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PAWS                                                        V. Chen, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Google
Intended status: Standards Track                                  S. Das
Expires: January 31, 2015                 Applied Communication Sciences
                                                                  L. Zhu
                                                                  Huawei
                                                               J. Malyar
                iconectiv (formerly Telcordia Interconnection Solutions)
                                                               P. McCann
                                                                  Huawei
                                                           July 30, 2014


            Protocol to Access White-Space (PAWS) Databases
                      draft-ietf-paws-protocol-13

Abstract

   Portions of the radio spectrum that are allocated to licensees are
   available for non-interfering use.  This available spectrum is called
   "White Space."  Allowing secondary users access to available spectrum
   "unlocks" existing spectrum to maximize its utilization and to
   provide opportunities for innovation, resulting in greater overall
   spectrum utilization.

   One approach to managing spectrum sharing uses databases to report
   spectrum availability to devices.  To achieve interoperability among
   multiple devices and databases, a standardized protocol must be
   defined and implemented.  This document defines such a protocol, the
   "Protocol to Access White Space (PAWS) Databases".

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 31, 2015.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Protocol Functionalities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Database Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  PAWS Version  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.3.  Initialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.1.  INIT_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.2.  INIT_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.4.  Device Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.4.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.4.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.5.  Available Spectrum Query  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       4.5.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       4.5.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       4.5.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       4.5.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     4.6.  Device Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
       4.6.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       4.6.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   5.  Protocol Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     5.1.  GeoLocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     5.2.  DeviceDescriptor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     5.4.  DeviceCapabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     5.5.  DeviceOwner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36



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     5.6.  RulesetInfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     5.7.  DbUpdateSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     5.8.  DatabaseSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     5.9.  SpectrumSpec  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     5.10. SpectrumSchedule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     5.11. Spectrum  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     5.12. SpectrumProfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
     5.13. FrequencyRange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     5.14. EventTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     5.15. GeoSpectrumSpec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     5.16. DeviceValidity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     5.17. Error Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       5.17.1.  OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       5.17.2.  DATABASE_CHANGE Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       5.17.3.  MISSING Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
   6.  Message Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
       6.1.1.  Method Names  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
       6.1.2.  JSON Encoding of Data Models  . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     6.2.  Example Encoding: init Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     6.3.  Example Encoding: getSpectrum Method  . . . . . . . . . .  56
     6.4.  Example Encoding: DeviceOwner vCard . . . . . . . . . . .  60
   7.  HTTPS Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
   8.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     8.1.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     8.2.  Defining New Message Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     9.1.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
       9.1.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
       9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
     9.2.  PAWS Parameters Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       9.2.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
       9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
       9.3.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
       9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     10.1.  Assurance of Proper Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     10.2.  Protection Against Modification  . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     10.3.  Protection Against Eavesdropping . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     10.4.  Client Authentication Considerations . . . . . . . . . .  76
   11. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
   12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  79
   Appendix A.  Database Listing Server Support  . . . . . . . . . .  80



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   Appendix B.  Changes / Author Notes.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  81
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87

1.  Introduction

   This section provides some high level introductory material.  Readers
   are strongly encouraged to read "Protocol to Access White-Space
   (PAWS) Databases: Use Cases and Requirements" [RFC6953] for use
   cases, requirements, and additional background.

   A geospatial database can track available spectrum (in accordance
   with the rules of one or more regulatory domains) and make this
   information available to devices.  This approach shifts the
   complexity of spectrum-policy conformance out of the device and into
   the database.  This approach also simplifies adoption of policy
   changes, limiting updates to a handful of databases, rather than
   numerous devices.  It opens the door for innovations in spectrum
   management that can incorporate a variety of parameters, including
   user location and time.  In the future, it also can include other
   parameters, such as user priority, time, signal type and power,
   spectrum supply and demand, payment or micro-auction bidding, and
   more.

   In providing this service, a database records and updates information
   necessary to protect primary users -- for example, this information
   may include parameters such as a fixed transmitter's call sign, its
   geolocation, antenna height, power, and periods of operation.  The
   rules that the database is required to follow, including its schedule
   for obtaining and updating protection information, protection rules,
   and information reported to devices, vary according to regulatory
   domain.  Such variations, however, should be handled by each
   database, and hidden from devices to the maximum extent possible.

   This specification defines an extensible protocol, built on top of
   HTTP and TLS, to obtain available spectrum from a geospatial database
   by a device with geolocation capability.  It enables a device to
   operate in a regulatory domain that implements this protocol and
   within which the device is authorized to operate.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

2.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in "Key words for use in
   RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119].




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2.2.  Terminology

   Database or Spectrum Database:  A database is an entity that contains
      current information about available spectrum at a given location
      and time, as well as other types of information related to
      spectrum availability and usage.

   Device ID  An identifier for a device.

   ETSI:  European Telecommunications Standards Institute

   FCC:  Federal Communications Commission

   Listing server:  A server that provides the URIs for one or more
      Spectrum Databases.  A regulator, for example, may operate a
      Database Listing Server to publish the list of authorized Spectrum
      Databases for its regulatory domain.

   Master Device:  A device that queries the database, on its own behalf
      and/or on behalf of a slave device, to obtain available spectrum
      information.

   Regulatory Domain:  A location where certain rules apply to the use
      of white space spectrum, including the operation of databases and
      devices involved in its use.  A regulatory domain is normally
      defined by a unit of government for a particular country, but PAWS
      is agnostic as to how a regulatory domain is constructed.

   Ruleset:  A ruleset represents a set of rules that governs the
      operation of white space devices and Spectrum Databases.  A
      regulatory authority can define its own set of rules or adopt an
      existing ruleset.  When a Database or device is said to "support a
      ruleset", it means that it contains out-of-band knowledge of the
      rules and that its hardware and software implementations conform
      to those rules.

   Ruleset Identifier:  A ruleset can be identified by an IANA-
      registered identifier (see PAWS Ruleset ID Registry
      (Section 9.1)).  When a Database or device indicates it supports a
      ruleset identifier, it means that it conforms to the rules
      associated with that identifier.  A regulatory authority can
      define and register its own ruleset identifiers, or it can use a
      previously registered identifier if it adopts an existing ruleset.

   Slave Device:  A device that queries the database through a master
      device.





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3.  Protocol Overview

   A Master Device uses PAWS to obtain a schedule of available spectrum
   at its location.  The security necessary to ensure the accuracy,
   privacy, and confidentiality of the device's location is described in
   the Security Considerations (Section 10).  This document assumes that
   the Master Device and the Database are connected to the Internet.

   A typical sequence of PAWS operations is outlined as follows.  See
   Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5) for details:

   1.   The Master Device obtains (statically or dynamically) the URI
        for a Database appropriate for its location, to which to send
        subsequent PAWS messages.

   2.   The Master Device establishes an HTTPS session with the
        Database.

   3.   The Master Device optionally sends an initialization message to
        the Database to exchange capabilities.

   4.   If the Database receives an initialization message, it responds
        with an initialization-response message in the body of the HTTP
        response.

   5.   The Database may require the Master Device to be registered
        before providing service.

   6.   The Master Device sends an available-spectrum request message to
        the Database.  The message may be on behalf of a Slave Device
        that made a request to the Master Device.

   7.   If the Master Device is making a request on behalf of a Slave
        Device, the Master Device may verify with the Database that the
        Slave Device is valid.

   8.   The Database responds with an available-spectrum response
        message in the body of the HTTP response.

   9.   The Master Device may send a spectrum-usage notification message
        to the Database.  The notification is purely informational.

   10.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
        it responds by sending the Master Device a spectrum-usage
        acknowledgement message.  Since the notification is purely
        informational, the Master Device does not need to process the
        Database response.



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   Different regulatory domains may impose particular requirements, such
   as requiring Master Devices to register with the Database, performing
   Slave Device verification, and sending spectrum usage notifications.

