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Versions: (draft-vchen-paws-protocol) 00 01 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 RFC 7545

PAWS                                                        V. Chen, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Google
Intended status: Standards Track                                  S. Das
Expires: June 5, 2014                     Applied Communication Sciences
                                                                  L. Zhu
                                                                  Huawei
                                                               J. Malyar
                                           iconectiv (formerly Telcordia
                                              Interconnection Solutions)
                                                               P. McCann
                                                                  Huawei
                                                        December 2, 2013


            Protocol to Access White-Space (PAWS) Databases
                      draft-ietf-paws-protocol-07

Abstract

   Portions of the radio spectrum that are allocated to licensees are
   available for non-interfering use.  This available spectrum is called
   "White Space."  Allowing secondary users access to available spectrum
   "unlocks" existing spectrum to maximize its utilization and to
   provide opportunities for innovation, resulting in greater overall
   spectrum utilization.

   One approach to manage spectrum sharing uses databases to report
   spectrum availability to devices.  To achieve interoperability among
   multiple devices and databases, a standardized protocol must be
   defined and implemented.  This document defines such a protocol, the
   "Protocol to Access White Space (PAWS) Databases".

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 5, 2014.



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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Protocol Functionalities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Database Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.1.  Listing Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Initialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.2.1.  INIT_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.2.2.  INIT_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.3.  Device Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.4.  Available Spectrum Query  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.4.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       4.4.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       4.4.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       4.4.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     4.5.  Device Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       4.5.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       4.5.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   5.  Protocol Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     5.1.  GeoLocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     5.2.  DeviceDescriptor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     5.4.  DeviceCapabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33



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     5.5.  DeviceOwner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     5.6.  RulesetInfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     5.7.  DbUpdateSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.8.  DatabaseSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.9.  SpectrumSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.10. SpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     5.11. Spectrum  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     5.12. SpectrumProfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     5.13. FrequencyRange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     5.14. EventTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     5.15. GeoSpectrumSpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     5.16. DeviceValidity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     5.17. Error Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
       5.17.1. OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
       5.17.2. DATABASE_CHANGE Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       5.17.3. REQUIRED Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
   6.  Message Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     6.2.  init Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       6.2.1.  INIT_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       6.2.2.  INIT_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
     6.3.  register Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       6.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       6.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     6.4.  getSpectrum Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
       6.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
       6.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . .  57
     6.5.  getSpectrumBatch Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
       6.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ Parameters . . . . . . . . .  60
       6.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . .  62
     6.6.  notifySpectrumUse Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
       6.6.1.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . .  66
       6.6.2.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
     6.7.  verifyDevice Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
       6.7.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
       6.7.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
     6.8.  Sub-message Schemas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       6.8.1.  GeoLocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       6.8.2.  DeviceDescriptor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
       6.8.3.  AntennaCharacteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
       6.8.4.  DeviceCapabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
       6.8.5.  DeviceOwner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
       6.8.6.  RulesetInfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
       6.8.7.  DbUpdateSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       6.8.8.  DatabaseSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
       6.8.9.  Spectrum  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
       6.8.10. FrequencyRange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  81
       6.8.11. EventTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  81



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       6.8.12. SpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
       6.8.13. SpectrumSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
       6.8.14. GeoSpectrumSpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  84
       6.8.15. DeviceValidity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
       6.8.16. Additional Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
   7.  HTTPS Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
   8.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
     8.1.  Defining New Message Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
     8.2.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
     8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
     9.1.  PAWS Parameters Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  88
       9.1.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
       9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
     9.2.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
       9.2.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
       9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
     9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
       9.3.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
       9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
     10.1. Assurance of Proper Database  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     10.2. Protection Against Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     10.3. Protection Against Eavesdropping  . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
     10.4. Client Authentication Considerations  . . . . . . . . . .  96
   11. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
   12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
     13.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
     13.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98
   Appendix A.  Changes / Author Notes.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102



















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1.  Introduction

   This section provides some high level introductory material.  Readers
   are strongly encouraged to read Protocol to Access White-Space (PAWS)
   Databases: Use Cases and Requirements [RFC6953] for use cases,
   requirements, and additional background.

   A geospatial database can track available spectrum (in accordance
   with the rules of one or more regulatory domains) and make this
   information available to devices.  This approach shifts the
   complexity of spectrum-policy conformance out of the device and into
   the Database.  This approach also simplifies adoption of policy
   changes, limiting updates to a handful of databases, rather than
   numerous devices.  It opens the door for innovations in spectrum
   management that can incorporate a variety of parameters, including
   user location and time.  In the future, it also can include other
   parameters, such as user priority, time, signal type and power,
   spectrum supply and demand, payment or micro-auction bidding, and
   more.

   In providing this service, a database records and updates information
   necessary to protect primary users -- for example, this information
   may include parameters such as a fixed transmitter's call sign, its
   geo-location, antenna height, power, and periods of operation.  The
   rules that the Database must follow, including its schedule for
   obtaining and updating protection information, protection rules, and
   information reported to devices, vary according to regulatory domain.
   Such variations, however, should be handled by each database, and
   exposure to the variations by devices should be minimized.

   This specification defines an extensible protocol to obtain available
   spectrum from a geospatial database by a device with geo-location
   capability.  It enables a device to operate in any regulatory domain
   that implements the same protocol and in which the device is
   authorized to operate.  The document describes the use of HTTP/TLS as
   transport for the protocol.


2.  Conventions and Terminology

2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].





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2.2.  Terminology

   Database or Spectrum Database:  A database is an entity that contains
      current information about available spectrum at a given location
      and time, as well as other types of information related to
      spectrum availability and usage.
   Device ID  An identifier for a device.
   EIRP:  Effective isotropically radiated power
   ETSI:  European Telecommunications Standards Institute
   FCC:  Federal Communications Commission
   Listing server:  A server that provides the URLs for one or more
      Spectrum Databases.  A regulator, for example, may operate a
      Database Listing Server to publish the list of authorized Spectrum
      Databases for its regulatory domain.
   Master Device:  A device that queries the database, on its own behalf
      and/or on behalf of a slave device, to obtain available spectrum
      information.
   Ruleset:  A set of rules that governs operations of white space
      devices and Spectrum Databases within a regulatory domain.  The
      same set of rules may be used by more than one regulatory domain.
   Slave Device:  A device that queries the database through a master
      device.


3.  Protocol Overview

   A Master Device uses the PAWS protocol to obtain a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location.  The security necessary to ensure
   the accuracy, privacy, and confidentiality of the Device's location
   is described in the Security Considerations (Section 10).  This
   document assumes that the Master Device and the Database are
   connected to the Internet.

   A typical sequence of PAWS operations is outlined as follows.  See
   Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5) for details:

   1.   The Master Device obtains (statically or dynamically) the URI
        for a Database appropriate for its location to send subsequent
        PAWS messages.
   2.   The Master Device establishes an HTTPS session with the
        Database.
   3.   The Master Device optionally sends an initialization message to
        the Database to exchange capabilities.
   4.   If the Database receives an initialization message, it responds
        with a message in the body of the HTTP response.





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   5.   If required by regulatory domain, the Database registers the
        Master Device.
   6.   The Master Device sends an available-spectrum request message to
        the Database.
   7.   If required by the regulatory domain, the Master Device must
        verify with the Database that the Slave Device is valid.
   8.   The Database responds with an available-spectrum response
        message in the body of the HTTP response.
   9.   Depending on regulatory domain requirements and database
        implementation, the Master Device sends a spectrum-usage
        notification message to the Database.
   10.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
        it responds by sending the Master Device a spectrum-usage
        acknowledgement message.

3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support

   For a Master Device that supports multiple rulesets and operates with
   multiple databases in multiple regulatory domains, the PAWS protocol
   supports the following sequence of operations for each request by the
   Master Device:

   1.  The Master Device includes in its request its location and
       optionally includes the identifier of all the rulesets it
       supports and any parameter values it might need for the request
   2.  The Database uses the device location and also may use the
       ruleset list to determine its response, for example, to select
       the list of required parameters
   3.  If required parameters are missing from the request, the Database
       responds with a REQUIRED error and a list of names of the missing
       parameters
   4.  The Master Device makes the request again, adding the missing
       parameter values
   5.  The Database responds to the request, including the identifier of
       the applicable ruleset
   6.  The Master Device uses the indicated ruleset to determine how to
       interpret the Database response

   NOTE: Regulatory rules contain many device-only requirements that
   govern device behavior, independent of any database rules.  These
   requirements may be complex and involve device behavior that are not
   easily parameterized.  The ruleset-id parameter provides a mechanism
   for the Database to inform the Master Device of the applicable
   ruleset without having to express device-side behavior within the
   protocol.  The ruleset identifier is a string value that contains the
   name of regulatory body that established the rules and version
   information, such as "FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010".




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   By separating the regulatory "authority" from the "ruleset-id", it
   allows the protocol to support multiple regulatory authorities that
   use the same device-side ruleset.  It also allows support for a
   single authority to define multiple rulesets.


4.  Protocol Functionalities

   The PAWS protocol consists of several components:

   o  Database Discovery (Section 4.1) MUST be supported by the Master
      Device
   o  Initialization (Section 4.2) MAY be used by the Master Device and
      MUST be implemented by the Database.
   o  Device Registration (Section 4.3) MAY be used by the Master Device
      and MAY be implemented by the Database as a separate component or
      as part of the Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4) component.
   o  Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4) MUST be supported by Master
      Device and the Database.
   o  Spectrum Use Notify (Section 4.4.5) MAY be used by the Master
      Device and the Database.  If the regulatory domain requires
      notification, it MUST be used by the Master Device and MUST be
      implemented by the Database.
   o  Device Validation (Section 4.5) MAY be used by the Master Device.
      If the regulatory domain requires device validation, it MUST be
      implemented by the Database and MUST be used by the Master Device.

   This section describes the protocol components and their messages.
   Protocol Parameters (Section 5) contains a more thorough discussion
   of the parameters that comprise the PAWS request and response
   messages.  Message Encoding (Section 6) provides details of the
   message encodings.  HTTPS Binding (Section 7) describes the use of
   HTTPS (HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]) for transporting PAWS messages and
   optional device authentication.

4.1.  Database Discovery

   Different regulators may have different requirements for the approval
   and operation of databases, such as:

   o  A regulator may only allow a limited number of certified databases
      to operate.  It also may require the certification of each device-
      to-database pairing.
   o  A regulator may maintain a trusted website that lists all approved
      databases, known as the Listing Server.  It also may mandate how
      devices use the listing server.





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   o  A regulator may allow each database to define its own terms of
      use, so that, for example, an approved device may not be able to
      access all approved databases.

   Prior to sending PAWS messages, a Device MUST determine the URI for a
   Database that provides service at its current location.

   Preconfiguration

   The Master Device MAY be provisioned statically with the URI of one
   or more Databases.  For operation in regulatory domains that do not
   have a listing server, the device SHOULD be provisioned with the URI
   of all the databases for which it is certified or otherwise permitted
   to operate.  The Device also SHOULD be provisioned with the URI of
   listing servers approved by regulators.

   Configuration Update

   To adapt to changes in the list of certified or approved databases,
   the Device SHOULD update its preconfigured list of databases.  If the
   Master Device retrieves its preconfigured list of databases from a
   listing server, the device SHOULD check the listing server
   periodically to update its list.

   A Database MAY indicate that its URI will be changing by including
   the URI of one or more alternate databases (See DbUpdateSpec
   (Section 5.7)) in its responses to a Device.  Before a Database
   ceases operation, for example, it MUST include DbUpdateSpec in its
   responses to notify Devices.  A Device MUST update its preconfigured
   list of databases to replace (only) its entry for the responding
   Database with the URLs of the alternate databases; the list of
   alternate databases MUST NOT affect any other entries.

   Error Handling

   The Device SHOULD select another database from its list of
   preconfigured databases if:

   o  The selected database is unreachable or does not respond.
   o  The selected database returns an UNSUPPORTED error (see Error
      Codes (Section 5.17)), which may indicate that the database does
      not support the regulatory domain where the device is located.

   If a suitable database cannot be contacted, the Device MUST NOT
   operate under rules for database-managed spectrum.  If the Device is
   already operating when it fails to contact a suitable database, and
   if the applicable regulatory domain provides a grace period, the
   Device may continue to operate during such period, but MUST cease use



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   of the spectrum under rules for database-managed spectrum at or
   before the expiration of the grace period.  If a grace period is not
   provided by the applicable regulatory domain, an operating Device
   that fails to contact a suitable database MUST immediately cease use
   of the spectrum under rules for database-managed spectrum.

4.1.1.  Listing Server

   Within a regulatory domain that has a Database Listing Server, a
   Device MUST use it to determine the URLs of databases for the domain.
   The URI of the Listing Server for a regulatory domain MAY be
   preconfigured in the device.  Where allowed by the regulator, the
   Device MAY save the database list and SHOULD contact the Database
   Listing Server periodically to update its list.  The time between
   such updates MUST be no longer than one week, or any update interval
   required by the applicable regulatory domain, whichever is shorter.

   If the Device is unable to contact the Database Listing Server to
   obtain the list of databases for the domain, the Device MUST NOT
   operate under rules for database-managed spectrum.  If an operating
   Device attempting to update the available spectrum from a Database
   fails to contact the Database Listing Server to validate the Database
   that provides the available spectrum, the operating Device MUST
   immediately cease use of the spectrum under rules for database-
   managed spectrum.

   The Database Listing request procedure is depicted in Figure 1.

   o  LISTING_REQ is the database-listing request message
   o  LISTING_RESP is the database-listing response message

                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                  | Master Device |    |  Listing Server   |
                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                        |                     |
                        |    LISTING_REQ      |
                        |-------------------->|
                        |                     |
                        |    LISTING_RESP     |
                        |<--------------------|
                        |                     |

                                 Figure 1

   Specific message formats are defined by the regulators.






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4.2.  Initialization

   A Master Device SHOULD use the initialization procedure to exchange
   capability information with the Database whenever the Master Device
   powers up or initiates communication with the Database.  The
   initialization response informs the Master Device of specific
   regulatory-dependent parameterized-rule values, such as threshold
   distances and time periods beyond which the Device must update its
   available-spectrum data (see RuleSetInfo (Section 5.6)).  The Master
   Device MAY manually configure these parameterized-rule values.  The
   initialization message also represents extension points for database
   implementations or regulatory domains that require the extra
   handshake.

