3 forwards the stream to AC4. This facilitates the CE



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       routers to trigger assert election. Let us say CE3 becomes the
       assert winner.
    7. CE3 sends an Assert message to the VPLS. The PEs flood the
       Assert message without examining it.
    8. CE4 stops sending the multicast stream to the VPLS.
    9. CE2 notices an RPF change due to Assert and sends a Prune(S,G)
       with Upstream Neighbor = CE4. CE2 also sends a Join(S,G) with
       Upstream Neighbor = CE3.
   10. All the PEs start a prune-pend timer on the ports on which
       they received the Prune(S,G). When the prune-pend timer expires,
       all PEs will remove the downstream (S,G,CE4) states.

       Resulting states at the PEs:

          At PE1:
             JT(AC1,S,G,CE3)        = active
             UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
             UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW12 }
             OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { AC1, AC2, PW12 }

          At PE2:
             JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)       = active
             UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
             UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC3 }
             OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW12, AC3 }

          At PE3:
             JT(PW13,S,G,CE3)       = JP_HoldTime
             UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
             UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW23 }
             OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW13, PW23 }

        Note that at this point at PE3, since there is no AC in
        OutgoingPortList(S,G) and no (*,G) or (S,G) state with an AC in
        UpstreamPorts(*,G) or UpstreamPorts(S,G) respectively, the
        existing (S,G) state at PE3 can also be removed. So finally:

          At PE3:
             No (S,G) state

   Note that at the end of the assert election, there should be no
   duplicate traffic forwarded downstream and traffic should flow only
   on the desired path.  Also note that there are no unnecessary (S,G)
   states on PE3 after the assert election.







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B.2.  PIM Proxy Example with (S,G) / (*,G) interaction

   In the same network, let us assume CE4 is the Upstream Neighbor
   towards the RP for G.

   JPST(S,G,N) is the JP sending timer for the (S,G) with upstream
   neighbor N.

    1. CE1 Sends a Join(S,G) with Upstream Neighbor(S,G) = CE3.

    2. PE1 consumes the Join(S,G) and builds forwarding state since the
       Join(S,G) is received on an AC.

       PE2 consumes the Join(S,G) and builds forwarding state since the
       Join(S,G) is targeting a neighbor residing on an AC.

       PE3 consumes the Join(S,G) but does not create forwarding state
       for (S,G) since this is a PW-only join and there is neither
       existing (*,G) state with an AC in UpstreamPorts(*,G) nor an
       existing (S,G) state with an AC in UpstreamPorts(S,G)

       The resulting states at the PEs is as follows:

          PE1 states:
              JT(AC1,S,G,CE3)        = JP_HoldTime
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = t_periodic
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW12 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { AC1, PW12 }

          PE2 states:
              JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)       = JP_HoldTime
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = t_periodic
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC3 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW12, AC3 }

          PE3 states:
              No (S,G) state

       Joins are triggered as follows:
       PE1 triggers a Join(S,G) targeting CE3. Since the Join(S,G) was
       received on an AC and is targeting a neighbor that is residing
       across a PW, the triggered Join(S,G) is sent on all PWs.

       PE2 triggers a Join(S,G) targeting CE3. Since the Joins(S,G) is
       targeting a neighbor residing on an AC, it only sends the join
       on AC3.



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       PE3 ignores the Join(S,G) since this is a PW-only join and there
       is neither existing (*,G) state with an AC in UpstreamPorts(*,G)
       nor an existing (S,G) state with an AC in UpstreamPorts(S,G)

    3. The multicast stream (S,G) flows along CE3 -> PE2 -> PE1 -> CE1.

    4. Now let us say CE2 sends a Join(*,G) with
       UpstreamNeighbor(*,G) = CE4.

    5. PE1 consumes the Join(*,G) and builds forwarding state since the
       Join(*,G) is received on an AC.

       PE2 consumes the Join(*,G) and though this is a PW-only join,
       forwarding state is build on this Join(*,G) since PE2 has
       existing (S,G) state with an AC in UpstreamPorts(S,G).
       However, since this is a PW-only join, PE2 only adds the PW
       towards PE3 (PW23) into UpstreamPorts(*,G) and hence into
       OutgoingPortList(*,G). It does not add the PW towards
       PE1 (PW12) into OutgoingPortsList(*,G)

       PE3 consumes the Join(*,G) and builds forwarding state since
       the Join(*,G) is targeting a neighbor residing on an AC.