3.1.  Multi-ruleset Support

   For a Master Device that supports multiple rulesets and operates with
   multiple databases, PAWS supports the following sequence of
   operations for each request by the Master Device:

   1.  The Master Device includes in its request its location and
       optionally includes the identifier of all the rulesets it
       supports and any parameter values it might need for the request

   2.  The Database uses the device location and also may use the
       ruleset list to determine its response, for example, to select
       the list of required parameters

   3.  If required parameters are missing from the request, the Database
       responds with an error and a list of names of the missing
       parameters

   4.  The Master Device makes the request again, adding the missing
       parameter values

   5.  The Database responds to the request, including the identifier of
       the applicable ruleset

   6.  The Master Device uses the indicated ruleset to determine how to
       interpret the Database response

   NOTE Some regulatory domains specify sets of requirements for device
   behavior that may be complex and not easily parameterized.  The
   ruleset-id parameter provides a mechanism for the Database to inform
   the Master Device of an applicable ruleset, and, for devices with
   out-of-band knowledge of the particular regulatory domain
   requirements, to satisfy those requirements without having to specify
   the device-side behavior within the protocol.  Ruleset identifiers
   will normally contain the name of the regulatory body that
   established the rules and version information, such as
   "FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010".

   By separating the regulatory "authority" from the "ruleset-id", it
   allows the protocol to support multiple regulatory authorities that
   use the same device-side ruleset.  It also allows support for a
   single authority to define multiple rulesets.





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4.  Protocol Functionalities

   PAWS consists of several components.  As noted below, some regulatory
   domains or Database implementations may mandate the use of a
   component, even when its use is not mandated by PAWS.

   o  Database Discovery (Section 4.1) is a required component for the
      Master Device.

   o  Initialization (Section 4.3) is a required component for the
      Database.  Its use allows the Master Device to determine necessary
      information that have not been preconfigured.

   o  Device Registration (Section 4.4) is an optional component for the
      Database.  It can be implemented as a separate component or as
      part of the Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.5) component.  It
      is used by the Master Device when the Database requires it.  Note
      that some regulators require device registration for only specific
      device types.

   o  Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.5) is a required component for
      the Master Device and the Database.

   o  Spectrum Use Notify (Section 4.5.5) is an optional component for
      the Master Device and the Database.  When it is required, the
      Database informs the Master Device via its response to the
      Available Spectrum Query (Section 4.5).

   o  Device Validation (Section 4.6) as a separate component is
      optional for the Master Device and Database.  When implemented by
      the Database, its use allows the Master Device to validate Slave
      Devices without having to use the full Available Spectrum Query.

   This section describes the protocol components and their messages.
   Protocol Parameters (Section 5) contains a more thorough discussion
   of the parameters that make up the PAWS request and response
   messages.  Message Encoding (Section 6) provides examples of message
   encodings.  HTTPS Binding (Section 7) describes the use of HTTPS
   ("HTTP Over TLS" [RFC2818]) for transferring PAWS messages and
   optional device authentication.

   The parameter tables in this section and Protocol Parameters
   (Section 5) are for reference and contain the name of each parameter,
   the data type of each parameter, and whether the existence of the
   parameter is required for the protocol transaction in question.  The
   diagrams are loosely based on UML, and the data types are defined
   either in Protocol Parameters (Section 5) or are one of the following
   primitive or structured types:



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   string  A string, as defined by JSON [RFC7159], restricted to the
      UTF-8 encoding.

   int  A number, as defined by JSON [RFC7159], without a fractional or
      exponent part.

   float  A number, as defined by JSON [RFC7159].

   boolean  A boolean, as defined by JSON [RFC7159].

   list  A structured type that represents a list of elements, as
      defined by JSON [RFC7159] array type.  All elements of the list
      are of the same data type, which is indicated in its diagram and
      description.  The diagram notation and description may include
      additional constraints, such as minimum or maximum number of
      elements.

   NOTE: All parameter names are case sensitive.  Unless stated
   otherwise, all string values are case sensitive.

4.1.  Database Discovery

   Preconfiguration

   The Master Device can be provisioned statically (preconfigured) with
   the URI of one or more Databases.  For example, in a particular
   regulatory domain, there may be a number of certified Databases that
   any device operating in that domain is permitted to connect to, and
   those URIs can be preconfigured in the device.

   Listing Server Support: As an alternative to preconfiguring devices
   with a list of certified Databases, some regulatory domains support
   the preconfiguration of devices with the URI of a certified listing
   server, to which devices can connect to obtain the list of certified
   Databases.  See Listing Server Support (Appendix A) for further
   information.

   Configuration Update: Database URI changes

   To adapt to changes in the list of certified or approved databases,
   the device needs to update its preconfigured list of databases.

   A Database MAY change its URI, but before it changes its URI, it MUST
   indicate so by including the URI of one or more alternate databases
   using DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7) in its responses to devices.  A
   device will update its preconfigured entry for the Database sending
   the DbUpdateSpec by replacing this entry with the alternate databases
   listed in the DbUpdateSpec; the list of alternate databases does not



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   affect any other entries.  Note that the ordering of databases in the
   list does not imply any preference and does not need to remain the
   same for every request.  The device SHOULD detect infinite
   redirection loops; if a suitable database cannot be contacted, the
   device MUST treat this as equivalent to a response indicating no
   available spectrum.  This database-change mechanism is used, for
   example, before a Database ceases operation; it is not intended to be
   used for dynamic load balancing.

   Error Handling

   The device SHOULD select another database from its list of
   preconfigured databases if:

   o  The selected database is unreachable or does not respond.

   o  The selected database returns an UNSUPPORTED error (see Error
      Codes (Section 5.17)), which may indicate that the database does
      not support the regulatory domain where the device is located.

   If a suitable database cannot be contacted, the device MUST treat
   this as equivalent to a response indicating no available spectrum.
   If the device had previously contacted a database to get available
   spectrum, but subsequently fails to contact a suitable database, the
   spectrum the device is currently using can be used for as long as the
   spectrum data is valid; but after that period, the device will no
   longer have valid spectrum to use.  Some regulatory domains may have
   specific rules regarding how long the spectrum data remains valid in
   these cases.

4.2.  PAWS Version

   PAWS version uses a "<major>.<minor>" numbering scheme to indicate
   versions of the protocol.  The protocol versioning policy is intended
   to allow the device or Database to indicate the format of a message
   and its understanding of PAWS functionality defined by that version.
   No change is made to the version string for the addition of message
   components which only add to extensible parameter values.  The
   <minor> number is incremented when the changes made to the protocol
   add functionalities (methods), but do not change the existing
   functionalities.  The <major> number is incremented when incompatible
   changes are made to existing functionality.

   The current PAWS version is "1.0".







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4.3.  Initialization

   A Master Device SHOULD use the initialization procedure to exchange
   capability information with the Database whenever the Master Device
   powers up or initiates communication with the Database.  The
   initialization response informs the Master Device of specific
   parameterized-rule values, such as threshold distances and time
   periods beyond which the device must update its available-spectrum
   data (see RuleSetInfo (Section 5.6)).  When a Master Device is not
   configured manually with these parameterized-rule values, it MUST use
   the initialization procedure.  For database implementations that
   require it, the initialization message also enables extra database-
   specific or ruleset-specific handshake parameters to be communicated
   before allowing available-spectrum requests.

   The Initialization request procedure is depicted in Figure 1.

   o  INIT_REQ (Section 4.3.1) is the initialization request message

   o  INIT_RESP (Section 4.3.2) is the initialization response message

                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                  | Master Device |    | Spectrum Database |
                  +---------------+    +-------------------+
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_REQ         |
                        |-------------------->|
                        |                     |
                        |    INIT_RESP        |
                        |<--------------------|
                        |                     |

                                 Figure 1

4.3.1.  INIT_REQ

   The initialization request message allows the Master Device to
   initiate exchange of capabilities with the Database.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_REQ                               |
   +----------------------------+----------|
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |location:GeoLocation        | required |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+




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   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the device is
      REQUIRED.  If the device descriptor does not contain any ruleset
      IDs, the Master Device is asking the Database to return a
      RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) list that specifies the rulesets that it
      supports at the specified location.

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) of the device is REQUIRED.
      If the location is outside any regulatory domain supported by the
      Database, the Database MUST respond with an OUTSIDE_COVERAGE
      (Table 1) error.

   other:  The Master Device MAY specify additional handshake parameters
      in the INIT_REQ message.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters
      it does not understand.  To simplify its initialization logic, a
      Master Device that supports multiple Databases and rulesets can
      include the union of all required parameters for all its supported
      rulesets.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2) for
      possible additional parameters.