   The Initialization request procedure is depicted in Figure 2.
   o  INIT_REQ (Section 4.2.1) is the initialization request message
   o  INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) is the initialization response message

                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                  | Master Device |    | Spectrum Database |
                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_REQ         |
                        |-------------------->|
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_RESP        |
                        |<--------------------|
                        |                     |

                                 Figure 2

4.2.1.  INIT_REQ

   The initialization request message allows the Master Device to
   initiate exchange of capabilities with the Database.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_REQ                               |
   +----------------------------+----------|
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |location:GeoLocation        | required |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  |          |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:





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   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  If the Database does not support the device or any of
      the rulesets specified in the device descriptor, it MUST return an
      error with the UNSUPPORTED (Table 1) code in the error response.
      If the device descriptor does not contain any ruleset IDs, the
      Database SHOULD return a list of RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)
      parameters for each regulatory domain it supports at the specified
      location.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain or database
      implementation, the Master Device MAY specify additional handshake
      parameters in the INIT_REQ message.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.

4.2.2.  INIT_RESP

   The initialization response message communicates database parameters
   to the requesting device.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_RESP                              |
   +----------------------------+----------+   1..* +-------------+
   |rulesetInfos:list           | required |------->| RulesetInfo |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |        +-------------+
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  |          |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfos:  A list of RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) parameters MUST be
      included in the response.  Each RulesetInfo parameter corresponds
      to a regulatory domain supported by the Database and is applicable
      to the location specified in the INIT_REQ (Section 4.2.1) message.
      If the Device included a list of ruleset IDs in the
      DeviceDescriptor parameter of its INIT_REQ message, each
      RulesetInfo parameter in the response MUST match one of the
      specified ruleset IDs.
   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URLs.  The
      Device SHOULD use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URLs.







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   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain or database
      implementation, the Database MAY include additional handshake
      parameters in the INIT_RESP (Section 4.2.2) message.  The Master
      Device MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.

4.3.  Device Registration

   When a regulatory domain requires registration of a Master Device,
   the Device MUST send its registration information to the Database to
   establish certain operational parameters.  FCC rules, for example,
   require that a 'Fixed Device' MUST register its owner and operator
   contact information, its device identifier, its location, and its
   antenna height.

   The Database MAY support device registration as a separate Device
   Registration component, or as part of the Spectrum Availability
   component.  If the Database does not support a separate Device
   Registration request, it MUST return an error with the UNIMPLEMENTED
   (Table 1) code in the error-response message.

   The Device Registration request procedure is depicted in Figure 3.
   o  REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is the device-registration
      request message
   o  REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is the device-registration
      response message

                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                | Master Device |        | Spectrum Database |
                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_REQ     |
                      |------------------------>|
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_RESP    |
                      |<------------------------|
                      |                         |

                                 Figure 3

4.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ

   The registration request message contains the required registration
   parameters.








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   +--------------------------------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_REQ                                              |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor    | required                     |
   |location:GeoLocation           | required                     |
   |deviceOwner:DeviceOwner        | required                     |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics | depends on regulatory domain |
   |..............................................................|
   |*other:any                     |                              |
   +-------------------------------+------------------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  The ruleset IDs included in the this parameter indicate
      the regulatory domains for which the Device wishes to register.
      If the registration information is unacceptable for all of the
      regulatory domains supported by the Database, the Database MUST
      return an error message with an appropriate error code.
      Otherwise, the Database MUST return, in its response, a list of
      RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) parameters for all regulatory domains
      for which device registration was accepted.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device is REQUIRED.
   deviceOwner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information is REQUIRED.
   antenna:  Depending on the regulatory domain, the
      AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) MAY be required.
   other:  Regulatory domains and database implementations MAY require
      additional registration parameters.  To simplify its registration
      logic, the Device MAY send a union of the registration information
      required by all supported regulatory domains.  The Database MUST
      ignore all parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS
      Parameters Registry (Section 9.1) for possible additional
      parameters.

4.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP

   The registration response message acknowledges successful
   registration by including a RulesetInfo message for each regulatory
   domain in which the registration is accepted.  If the Database
   accepts the registration for none of the regulatory domains it
   supports, the Database MUST return an error.










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   +---------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_RESP                      |
   +----------------------------+----------+   1..* +-------------+
   |rulesetInfos:list           | required |------->| RulesetInfo |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |        +-------------+
   |............................|..........|
   |*other:any                  |          |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfos:  A list of RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) parameters MUST be
      included in the response, each of which corresponds to a
      regulatory domain for which the registration was accepted.  The
      list MUST contain at least one entry.
   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URLs.  The
      Device SHOULD use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URLs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the registration response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.1) for possible additional parameters and requirements
      they place on the Device.

4.4.  Available Spectrum Query

   To obtain the available spectrum from the Database, a Master Device
   sends a request that contains its geo-location and any parameters
   required by the regulatory rules (such as device identifier,
   capabilities, and characteristics).  The Database returns a response
   that describes which frequencies are available, at what permissible
   operating power levels, and a schedule of when they are available.

   The Available Spectrum Query procedure is depicted in Figure 4.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is the available-spectrum
      request message
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is the available-spectrum
      response message
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) is an OPTIONAL batch
      version of the available-spectrum request message that allows
      multiple locations to be specified in the request
   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) is the response message
      for the batch version of the available-spectrum request that
      contains available spectrum for each location




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   o  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) is the spectrum-usage
      notification message
   o  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP (Section 4.4.6) is the spectrum-usage
      acknowledgment message

               +---------------+          +-------------------+
               | Master Device |          | Spectrum Database |
               +---------------+          +-------------------+
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ      |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ) |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP     |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP)|
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |
                     |   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)    |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)     |
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |

                                 Figure 4

   1.  First, the Master Device sends an available-spectrum request
       message to the Database.
   2.  The Database MUST respond with an error using the NOT_REGISTERED
       (Table 1) code if:
       *  registration information is required, and
       *  the request does not include registration information, and
       *  the Device has not previously registered with the Database
   3.  If the location specified in the request is outside the
       regulatory domain supported by the Database, the Database MUST
       respond with an OUTSIDE_COVERAGE (Table 1) error.  If some
       locations within a batch request are outside the regulatory
       domain supported by the Database, the Database MAY return an OK
       response with available spectrum for only the valid locations;
       otherwise, if all locations within a batch request are outside
       the regulatory domain, the Database MUST respond with an
       OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error.
   4.  The Database MAY perform other validation of the request, (e.g.,
       checking for missing required parameters, authorizations).  It
       MUST return an error with appropriate error code (Table 1), if
       validation fails.  If the request is missing required parameters,
       the Database MUST respond with a REQUIRED (Table 1) error and
       SHOULD include a list of the missing parameters.



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   5.  If the request is valid, the Database responds with an available-
       spectrum response message.  If the regulatory domain requires
       that devices must report anticipated spectrum usage, the Database
       MUST indicate so in the response message.
   6.  If the available-spectrum response indicates that the Master
       Device must send a spectrum-usage notification message, the
       Master Device MUST send the notification message to the Database.
   7.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
       it MUST send a spectrum-usage acknowledgment message to the
       Master Device.

   The procedure for asking for available spectrum on behalf of a Slave
   Device is similar, except that the process is initiated by the Slave
   Device.  The device identifier, capabilities, and characteristics
   communicated in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message MUST be those of the
   Slave Device, but the location MUST be that of the Master Device.
   Although the communication and protocol between the Slave Device and
   Master Device is outside the scope of this document, the expected
   message sequence is shown in Figure 5.

      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ     |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          | (SPECTRUM_USE)  |                           |
          |................>|   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          |                 |                           |

                                 Figure 5







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4.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ

   The request message for the Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST
   include the Device's geo-location.  If allowed by the regulatory
   domain, the location MAY be an anticipated location.

   +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ                                               |
   +----------------------------------+------------------------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor       | optional                     |
   |location:GeoLocation              | optional                     |
   |owner:DeviceOwner                 | depends on regulatory domain |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics    | depends on regulatory domain |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities   | optional                     |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | optional                     |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation  | optional                     |
   |requestType:string                | optional                     |
   |..................................|..............................|
   |*other:any                        |                              |
   +----------------------------------+------------------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device
      requesting available spectrum.  When the request is made by a
      Master Device on its own behalf, the descriptor is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the descriptor is that of the Slave
      Device, and it is REQUIRED if the "requestType" parameter is not
      specified.  The deviceDesc parameter may be OPTIONAL for some
      values of requestType.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device requesting
      available spectrum.  The location SHOULD be the current location
      of the Device, but more precisely, the location of the radiation
      center of the Device's antenna.  When the request is made by the
      Master Device on its own behalf, the location is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made by the
      Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the location is that of
      the Slave Device and it is OPTIONAL (see also the
      masterDeviceLocation parameter).  Depending on the regulatory
      domain, the location MAY be an anticipated position of the Device
      to support mobile devices.  If the location specifies a region,
      rather than a point, the Database MAY return an error with the
      UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) code, if it does not support query by
      region.






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   owner:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to register
      the Device with the Database.  This enables the Device to register
      and get spectrum-availability information in a single request.
   antenna:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) MAY be required.
   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.
   masterDeviceDesc:  Depending on regulatory rules and Database
      implementations, when the request is made by the Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY be required to
      provide its own descriptor.
   masterDeviceLocation:  Depending on regulatory rules, when the
      request is made by the Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device,
      the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) of the Master Device MAY be
      required.
   requestType:  The request type is an OPTIONAL parameter that may be
      used to modify the request, but its use depends on applicable
      regulatory rules.  The request type may be used, for example, to
      request generic Slave Device parameters without having to specify
      the device descriptor for a specific device.  When the requestType
      parameter is missing, the request is for a specific device (Master
      or Slave), so the deviceDesc parameter is REQUIRED.  See IANA
      Ruleset Registry, Initial Registry Contents (Section 9.2.2) for
      regulatory specifics.
   other:  Regulatory domains and database implementations MAY require
      additional request parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.1) for possible additional parameters.

4.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP

   The response message for the Available Spectrum Query contains one or
   more SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) elements, one for each regulatory
   domain supported at the location specified in the corresponding
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) request.  Each SpectrumSpec
   element contains a list of one or more spectrum schedules,
   representing permissible power levels over time:
   o  Within each list of schedules, event-time intervals MUST be
      disjoint and SHOULD be sorted in increasing time
   o  A gap in the time schedule means no spectrum is available for that
      time interval






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   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP                    |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |spectrumSpecs:list          | required |-------+
   |............................|..........|       |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |       |
   |*other:any                  |          |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 1..*
                                                   V
                              +-----------------------------------+
                              |SpectrumSpec                       |
                              +------------------------+----------+
                              |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo | required |
                              |spectrumSchedules:list  | required |-+
                              |timeRange:EventTime     | optional | |
                              |frequencyRanges:list    | optional | |
                              |needsSpectrumReport:bool| optional | |
                              |maxTotalBwHz:float      | optional | |
                              |maxContiguousBwHz:float | optional | |
                              +------------------------+----------+ |
                                               +--------------------+
                                               | 1..*
                                               V
                                  +-------------------------------+
                                  |SpectrumSchedule               |
                                  +--------------------+----------+
                                  |eventTime:EventTime | required |
                                  |spectra:list        | required |
                                  +--------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps [RFC3339].  This SHOULD be used by the Device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.
   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message.
   spectrumSpecs:  The SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) list is REQUIRED and
      MUST include at least one entry.  Each entry contains the
      schedules of available spectrum for a regulatory domain.  The
      Database MAY return more than one SpectrumSpec to represent
      available spectrum for multiple regulatory domains at the
      specified location.





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   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URLs.  The
      Device SHOULD use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URLs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1)
      for possible additional parameters and requirements they place on
      the Device.

4.4.2.1.  Update Requirements

   When the stop time specified in the schedule has been reached, the
   Device:
   o  MUST obtain a new spectrum-availability schedule, either by using
      the next one in the list (if provided) or making another Available
      Spectrum Query (Section 4.4)
   o  If the new schedule indicates the in-use spectrum is no longer
      available, the Device MUST immediately cease use of that spectrum
      under rules for database-managed spectrum.
   o  If the Device is unable to contact the Database to obtain a new
      schedule, the Device MUST immediately cease use of that spectrum
      under rules for database-managed spectrum.

   When the Device moves beyond a threshold distance (established by
   regulatory rules) away from the actual location and all anticipated
   location(s) it reported in previous AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ or
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ requests (see "maxLocationChange" in
   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)), it:
   o  MUST obtain a new spectrum-availability schedule by making another
      Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.4).
   o  If the new response indicates the in-use spectrum is no longer
      available, the Device MUST stop operation immediately.
   o  If the Device is unable to contact the Database to obtain a new
      schedule, depending on the regulatory domain, the Device MUST
      immediately cease use of the spectrum under rules of database-
      managed spectrum.

   NOTE: Regulatory rules govern whether a device may request and use
   spectrum at anticipated locations beyond the threshold distance from
   its current location.

4.4.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ

   The Database MAY support the batch request that allows multiple
   locations to be specified.  This allows a portable Master Device to
   get available spectrum for a sequence of anticipated locations using



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   a single request.  The Database MUST interpret each location in the
   batch request as if it were an independent request and MUST return
   results consistent with multiple individual AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ
   (Section 4.4.1) requests.  The request message for the batch
   Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST include at least one
   GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  If the Database does not support batch
   requests, it MUST return a UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) error.