       The resulting states at the PEs is as follows:

          PE1 states:
              JT(AC1,*,G,CE4)        = JP_HoldTime
              JPST(*,G,CE4)          = t_periodic
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { PW13 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { AC2, PW13 }

              JT(AC1,S,G,CE3)        = active
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW12 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { AC1, PW12, PW13 }

          PE2 states:
              JT(PW12,*,G,CE4)       = JP_HoldTime
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(G)       = { PW23 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW23 }

              JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)       = active
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC3 }



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              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW12, AC3, PW23 }

          PE3 states:
              JT(PW13,*,G,CE4)       = JP_HoldTime
              JPST(*,G,CE4)          = t_periodic
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { AC4 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW13, AC4 }

       Joins are triggered as follows:
       PE1 triggers a Join(*,G) targeting CE4. Since the Join(*,G) was
       received on an AC and is targeting a neighbor that is residing
       across a PW, the triggered Join(S,G) is sent on all PWs.

       PE2 does not trigger a Join(*,G) based on this join since this
       is a PW-only join.

       PE3 triggers a Join(*,G) targeting CE4. Since the Join(*,G) is
       targeting a neighbor residing on an AC, it only sends the join
       on AC4.

    6. In case traffic is not flowing yet (i.e. step 3 is delayed to
       come after step 6) and in the interim JPST(S,G,CE3) on PE1
       expires, causing it to send a refresh Join(S,G) targeting CE3,
       since the refresh Join(S,G) is targeting a neighbor that is
       residing across a PW, the refresh Join(S,G) is sent on all PWs.

    7. Note that PE1 refreshes its JT timer based on reception of
       refresh joins from CE1 and CE2

       PE2 consumes the Join(S,G) and refreshes the JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)
       timer.

       PE3 consumes the Join(S,G). It also builds forwarding state on
       this Join(S,G), even though this is a PW-only join, since now
       PE2 has existing (*,G) state with an AC in UpstreamPorts(*,G).
       However, since this is a PW-only join, PE3 only adds the PW
       towards PE2 (PW23) into UpstreamPorts(S,G) and hence into
       OutgoingPortList(S,G). It does not add the PW towards
       PE1 (PW13) into OutgoingPortList(S,G).

          PE3 States:
              JT(PW13,*,G,CE4)       = active
              JPST(S,G,CE4)          = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { AC4 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW13, AC4 }




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              JT(PW13,S,G,CE3)       = JP_HoldTime
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { PW23 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW13, AC4, PW23 }

       Joins are triggered as follows:
       PE2 already has (S,G) state, so it does not trigger a Join(S,G)
       based on reception of this refresh join.

       PE3 does not trigger a Join(S,G) based on this join since this
       is a PW-only join.

    8. The multicast stream (S,G) flows into the VPLS from the two
       CEs, CE3 and CE4. PE2 forwards the stream received from CE3 to
       PW12 and PW23. At the same time PE3 forwards the stream
       received from CE4 to PW13 and PW23.

       The stream received over PW12 and PW13 is forwarded by PE1 to
       AC1 and AC2.

       The stream received by PE3 over PW23 is forwarded to AC4. The
       stream received by PE2 over PW23 is forwarded to AC3. Either of
       these facilitates the CE routers to trigger assert election.

    9. CE3 and/or CE4 send(s) Assert message(s) to the VPLS. The PEs
       flood the Assert message(s) without examining it.