4.3.2.  INIT_RESP

   The initialization response message communicates database parameters
   to the requesting device.  This response is returned only when there
   is at least one ruleset.  Otherwise, the Database returns an error
   response, as described in INIT_REQ (Section 4.3.1).

   +---------------------------------------+
   |INIT_RESP                              |
   +----------------------------+----------+   1..* +-------------+
   |rulesetInfos:list           | required |------->| RulesetInfo |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |        +-------------+
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfos:  A RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) list MUST be included in
      the response.  Each RulesetInfo corresponds to a ruleset supported
      by the Database and is applicable to the location specified in the
      INIT_REQ (Section 4.3.1) message.

      If the device included a list of ruleset IDs in the
      DeviceDescriptor of its INIT_REQ message, each RulesetInfo in the
      response MUST match one of the specified ruleset IDs.




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      If the DeviceDescriptor did not contain any ruleset IDs, the
      Database SHOULD include in the rulesetInfos list a RulesetInfo for
      each ruleset it supports at the specified location.

      If the Database does not support the device or any of the rulesets
      specified in the DeviceDescriptor, it MUST instead return an error
      with the UNSUPPORTED (Table 1) code in the error response.

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) to notify the Master Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The
      device needs to update its preconfigured entry for the responding
      database with the alternate databases listed in the DbUpdateSpec.

   other:  The Database MAY include additional handshake parameters in
      the INIT_RESP (Section 4.3.2) message.  The Master Device MUST
      ignore all parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS
      Parameters Registry (Section 9.2) for possible additional
      parameters.

4.4.  Device Registration

   Some rulesets require a Master Device to send its registration
   information to the Database in order to establish certain operational
   parameters.  FCC rules, for example, require that a 'Fixed Device'
   register its owner and operator contact information, its device
   identifier, its location, and its antenna height.

   The Database MAY implement device registration as a separate Device
   Registration request, or as part of the Spectrum Availability
   request.  If the Database does not implement a separate Device
   Registration request, it MUST return an error with the UNIMPLEMENTED
   (Table 1) code in the error-response message.

   The Device Registration request procedure is depicted in Figure 2.

   o  REGISTRATION_REQ (Section 4.4.1) is the device-registration
      request message

   o  REGISTRATION_RESP (Section 4.4.2) is the device-registration
      response message










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                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                | Master Device |        | Spectrum Database |
                +---------------+        +-------------------+
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_REQ     |
                      |------------------------>|
                      |                         |
                      |    REGISTRATION_RESP    |
                      |<------------------------|
                      |                         |

                                 Figure 2

4.4.1.  REGISTRATION_REQ

   The registration request message contains the required registration
   parameters.  A parameter marked as optional may be required by some
   rulesets.

   +-------------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_REQ                           |
   +-------------------------------+-----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor    | required  |
   |location:GeoLocation           | required  |
   |deviceOwner:DeviceOwner        | required  |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics | optional  |
   |...........................................|
   |*other:any                     | optional  |
   +-------------------------------+-----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the Master Device
      is REQUIRED.  The ruleset IDs included in the DeviceDescriptor
      indicate the rulesets for which the device wishes to register.  If
      the registration information is unacceptable for all of the
      rulesets supported by the Database, the Database MUST return an
      error message with an appropriate error code.  Otherwise, the
      Database MUST return, in its response, a RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)
      list that specifies all rulesets for which device registration was
      accepted.

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the device is REQUIRED.
      If the location is outside all regulatory domains supported by the
      Database, the Database MUST respond with an OUTSIDE_COVERAGE
      (Table 1) error.

   deviceOwner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information is REQUIRED.



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   antenna:  The AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) is OPTIONAL.

   other:  Rulesets and database implementations may require additional
      registration parameters.  To simplify its registration logic, the
      Master Device MAY send a union of the registration information
      required by all supported rulesets.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

4.4.2.  REGISTRATION_RESP

   The registration response message acknowledges successful
   registration by including a RulesetInfo message for each ruleset in
   which the registration is accepted.  If the Database does not accept
   the registration for any of the rulesets it supports, the Database
   MUST return the NOT_REGISTERED error (See Error Codes
   (Section 5.17)).

   +---------------------------------------+
   |REGISTRATION_RESP                      |
   +----------------------------+----------+   1..* +-------------+
   |rulesetInfos:list           | required |------->| RulesetInfo |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |        +-------------+
   |............................|..........|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   rulesetInfos:  A RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) list MUST be included in
      the response.  Each entry corresponds to a ruleset for which the
      registration was accepted.  The list MUST contain at least one
      entry.

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) to notify the Master Device of a change to the
      Database URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The
      device needs to update its preconfigured entry for the responding
      database with the alternate databases listed in the DbUpdateSpec.

   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the registration response.  The Master Device MUST ignore any
      parameters it does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters
      Registry (Section 9.2) for possible additional parameters.







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4.5.  Available Spectrum Query

   To obtain the available spectrum from the Database, a Master Device
   sends a request that contains its geolocation and any parameters
   required by the ruleset (such as device identifier, capabilities, and
   characteristics).  The Database returns a response that describes
   which frequencies are available, at what permissible operating power
   levels, and a schedule of when they are available.

   The Available Spectrum Query procedure is depicted in Figure 3.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.5.1) is the available-spectrum
      request message.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.5.2) is the available-spectrum
      response message.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ (Section 4.5.3) is an OPTIONAL batch
      version of the available-spectrum request message that allows
      multiple locations to be specified in the request.

   o  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.5.4) is the response message
      for the batch version of the available-spectrum request that
      contains available spectrum for each location in the request.

   o  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.5.5) is the spectrum-usage
      notification message.

   o  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP (Section 4.5.6) is the spectrum-usage
      acknowledgment message.





















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               +---------------+          +-------------------+
               | Master Device |          | Spectrum Database |
               +---------------+          +-------------------+
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ      |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ) |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP     |
                     | (AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP)|
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |
                     |   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)    |
                     |--------------------------->|
                     |                            |
                     |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)     |
                     |<---------------------------|
                     |                            |

                                 Figure 3

   1.  First, the Master Device sends an available-spectrum request
       message to the Database.

   2.  The Database MUST respond with an error using the NOT_REGISTERED
       (Table 1) code if:

       *  registration information is required, and

       *  the request does not include registration information, and

       *  the device has not previously registered with the Database

   3.  If the location specified in the request is outside the
       regulatory domain supported by the Database, the Database MUST
       respond with an OUTSIDE_COVERAGE (Table 1) error.  If some
       locations within a batch request are outside the regulatory
       domain supported by the Database, the Database MAY return an OK
       response with available spectrum for only the valid locations;
       otherwise, if all locations within a batch request are outside
       the regulatory domain, the Database MUST respond with an
       OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error.

   4.  The Database MAY perform other validation of the request, (e.g.,
       checking for missing required parameters, authorizations).  If
       validation fails, the Database returns an appropriate error code
       (Table 1).  If the request is missing required parameters, the




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       Database MUST respond with a MISSING (Table 1) error and SHOULD
       include a list of the missing parameters.

   5.  If the request is valid, the Database responds with an available-
       spectrum response message.  If the ruleset requires that devices
       must report anticipated spectrum usage, the Database will
       indicate so in the response message.

   6.  If the available-spectrum response indicates that the Master
       Device must send a spectrum-usage notification message, the
       Master Device sends the notification message to the Database.

   7.  If the Database receives a spectrum-usage notification message,
       it MUST send a spectrum-usage acknowledgment message to the
       Master Device.

   The procedure for asking for available spectrum on behalf of a Slave
   Device is similar, except that the process is initiated by the Slave
   Device.  The device identifier, capabilities, and characteristics
   communicated in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message MUST be those of the
   Slave Device, but the location MUST be that of the Master Device.
   Although the communication and protocol between the Slave Device and
   Master Device is outside the scope of this document (represented as
   dotted lines), the expected message sequence is shown in Figure 4.



