 +----------------------------------------------------------------+
 |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ                                        |
 +---------------------------------+------------------------------+
 |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor      | optional                     |
 |locations:list                   | required                     |--+
 |owner:DeviceOwner                | depends on regulatory domain |  |
 |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics   | depends on regulatory domain |  |
 |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities  | optional                     |  |
 |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor| optional                     |  |
 |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation | optional                     |  |
 |requestType:string               | optional                     |  |
 +.................................+..............................+  |
 |*other:any                       |                              |  |
 +---------------------------------+------------------------------+  |
                                                                     |
                                                                1..* V
                                                         +-------------+
                                                         | GeoLocation |
                                                         +-------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device
      requesting available spectrum.  When the request is made by a
      Master Device on its own behalf, the descriptor is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the descriptor is that of the Slave
      Device, and it is REQUIRED if the "requestType" parameter is not
      specified.  The deviceDesc parameter may be OPTIONAL for some
      values of requestType.
   locations:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) list for the Device is
      REQUIRED.  This allows the Device to specify its actual location
      plus additional anticipated locations, when allowed by the
      regulatory domain.  At least one location MUST be included.  This
      specification places no upper limit on the number of locations,
      but the Database MAY restrict the number of locations it supports
      by returning a response with fewer locations than specified in the
      request.  If the locations specify regions, rather than points,
      the Database MAY return an error with the UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1)
      code, if it does not support query by region.  When the request is



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      made by a Master Device on its own behalf, the locations are those
      of the Master Device.  When the request is made by the Master
      Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the locations are those of the
      Slave Device (see also the masterDeviceLocation parameter).
   owner:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to register
      the Device with the Database.  This enables the Device to register
      and get spectrum-availability information in a single request.
   antenna:  Depending on the device type and regulatory domain, the
      AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) MAY be required.
   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.
   masterDeviceDesc:  Depending on regulatory rules, when the request is
      made by the Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master
      Device MAY BE REQUIRED to provide its own descriptor.
   masterDeviceLocation:  Depending on regulatory rules and Database
      implementations, when the request is made by the Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the
      Master Device MAY be required.
   requestType:  The request type is an OPTIONAL parameter that may be
      used to modify the request, but its use depends on applicable
      regulatory rules.  The request type may be used, for example, to
      request generic Slave Device parameters without having to specify
      the device descriptor for a specific device.  When the requestType
      parameter is missing, the request is for a specific device (Master
      or Slave), so the deviceDesc parameter is REQUIRED.  See IANA
      Ruleset Registry, Initial Registry Contents (Section 9.2.2) for
      regulatory specifics.
   other:  Regulatory domains and database implementations MAY require
      additional request parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.1) for possible additional parameters.

4.4.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP

   The response message for the batch Available Spectrum Query contains
   a schedule of available spectrum for the Device at multiple
   locations.










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   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP              |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |geoSpectrumSpecs:list       | required |-------+
   |............................|..........|       |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |       |
   |*other:any                  |          |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                   V
                                +---------------------------------+
                                |GeoSpectrumSpec                  |
                                +----------------------+----------+
                                |location:GeoLocation  | required |
                                |spectrumSpecs:list    | required |
                                +----------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps [RFC3339].  This SHOULD be used by the Device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.
   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message.
   geoSpectrumSpecs:  The geoSpectrumSpecs (Section 5.15) list is
      REQUIRED (though it MAY be empty if spectrum is unavailable).  For
      each location, the Database MAY return one or more SpectrumSpec
      (Section 5.9) parameters to represent available spectrum for one
      or more regulatory domains.  The Database MAY return available
      spectrum for fewer locations than requested.  The Device MUST NOT
      make any assumptions on the order of the entries in the list and
      MUST use the location value in each GeoSpectrumSpec entry to match
      available spectrum to a location.
   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URLs.  The
      Device SHOULD use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URLs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1)
      for possible additional parameters and requirements they place on
      the Device.

   See Update Requirements (Section 4.4.2.1) for when the Device must
   update its available spectrum data.



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4.4.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY

   The spectrum-use notification message MUST contain the geo-location
   of the Device and parameters required by the regulatory domain.

   +--------------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY                         |
   +---------------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor      | required |
   |location:GeoLocation             | required |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation | optional |
   |spectra:list                     | required |-------+
   |............................................|       |
   |*other:any                       |          |       |
   +---------------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                        V
                                 +--------------------------------+
                                 |Spectrum                        |
                                 +---------------------+----------+
                                 |resolutionBwHz:float | required |
                                 |profiles:list        | required |
                                 +---------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Device is
      REQUIRED.
   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Device.  When the
      notification is made by a Master Device on its own behalf, the
      location is that of the Master Device and is REQUIRED.  When the
      notification is made by a Master Device on behalf of a Slave
      Device, the location is that of the Slave Device and MAY be
      required, depending on regulatory rules.
   spectra:  The Spectrum (Section 5.11) list is REQUIRED, and specifies
      the spectrum anticipated to be used by the Device, which includes
      profiles of frequencies and power levels.  The list MAY be empty,
      if the Device decides not to use any spectrum.  For consistency,
      the resolution bandwidth value, "resolutionBwHz" SHOULD match that
      from one of the Spectrum (Section 5.11) elements in the
      corresponding AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP message, and the maximum power
      levels in the Spectrum element MUST be expressed as power over the
      specified "resolutionBwHz" value.  The actual bandwidth to be used
      (as computed from the start and stop frequencies) MAY be different
      from the "resolutionBwHz" value.  As an example, when regulatory
      rules express maximum power spectral density in terms of maximum
      power over any 100 kHz band, then the "resolutionBwHz" value
      should be set to 100 kHz, even though the actual bandwidth used
      can be 20 kHz.



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   masterDeviceLocation:  Depending on regulatory rules, when the
      notification is made by the Master Device on behalf of a Slave
      Device, the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the Master Device MAY be
      required.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain, other parameters MAY be
      required.  To simplify its logic, the Device MAY include the union
      of all parameters required by all supported regulatory domains.
      The Database MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.

4.4.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP

   The spectrum-use response message simply acknowledges receipt of the
   notification.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_RESP                      |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  |          |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URLs.  The
      Device SHOULD use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URLs.
   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.1)
      for possible additional parameters and requirements they place on
      the Device.

4.5.  Device Validation

   Typically, a Slave Device needs a Master Device to ask the Database
   on its behalf for available spectrum.  Depending on the regulatory
   domain, the Master Device also must validate with the Database that
   the Slave Device is permitted to operate.  When regulatory rules
   allow a Master Device to "cache" the available spectrum for a period
   of time, the Master Device MAY use the simpler Device Validation
   component, instead of the full Available Spectrum Query component, to
   validate a Slave Device.

   When validating one or more Slave Devices, the Master Device sends
   the Database a request that includes the device identifier -- and any



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   other parameters required by the regulatory rules -- for each Slave
   Device.  The Database MUST return a response that indicates whether
   each device is permitted to use the spectrum.

   A typical sequence for using the Device Validation request is
   illustrated in Figure 6, where the Master Device already has a valid
   set of available spectrum for Slave Devices.  Note that the
   communication and protocol between the Slave Device and Master Device
   is outside the scope of this document.
   o  DEV_VALID_REQ (Section 4.5.1) is the device-validation request
      message
   o  DEV_VALID_RESP (Section 4.5.2) is the device-validation response
      message

      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_REQ          |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_RESP         |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          | (SPECTRUM_USE)  |                           |
          |................>|   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|

                                 Figure 6














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4.5.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ

   +---------------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_REQ                                |
   +----------------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDescs:list                  | required |---+
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | optional |   |
   +----------------------------------+----------+   |
                                                     V 1..*
                                    +----------------------+
                                    |DeviceDescriptor      |
                                    +----------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDescs:  A DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) list is REQUIRED,
      which specifies the list of Slave Devices that to be validated.
   masterDeviceDesc:  Depending on regulatory rules, when the request is
      made by the Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master
      Device MAY be required to provide its own descriptor.

4.5.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP

   +---------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_RESP                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceValidities:list       | required |----
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpac | optional |   |
   +----------------------------+----------+   |
                                               V 1..*
                            +---------------------------------------+
                            |DeviceValidity                         |
                            +----------------------------+----------+
                            |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
                            |isValid:boolean             | required |
                            +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceValidities:  A DeviceValidities (Section 5.16) list is REQUIRED
      to report the list of Slave Devices and whether each listed Device
      is valid.  The number of entries MUST match the number of
      DeviceDescriptors (Section 5.2) listed in the DEV_VALID_REQ
      message.







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   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) parameter to notify the Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URLs.  The
      Device SHOULD use the information to update its list of
      preconfigured databases to replace (only) its entry for the
      responding database with the list of alternate URLs.


5.  Protocol Parameters

   This section presents more details of the parameters that make up the
   PAWS request and response messages.  It also includes a sub-section
   defining response codes.

5.1.  GeoLocation

   This parameter is used to specify the geo-location of the Device.  It
   may be used to specify one of the following:

   o  A single point with optional uncertainty
   o  A region described by a polygon

   These are represented using geometric shapes defined in Section 5 of
   GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object [RFC5491],
   where:

   o  A "point" with uncertainty is represented using the Ellipse shape
   o  A region is represented using the Polygon shape

   The coordinates are expressed using the WGS84 datum [WGS-84], and
   units are degrees or meters.  The parameter MAY also include a
   confidence level, expressed as a percentage.  The data model for
   GeoLocation is illustrated below:

   +-------------------------------------------------+
   |GeoLocation                                      |
   +------------------+------------------------------+
   |point:Ellipse     | optional                     |
   |region:Polygon    | optional                     |
   |confidence:int    | depends on regulatory domain |
   +------------------+------------------------------+
   Note: point and region are mutually exclusive, but one of them must
   be present.








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   +---------------------------------------------------+
   |Ellipse                                            |
   +--------------------+------------------------------+
   |center:Point        | required                     |--+
   |semiMajorAxis:float | depends on regulatory domain |  |
   |semiMinorAxis:float | depends on regulatory domain |  |
   |orientation:float   | optional                     |  |
   +--------------------+------------------------------+  v
                                        +---------------------------+
                                        |Point                      |
                                        +----------------+----------+
                                        |latitude:float  | required |
                                        |longitude:float | required |
                                        +----------------+----------+


   +-------------------------------+
   |Polygon                        |
   +-------------------+-----------+  4..* +---------------------------+
   |exterior:list      | required  |------>|Point                      |
   +-------------------+-----------+       +----------------+----------+
                                           |latitude:float  | required |
                                           |longitude:float | required |
                                           +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   point:  If present, it indicates that the GeoLocation represents a
      point.  Paradoxically, a "point" is parameterized using an
      Ellipse, where the center represents the location of the point and
      the distances along the major and minor axes represent the
      uncertainty.  The uncertainty values MAY be required, depending on
      the regulatory domain.  Exactly one of "point" or "region" MUST be
      present.
   region:  If present, it indicates that the GeoLocation represents a
      region.  Exactly one of "point" or "region" MUST be present.
   center:  The center refers to the location of a GeoLocation point and
      is represented as the center of an ellipse.
   latitude, longitude:  Floating-point numbers that express the
      latitude and longitude in degrees using the WGS84 datum [WGS-84].
   semiMajorAxis, semiMinorAxis:  If required by the regulatory domain,
      the location uncertainty, in meters, is parameterized using
      distances along the major and minor axes of the ellipse.  When
      uncertainty is optional, the default value of each is 0.







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   orientation:  This defines the orientation of the ellipse, expressed
      as the rotation, in degrees, of the semi-major axis from North
      towards the East.  For example, when the uncertainty is greatest
      along the North-South direction, orientation is 0 degrees;
      conversely, if the uncertainty is greatest along the East-West
      direction, orientation is 90 degrees.  When orientation is not
      present, the orientation MUST be interpreted as 0.
   exterior:  When GeoLocation describes a region, the "exterior" field
      refers to a list of latitude/longitude points that represents the
      vertices of a polygon.  The first and last points MUST be the
      same.  Thus, a minimum of 4 points is required.  The following
      polygon restrictions from [RFC5491] apply:
      *  A connecting line MUST NOT cross another connecting line of the
         same polygon.
      *  The vertices MUST be defined in a counter-clockwise direction.
      *  The edges of a polygon are defined by the shortest path between
         two points in space (not a geodesic curve).  Consequently, the
         length between two adjacent vertices SHOULD be restricted to a
         maximum of 130 km.
      *  All vertices are assumed to be at the same altitude.
      *  Polygon shapes SHOULD be restricted to a maximum of 15 vertices
         (16 points that includes the repeated vertex).
   confidence:  The location confidence level, as an integer percentage,
      MAY be required, depending on the regulatory domain.  When the
      parameter is optional and not provided, its value MUST be
      interpreted as 95.  Valid values range from 0 to 99, since, in
      practice, 100-percent confidence is not achievable.  The
      confidence value is meaningful only when GeoLocation refers to a
      point with uncertainty.

5.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The device descriptor contains parameters that identify the specific
   device, such as its manufacturer serial number, regulatory-specific
   ID (e.g., FCC ID), and any other device characteristics required by
   regulatory domains.

   +--------------------------------+
   |DeviceDescriptor                |
   +---------------------+----------+
   |serialNumber:string  | required |
   |manufacturerId:string| optional |
   |modelId:string       | optional |  1..*
   |rulesetIds:list      | optional |------>string
   |.....................|..........|
   |*other:any           |          |
   +---------------------+----------+




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   Parameters:

   serialNumber:  The manufacturer's device serial number is REQUIRED.
      The length of the value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters, conforming
      to the X.520 [ITUT.X520.2008] recommendations.
   manufacturerId:  The manufacturer's ID may be REQUIRED, depending on
      the regulatory domain.  This SHOULD represent the name of the
      device manufacturer, SHOULD be consistent across all devices from
      the same manufacturer, and SHOULD be distinct from that of other
      manufacturers.  The string value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters in
      length.
   modelId:  The device's model ID may be REQUIRED, depending on the
      regulatory domain.  The string value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters
      in length.
   rulesetIds:  The list of identifiers for rulesets supported by the
      device (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)).  A Database MAY
      require that the device provides this list before servicing the
      device requests.  If the Database does not support any of the
      rulesets specified in the list, the Database MAY refuse to service
      the device requests.  See RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) for discussion
      on ruleset identifier.  If present, the list MUST contain at least
      one entry.
   other:  Depending on the regulatory domain, other parameters may be
      required.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters in the message
      it does not understand.  See PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.1) for additional valid parameters and for the process
      for extending the message with more parameters.  Additionally, see
      PAWS Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2) for the valid set of
      parameters for each ruleset.

5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   Antenna characteristics provide additional information, such as the
   antenna height, antenna type, etc.  Whether antenna characteristics
   must be provided in a request depends on the device type and
   regulatory domain.