   10. CE3 becomes the (S,G) assert winner and CE4 stops sending the
       multicast stream to the VPLS.

   11. CE2 notices an RPF change due to Assert and sends a
       Prune(S,G,rpt) with Upstream Neighbor = CE4.

   12. PE1 consumes the Prune(S,G,rpt) and since
       PruneDesired(S,G,Rpt,CE4) is TRUE, it triggers a Prune(S,G,rpt)
       to CE4. Since the prune is targeting a neighbor across a PW, it
       is sent on all PWs.

       PE2 consumes the Prune(S,G,rpt) and does not trigger any prune
       based on this Prune(S,G,rpt) since this was a PW-only prune.

       PE3 consumes the Prune(S,G,rpt) and since
       PruneDesired(S,G,rpt,CE4) is TRUE it sends the Prune(S,G,rpt)
       on AC4.

          PE1 states:
              JT(AC2,*,G,CE4)        = active
              JPST(*,G,CE4)          = active



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              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { PW13 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { AC2, PW13 }

              JT(AC2,S,G,CE4)        = JP_Holdtime with FLAG sgrpt prune
              JPST(S,G,CE4)          = none, since this is sent along
                                       with the Join(*,G) to CE4 based
                                       on JPST(*,G,CE4) expiry
              UpstreamPorts(S,G,rpt) = { PW13 }
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G,rpt) = { CE4 }

              JT(AC1,S,G,CE3)        = active
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW12 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { AC1, PW12, AC2 }

          At PE2:
              JT(PW12,*,G,CE4)       = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { PW23 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW23 }

              JT(PW12,S,G,CE4)       = JP_Holdtime with FLAG sgrpt prune
              JPST(S,G,CE4)          = none, since this was created
                                       off a PW-only prune
              UpstreamPorts(S,G,rpt) = { PW23 }
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G,rpt) = { CE4 }

              JT(PW12,S,G,CE3)       = active
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { AC3 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW12, AC3 }

          At PE3:
              JT(PW13,*,G,CE4)       = active
              JPST(*,G,CE4)          = active
              UpstreamNeighbors(*,G) = { CE4 }
              UpstreamPorts(*,G)     = { AC4 }
              OutgoingPortList(*,G)  = { PW13, AC4 }

              JT(PW13,S,G,CE4)       = JP_Holdtime with S,G,rpt prune
                                       flag
              JPST(S,G,CE4)          = none, since this is sent along
                                       with the Join(*,G) to CE4 based
                                       on JPST(*,G,CE4) expiry
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G,rpt) = { CE4 }



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              UpstreamPorts(S,G,rpt)  = { AC4 }

              JT(PW13,S,G,CE3)       = active
              JPST(S,G,CE3)          = none, since this state is
                                       created by PW-only join
              UpstreamNeighbors(S,G) = { CE3 }
              UpstreamPorts(S,G)     = { PW23 }
              OutgoingPortList(S,G)  = { PW23 }


   Even in this example, at the end of the (S,G) / (*,G) assert
   election, there should be no duplicate traffic forwarded downstream
   and traffic should flow only to the desired CEs.

   However, the reason we don't have duplicate traffic is because one of
   the CEs stops sending traffic due to assert, not because we don't
   have any forwarding state in the PEs to do this forwarding.

Authors' Addresses

   Olivier Dornon
   Nokia
   50 Copernicuslaan
   Antwerp, B2018

   Email: olivier.dornon@nokia.com


   Jayant Kotalwar
   Nokia
   701 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94043

   Email: jayant.kotalwar@nokia.com


   Venu Hemige

   Email: vhemige@gmail.com


   Ray Qiu
   mistnet.io

   Email: ray@mistnet.io






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   Jeffrey Zhang
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   10 Technology Park Drive
   Westford, MA 01886

   Email: zzhang@juniper.net













































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