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      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ     |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          | (SPECTRUM_USE)  |                           |
          |................>|   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          |                 |                           |

                                 Figure 4

4.5.1.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ

   The request message for the Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST
   include a geolocation.  Rulesets may mandate that it be the device's
   current location or allow it to be an anticipated location.  A
   parameter marked as optional may be required by some rulesets.

   +----------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ                                  |
   +----------------------------------+-----------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor       | see description |
   |location:GeoLocation              | see description |
   |owner:DeviceOwner                 | optional        |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics    | optional        |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities   | optional        |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | optional        |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation  | optional        |
   |requestType:string                | optional        |
   |..................................|.................|
   |*other:any                        | optional        |
   +----------------------------------+-----------------+

   Parameters:



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   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the device
      requesting available spectrum.  When the request is made by a
      Master Device on its own behalf, the descriptor is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the descriptor is that of the Slave
      Device, and it is REQUIRED if the "requestType" parameter is not
      specified.  The deviceDesc parameter may be OPTIONAL for some
      values of requestType.

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the device requesting
      available spectrum.  The location SHOULD be the current location
      of the device, but more precisely, the location of the radiation
      center of the device's antenna.  When the request is made by the
      Master Device on its own behalf, the location is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made by the
      Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the location is that of
      the Slave Device and it is OPTIONAL (see also
      masterDeviceLocation).  The location may be an anticipated
      position of the device to support mobile devices, but its use
      depends on the ruleset.  If the location specifies a region,
      rather than a point, the Database MAY return an error with the
      UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) code, if it does not implement query by
      region.

   owner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to
      register the device with the Database.  This enables the device to
      register and get spectrum-availability information in a single
      request.  Some rulesets mandate registration for specific device
      types.

   antenna:  The AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) is OPTIONAL.

   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.

   masterDeviceDesc:  When the request is made by the Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      descriptor.

   masterDeviceLocation:  When the request is made by the Master Device
      on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      GeoLocation (Section 5.1).

   requestType:  The request type is OPTIONAL, which may be used to
      modify the request, but its use depends on the applicable ruleset.



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      The request type may be used, for example, to indicate that the
      response should include generic Slave Device parameters without
      having to specify the device descriptor for a specific device.
      When requestType is missing, the request is for a specific device
      (Master or Slave), so deviceDesc is REQUIRED.  The maximum length
      of the value is 64 octets.  See IANA Ruleset Registry, Initial
      Registry Contents (Section 9.1.2) for ruleset specifics.

   other:  Rulesets and database implementations may require additional
      request parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters it
      does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.2) for possible additional parameters.

4.5.2.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP

   The response message for the Available Spectrum Query contains one or
   more SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) elements, one for each ruleset
   supported at the location specified in the corresponding
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.5.1) request.  Each SpectrumSpec
   element contains a list of one or more spectrum schedules,
   representing permissible power levels over time:

   o  Within each list of schedules, event-time intervals MUST be
      disjoint and MUST be sorted in increasing time.

   o  A gap in the time schedule means no spectrum is available for that
      time interval.
























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   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP                    |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |spectrumSpecs:list          | required |-------+
   |............................|..........|       |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |       |
   |*other:any                  | optional |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 1..*
                                                   V
                              +-----------------------------------+
                              |SpectrumSpec                       |
                              +------------------------+----------+
                              |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo | required |
                              |spectrumSchedules:list  | required |-+
                              |timeRange:EventTime     | optional | |
                              |frequencyRanges:list    | optional | |
                              |needsSpectrumReport:bool| optional | |
                              |maxTotalBwHz:float      | optional | |
                              |maxContiguousBwHz:float | optional | |
                              +------------------------+----------+ |
                                               +--------------------+
                                               | 1..*
                                               V
                                  +-------------------------------+
                                  |SpectrumSchedule               |
                                  +--------------------+----------+
                                  |eventTime:EventTime | required |
                                  |spectra:list        | required |
                                  +--------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by "Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps" [RFC3339].  This can be used by the device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.

   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ message.

   spectrumSpecs:  The SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) list MUST include at
      least one entry.  Each entry contains the schedules of available
      spectrum for a ruleset.  The Database MAY return more than one
      SpectrumSpec to represent available spectrum for multiple rulesets
      at the specified location.




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   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) to notify the device of a change to the Database
      URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The device
      needs to update its preconfigured entry for the responding
      database with the alternate databases listed in the DbUpdateSpec.

   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  The device MUST ignore any parameters that it does
      not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.2) for possible additional parameters and requirements
      they place on the device.

4.5.2.1.  Update Requirements

   When the stop time specified in the schedule has been reached, the
   device:

   o  MUST obtain a new spectrum-availability schedule, either by using
      the next one in the list (if provided) or making another Available
      Spectrum Query (Section 4.5).

   o  If the device is unable to contact the Database to obtain a new
      schedule, it MUST treat this as equivalent to a response with no
      available spectrum.

   Some rulesets also mandate that a device must obtain a new specturm-
   availability schedule if the device moves beyond a threshold distance
   (established by the ruleset) away from the actual location and all
   anticipated location(s) it reported in previous AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ or
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ requests (see "maxLocationChange" in
   RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)).  If the device is unable to contact the
   Database to obtain a new schedule, it MUST treat this as equivalent
   to a response with no available spectrum.

   NOTE: The ruleset determines required device behavior when spectrum
   is no longer available.  The ruleset also governs whether a device
   may request and use spectrum at anticipated locations beyond the
   threshold distance from its current location.

4.5.3.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ

   The Database MAY implement the batch request that allows multiple
   locations to be specified.  This enables a portable Master Device,
   for example, to get available spectrum for a sequence of anticipated
   locations using a single request.  The Database interprets each
   location in the batch request as if it were an independent request
   and returns results consistent with multiple individual
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.5.1) requests, but returns these



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   results in a batched response (Section 4.5.4).  The request message
   for the batch Available Spectrum Query protocol MUST include at least
   one GeoLocation (Section 5.1).  If the Database does not implement
   batch requests, it MUST return an UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) error.

   NOTE: Whether anticipated locations are allowed depends on the
   specified ruleset.  A parameter marked as optional may be required by
   some rulesets.

   +---------------------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ                           |
   +---------------------------------+-----------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor      | see description |
   |locations:list                   | required        |--+
   |owner:DeviceOwner                | optional        |  |
   |antenna:AntennaCharacteristics   | optional        |  |
   |capabilities:DeviceCapabilities  | optional        |  |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor| optional        |  |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation | optional        |  |
   |requestType:string               | optional        |  |
   +.................................+.................+  |
   |*other:any                       | optional        |  |
   +---------------------------------+-----------------+  |
                                                          |
                                                     1..* V
                                                 +-------------+
                                                 | GeoLocation |
                                                 +-------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the device
      requesting available spectrum.  When the request is made by a
      Master Device on its own behalf, the descriptor is that of the
      Master Device and it is REQUIRED.  When the request is made on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the descriptor is that of the Slave
      Device, and it is REQUIRED if the "requestType" parameter is not
      specified.  The deviceDesc parameter may be OPTIONAL for some
      values of requestType.

   locations:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) list for the device is
      REQUIRED.  This allows the device to specify its actual location
      plus additional anticipated locations.  At least one location MUST
      be included.  This specification places no upper limit on the
      number of locations, but the Database MAY restrict the number of
      locations it supports by returning a response with fewer locations
      than specified in the request.  If the locations specify regions,
      rather than points, the Database MAY return an error with the



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      UNIMPLEMENTED (Table 1) code, if it does not implement query by
      region.  When the request is made by a Master Device on its own
      behalf, the locations are those of the Master Device.  When the
      request is made by the Master Device on behalf of a Slave Device,
      the locations are those of the Slave Device (see also
      masterDeviceLocation).

   owner:  The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) information MAY be included to
      register the device with the Database.  This enables the device to
      register and get spectrum-availability information in a single
      request.  Some rulesets mandate registration for specific device
      types.

   antenna:  The AntennaCharacteristics (Section 5.3) is OPTIONAL.

   capabilities:  The Master Device MAY include its DeviceCapabilities
      (Section 5.4) to limit the available-spectrum response to the
      spectrum that is compatible with its capabilities.  The Database
      SHOULD NOT return spectrum that is not compatible with the
      specified capabilities.

   masterDeviceDesc:  When the request is made by the Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      descriptor.

   masterDeviceLocation:  When the request is made by the Master Device
      on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      GeoLocation (Section 5.1).

   requestType:  The request type is an OPTIONAL parameter that may be
      used to modify the request, but its use depends on applicable the
      ruleset.  The request type may be used, for example, to request
      generic Slave Device parameters without having to specify the
      device descriptor for a specific device.  When the requestType
      parameter is missing, the request is for a specific device (Master
      or Slave), so deviceDesc is REQUIRED.  The maximum length is 64
      octets.  See IANA Ruleset Registry, Initial Registry Contents
      (Section 9.1.2) for ruleset specifics.

   other:  Rulesets and database implementations may require additional
      request parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all parameters it
      does not understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry
      (Section 9.2) for possible additional parameters.