   +--------------------------------------------------------+
   |AntennaCharacteristics                                  |
   +-------------------------+------------------------------+
   |height:float             | depends on regulatory domain |
   |heightType:enum          | optional                     |
   |heightUncertainty:float  | depends on regulatory domain |
   |.........................|..............................|
   |*characteristics:        | depends on regulatory domain |
   |   various               |                              |
   +-------------------------+------------------------------+




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   Parameters:

   height:  The antenna height in meters.  Whether the antenna height is
      required depends on the device type and the regulatory domain.
      Note that the height may be negative.
   heightType:  If the height is required, then heightType is also
      REQUIRED.  Valid values are:
      AGL  Above ground level (default)
      AMSL  Above mean sea level
   heightUncertainty:  The height uncertainty in meters.  Whether this
      is required depends on the regulatory domain.

   Depending on the regulatory authority, additional antenna
   characteristics may be required, such as:
   o  antenna direction
   o  antenna radiation pattern
   o  antenna gain
   o  antenna polarization

5.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities provide additional information that MAY be used
   by the Device to provide additional information to the Database that
   may help it to determine available spectrum.  If the Database does
   not support device capabilities it MUST ignore the parameter
   altogether.

   +-------------------------------+
   |DeviceCapabilities             |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |frequencyRanges:list |optional |--+
   +---------------------+---------+  | 0..*
                                      V
                +--------------------------------+
                |FrequencyRange                  |
                +----------------------+---------+
                |startHz:float         |required |
                |stopHz:float          |required |
                +----------------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   frequencyRanges:  Optional FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) list.  Each
      FrequencyRange element MUST contain start and stop frequencies,
      and optionally, channel IDs, in which the Device can operate.
      When specified, the Database SHOULD NOT return available spectrum
      that falls outside these ranges (or channel IDs).




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5.5.  DeviceOwner

   This parameter contains device-owner information required as part of
   device registration.  Regulatory domains MAY require additional
   parameters.

   +-----------------------------+
   |DeviceOwner                  |
   +------------------+----------+
   |owner:vcard       | required |
   |operator:vcard    | optional |
   +------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   owner:  The vCard contact information for the individual or business
      that owns the Device is REQUIRED.
   operator:  The vCard contact information for the device operator is
      OPTIONAL, but may be required by specific regulatory domains

   NOTE: Depending on the regulatory domain, the Database MAY be
   required to validate the device-owner information.  In these cases,
   the Database MUST respond with an error if validation fails.

   All contact information MUST be expressed using the structure defined
   by the vCard Format Specification [RFC6350].  Only the contact fields
   of vCard are supported:

   fn Full name of an individual
   org  Name of the organization
   adr  Address fields
   tel  Telephone numbers
   email  Email addresses

   Note that the vCard specification defines maximum lengths for each
   field, conforming to X.520 [ITUT.X520.2008] recommendations.

5.6.  RulesetInfo

   This contains parameters for the ruleset of a regulatory domain that
   is communicated using the Initialization component (Section 4.2),
   Device Registration (Section 4.3), and Available Spectrum Query
   (Section 4.4) components.








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   +-----------------------------------+
   |RulesetInfo                        |
   +-----------------------------------+
   |authority:string        | required |
   |rulesetId:string        | required |
   |maxLocationChange:float | optional |
   |maxPollingSecs:int      | optional |
   |...................................|
   |*other:any              |          |
   +------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:
   authority:  A string that indicates the regulatory domain to which
      the ruleset applies is REQUIRED.  It MUST be a 2-letter country
      code defined by Country Codes - ISO 3166 [ISO3166-1].  The Device
      SHOULD use this to determine additional device behavior required
      by the associated regulatory domain.
   rulesetId:  The ID of a ruleset for the specified authority (see
      Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)).
   maxLocationChange:  The maximum location change in meters is REQUIRED
      for Initialization Response (Section 4.2.2), but OPTIONAL
      otherwise.  When the Device changes location by more than this
      specified distance, it MUST contact the Database to get the
      available spectrum for the new location.  If the Device is using
      spectrum that is no longer available, it MUST immediately cease
      use of the spectrum under rules for database-managed spectrum.  If
      this value is provided within the context of an Available Spectrum
      Response (Section 4.4.2), it takes precedence over the value
      within the Initialization Response.
   maxPollingSecs:  The maximum duration, in seconds, between requests
      for available spectrum is REQUIRED for the Initialization Response
      (Section 4.2.2), but OPTIONAL otherwise.  The Device MUST contact
      the Database to get available spectrum no less frequently than
      this duration.  If the new spectrum information indicates that the
      Device is using spectrum that is no longer available, it MUST
      immediately cease use of those frequencies under rules for
      database-managed spectrum.  If this value is provided within the
      context of an Available Spectrum Response (Section 4.4.2), it
      takes precedence over the value within the Initialization
      Response.
   other:  This message is intended to be extensible with other
      regulatory-specific parameters.  Devices MUST ignore all
      parameters in the message it does not understand.








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5.7.  DbUpdateSpec

   This message is provided by the Database to notify devices of an
   upcoming change to the Database URL.


   +-------------------------------+
   |DbUpdateSpec                   |
   +---------------------+---------+       +--------------------------+
   |databases:list       |required |------>|DatabaseSpec              |
   +---------------------+---------+  1..* +---------------+----------+
                                           |name:string    | required |
                                           |uri:string     | required |
                                           +---------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   databases:  List of one or more DatabaseSpec (Section 5.8) entries.
      A Device SHOULD update its preconfigured list of databases to
      replace (only) the database that provided the response with the
      specified entries.

5.8.  DatabaseSpec

   This message contains the name and URI of a database.

   +--------------------------+
   |DatabaseSpec              |
   +---------------+----------+
   |name:string    | required |
   |uri:string     | required |
   +---------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   name:  The display name for a database.
   uri:  The corresponding URI of the database.

5.9.  SpectrumSpec

   The SpectrumSpec element encapsulates the schedule of available
   spectrum for a regulatory domain.









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   +---------------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSpec                           |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo     | required |
   |spectrumSchedules:list      | required |-----+
   |timeRange:EventTime         | optional |     |
   |frequencyRanges:list        | optional |     |
   |needsSpectrumReport:boolean | optional |     |
   |maxTotalBwHz:float          | optional |     |
   |maxContiguousBwHz:float     | optional |     |
   +----------------------------+----------+     |
                                                 | 1..*
                                                 V
                                      +-------------------------------+
                                      |SpectrumSchedule               |
                                      +--------------------+----------+
                                      |eventTime:EventTime | required |
                                      |spectra:list        | required |
                                      +--------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfo:  The RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) is REQUIRED to identify
      the regulatory domain and ruleset for which the spectrum schedule
      applies (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.2)).  The Device MUST
      use the corresponding ruleset to interpret the response.  Values
      provided within this parameter, such as maxLocationChange, take
      precedence over the values provided by the Initialization
      Procedure (Section 4.2).
   spectrumSchedules:  The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) list is
      REQUIRED.  At least one schedule MUST be included.  More than one
      schedule MAY be included to represent future changes to the
      available spectrum.  How far in advance a schedule may be provided
      depends on the regulatory domain.  If more than one schedule is
      included, the eventTime intervals MUST be disjoint and SHOULD be
      sorted in increasing time.  A gap in the time schedule indicates
      no available spectrum during that time-interval gap.
   timeRange:  The time range for which the specification is
      comprehensive is OPTIONAL.  When specified, any gaps in time
      intervals within the "spectrumSchedules" element MUST be
      interpreted by the Device as time intervals in which there are no
      available spectrum.
   frequencyRanges:  The frequency ranges for which the specification is
      comprehensive is OPTIONAL.  It is a list of FrequencyRange
      (Section 5.13) entries, and the ranges MUST be disjoint.  When
      specified, it SHOULD correspond to the frequency ranges governed
      by the ruleset.  A Device may combine this information with the
      available-spectrum specification within the "spectrumSchedules"



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      element to distinguish between "unavailable spectrum" and
      "spectrum for which no information has been provided".
   needsSpectrumReport:  For regulatory domains that require a spectrum-
      usage report from devices, the Database MUST return true for this
      parameter if spectrumSchedules list is non-empty; otherwise, the
      Database MAY return false or omit this parameter altogether.  If
      this parameter is present and its value is true, the Device MUST
      send a SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) message to the
      Database; otherwise, the Device SHOULD NOT send the
      SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY message.
   maxTotalBwHz:  The Database MAY return a constraint on the maximum
      total bandwidth (in Hertz) allowed, which may or may not be
      contiguous.  A regulatory domain MAY require the Database to
      return this parameter.  When present in the response, the Device
      MUST apply this constraint to its spectrum-selection logic to
      ensure total bandwidth does not exceed this value.
   maxContiguousBwHz:  The Database MAY return a constraint on the
      maximum contiguous bandwidth (in Hertz) allowed.  A regulatory
      domain MAY require this Database to return this parameter.  When
      present in the response, the Device MUST apply this constraint to
      its spectrum-selection logic to ensure no single block of spectrum
      has bandwidth that exceeds this value.

5.10.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime (Section 5.14) with
   Spectrum (Section 5.11) to define a time period in which the spectrum
   is valid.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSchedule               |
   +--------------------+----------+
   |eventTime:EventTime | required |        +--------------------+
   |spectra:list        | required |------->|Spectrum            |
   +--------------------+----------+   0..* +--------------------+
                                            |resolutionBwHz:float|
                                            |profiles:list       |
                                            +--------------------+

   Parameters:

   eventTime:  The EventTime (Section 5.14) is REQUIRED to express
      "when" this specification is valid.
   spectra:  Spectrum (Section 5.11) list is REQUIRED to specify the
      available spectrum and permissible power levels, one per
      resolutionBwHz.  The list MAY be empty when there is no available
      spectrum.




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5.11.  Spectrum

   Available spectrum can be characterized by an ordered list of
   spectrum profiles that defines permissible power levels over a set of
   frequency ranges.  Each Spectrum element defines permissible power
   levels as maximum power spectral densities over a specified
   resolution bandwidth, "resolutionBwHz".  Note that the spectrum
   profiles represent the "availability mask", as defined by the
   governing rule set; they are not intended to encode device-level
   transmission-mask requirements.

   o  To support regulatory rules that define different "wide-band" and
      "narrow-band" power levels, PAWS allows multiple Spectrum elements
      to be included in the available-spectrum response, each with a
      different resolution bandwidth.
   o  When multiple Spectrum elements are included in the response, they
      represent a logical AND condition, such that the Device MUST
      satisfy all the conditions.
   o  Each Spectrum element MUST cover the range of frequencies governed
      by a ruleset, rather than splitting the frequencies across
      multiple Spectrum elements for the same resolution bandwidth.
   o  Each spectrum profile represents the maximum permissible power
      spectral density over a contiguous range of frequencies.
   o  When multiple spectrum profiles are included, they MUST be
      disjoint and SHOULD be ordered in non-decreasing frequency value.
   o  Gaps in frequencies between consecutive spectrum profiles
      represent unavailability for those frequencies.

   The following figure illustrates the Spectrum element and the
   SpectrumProfile list.

   +-------------------------------+
   |Spectrum                       |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |resolutionBwHz:float |required |
   |profiles:list        |required |---+
   +---------------------+---------+   |  0..*
                                       V
                 +-----------------------------+
                 |SpectrumProfile              |
                 +-------------------+---------+
                 |list               |required |
                 +-------------------+---------+
                                       |
                                       V 2..*
                 +------------------------------+
                 |freqHz:float        |required |
                 |powerDbmPerBw:float |required |



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                 +--------------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   psdBandwidthHz:  This parameter is REQUIRED to define the resolution
      bandwidth (in Hertz) over which permissible power spectral density
      is defined.  For example, FCC regulation would require one
      spectrum specification at a bandwidth of 6MHz, and ETSI regulation
      would require two specifications, at 0.1MHz and 8MHz.  This
      parameter MAY be empty if there is no available spectrum.
   profiles:   A SpectrumProfile (Section 5.12) list is REQUIRED to
      specify permissible power levels over a set of frequency ranges.
      The list MAY be empty if there is no available spectrum.

   Consider the following example with different permitted power
   spectral densities for the same set of frequencies over different
   resolution bandwidths (for illustrative purposes only):

   [
     "spectrum": {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"freqHz": 5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
         ],
         ...
       ]
     },
     "spectrum": {
       "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"freqHz": 5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 27.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 27.0},
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

   This is interpreted as:

   o  Over any 6MHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 524MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 30.0dBm (1000mW), and
   o  Over any 100 kHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 524MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 27.0dBm (500mW)




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   This would allow, for example, operating two 100kHz sub-channels
   within the indicated 6MHz range at 500mW each, totaling 1000mW.  Of
   course, many combinations are possible, as long as they satisfy both
   conditions.

   The following example illustrates multiple spectrum profiles that has
   a gap from 530 MHz to 536 MHz:

   [
     "spectrum": {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"freqHz": 5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 36.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.30e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 36.0},
         ],
         [
           {"freqHz": 5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
         ],
         ...
       ]
     },
     "spectrum": {
       "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"freqHz": 5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 27.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 27.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.30e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 30.0},
         ],
         [
           {"freqHz": 5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 27.0},
           {"freqHz": 5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw": 27.0},
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

5.12.  SpectrumProfile

   A spectrum profile is characterized by an ordered list of (frequency,
   power) points that represents the shape of maximum permissible power
   levels over a range of frequencies.



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   o  It MUST contain a minimum of two entries.
   o  The entries in the list MUST be ordered in non-decreasing
      frequency values.
   o  Two consecutive points MAY have the same frequency value to
      represent a "step function".
   o  Three or more points MAY NOT share the same frequency value.
   o  The first frequency is inclusive; the last frequency is exclusive.

   The following figure defines the SpectrumProfile element.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumProfile                |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |list                 |required |---+
   +---------------------+---------+   |  2..*
                                       V
                 +------------------------------+
                 |freqHz:float        |required |
                 |powerDbmPerBw:float |required |
                 +--------------------+---------+

   Parameters of each point in the profile:

   freqHz:  The frequency, in Hertz, at which the power level is
      defined.
   powerDbmPerBw:   The power level, express as dBm per resolution
      bandwidth, as defined by the "resolutionBwHz" element of the
      enclosing Spectrum (Section 5.11) element.

5.13.  FrequencyRange

   The FrequencyRange parameter specifies a frequency range.

   +--------------------------------+
   |FrequencyRange                  |
   +----------------------+---------+
   |startHz:float         |required |
   |stopHz:float          |required |
   +----------------------+---------+

   Parameters:
   startHz:  The inclusive start of the frequency range (in Hertz) is
      REQUIRED.
   stopHz:  The exclusive end of the frequency range (in Hertz) is
      REQUIRED.






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5.14.  EventTime

   The EventTime element specifies the start and stop times of an
   "event".  This is used to indicate the time period for which a
   Spectrum (Section 5.11) is valid.

   +---------------------------+
   |EventTime                  |
   +-----------------+---------+
   |startTime:string |required |
   |stopTime:string  |required |
   +-----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   startTime:  The inclusive start of the event is REQUIRED.
   stopTime:  The exclusive end of the event is REQUIRED.

   Both times are expressed using the format, YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ, as
   defined by Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps [RFC3339].  The
   times MUST be expressed using UTC.

   A device that does not have access to the current date and time MUST
   use the timestamp at the top-level of the response message as a
   substitute for the current time (see Available Spectrum Response
   (Section 4.4.2) and Available Spectrum Batch Response
   (Section 4.4.4)).  E.g.,
   o  (startTime - timestamp) gives the duration that a device must wait
      before the event becomes "active".  If the value is zero or
      negative, the event is already active.
   o  If the event is already active, (stopTime - timestamp) is the
      duration that the event remains active.  If the value is zero or
      negative, the event is no longer active and MUST be ignored.

5.15.  GeoSpectrumSpec

   The GeoSpectrumSpec element encapsulates the available spectrum for a
   location.  It is returned within a AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP
   (Section 4.4.4) batch response that contains one GeoSpectrumSpec
   parameter for each location in the request.











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   +----------------------------------+
   |GeoSpectrumSpec                   |
   +-----------------------+----------+
   |location:GeoLocation   | required |
   |spectrumSpecs:list     | required |-------+
   +-----------------------+----------+       |
                                              | 1..*
                                              V
                                      +--------------+
                                      | SpectrumSpec |
                                      +--------------+

   Parameters:

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) is REQUIRED to identify the
      location at which the spectrum schedule applies.
   spectrumSpecs:  The SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) list is REQUIRED.  At
      least one entry MUST be included.  Each entry represents schedules
      of available spectrum for a regulatory domain.  More than one
      entry MAY be included to support multiple regulatory domains at a
      location.

5.16.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity element is used to indicate whether a device is
   valid.  See Section 4.5.2.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |DeviceValidity                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |isValid:boolean             | required |
   |reason:string               | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) that was used to
      check for validity is REQUIRED.
   isValid:  A REQUIRED boolean value that indicates whether the Device
      is valid.
   reason:  If the device identifier is not valid, the Database MAY
      include a reason.  The reason MAY be in any language.  The length
      of the value MUST NOT exceed 128 characters.







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5.17.  Error Element

   If the Database responds to a PAWS request message with an error, it
   MUST include an Error element.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |
   |data:any        | optional |
   +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   code:  An integer code that indicates the error type.
   message:  A description of the error.  It MAY be in any language.
      The length of the value MUST NOT exceed 128 characters.
   data:  The Database MAY include additional data.  For some errors,
      additional data may be required.  The Device MUST ignore any data
      parameters it does not understand.

   The following table defines valid error codes.  They are loosely
   grouped into the following categories:

   -100s:  Indicates compatibility issues, e.g., version mismatch,
      unsupported or unimplemented features.
   -200s:  Indicates that the Device request contains an error that
      needs to be modified before making another request.
   -300s:  Indicates authorization-related issues.

   Code Name             Description
   ---- ---------------- -----------------------------------------------
   -100 (reserved)
   -101 VERSION          The Database does not support the specified
                         version of the message.
   -102 UNSUPPORTED      The Database does not support the Device. For
                         example, it does not support the regulatory
                         domain specified in the request.
   -103 UNIMPLEMENTED    The Database does not implement the optional
                         request or optional feature.
   -104 OUTSIDE_COVERAGE The specified geo-location is outside the
                         coverage area of the Database. The Database MAY
                         include a list of alternate databases that
                         might be appropriate for the requested
                         location. See OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error
                         (Section 5.17.1).




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   -105 DATABASE_CHANGE  The Database has changed its URI. The Database
                         MAY include a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)
                         parameter in the error response to provide
                         devices with one or more alternate database
                         URLs. The Device SHOULD use the information to
                         update its list of preconfigured databases to
                         replace (only) its entry for the responding
                         Database with the list of alternate database
                         URLs. See DATABASE_CHANGE Error
                         (Section 5.17.2).
   -200 (reserved)
   -201 REQUIRED         A required parameter is missing. The Database
                         MUST include a list of the required parameter
                         names. The Database MAY include only names of
                         parameters that are missing, but MAY include a
                         full list. Including the full list of missing
                         parameters may reduce the number of re-queries
                         from the Device. See REQUIRED Error
                         (Section 5.17.3).
   -202 INVALID_VALUE    A parameter value is invalid in some way. The
                         Database SHOULD include a message indicating
                         which parameter and why its value is invalid.
   -300 (reserved)
   -301 UNAUTHORIZED     The Device is not authorized to used the
                         Database. Authorization may be determined by
                         regulatory rules or be dependent on prior
                         arrangement between the Device and Database.
   -302 NOT_REGISTERED   Device registration required, but the Device is
                         not registered.

                           Table 1: Error Codes

5.17.1.  OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error

   When the error code is OUTSIDE_COVERAGE, the Database MAY include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" field, and,
   if present, the ErrorData MAY include a list of DatabaseSpec
   (Section 5.8) entries that might be appropriate for the requested
   location.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +-----------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | optional |--->|ErrorData                    |
   +----------------+----------+    +------------------+----------+
                                    |databases:list    | optional |



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                                    +------------------+----------+

5.17.2.  DATABASE_CHANGE Error

   When the error code is DATABASE_CHANGE, the Database MAY include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" field, and,
   if present, the ErrorData MUST include a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)
   element that provides a list of alternate databases.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +-----------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | optional |--->|ErrorData                    |
   +----------------+----------+    +------------------+----------+
                                    |spec:DbUpdateSpec | required |
                                    +------------------+----------+

5.17.3.  REQUIRED Error

   When the error code is REQUIRED, the Database MUST include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" field, and
   the ErrorData element MUST include a list of the missing required
   parameters and MAY include the list of all required parameters.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +---------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | required |--->|ErrorData                  |
   +----------------+----------+    +----------------+----------+ 1..*
                                    |parameters:list | required |--+
                                    +----------------+----------+  |
                                                                   v
                                                                 string

   Parameters:
   parameters:  List of one or more parameter names (strings).  The name
      of a parameter SHOULD be expressed using dotted notation, when
      appropriate, e.g., "deviceDesc.serialNumber".


6.  Message Encoding

   The PAWS protocol is encoded using JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] (see also
   JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]).  Each component



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   described in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) corresponds to one
   or more JSON-RPC methods.  This section provides the JSON schema for
   each of the protocol messages and parameters defined in sections
   Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5).  JSON schemas are presented in accordance with A JSON
   Media Type for Describing the Structure and Meaning of JSON Documents
   [I-D.zyp-json-schema].

   NOTE: In general, all messages defined in this section are extensible
   by adding additional properties to support regulatory-specific and
   database-specific requirements.  In all cases, the Device or Database
   MUST ignore any parameter it does not understand.

6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding

   The JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] protocol consists of two basic objects,
   Request and Response:
   o  The JSON-RPC Request object encapsulates a PAWS functionality
      (operation) and the request message
   o  The JSON-RPC Response object encapsulates a PAWS response message
      and Error element

   The Database and Device MUST support JSON-RPC 2.0 encoding.

   The JSON-RPC Request for PAWS has the following the following forms:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "method": string,
     "params": <PAWS_REQ>,
     "id": string
   }

   where "method" is the name of a PAWS functionality (operation), and
   <PAWS_REQ> represents one of the PAWS request objects associated with
   the method.  Method names are defined with the prefix,
   "spectrum.paws.".

   The non-error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following forms:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "result": <PAWS_RESP>,
     "id": string
   }

   where <PAWS_RESP> represents one of the PAWS response objects
   associated with the method.



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   The error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "error": {
       "code": integer,
       "message": string,
       "data": object,
     },
     "id": string
   }

   where the Error object and error codes are described by Error Element
   (Section 5.17).  The Database SHOULD attempt to use the most specific
   applicable PAWS error code.  When an accurate one is not available,
   it SHOULD fall back to standard JSONRPC error codes as defined in
   JSONRPC specification.  For example, if the Database receives invalid
   JSON from the Device, it should respond with "-32700", signifying a
   parse error.  As a last resort, the Database MAY send a suitable HTTP
   5xx response.

   Depending on prior arrangement between a Database and Device, the
   Request and Response objects MAY contain additional parameters.  The
   Database or Device MUST ignore all parameters it does not understand.

6.2.  init Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.init" method that represents the Initialization
   functionality (Section 4.2).

6.2.1.  INIT_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Initialization request message INIT_REQ
   (Section 4.2.1) is described by the following schema:
















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   {
     "name": "INIT_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "INIT_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location SHOULD be the current location
             of the Device's antenna. Depending on the regulatory
             domain, the location MAY be the anticipated position of
             the Device.",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "init" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.init",
    "params": {
     "type": "INIT_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     }
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }






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6.2.2.  INIT_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Initialization response message INIT_RESP
   (Section 4.2.2) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "INIT_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "INIT_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "rulesetInfos": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of regulatory domains and associated
             attributes that govern the device at the location specified
             by the device. The list MUST have at least one entry.",
         "items": "RulesetInfo",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "init" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "INIT_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "rulesetInfos": [
       {
         "authority": "us",
         ...
       },
       ...
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }



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6.3.  register Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.register" method that represents Device Registration
   functionality (Section 4.3).

6.3.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Registration request message
   REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location SHOULD be the current location
             of the Device's antenna. Depending on the regulatory
             domain, the location MAY be the anticipated position of
             the Device.",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceOwner": {
         "type": "DeviceOwner",
         "required": true
       },
       "antenna": {
         "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
         "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its
             height and height type",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "register" JSON-RPC request:




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   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.register",
    "params": {
     "type": "REGISTRATION_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "deviceOwner": {
      "owner": [
       "vcard", [
        ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
        ["org", {}, "text", "Racafrax, Inc."]
       ]
      ],
      "operator": [
       "vcard", [
        ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
        ["fn", {}, "text", "John Frax"],
        ["adr", {}, "text",
         ["", "", "100 Main Street",
          "Summersville", "CA", "90034", "USA"
         ]
        ],
        ["tel", {}, "uri", "tel:+1-213-555-1212"],
        ["email", {}, "text", "j.frax@rackafrax.com"]
       ]
      ]
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.3.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Registration response message
   REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is described by the following
   schema:




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   {
     "name": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "rulesetInfos": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of regulatory domains for which device
             registration was successful. The list MUST have at
             least one entry.",
         "items": "RulesetInfo",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "register" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "REGISTRATION_RESP",
     "version": "1.0"
     "rulesetInfos": [
       {
         "authority": "us",
         ...
       }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.4.  getSpectrum Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.getSpectrum" method that represents the single-
   location query of the Available Spectrum Query functionality



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   (Section 4.4) that enables a Device to obtain a set of available
   spectrum from the Database.

6.4.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum request message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "Descriptor of the device for which to
             determine available spectrum.",
         "required": false
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location SHOULD be the current location
             of the Device's antenna. Depending on the regulatory
             domain, the location MAY be the anticipated position of
             the Device. When request is made by a Master Device on
             behalf of a Slave Device, this is the location of the
             Slave Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "owner": {
         "type": "DeviceOwner",
         "description": "May be required if the Device is not yet
             registered or if the DB does not implement a separate
             device-registration request. Also depends on device type
             and regulatory domain",
         "required": false
       },
       "antenna": {
         "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
         "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its
             height and height type. May required depending on
             device type and regulatory domain",
         "required": false



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       },
       "capabilities": {
         "type": "DeviceCapabilities",
         "description": "The Database SHOULD NOT return spectrum that
             is incompatible with the specified capabilities.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
             on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the descriptor of
             the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceLocation": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
             on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the location of
             the Master Device.",
         "required": false
       },
       "requestType": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Optional value that modifies the request.
             Valid values depends on regulatory domain.",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC request:




















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   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.getSpectrum",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.4.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum response message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is described by the following
   schema:

























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   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "timestamp": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Timestamp of the response, using
             YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format. This SHOULD be used
             by the Device as a reference for the start and stop times
             in the spectrum schedule",
         "format": "date-time",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "spectrumSpecs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The Database MAY return more than one
             SpectrumSpec to represent available spectrum for multiple
             regulatory domains at the specified location.",
         "items": "SpectrumSpec",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {



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      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "spectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "authority": "us",
         ...
       },
       "needsSpectrumReport": false,
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z",
         },
         "spectra": [
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"freqHz":5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
               {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
               {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":36.0},
               {"freqHz":5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw":36.0}
              ],
              [
               {"freqHz":6.20e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
               {"freqHz":6.26e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
              ],
              ...
            ]
           },
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"freqHz":5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
               {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
               {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
               {"freqHz":5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0}
              ],
              [
               {"freqHz":6.20e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
               {"freqHz":6.26e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},



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              ],
              ...
            ]
           }
         ]
        },
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z",
         },
         "spectra": [
          ...
         ]
        }
       ],
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.5.  getSpectrumBatch Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.getSpectrumBatch" method that represents the multiple-
   location query of the Available Spectrum Query functionality
   (Section 4.4) that enables a Device to obtain a set of available
   spectrum for multiple locations from the Database.

6.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Batch Available Spectrum request
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) is described by the
   following schema.  This an OPTIONAL feature of the Database.