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4.5.4.  AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP

   The response message for the batch Available Spectrum Query contains
   a schedule of available spectrum for the device at multiple
   locations.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP              |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |timestamp:string            | required |
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |geoSpectrumSpecs:list       | required |-------+
   |............................|..........|       |
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |       |
   |*other:any                  | optional |       |
   +----------------------------+----------+       | 0..*
                                                   V
                                +---------------------------------+
                                |GeoSpectrumSpec                  |
                                +----------------------+----------+
                                |location:GeoLocation  | required |
                                |spectrumSpecs:list    | required |
                                +----------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   timestamp:  Timestamp of the response of the form, YYYY-MM-
      DDThh:mm:ssZ, as defined by "Date and Time on the Internet:
      Timestamps" [RFC3339].  This can be used by the device as a
      reference for the start and stop times in the spectrum schedules.

   deviceDesc:  The Database MUST include the DeviceDescriptor
      (Section 5.2) specified in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_REQ message.

   geoSpectrumSpecs:  The geoSpectrumSpecs (Section 5.15) list is
      REQUIRED (although it MAY be empty if spectrum is unavailable).
      For each location, the Database MAY return one or more
      SpectrumSpecs (Section 5.9) to represent available spectrum for
      one or more rulesets.  The Database MAY return available spectrum
      for fewer locations than requested.  The order of the entries in
      the list is not significant and the device MUST use the location
      value in each GeoSpectrumSpec entry to match available spectrum to
      a location.

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) to notify the device of a change to the Database
      URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The device




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      needs to update its preconfigured entry for the responding
      database with the alternate databases listed in the DbUpdateSpec.

   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2)
      for possible additional parameters and requirements they place on
      the device.

   See Update Requirements (Section 4.5.2.1) for when the device must
   update its available spectrum data.

4.5.5.  SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY

   The spectrum-use notification message indicates the spectrum
   anticipated to be used by the device.

   +---------------------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY                                |
   +---------------------------------+-----------------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor      | required        |
   |location:GeoLocation             | see description |
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor| optional        |
   |masterDeviceLocation:GeoLocation | optional        |
   |spectra:list                     | required        |--+
   |...................................................|  |
   |*other:any                       | optional        |  |
   +---------------------------------+-----------------+  | 0..*
                                                          V
                                 +--------------------------------+
                                 |Spectrum                        |
                                 +---------------------+----------+
                                 |resolutionBwHz:float | required |
                                 |profiles:list        | required |
                                 +---------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) for the device is
      REQUIRED.

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) for the device.  When the
      notification is made by a Master Device on its own behalf, the
      location is that of the Master Device and is REQUIRED.  When the
      notification is made by a Master Device on behalf of a Slave
      Device, the location is that of the Slave Device and is OPTIONAL,
      but may be required by some rulesets.





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   spectra:  The Spectrum (Section 5.11) list is REQUIRED, and specifies
      the spectrum anticipated to be used by the device, which includes
      profiles of frequencies and power levels.  The list MAY be empty,
      if the device decides not to use any spectrum.  For consistency,
      the resolution bandwidth value, "resolutionBwHz" MUST match that
      from one of the Spectrum (Section 5.11) elements in the
      corresponding AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP message, and the maximum power
      levels in the Spectrum element MUST be expressed as power over the
      specified "resolutionBwHz" value.  The actual bandwidth to be used
      (as computed from the start and stop frequencies) MAY be different
      from the "resolutionBwHz" value.  As an example, when the ruleset
      expresses maximum power spectral density in terms of maximum power
      over any 100 kHz band, then the "resolutionBwHz" value should be
      set to 100 kHz, even though the actual bandwidth used can be 20
      kHz.

   masterDeviceDesc:  When the notification is made by the Master Device
      on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY provide its own
      descriptor.

   masterDeviceLocation:  When the notification is made by the Master
      Device on behalf of a Slave Device, the Master Device MAY include
      its own GeoLocation (Section 5.1).

   other:  Depending on the ruleset, other parameters may be required.
      To simplify its logic, the device MAY include the union of all
      parameters required by all supported rulesets.  The Database MUST
      ignore all parameters it does not understand.

4.5.6.  SPECTRUM_USE_RESP

   The spectrum-use response message simply acknowledges receipt of the
   notification.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |SPECTRUM_USE_RESP                      |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |
   |.......................................|
   |*other:any                  | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) to notify the device of a change to the Database
      URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The device




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      needs to update its preconfigured entry for the responding
      database with the alternate databases listed in the DbUpdateSpec.

   other:  Database implementations MAY return additional parameters in
      the response.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2)
      for possible additional parameters.

4.6.  Device Validation

   A Slave Device needs a Master Device to ask the Database on its
   behalf for available spectrum.  Depending on the ruleset, the Master
   Device also must validate with the Database that the Slave Device is
   permitted to operate.  When the ruleset allows a Master Device to
   "cache" the available spectrum for a period of time, the Master
   Device may use the simpler Device Validation component, instead of
   the full Available Spectrum Query component, to validate a Slave
   Device.

   When validating one or more Slave Devices, the Master Device sends
   the Database a request that includes the device identifier -- and any
   other parameters required by the ruleset -- for each Slave Device.
   The Database MUST return a response with an entry for each device to
   indicate whether it is permitted to use the spectrum.

   A typical sequence for using the Device Validation request is
   illustrated in Figure 5, where the Master Device already has a valid
   set of available spectrum for Slave Devices.  Note that the
   communication and protocol between the Slave Device and Master Device
   is outside the scope of this document.

   o  DEV_VALID_REQ (Section 4.6.1) is the device-validation request
      message

   o  DEV_VALID_RESP (Section 4.6.2) is the device-validation response
      message
















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      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
      |Slave Device|     | Master Device |      | Spectrum Database |
      +------------+     +---------------+      +-------------------+
          |                 |                           |
          | AVAIL_SPEC_REQ  |                           |
          |................>|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_REQ          |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    DEV_VALID_RESP         |
          |                 |<--------------------------|
          | AVAIL_SPEC_RESP |                           |
          |<................|                           |
          |                 |                           |
          | (SPECTRUM_USE)  |                           |
          |................>|   (SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY)   |
          |                 |-------------------------->|
          |                 |                           |
          |                 |    (SPECTRUM_USE_RESP)    |
          |                 |<--------------------------|

                                 Figure 5

4.6.1.  DEV_VALID_REQ

   +---------------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_REQ                                |
   +----------------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDescs:list                  | required |---+
   |masterDeviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | optional |   |
   +----------------------------------+----------+   |
                                                     V 1..*
                                    +----------------------+
                                    |DeviceDescriptor      |
                                    +----------------------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDescs:  A DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) list is REQUIRED,
      which specifies the list of Slave Devices that are to be
      validated.

   masterDeviceDesc:  The Master Device MAY provide its own descriptor.