  {
    "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
    "type": "object",
    "properties": {
      "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
      "version": {
        "type": "string",
        "required": true
       },
      "deviceDesc": {
        "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
        "description": "Descriptor of the device for which to



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            determine available spectrum.",
        "required": true
      },
      "locations": {
        "type": "array",
        "description": "At least one device location is required.
            Additional (anticipated) locations can also be included,
            as permitted by regulatory domain. When the request is
            made by a Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, these
            are locations of the Slave Device.",
        "items": "GeoLocation",
        "required": true
      },
      "owner": {
        "type": "DeviceOwner",
        "description": "May be required if the Device is not yet
            registered or if the DB does not implement a separate
            device-registration request. Also depends on device type
            and regulatory domain",
        "required": false
      },
      "antenna": {
        "type": "AntennaCharacteristics",
        "description": "Antenna characteristics, including its
            height and height type. May required depending on
            device type and regulatory domain","AntennaCharacteristics",
        "required": false
      },
      "capabilities": {
        "type": "DeviceCapabilities",
        "description": "The Database SHOULD NOT return spectrum that
            is incompatible with the specified capabilities.",
        "required": false
      },
      "masterDeviceDesc": {
        "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
        "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
            on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the descriptor of
            the Master Device.",
        "required": false
      },
      "masterDeviceLocation": {
        "type": "GeoLocation",
        "description": "When the request is made by a Master Device
            on behalf of a Slave Device, this is the location of
            the Master Device.",
        "required": false
      },



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      "requestType": {
        "type": "string",
        "description": "Optional value that modifies the request.
            Valid values depends on regulatory domain.",
        "required": false
      }
    }
  }

   Example "getSpectrumBatch" JSON-RPC request:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.getSpectrumBatch",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "locations": [
      {
       "point": {
        "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
       }
      },
      {
       "point": {
        "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
       }
      },
      ...
     ],
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Batch Available Spectrum response
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) is described by the
   following schema:






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   {
     "name": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
        },
       "timestamp": {
         "type": "string",
         "description": "Timestamp of the response, using
             YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format. This SHOULD be used
             by the Device as a reference for the start and stop times
             in the spectrum schedule",
         "format": "date-time",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "geoSpectrumSpecs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "A list of locations and available spectrum at
             each location. For each location, there may be more than
             one SpectrumSpec element to support more than one ruleset
             at that location.",
         "items": "GeoSpectrumSpec",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "getSpectrumBatch" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",



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     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "geoSpectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "location": {
        "point": {
         "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
        }
       },
       "spectrumSpecs": [
        {
         "rulesetInfo": {
          "authority": "us",
          ...
         },
         "needsSpectrumReport": false,
         "spectrumSchedules": [
          {
           "eventTime": {
            "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
            "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z",
           },
           "spectra": [
             {
              "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
              "profiles": [
                ...
                [
                 {"freqHz":5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
                 {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
                 {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":36.0},
                 {"freqHz":5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw":36.0}
                ],
                [
                 {"freqHz":6.20e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
                 {"freqHz":6.26e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
                ],
                ...
              ]
             },
             {
              "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
              "profiles": [
                ...
                [



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                 {"freqHz":5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
                 {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
                 {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
                 {"freqHz":5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0}
                ],
                [
                 {"freqHz":6.20e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
                 {"freqHz":6.26e8, "powerDbmPerBw":27.0},
                ],
                ...
              ]
             },
           ]
          },
          {
           "eventTime": {
            "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
            "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z",
           },
           "spectra": [
            ...
           ]
          }
         ],
        }
       ]
      },
      {
       "location": {
        "point": {
         "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
        }
       },
       "spectrumSpecs": [
        ...
       ]
      }
     ],
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.6.  notifySpectrumUse Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.notifySpectrumUse" method that represents the
   Spectrum-usage notification of the Available Spectrum Query
   functionality (Section 4.4.5) that notifies the Database of



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   anticipated spectrum usage.

6.6.1.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Spectrum Notification message
   SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.4.5) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDesc": {
         "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       },
       "location": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "The location of the Device. When the
             notification is made by a Master Device on behalf
             of a Slave Device, this is the location of the
             Slave Device."
         "required": false
       },
       "masterDeviceLocation": {
         "type": "GeoLocation",
         "description": "When the notification is made by the
             Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, this is
             the location of the Master Device."
         "required": false
       },
       "spectra": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The spectrum anticipated to be used by
             the Device.",
         "items": "Spectrum",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "notifySpectrumUse" JSON-RPC notification:




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   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.notifySpectrumUse",
    "params": {
     "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      ...
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0005, "longitude": -101.3005}
      }
     },
     "spectra": [
      {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"freqHz":5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
           {"freqHz":5.24e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0}
         ]
       ]
      },
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.6.2.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Spectrum-usage response SPECTRUM_USE_RESP
   (Section 4.4.6) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }




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   Example "notifySpectrumUse" JSON-RPC response:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "SPECTRUM_USE_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.7.  verifyDevice Method

   This section describes the encoding for the JSON-RPC
   "spectrum.paws.verifyDevice" method that represents the Device
   Validation functionality (Section 4.5).  This is used by a Master
   Device to validate Slave Devices.

6.7.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Device Validation request DEV_VALID_REQ
   (Section 4.5.1) is described by the following schema:

   {
     "name": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceDescs": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of Slave Devices to be validated",
         "items": "DeviceDescriptor",
         "required": true
       }
     }
   }

   Example "verifyDevice" JSON-RPC request:









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   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.verifyDevice",
    "params": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDescs": [
      {
       "serialNumber": "XXX",
       "fccId": "YYY",
       ...
      },
      {
       "serialNumber": "XXX3",
       "fccId": "YYY2",
       ...
      },
      ...
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.7.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP Parameters

   The JSON encoding of the Device Validation response DEV_VALID_RESP
   (Section 4.5.2) is described by the following schema:
























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   {
     "name": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
     "type": "object",
     "properties": {
       "type": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
       "version": {
         "type": "string",
         "required": true
       },
       "deviceValidities": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "List of DeviceValidity objects that shows the
             validity of each device included in the original Device
             Validity Request message.",
         "items": "DeviceValidity",
         "required": true
       },
       "databaseChange": {
         "type": "DbUpdateSpec",
         "description": "Indicates that the Database URI will be
             changing. Devices need to update their configurations",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

   Example "verifyDevice" JSON-RPC response:
























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   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "DEV_VALID_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceValidities": [
      {
       "deviceDesc": {
         "serialNumber": "XXX",
         "fccId": "YYY",
         ...
       },
       "isValid": true
      },
      {
       "deviceDesc": {
         "serialNumber": "XXX3",
         "fccId": "YYY2",
         ...
       },
       "isValid": false,
       "reason": "Not authorized"
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.8.  Sub-message Schemas

   This section defines the schema for Protocol Parameters (Section 5)
   embedded in PAWS request and response messages.

6.8.1.  GeoLocation

   This parameter is used to specify the GeoLocation (Section 5.1) of
   the Device.  The geometric shapes represent the JSON encoding shapes
   defined in GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object
   [RFC5491].

     {
       "name": "GeoLocation",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "point": {
           "description": "A single location, with optional
               uncertainty measures. Exactly one of 'point' or 'region'
               must be present.",



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           "type": "Ellipse",
           "required": false
         },
         "region": {
           "description": "A region described by a polygon. Exactly
               one of 'point' or 'region' must be present.",
           "type": "Polygon",
           "required": false
         },
         "confidence": {
           "description": "Confidence interval when location
               is a point with uncertainty. 0 to 100.",
           "type": "integer",
           "required": false,
           "default": 95
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Point",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "latitude": {
           "description": "Double-precision floating-point degrees.
               WGS84 datum.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": true
         },
         "longitude": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Double-precision floating-point degree.
               WGS84 datum.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Ellipse",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "center": {
           "type": "Point",
           "required": true
         },
         "semiMajorAxis": {
           "description": "Floating-point meters that describe
               location uncertainty along the major axis of
               the ellipse.",



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           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         },
         "semiMinorAxis": {
           "description": "Floating-point meters that describe
               location uncertainty along the minor axis of
               the ellipse.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         },
         "orientation": {
           "description": "Orientation of the ellipse, as rotation
               of the major axis from North towards East. Degrees.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false,
           "default": 0
         }
       }
     }
     {
       "name": "Polygon",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "exterior": {
           "description": "List of Points in counter-clockwise
               order. They MUST form a loop with no edges that
               cross each other. First and last points MUST be
               the same. Minimum of 4 points.",
           "type": "array",
           "items": "Point",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) contains parameters that identify
   the specific device, such as its manufacturer serial number,
   regulatory-specific ID (e.g., FCC ID), and any other device
   characteristics required by regulatory domains, such as device-type
   classification.  See Initial PAWS Parameters Registry Contents
   (Section 9.1.2) for additional valid parameters, e.g., "fccId",
   "etsiEnDeviceType", etc.





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     {
       "name": "DeviceDescriptor",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "serialNumber": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": true
         },
         "manufacturerId": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": false
         },
         "modelId": {
           "type": "string",
           "required": false
         },
         "rulesetIds": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of identifiers for rulesets supported
               by the device",
           "items": "string",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) provide additional information,
   such as the antenna height, antenna type, etc.





















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    {
       "name": "AntennaCharacteristics",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "height": {
           "description": "Height of the antenna, in meters",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false
         },
         "heightType": {
           "description": "Reference type for height:
               Above Ground Level (AGL), or Above Mean Sea
               Level (AMSL).",
           "type": "string",
           "enum": "["AGL","AMSL"]",
           "default": "AGL",
           "required": false
         },
         "heightUncertainty": {
           "description": "Uncertainty of the height measurement,
               in meters.",
           "type": "number",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities (Section 5.4) provide additional information that
   MAY be used by the Device to provide additional information to the
   Database to help the Database determine available spectrum.  If the
   Database does not support device capabilities, it MUST ignore the
   parameter.

     {
       "name": "DeviceCapabilities",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Device capabilities to help DB determine
           available spectrum. The DB SHOULD NOT return available
           spectrum that falls outside the given frequency ranges.",
       "properties": {
         "frequencyRanges": {
           "type": "array",
           "items": "FrequencyRange",
           "required": false
         }
       }



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     }

6.8.5.  DeviceOwner

   The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) parameter contains device-owner
   information required as part of device registration.  Regulatory
   domains MAY require additional parameters.  JSON encoding of vCard is
   described in jCard: The JSON format for vCard
   [I-D.ietf-jcardcal-jcard].

     {
       "name": "DeviceOwner",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Device-owner information required as part of
           Device registration. Regulatory domains MAY require
           additional parameters.",
       "properties": {
         "owner": {
           "type": "vCard",
           "description":"Contact information for the individual
               or business that owns the device.",
           "required": true
         },
         "operator": {
           "type": "vCard",
           "description":"Contact information for the device operator.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

   Example:



















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     {
       "deviceOwner": {
         "owner": [
           "vcard", [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["org", {}, "text", "Racafrax, Inc."]
           ]
         ],
         "operator": [
           "vcard", [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "John Frax"],
             ["adr", {}, "text",
               ["", "", "100 Main Street",
                "Summersville", "CA", "90034", "USA"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel", {}, "uri", "tel:+1-213-555-1212"],
             ["email", {}, "text", "j.frax@rackafrax.com"]
           ]
         ]
       }
     }

6.8.6.  RulesetInfo

   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) contains parameters for the ruleset of a
   regulatory domain that is communicated using the Initialization
   component (Section 4.2).






















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     {
       "name": "RulesetInfo",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The ruleset of a regulatory domain that is
           communicated to Devices in the Initialization Response
           message.",
       "properties": {
         "authority": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The regulatory domain at the specified
               location. It is a 2-letter country codes defined by
               ISO3166-1.",
           "required": true
         },
         "rulesetId": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The identifier of an applicable ruleset",
           "required": true
         },
         "maxLocationChange": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Maximum location change in meters.",
           "required": false
         },
         "maxPollingSecs": {
           "type": "integer",
           "description": "Maximum duration, in seconds, between
               requests for available spectrum.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.7.  DbUpdateSpec

   DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7) contains one or more database
   specifications.  It is used to indicate a change to the Database URI.














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     {
       "name": "DbUpdateSpec",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Specification for updates to a Database URI",
       "properties": {
         "databases": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "The specification of one or more databases",
           "item": "DatabaseSpec",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.8.  DatabaseSpec

   DatabaseSpec (Section 5.8) specifies the name and URI of a database.

     {
       "name": "DatabaseSpec",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "Specification for a database",
       "properties": {
         "name": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The display name of a databases",
           "required": true
         },
         "uri": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "The URI of a databases",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.9.  Spectrum

   Available Spectrum (Section 5.11) can logically be characterized by a
   list of SpectrumProfiles, each defining the shape of the permissible
   power levels over a range of frequencies.

     {
       "name": "Spectrum",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "A per-bandwidth list of frequency ranges with
           permissible power levels. For example, In US, FCC
           requires only one spectrum specification at 6MHz



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           bandwidth; ETSI requires two (at 0.1MHz and
           8MHz).",
       "properties": {
         "resolutionBwHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Resolution bandwidth (Hz) over which
               permissible power spectral densities are defined.",
           "required": true
         },
         "profiles": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of SpectrumProfile objects to specify
               permissible power levels, over a set of frequency ranges,
               for a given resolutionBwHz. The list MAY be empty when
               there is no available spectrum.",
           "items": "SpectrumProfile",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

     {
       "name": "SpectrumProfile",
       "type": "array",
       "description": "A list of (frequency, power) points. A minimum of
           two entries is required.",
       "item": "SpectrumProfilePoint",
     }

     {
       "name": "SpectrumProfilePoint",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "A point defined by a frequency and power level
           at that frequency.",
       "properties": {
         "freqHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Frequency (Hz)",
           "required": true
         },
         "powerDbmPerBw": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "Power (dBm) per resolution bandwidth as
               defined by enclosing resolutionBwHz.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }



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   Example:
   {
     "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
     "profiles": [
       [
         {"freqHz":5.18e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
         {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
         {"freqHz":5.36e8, "powerDbmPerBw":36.0},
         {"freqHz":5.42e8, "powerDbmPerBw":36.0}
       ],
       [
         {"freqHz":6.20e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
         {"freqHz":6.26e8, "powerDbmPerBw":30.0},
       ]
     ]
   }

6.8.10.  FrequencyRange

   The FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) element describes a frequency range
   and permissible power level within the specified range.

     {
       "name": "FrequencyRange",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "startHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The inclusive start of the frequency range.",
           "required": true
         },
         "stopHz": {
           "type": "number",
           "description": "The exclusive end of the frequency range.",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }

6.8.11.  EventTime

   The EventTime (Section 5.14) element specifies the start and stop
   times of an "event."  It is used to indicate the time period for
   which a Spectrum (Section 5.11) is valid.