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4.6.2.  DEV_VALID_RESP

   +---------------------------------------+
   |DEV_VALID_RESP                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceValidities:list       | required |----
   |databaseChange:DbUpdateSpec | optional |   |
   +----------------------------+----------+   |
                                               V 1..*
                            +---------------------------------------+
                            |DeviceValidity                         |
                            +----------------------------+----------+
                            |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
                            |isValid:boolean             | required |
                            |reason:string               | optional |
                            +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceValidities:  A DeviceValidities (Section 5.16) list is REQUIRED
      to report the list of Slave Devices and whether each listed device
      is valid.  The number of entries MUST match the number of
      DeviceDescriptors (Section 5.2) listed in the DEV_VALID_REQ
      message.

   databaseChange:  The Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec
      (Section 5.7) to notify the device of a change to the Database
      URI, providing one or more alternate database URIs.  The device
      needs to update its preconfigured entry for the responding
      database with the alternate databases listed in the DbUpdateSpec.

5.  Protocol Parameters

   This section presents more details of the parameters that make up the
   PAWS request and response messages.  It also includes a sub-section
   defining response codes.

5.1.  GeoLocation

   GeoLocation is used to specify one of the following:

   o  A single point with optional uncertainty

   o  A region described by a polygon

   These are represented using geometric shapes defined in Section 5 of
   "GEOPRIV Presence Information Data Format Location Object" [RFC5491],
   where:



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   o  A "point" with uncertainty is represented using the Ellipse shape

   o  A region is represented using the Polygon shape

   The coordinates are expressed using the WGS84 datum [WGS-84], and
   units are degrees or meters.  GeoLocation MAY also include a
   confidence level, expressed as a percentage.  The confidence and
   uncertainty parameters may be required by some rulesets (see also
   Uncertainty and Confidence [I-D.ietf-geopriv-uncertainty]).

   The data model for GeoLocation is illustrated below:

   +------------------------------------+
   |GeoLocation                         |
   +------------------+-----------------+
   |point:Ellipse     | see description |
   |region:Polygon    | see description |
   |confidence:int    | optional        |
   +------------------+-----------------+
   Note: point and region are mutually exclusive. Exactly one must
   be present.

   +-------------------------------+
   |Ellipse                        |
   +--------------------+----------+
   |center:Point        | required |--+
   |semiMajorAxis:float | optional |  |
   |semiMinorAxis:float | optional |  |
   |orientation:float   | optional |  |
   +--------------------+----------+  v
                              +---------------------------+
                              |Point                      |
                              +----------------+----------+
                              |latitude:float  | required |
                              |longitude:float | required |
                              +----------------+----------+

   +-------------------------------+
   |Polygon                        |
   +-------------------+-----------+  4..* +---------------------------+
   |exterior:list      | required  |------>|Point                      |
   +-------------------+-----------+       +----------------+----------+
                                           |latitude:float  | required |
                                           |longitude:float | required |
                                           +----------------+----------+

   Parameters:




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   point:  If present, it specifies the GeoLocation as a point.
      Paradoxically, a "point" is parameterized using an Ellipse, where
      the center represents the location of the point and the distances
      along the major and minor axes represent the uncertainty.  The
      uncertainty values may be required, depending on the ruleset.
      Exactly one of "point" or "region" MUST be present.

   region:  If present, it specifies the GeoLocation as a region.
      Exactly one of "point" or "region" MUST be present.

   center:  The center refers to the location of a GeoLocation point and
      is represented as the center of an ellipse.

   latitude, longitude:  Floating-point numbers that express the
      latitude and longitude in degrees using the WGS84 datum [WGS-84].

   semiMajorAxis, semiMinorAxis:  This OPTIONAL parameter expresses the
      location uncertainty, expressed in meters.  It is parameterized
      using distances along the major and minor axes of the ellipse.
      The default value for each parameter is 0.

   orientation:  This defines the orientation of the ellipse, expressed
      as the rotation, in degrees, of the semi-major axis from North
      towards the East.  For example, when the uncertainty is greatest
      along the North-South direction, orientation is 0 degrees;
      conversely, if the uncertainty is greatest along the East-West
      direction, orientation is 90 degrees.  When orientation is not
      present, the default value is 0.

   exterior:  When GeoLocation describes a region, the "exterior"
      parameter refers to a list of latitude/longitude points that
      represents the vertices of a polygon.  The first and last points
      MUST be the same.  Thus, a minimum of 4 points is required.  The
      following polygon restrictions from [RFC5491] apply:

      *  A connecting line MUST NOT cross another connecting line of the
         same polygon.

      *  The vertices MUST be defined in a counter-clockwise direction,
         looking at them from above.

      *  The edges of a polygon are defined by the shortest path between
         two points in space (not a geodesic curve).  Consequently, the
         length between two adjacent vertices SHOULD be restricted to a
         maximum of 130 km.

      *  All vertices are assumed to be at the same altitude.




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      *  Polygon shapes SHOULD be restricted to a maximum of 15 vertices
         (16 points that includes the repeated vertex).

   confidence:  The location confidence level, as a percentage, MAY be
      provided.  When this parameter is not provided, the default value
      is 95.  Valid values range from 0 to 100, but, in practice,
      100-percent confidence is not achievable.  The confidence value is
      meaningful only when GeoLocation refers to a point with
      uncertainty.

5.2.  DeviceDescriptor

   The device descriptor contains parameters that identify the specific
   device, such as its manufacturer serial number, manufacturer's ID,
   and any other device characteristics required by ruleset.

   +--------------------------------+
   |DeviceDescriptor                |
   +---------------------+----------+
   |serialNumber:string  | required |
   |manufacturerId:string| optional |
   |modelId:string       | optional |  1..*
   |rulesetIds:list      | optional |------>string
   |.....................|..........|
   |*other:any           | optional |
   +---------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   serialNumber:  The manufacturer's device serial number is REQUIRED.
      Its maximum length is 64 octets, conforming to the X.520
      [ITUT.X520.2008] recommendations.

   manufacturerId:  The manufacturer's ID is OPTIONAL, but may be
      required by some rulesets.  This represents the name of the device
      manufacturer, and therefore ought to be consistent across all
      devices from the same manufacturer and distinct from that of other
      manufacturers.  Its maximum length is 64 octets.

   modelId:  The device's model ID is OPTIONAL, but may be required by
      some rulesets.  Its maximum length is 64 octets.

   rulesetIds:  The list of identifiers for rulesets supported by the
      device (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.1)).  A Database MAY
      require that the device provides this list before servicing the
      device requests.  If the Database does not support any of the
      rulesets specified in the list, the Database MAY refuse to service
      the device requests.  See RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) for discussion



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      on ruleset identifier.  If present, the list MUST contain at least
      one entry.

   other:  Depending on the ruleset, other parameters may be required.
      The Database MUST ignore all parameters in the message it does not
      understand.  See PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2) for
      additional valid parameters and for the process for extending the
      message with more parameters.  Additionally, see PAWS Ruleset ID
      Registry (Section 9.1) for the valid set of parameters for each
      ruleset.

5.3.  AntennaCharacteristics

   Antenna characteristics provide additional information, such as the
   antenna height, antenna type, etc.  Whether antenna characteristics
   must be provided in a request depends on the device type and ruleset.
   Additionally, a parameter marked as optional may be required by some
   rulesets.

   +------------------------------------+
   |AntennaCharacteristics              |
   +-------------------------+----------+
   |height:float             | optional |
   |heightType:enum          | optional |
   |heightUncertainty:float  | optional |
   |.........................|..........|
   |*characteristics:        | optional |
   |   various               |          |
   +-------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   height:  The antenna height in meters.  Note that the height may be
      negative.

   heightType:  Valid values are:

      AGL  Above ground level (default)

      AMSL  Above mean sea level

   heightUncertainty:  The height uncertainty in meters.

   NOTE: Depending on the ruleset, additional antenna characteristics
   may be required, such as:

   o  antenna direction




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   o  antenna radiation pattern

   o  antenna gain

   o  antenna polarization

   These are not defined by the base protocol, but may be added to the
   PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2), as needed.

5.4.  DeviceCapabilities

   Device capabilities provide additional information that may be used
   by the device to provide additional information to the Database that
   can help it to determine available spectrum.  If the Database does
   not support device capabilities it MUST ignore the parameter
   altogether.