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     {
       "name": "EventTime",
       "type": "object",
       "properties": {
         "startTime": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format.",
           "format": "date-time",
           "required": false
         },
         "stopTime": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ RFC3339 format.",
           "format": "date-time",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.12.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) element combines EventTime with
   Spectrum to define a time period during which the spectrum is valid.

     {
       "name": "SpectrumSchedule",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime
           with Spectrum to define a time period during which spectrum
           is valid.",
       "properties": {
         "eventTime": {
           "type": "EventTime",
           "description": "Period when the spectra is valid.",
           "required": true
         },
         "spectra": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "List of available spectra and permissible
               power levels; one spectrum object per resolutionBwHz. The
               list MAY be empty when there is no available spectrum.",
           "items": "Spectrum",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }





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6.8.13.  SpectrumSpec

   The JSON encoding of the Available Spectrum response message
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is described by the following
   schema:

   {
     "name": "SpectrumSpec",
     "type": "object",
     "description": "The SpectrumSpec element represents schedules of
         available spectrum for a regulatory-domain ruleset.",
     "properties": {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "type": "RulesetInfo",
         "description": "Indicates the active regulatory domain and
             attributes that define the applicable ruleset that
             govern the device",
         "required": false
       },
       "spectrumSchedules": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The Database MAY return more than one
             schedule to represent future changes to the available
             spectrum. This array MAY be empty if no spectrum is
             available. If more than one is present, the event-time
             intervals SHOULD be sorted and MUST be disjoint.",
         "items": "SpectrumSchedule",
         "required": true
       },
       "timeRange": {
         "type": "EventTime",
         "description": "The time range for which the spectrumSchedules
             is comprehensive",
         "required": false
       },
       "frequencyRanges": {
         "type": "array",
         "description": "The frequency ranges for which the
             spectrumSchedules is comprehensive",
         "items": "FrequencyRange",
         "required": false
       }
       "needsSpectrumReport": {
         "type": "boolean",
         "description": "For regulatory domains that require a
             spectrum-usage report from devices, the Database MUST
             return true for this parameter.",
         "default": false,



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         "required": false
       },
       "maxTotalBwHz": {
         "type": "number",
         "description": "Constraint on total bandwidth allowed,
             summed across all blocks of spectrum.",
         "required": false
       },
       "maxContiguousBwHz": {
         "type": "number",
         "description": "Constraint on bandwidth allowed for
             any single block of spectrum.",
         "required": false
       }
     }
   }

6.8.14.  GeoSpectrumSpec

   The GeoSpectrumSpec (Section 5.15) element encapsulates the schedule
   of available spectrum at a location.

     {
       "name": "GeoSpectrumSpec",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The GeoSpectrumSpec element encapsulates
           the schedule of available spectrum at a location.",
       "properties": {
         "location": {
           "type": "GeoLocation",
           "description": "The location at which the spectrum
               schedule applies.",
           "required": true
         },
         "spectrumSpecs": {
           "type": "array",
           "description": "At least one element MUST be included.
               More than one element MAY be included
               to represent available spectrum for more than one
               regulatory domain.",
           "items": "SpectrumSpec",
           "required": true
         }
       }
     }






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6.8.15.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity (Section 5.16) element is used to indicate whether
   a device is valid.  See Section 4.5.2.

     {
       "name": "DeviceValidity",
       "type": "object",
       "description": "The DeviceValidity element specifies whether
           the device is valid.",
       "properties": {
         "deviceDesc": {
           "type": "DeviceDescriptor",
           "required": true
         },
         "isValid": {
           "type": "boolean",
           "description": "Boolean that indicates if the Device is
               valid",
           "required": true
         },
         "reason": {
           "type": "string",
           "description": "If the device identifier is not valid,
               the Database MAY include a reason. The reason MAY be
               in any language.",
           "required": false
         }
       }
     }

6.8.16.  Additional Properties

   Note that A JSON Media Type for Describing the Structure and Meaning
   of JSON [I-D.zyp-json-schema] allows, as default behavior, the
   inclusion of additional properties by instances that are not
   explicitly defined in the JSON schema that the instance implements.
   The schema elaborated in this document adopts this default behavior.
   Hence, the instance MAY provide additional properties and associated
   values (which may be "any" JSON type) not explicitly listed in this
   schema.  Further note that the Database and Device MUST ignore any
   such additional properties and their associated values that it does
   not understand.


7.  HTTPS Binding

   This section describes the use of HTTP over TLS (HTTPS) HTTP Over TLS



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   [RFC2818] as the transport mechanism for the PAWS protocol.  TLS
   provides message integrity and confidentiality between the Master
   Device and the Database.  The Master Device MUST implement server
   authentication, as described in Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS
   [RFC2818].  The Device uses the URI determined (either statically
   configured or dynamically discovered) to authenticate the server.
   The Device SHOULD fail a request if server authentication fails.

   Depending on prior relationship between a database and device, the
   server MAY require client authentication, as described in the
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC5246], to authenticate
   the device.

   To enable databases to handle large numbers of requests from large
   numbers of devices, the Database MAY support and Devices SHOULD
   support Stateless TLS Session Resumption [RFC5077].

   A PAWS request message is carried in the body of an HTTP POST
   request.  A PAWS response message is carried in the body of an HTTP
   response.  A PAWS response SHOULD include a Content-Length header.

   The POST method is the only method REQUIRED for PAWS.  If a database
   chooses to support GET, it MUST be an escaped URL, but the encoding
   of the URL is outside the scope of this document.  The database MAY
   refuse to support the GET request by returning an HTTP error code,
   such as 404 (not found).

   The Database MAY redirect a PAWS request by returning a HTTP 3xx
   response (as defined by HTTP/1.1 [RFC2616]).  The Database MUST
   provide the redirect URI in the Location header of the 3xx response,
   and the Device MUST handle redirects by using the Location header
   provided by the Database.  When redirecting, the Device MUST observe
   the delay indicated by the Retry-After header.  The Device MUST
   authenticate the Database that returns the redirect response before
   following the redirect.  Also, the Device MUST authenticate the
   Database indicated in the redirect.  Since the Device may communicate
   with a Database (which it authenticated) without user interaction,
   when the response code is 301 (Moved Permanently), the Device MAY
   redirect without asking a user for confirmation (note that this
   represents an exception to the HTTP/1.1 [RFC2616] requirements for
   HTTP POST methods).

   The Database SHOULD use HTTP status code "307 Temporary Redirect" to
   indicate that the Device SHOULD resubmit the same request to an
   alternate URL.  The Device MAY revert to the original URL for the
   very next request, or MAY continue to use the alternate URL for a
   period of time, e.g.,:




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   o  For the remainder of its session, or
   o  For a fixed period of time, or
   o  Until power cycled, or
   o  Until it receives another redirect
   However, it SHOULD NOT modify its stored list of URLs.

   The Database SHOULD use HTTP status code "301 Moved Permanently" to
   indicate that the Device SHOULD resubmit this request, and all future
   requests, to an alternate URL.  If the Device maintains a list of
   available URLs, it SHOULD replace only the current URL with the
   alternate URL.


8.  Extensibility

8.1.  Defining New Message Parameters

   New request or response parameters for use with the PAWS protocol are
   defined and registered in the parameters registry following the
   procedure in Section 9.1.

   Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and parameter
   values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
   to the syntax of an existing parameter).

   param-name = 1*name-char
   name-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_"

   The parameter name SHOULD be lowerCamelCase.  The name MUST NOT
   exceed 64 characters.

   Unregistered vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not
   commonly applicable, and are specific to the implementation details
   of the Database where they are used SHOULD use a vendor-specific
   prefix that is not likely to conflict with other registered values
   (e.g., begin with 'companyname').

8.2.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers

   A ruleset represents a set of device-side requirements for which the
   device has been certified.  It typically corresponds to, but is not
   limited to, a set of rules that govern a specific set of radio
   spectrum for a regulatory domain.

   Ruleset identifiers are defined and registered in the Ruleset ID
   Registry following the procedure in Section 9.2.  Ruleset ID values
   MUST conform to the ruleset-id ABNF.  If the Ruleset ID requires
   additional parameters, they MUST be registered in the PAWS Parameters



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   Registry, as described by Section 9.1.

   ruleset-id = 1*ruleset-char
   ruleset-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" / "."

   The form of a Ruleset ID value SHOULD be guided by the following:
   o  The value SHOULD describe the set of rules that allow a device to
      operate within one or more regulatory domains.  For example, it
      MAY include the name of a regulatory body or a certification
      process
   o  The value SHOULD include version information, such as a year
      and/or version number
   o  The value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters

8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes

   Additional error codes MAY be defined to extend the set listed in
   Section 5.17.  Additional error codes MUST be registered, following
   the procedures in Section 9.3.  If the error code requires additional
   response parameters, they MUST be registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.1.

   By convention, the error code SHOULD be a negative integer value,
   using one of the range of values defined in Error Codes
   (Section 5.17).  If an appropriate category does not exist, it MAY
   use values in a different range.


9.  IANA Considerations

9.1.  PAWS Parameters Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Parameters Registry.

   Additional parameters for inclusion in the PAWS protocol requests,
   responses, or sub-messages are registered through the Specification
   Required [RFC5226] process, after a two-week review period on the
   [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the advice of one or more Designated
   Experts.  To allow for the allocation of values prior to publication,
   the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are
   satisfied that such a specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
   for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
   for parameter: example"). [[ Editor's Note: The name of the mailing
   list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA.
   Suggested name: paws-ext-review. ]]




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   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

9.1.1.  Registration Template

   Parameter name:  The name of the parameter (e.g., "example").
   Parameter usage location:  The location(s) where the parameter can be
      used.  The possible locations are the named requests, responses,
      and messages defined in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and
      Protocol Parameters (Section 5).
   Specification document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Parameters Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, it is the only regulatory
   domain that has finalized rules.  There is no intent to restrict the
   protocol to FCC rules.

   The PAWS Parameters Registry's initial contents are listed below.

   FCC ID

   Parameter name:  fccId
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the
      device's FCC certification identifier.  The value is an identifier
      string whose length MUST NOT exceed 32 characters.  Note that, in
      practice, a valid FCC ID may be limited to 19 characters, as
      proposed in FCC Administration Topics Review [FCC-Review-2012-10].

   FCC Device Type







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   Parameter name:  fccTvbdDeviceType
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the TV Band
      White Space device type, as defined by the FCC.  Valid values are
      "FIXED", "MODE_1", "MODE_2".

   ETSI Device Type

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceType
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device type, as
      defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid
      values are single-letter strings, such as "A", "B", etc.  Consult
      the documentation for details about the device types.

   ETSI Device Emissions Class

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceEmissionsClass
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      emissions class, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598], that characterises the out-of-block emissions
      of the device.  The values are represented by numeric strings,
      such as "1", "2", etc.  Consult the documentation for details
      about emissions classes

   ETSI Technology Identifier

   Parameter name:  etsiEnTechnologyId
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      technology identifier, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  The string value MUST NOT exceed 64 characters
      in length.  Consult the documentation for valid values.

   ETSI Device Category

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceCategory
   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)
   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      category, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid values are the strings, "master" and
      "slave".  It is case insensitive.

9.2.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry.




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   Ruleset type names for inclusion in the PAWS protocol messages are
   registered through the Specification Required [RFC5226] process,
   after a two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on
   the advice of one or more Designated Experts.  To allow for the
   allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
   may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
   specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
   for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
   for parameter: example"). [[ Editor's Note: The name of the mailing
   list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA.
   Suggested name: paws-ext-review. ]]

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

9.2.1.  Registration Template

   Ruleset name:  The name of the ruleset.  The length of the string
      MUST NOT exceed 64 characters.
   Additional message parameters:  Additional parameters to associate
      with the rulesetId parameter.  New parameters MUST be registered
      separately in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as described by
      Section 8.1.
   Specification Document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Ruleset ID Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, it is the only regulatory
   domain that has finalized rules.  There is no intent to restrict the
   protocol to FCC rules.

   The initial contents of the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry are listed
   below.



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9.2.2.1.  Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

   For the additional parameters that start with the "fcc" prefix, see
   PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.1.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset name:  FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010
   Additional message parameters:
      deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) parameter is
         REQUIRED for Available Spectrum Request (Section 4.4.1) and
         Available Spectrum Batch Request (Section 4.4.3).
      fccId:  Specifies a device's FCC certification ID.  It is a
         required parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      fccTvbdDeviceType:  Specifies the type of TV-band White Space
         device, as defined by the FCC rules.  It is a required
         parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] This ruleset refers
      to the FCC rules for TV-band White Space operations established in
      the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 47, Part 15, Subpart
      H [FCC-CFR47-15H].

9.2.2.2.  European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

   For the additional parameters that start with the "etsi" prefix, see
   PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.1.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset name:  TBD
   Additional message parameters:
      manufacturerId:  Specifies a device's manufacturer's identifier.
         It is a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      modelId:  Specifies a device's model identifier.  It is a REQUIRED
         parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnDeviceType:  Specifies the device's ETSI device type.  It is
         a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnDeviceEmissionsClass:  Specifies the device's ETSI device
         emissions class.  It is a REQUIRED parameter in
         DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnTechnologyId:  Specifies the device's ETSI technology ID.
         It is a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2).
      etsiEnDeviceCategory:  Specifies the device's ETSI device
         category.  It is a REQUIRED parameter in DeviceDescriptor
         (Section 5.2).
      requestType:  Modifies the available-spectrum request type.  It is
         an OPTIONAL parameter in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.4.1)
         and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.4.3) messages.  If
         specified, the only valid value is, "Generic Slave", and the
         Database MUST respond with generic operating parameters for any



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         Slave Device.
      needsSpectrumReport  Depending on the regulatory domain, the
         Database MAY be required to set this value to true in the
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) messages.
      maxTotalBwHz:  Specifies a constraint on total allowed bandwidth.
         It is a REQUIRED parameter in AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP
         (Section 4.4.2) and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4).
      maxContiguousBwHz:  Specifies a constraint on total allowed
         contiguous bandwidth.  It is a REQUIRED parameter in
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
         AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4).
      maxLocationChange:  Specifies a constraint on maximum location
         changes.  It is a REQUIRED parameter in AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP
         (Section 4.4.2) and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4).
   Specification document(s):  This ruleset refers to the ETSI
      Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598] established by ETSI.

9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Error Code Registry.

   Additional error codes for inclusion in the PAWS protocol error
   message are registered through the Specification Required [RFC5226]
   process, after a two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing
   list, on the advice of one or more Designated Experts.  To allow for
   the allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated
   Expert(s) may approve registration once they are satisfied that such
   a specification will be published.

   Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
   for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
   for parameter: example"). [[ Editor's Note: The name of the mailing
   list should be determined in consultation with the IESG and IANA.
   Suggested name: paws-ext-review. ]]

   Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
   approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
   to the review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation
   and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
   successful.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.






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9.3.1.  Registration Template

   Code:  Integer value of the error code.
   Name:  Name of the error.
   Additional parameters:  Additional parameters that are returned in
      the data portion of the error (See Section 5.17).  New parameters
      MUST be registered separately in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as
      described by Section 9.1.
   Description:  Description of the error and its associated parameters,
      if any.

9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   Initial registry contents are defined in the Table of Error Codes
   (Table 1).


10.  Security Considerations

   PAWS is a protocol whereby a Master Device requests a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location (or location of its Slave Devices)
   before it (they) can operate using those frequencies.  Whereas the
   information provided by the Database must be accurate and conform to
   applicable regulatory rules, the Database cannot enforce, through the
   protocol, that a client device uses only the spectrum it provided.
   In other words, devices can put energy in the air and cause
   interference without asking the Database.  Hence, PAWS security
   considerations do not include protection against malicious use of the
   White Space spectrum.  For more detailed information on specific
   requirements and security considerations associated with PAWS, see
   Protocol to Access White Space database: PAWS Use Cases and
   Requirements [RFC6953].

   By using the PAWS protocol, the Master Device and the Database expose
   themselves to the following risks:
   o  Accuracy: The Master Device receives incorrect spectrum-
      availability information.
   o  Privacy: An unauthorized entity intercepts identifying data for
      the Master Device or its Slave Devices, such as serial number and
      location.

   Protection from these risks depends on the success of the following
   steps:

   1.  The Master Device must determine the address of a proper
       database.





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   2.  The Master Device must connect to the proper database.
   3.  The Database must determine or compute accurate spectrum-
       availability information.
   4.  PAWS messages must be transmitted unmodified between the Database
       and the Master Device.
   5.  PAWS messages must be encrypted between the Database and the
       Master Device to prevent exposing private information.
   6.  For a Slave Device, the spectrum-availability information also
       must be transmitted unmodified and secure between the Master
       Device and the Slave Device.
   Of these, only steps 1, 2, 4, and 5 are within the scope of this
   document.  This document addresses Step 1 by allowing static
   provisioning of one or more trusted Databases; dynamic provisioning
   is out of scope.  Step 3 dependent on specific database
   implementations and regulatory rules and is outside the scope of this
   document.  Step 6 requires a protocol between master and slave
   devices and is thus outside the scope of this document.

10.1.  Assurance of Proper Database

   This document assumes that the Database is contacted using a domain
   name or an IP address.  Using HTTP over TLS HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818],
   the Database authenticates its identity, either as a domain name or
   IP address, to the Master Device by presenting a certificate
   containing that identifier as a "subjectAltName" (i.e., as a dNSName
   or IP address).  If the Master Device has external information as to
   the expected identity or credentials of the proper database (e.g., a
   certificate fingerprint), these checks MAY be omitted.  Note that in
   order for the presented certificate to be valid at the client, the
   client must be able to validate the certificate.  In particular, the
   validation path of the certificate must end in one of the client's
   trust anchors, even if that trust anchor is the Database certificate
   itself.  A Master Device should allow for the fact that a Database
   can change its certificate authorities (CAs) over time.

10.2.  Protection Against Modification

   To prevent a PAWS response message from being modified en route,
   messages must be transmitted over an integrity-protected channel.
   Using HTTP over TLS, the channel will be protected by appropriate
   cypher suites.

10.3.  Protection Against Eavesdropping

   Using HTTP over TLS, messages protected by appropriate cypher suites
   are also protected from eavesdropping or otherwise access by
   unauthorized parties en route.




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10.4.  Client Authentication Considerations

   Although the Database can inform a device of available spectrum it
   can use, the Database cannot enforce that the Master Device uses any/
   only those frequencies.  Indeed, a malicious device can operate
   without ever contacting a database.  Consequently, client
   authentication is not required for the core PAWS protocol (although
   it may be required by specific regulators).  Depending on a prior
   relationship between a Database and Master Device, the Database MAY
   require client authentication.  TLS provides client authentication,
   but there are some considerations:

   o  As indicated in Section 3.2 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818], the TLS
      client authentication procedure only determines that the device
      has a certificate chain rooted in an appropriate CA (or a self-
      signed certificate).  The database would not know what the client
      identity ought to be, unless it has some external source of
      information.  Distribution and management of such information,
      including revocation lists, are outside the scope of this
      document.
   o  Authentication schemes are secure only to the extent that secrets
      or certificates are kept secure.  When there are a vast number of
      deployed devices using PAWS, the possibility that device keys will
      not leak becomes small.  Implementations should consider how to
      manage the system in the eventuality that there is a leak.


11.  Contributors

   This document draws heavily from the following Internet Draft
   documents, [I-D.das-paws-protocol] and [I-D.wei-paws-framework].  The
   editor would like to specifically call out and thank the contributing
   authors of these two documents.

      Donald Joslyn
      Spectrum Bridge Inc.
      1064 Greenwood Blvd.
      Lake Mary, FL  32746
      U.S.A.
      Email: d.joslyn at spectrumbridge dot com


      Xinpeng Wei
      Huawei
      Phone: +86 13436822355
      Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com





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12.  Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: Gabor Bajko,
   Ray Bellis, Teco Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex Buddenberg, Gerald
   Chouinard, Stephen Farrell, Michael Fitch, Joel M. Halpern, Daniel
   Harasty, Michael Head, Jussi Kahtava, Warren Kumari, Kalle Kulsmanen,
   Paul Lambert, Andy Lee, Anthony Mancuso, Basavaraj Patil, Scott
   Probasco, Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter Stanforth, John Stine, and
   Juan Carlos Zuniga.


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [FCC-CFR47-15H]
              U. S. Government, "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations,
              Title 47, Part 15, Subpart H: Television Band Devices",
              December 2010, <http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/
              text-idx?rgn=div6&view=text&node=47:1.0.1.1.16.8>.

   [I-D.ietf-jcardcal-jcard]
              Kewisch, P., "jCard: The JSON format for vCard",
              draft-ietf-jcardcal-jcard-07 (work in progress),
              October 2013.

   [ITUT.X520.2008]
              International Telecommunication Union, "ITU-T
              Recommendation X.520: Information technology - Open
              Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Selected
              attribute types", November 2008,
              <http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.520-200811-I>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC4627]  Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
              JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.




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   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, January 2008.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5491]  Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
              Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)
              Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
              RFC 5491, March 2009.

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              August 2011.

   [RFC6953]  Mancuso, A., Probasco, S., and B. Patil, "Protocol to
              Access White-Space (PAWS) Databases: Use Cases and
              Requirements", RFC 6953, May 2013.

   [WGS-84]   National Imagery and Mapping Agency, "Department of
              Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Its Definition and
              Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems, NIMA TR8350.2
              Third Edition Amendment 1", January 2000, <http://
              earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/
              tr8350_2.html>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [ETSI-EN-301-598]
              European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI),
              "TBD: (ETSI EN 301 598)", 2013, <TBD>.

   [FCC-Review-2012-10]
              Federal Communications Commission, "Administration Topics
              Review", October 2012, <http://transition.fcc.gov/bureaus/
              oet/ea/presentations/files/oct12/
              2b-TCB-Admin-Issues-Oct-2012-GT.pdf>.

   [I-D.das-paws-protocol]
              Das, S., Malyar, J., and D. Joslyn, "Device to Database
              Protocol for White Space", draft-das-paws-protocol-02
              (work in progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.wei-paws-framework]



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              Wei, X., Zhu, L., and P. McCann, "PAWS Framework",
              draft-wei-paws-framework-00 (work in progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.zyp-json-schema]
              Zyp, K. and G. Court, "A JSON Media Type for Describing
              the Structure and Meaning of JSON Documents",
              draft-zyp-json-schema-03 (work in progress),
              November 2010.

   [ISO3166-1]
              "Country Codes",
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes.htm>.

   [JSON-RPC]
              "JSON-RPC 2.0 Specification",
              <http://www.jsonrpc.org/specification>.


Appendix A.  Changes / Author Notes.

   Changes from 06:
   o  Multi-ruleset support:
      *  Changed RulesetInfo to have single ruleset ID
      *  Changed INIT_RESP to return a list of RulesetInfo parameters,
         rather than a single one
      *  Changed REGISTRATION_RESP to return a list of RulesetInfo
         parameters to indicate the regulatory domains for which
         registration was accepted
      *  Added SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) parameter to represent
         available-spectrum specification for one regulatory domain,
         allowing AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP to
         include answers for multiple regulatory domains
      *  Changed GeoSpectrumSchedule to GeoSpectrumSpec (Section 5.15)
         for supporting batch responses to represent available spectrum
         for multiple regulatory domains at a location
   o  To avoid ambiguity or redundant information, clarified that:
      *  Event-time intervals within a single set of schedules MUST be
         disjoint
      *  A single Spectrum element MUST cover the entire range of
         frequencies governed by a ruleset, rather than splitting them
         to present a "channelized" view
   o  Add "ruleset" to Terminology section
   o  Sync Terminology section with Use Case document
   o  Add "masterDeviceDesc" to Device Validate request
   o  Add "masterDeviceLocation" to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM requests and the
      SPECTRUM_NOTIFY message.  Change "location" to be the location of
      the Slave Device, if the request is made by a Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device



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   o  Update vCard reference and example
   o  Add jsonrpc 2.0 to all sample messages
   o  Clarify that Listing Servers may be preconfigured in a device
   o  Clarify meaning of maximum power levels vs bandwidth, including
      renaming parameter names:
   o
      *  maxPowerDBm -> powerDbmPerBw
      *  bandwidth -> resolutionBwHz
   o  Explicitly allowed generic JSON-RPC error codes as possible codes.
   o  Replace SHALL with MUST for consistency
   o  Replace URI with URL for consistency
   o  Reduce clutter in JSON encoding examples by removing string-
      concatenation characters
   o  Changed "depends" to "depends on regulatory rules" in several
      places

   Changes from 05:
   o  Remove requirement for JSON-RPC 1.0
   o  More typo fixes and clarifications

   Changes from 04:

   o  Add "masterDeviceDesc" parameter to the available-spectrum
      requests to allow both Master and Slave device descriptors when
      the Master is making the request on behalf of a Slave.
   o  Add "requestType" parameter to the available-spectrum requests to
      support requesting generic operating parameters for any Slave
      Device.
   o  Add DbUpdateSpec as optional parameter to all response messages
      and to the error response to allow a Device to detect a database
      change at any stage of the control flow.
   o  For the OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error, added ability to return a list of
      alternate databases
   o  Explicitly allow JSON-RPC v2.0 and v1.0 encodings
   o  Relaxed language that state, "MUST stop operation" to "MUST cease
      use of spectrum under rules for database-managed spectrum".  I.e.,
      the device may have other fallback strategies allowed by
      regulators.

   Changes from 03:

   o  Expanded the Database Discovery mechanism to describe in more
      detail pre-configuration with URLs of databases and database-
      listing servers, including mechanisms for updating the
      configurations when things change
      *  Add database-change field to Available Spectrum Response
         (Section 4.4.2)




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   o  Added fields that are anticipated to be needed by the ETSI
      harmonized standard for White Space Devices:
      *  Added bandwidth constraints to the Available Spectrum Response
         (Section 4.4.2)
      *  Updated Available Spectrum Response to return RulesetInfo,
         rather than just a ruleset identifier
      *  Added optional device-manufacturer and device-model IDs to the
         DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) message.  Also moved fccId from
         this message to the IANA section.
      *  Expanded IANA (Section 9) sections
   o  Clarified restrictions on the specification of the vertices of a
      Polygon.
   o  Changed default confidence level to 95% for a point with
      uncertainty
   o  Clarified how devices without absolute time source can use the
      timestamps in the response messages
   o  Change method names to start with "spectrum.paws." prefix
   o  Added maximum string lengths
   o  Updated author contact info
   o  More typo fixes

   Changes from 02:

   o  Added timestamp to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.4.2) and
      AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.4.4) data models to serve as
      a reference for the event times in the response.  This was
      accidentally omitted (but was specified in their JSON encodings
      (Section 6)).
   o  Fixed typos throughout the JSON encoding (Section 6) sections,
      typically adding missing commas.

   Changed from 01:

   o  Added a description of message sequences to support multiple
      rulesets and multiple jurisdictions Section 3.1.
   o  Modified DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) to add rulesetIds
      parameter
   o  Modified RulesetInfo (Section 5.6), AvailableSpectrumResponse
      (Section 4.4.2) to add rulesetId parameter.
   o  Add Extensibility (Section 8) section.
   o  Filled in IANA (Section 9) section.
   o  Removed blank Example Messages section

   Changes from 00:
   o  Add JSON encoding
   o  Adopt RFC5491 for GeoLocation





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   o  Adopt vCard for contact information
   o  Add Response Code section and update text referencing the defined
      response codes
   o  Change DeviceIdentifier to be DeviceDescriptor, allowing
      identifiers and device-characteristic fields to be included.


Authors' Addresses

   Vincent Chen (editor)
   Google
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   US

   Email: vchen@google.com


   Subir Das
   Applied Communication Sciences
   150 Mount Airy Road
   Basking Ridge, NJ  07920
   U.S.A.

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: sdas at appcomsci dot com
   URI:


   Lei Zhu
   Huawei


   Phone: +86 13910157020
   Fax:
   Email: lei.zhu@huawei.com
   URI:













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   John Malyar
   iconectiv (formerly Telcordia Interconnection Solutions)
   444 Hoes Lane/RRC 4E1106
   Piscataway, NJ  08854
   U.S.A.

   Phone:
   Fax:
   Email: jmalyar at iconectiv dot com
   URI:


   Peter J. McCann
   Huawei
   400 Crossing Blvd, 2nd Floor
   Bridgewater, NJ  08807
   USA

   Phone: +1 908 541 3563
   Fax:
   Email: peter.mccann@huawei.com
   URI:





























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