   +-------------------------------+
   |DeviceCapabilities             |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |frequencyRanges:list |optional |--+
   |.....................|.........|  |
   |*other:any           |optional |  |
   +---------------------+---------+  | 0..*
                                      V
                +--------------------------------+
                |FrequencyRange                  |
                +----------------------+---------+
                |startHz:float         |required |
                |stopHz:float          |required |
                +----------------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   frequencyRanges:  Optional FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) list.  Each
      FrequencyRange element contains start and stop frequencies in
      which the device can operate.  When specified, the Database SHOULD
      NOT return available spectrum that falls outside these ranges.

   other  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2) for
      possible additional parameters.  The Database MUST ignore all
      parameters it does not understand.

5.5.  DeviceOwner

   DeviceOwner contains information on device ownership that is provided
   as part of device registration.  Some rulesets may require additional
   parameters.



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   +-----------------------------+
   |DeviceOwner                  |
   +------------------+----------+
   |owner:vcard       | required |
   |operator:vcard    | optional |
   +------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   owner:  The vCard contact information for the individual or business
      that owns the device is REQUIRED.

   operator:  The vCard contact information for the device operator is
      OPTIONAL, but may be required by specific rulesets.

   NOTE: Depending on the ruleset, the Database may be required to
   validate the device-owner information.  In these cases, the Database
   MUST respond with an INVALID_VALUE error (see Error Codes
   (Section 5.17)) if validation fails.  See PAWS Ruleset ID Registry
   (Section 9.1) for ruleset-specific requirements on mandatory vCard
   properties.

   All contact information MUST be expressed using the structure defined
   by the "vCard Format Specification" [RFC6350], encoded in JSON
   [RFC7095].  Note that the vCard specification defines maximum lengths
   for each parameter, conforming to X.520 [ITUT.X520.2008]
   recommendations.

5.6.  RulesetInfo

   RulesetInfo contains parameters for the ruleset of a regulatory
   domain that is communicated using the Initialization component
   (Section 4.3), Device Registration (Section 4.4), and Available
   Spectrum Query (Section 4.5) components.

   +------------------------------------------+
   |RulesetInfo                               |
   +------------------------------------------+
   |authority:string        | required        |
   |rulesetId:string        | required        |
   |maxLocationChange:float | see description |
   |maxPollingSecs:int      | see description |
   |..........................................|
   |*other:any              | optional        |
   +------------------------+-----------------+

   Parameters:




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   authority:  A string that indicates the regulatory domain to which
      the ruleset applies is REQUIRED.  It will normally be a 2-letter
      country code defined by Country Codes - ISO 3166 [ISO3166-1].

   rulesetId:  The ID of a ruleset for the specified authority (see
      Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.1)).  The device can use this to
      determine additional device behavior required by the associated
      ruleset.  To define new ruleset IDs, see Defining Ruleset
      Identifiers (Section 8.1).

   maxLocationChange:  The maximum location change in meters is REQUIRED
      for Initialization Response (Section 4.3.2), but OPTIONAL
      otherwise.  Some regulatory domains mandate that, when the device
      changes location by more than this specified distance, it contact
      the Database to get the available spectrum for the new location.
      If this value is provided by the Database within the context of an
      Available Spectrum Response (Section 4.5.2), it takes precedence
      over the value within the Initialization Response (Section 4.3.2).

   maxPollingSecs:  The maximum duration, in seconds, between requests
      for available spectrum is REQUIRED for the Initialization Response
      (Section 4.3.2), but OPTIONAL otherwise.  The device MUST contact
      the Database to get available spectrum no less frequently than
      this duration.  If this value is provided within the context of an
      Available Spectrum Response (Section 4.5.2), it takes precedence
      over the value within the Initialization Response (Section 4.3.2).

   other:  Depending on the ruleset, other parameters may be required.
      Devices MUST ignore all parameters in the message it does not
      understand.  Consult the PAWS Parameters Registry (Section 9.2)
      for possible additional parameters.

5.7.  DbUpdateSpec

   This element is provided by the Database to notify devices of an
   upcoming change to the Database URI.

   +-------------------------------+
   |DbUpdateSpec                   |
   +---------------------+---------+       +--------------------------+
   |databases:list       |required |------>|DatabaseSpec              |
   +---------------------+---------+  1..* +---------------+----------+
                                           |name:string    | required |
                                           |uri:string     | required |
                                           +---------------+----------+

   Parameters:




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   databases:  List of one or more DatabaseSpec (Section 5.8) entries.
      A device needs to update its preconfigured entry for the
      responding database with the alternate databases listed in the
      DbUpdateSpec.

5.8.  DatabaseSpec

   This element contains the name and URI of a database.

   +--------------------------+
   |DatabaseSpec              |
   +---------------+----------+
   |name:string    | required |
   |uri:string     | required |
   +---------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   name:  The display name.  Its maximum length is 64 octets.

   uri:  The corresponding URI of the database.  Its maximum length is
      1024 octets.

5.9.  SpectrumSpec

   The SpectrumSpec element encapsulates the schedule of available
   spectrum for a ruleset.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSpec                           |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |rulesetInfo:RulesetInfo     | required |
   |spectrumSchedules:list      | required |-----+
   |timeRange:EventTime         | optional |     |
   |frequencyRanges:list        | optional |     |
   |needsSpectrumReport:boolean | optional |     |
   |maxTotalBwHz:float          | optional |     |
   |maxContiguousBwHz:float     | optional |     |
   +----------------------------+----------+     |
                                                 | 1..*
                                                 V
                                      +-------------------------------+
                                      |SpectrumSchedule               |
                                      +--------------------+----------+
                                      |eventTime:EventTime | required |
                                      |spectra:list        | required |
                                      +--------------------+----------+




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   Parameters:

   rulesetInfo:  RulesetInfo (Section 5.6) is REQUIRED to identify the
      regulatory domain and ruleset to which the spectrum schedule
      applies (see Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.1)).  The device needs
      to use the corresponding ruleset to interpret the response.
      Values provided within rulesetInfo, such as maxLocationChange,
      take precedence over the values provided by the Initialization
      Procedure (Section 4.3).

   spectrumSchedules:  The SpectrumSchedule (Section 5.10) list is
      REQUIRED.  At least one schedule MUST be included.  More than one
      schedule MAY be included to represent future changes to the
      available spectrum.  How far in advance a schedule may be provided
      depends on the ruleset.  If more than one schedule is included,
      the eventTime intervals MUST be disjoint and MUST be sorted in
      increasing time.  A gap in the time schedule indicates no
      available spectrum during that time-interval gap.

   timeRange:  The time range for which the specification is
      comprehensive is OPTIONAL.  When specified, any gaps in time
      intervals within the "spectrumSchedules" element that overlaps
      with the range specified by "timeRange" are interpreted by the
      device as time intervals in which there is no available spectrum.

   frequencyRanges:  The frequency ranges for which the specification is
      comprehensive is OPTIONAL.  It is a list of disjoint
      FrequencyRange (Section 5.13) entries.  When specified, it
      typically corresponds to the frequency ranges governed by the
      ruleset, e.g., for TV whitespace, the frequency ranges can
      correspond to the VHF and UHF bands of the associated regulatory
      domain.  A device can combine this information with the available-
      spectrum specification within the "spectrumSchedules" element to
      distinguish between "unavailable spectrum" and "spectrum for which
      no information has been provided".

   needsSpectrumReport:  The Database MAY return true for this parameter
      if spectrumSchedules list is non-empty; otherwise, the Database
      MAY omit this parameter altogether, in which case, the default
      value is false.  If this parameter is present and its value is
      true, the device sends a SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY (Section 4.5.5)
      message to the Database; otherwise, the device SHOULD NOT send the
      SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY message.  Some rulesets mandate this value to
      be true.

   maxTotalBwHz:  The Database MAY return a constraint on the maximum
      total bandwidth (in Hertz) allowed, which may or may not be
      contiguous.  Some rulesets mandate the Database to return this



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      parameter.  When present in the response, the device needs to
      apply this constraint to its spectrum-selection logic to ensure
      total bandwidth does not exceed this value.

   maxContiguousBwHz:  The Database MAY return a constraint on the
      maximum contiguous bandwidth (in Hertz) allowed.  Some rulesets
      mandate the Database to return this parameter.  When present in
      the response, the device needs to apply this constraint to its
      spectrum-selection logic to ensure no single block of spectrum has
      bandwidth that exceeds this value.

5.10.  SpectrumSchedule

   The SpectrumSchedule element combines EventTime (Section 5.14) with
   Spectrum (Section 5.11) to define a time period in which the spectrum
   is valid.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumSchedule               |
   +--------------------+----------+
   |eventTime:EventTime | required |        +--------------------+
   |spectra:list        | required |------->|Spectrum            |
   +--------------------+----------+   0..* +--------------------+
                                            |resolutionBwHz:float|
                                            |profiles:list       |
                                            +--------------------+

   Parameters:

   eventTime:  The EventTime (Section 5.14) is REQUIRED to express
      "when" this specification is valid.

   spectra:  The Spectrum (Section 5.11) list is REQUIRED to specify the
      available spectrum and permissible power levels, one per
      resolutionBwHz.  The list MAY be empty when there is no available
      spectrum.

5.11.  Spectrum

   Available spectrum can be characterized by an ordered list of
   spectrum profiles that defines permissible power levels over a set of
   frequency ranges.  Each Spectrum element defines permissible power
   levels as maximum power spectral densities over a specified
   resolution bandwidth, "resolutionBwHz".  Note that the spectrum
   profiles represent the "availability mask", as defined by the
   governing rule set; they are not intended to encode device-level
   transmission-mask requirements.




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   o  To support a ruleset that defines different "wide-band" and
      "narrow-band" power levels, PAWS allows multiple Spectrum elements
      to be included in the available-spectrum response, each with a
      different resolution bandwidth.

   o  When multiple Spectrum elements are included in the response, each
      represents a constraint that the device must satisfy (logical
      AND).

   o  Each Spectrum element covers the range of frequencies governed by
      a ruleset, rather than splitting the frequencies across multiple
      Spectrum elements for the same resolution bandwidth.

   o  Each spectrum profile represents the maximum permissible power
      spectral density over a contiguous range of frequencies.

   o  When multiple spectrum profiles are included, they MUST be
      disjoint and MUST be ordered in non-decreasing frequency value.

   o  Gaps in frequencies between consecutive spectrum profiles
      represent unavailability for those frequencies.

   The following figure illustrates the Spectrum element and the
   SpectrumProfile list.

   +-------------------------------+
   |Spectrum                       |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |resolutionBwHz:float |required |
   |profiles:list        |required |---+
   +---------------------+---------+   |  0..*
                                       V
                 +-----------------------------+
                 |SpectrumProfile              |
                 +-------------------+---------+
                 |list               |required |
                 +-------------------+---------+
                                       |
                                       V 2..*
                  +--------------------------+
                  |SpectrumProfilePoint      |
                  +----------------+---------+
                  |hz:float        |required |
                  |dbm:float       |required |
                  +----------------+---------+

   Parameters:




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   resolutionBwHz:  This parameter defines the resolution bandwidth (in
      Hertz) over which permissible power spectral density is defined.
      For example, FCC regulation would require one spectrum
      specification at a bandwidth of 6MHz, and ETSI regulation would
      require two specifications, at 0.1MHz and 8MHz.

   profiles:   A SpectrumProfile (Section 5.12) list specifies
      permissible power levels over a set of frequency ranges.  The list
      MAY be empty if there is no available spectrum.

   The following example shows permitted power spectral densities for a
   single resolution bandwidth of 6MHz (for illustrative purposes only):

   [
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

   This is interpreted as:

   o  Over any 6MHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 530MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 30.0dBm (1000mW)

   Consider now an example with two different sets of permitted power
   spectral densities for the same set of frequencies over different
   resolution bandwidths (for illustrative purposes only):

















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   [
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     },
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 27.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

   This is interpreted as:

   o  Over any 6MHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 530MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 30.0dBm (1000mW), and

   o  Over any 100 kHz within the frequency range, [518MHz, 530MHz),
      maximum permitted power is 27.0dBm (500mW)

   This would allow, for example, operating two 100kHz sub-channels
   within the indicated 12MHz range at 500mW each, totaling 1000mW.  Of
   course, many combinations are possible, as long as they satisfy both
   conditions.

   The following example encodes multiple (two) spectrum profiles, each
   having a gap from 530 MHz to 536 MHz (for illustrative purposes
   only):












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   [
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 36.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 36.0}
         ],
         [
           {"hz": 5.36e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.42e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     },
     {
       "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
       "profiles": [
         [
           {"hz": 5.18e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.24e8, "dbm": 30.0},
           {"hz": 5.30e8, "dbm": 30.0}
         ],
         [
           {"hz": 5.36e8, "dbm": 27.0},
           {"hz": 5.42e8, "dbm": 27.0}
         ],
         ...
       ]
     }
   ]

5.12.  SpectrumProfile

   A spectrum profile is characterized by an ordered list of (frequency,
   power) points that represents the shape of maximum permissible power
   levels over a range of frequencies as a piecewise linear curve.

   o  It MUST contain a minimum of two entries.

   o  The entries in the list MUST be ordered in non-decreasing
      frequency values.

   o  Two consecutive points MAY have the same frequency value to
      represent a "step function".



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   o  Three or more points MUST NOT share the same frequency value.

   o  The first frequency is inclusive; the last frequency is exclusive.

   NOTE: This encoding allows presentation of "ramps" where the slope of
   a line segment may be finite and non-zero.

   The following figure illustrates the SpectrumProfile element.

   +-------------------------------+
   |SpectrumProfile                |
   +---------------------+---------+
   |list                 |required |---+
   +---------------------+---------+   |  2..*
                                       V
                 +--------------------------+
                 |SpectrumProfilePoint      |
                 +----------------+---------+
                 |hz:float        |required |
                 |dbm:float       |required |
                 +----------------+---------+

   Parameters of each point in the profile:

   hz:  The frequency, in Hertz, at which the power level is defined.

   dbm:   The power level, expressed as dBm per resolution bandwidth, as
      defined by the "resolutionBwHz" element of the enclosing Spectrum
      (Section 5.11) element.

5.13.  FrequencyRange

   FrequencyRange specifies a frequency range.

   +--------------------------------+
   |FrequencyRange                  |
   +----------------------+---------+
   |startHz:float         |required |
   |stopHz:float          |required |
   +----------------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   startHz:  The inclusive start of the frequency range (in Hertz) is
      REQUIRED.

   stopHz:  The exclusive end of the frequency range (in Hertz) is
      REQUIRED.



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5.14.  EventTime

   The EventTime element specifies the start and stop times of an
   "event".  This is used to indicate the time period for which a
   Spectrum (Section 5.11) is valid.

   +---------------------------+
   |EventTime                  |
   +-----------------+---------+
   |startTime:string |required |
   |stopTime:string  |required |
   +-----------------+---------+

   Parameters:

   startTime:  The inclusive start of the event is REQUIRED.

   stopTime:  The exclusive end of the event is REQUIRED.

   Both times are expressed using the format, YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ, as
   defined by "Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps" [RFC3339].
   The times MUST be expressed using UTC.

   A device that does not have access to the current date and time MUST
   use the timestamp at the top-level of the response message as a
   substitute for the current time (see Available Spectrum Response
   (Section 4.5.2) and Available Spectrum Batch Response
   (Section 4.5.4)).  E.g.,

   o  (startTime - timestamp) gives the duration that a device must wait
      before the event becomes "active".  If the value is zero or
      negative, the event is already active.

   o  If the event is already active, (stopTime - timestamp) is the
      duration that the event remains active.  If the value is zero or
      negative, the event is no longer active and MUST be ignored.

5.15.  GeoSpectrumSpec

   The GeoSpectrumSpec element encapsulates the available spectrum for a
   location.  It is returned within a AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP
   (Section 4.5.4) batch response that contains multiple GeoSpectrumSpec
   entries, each matching a location provided in the batch request.








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   +----------------------------------+
   |GeoSpectrumSpec                   |
   +-----------------------+----------+
   |location:GeoLocation   | required |
   |spectrumSpecs:list     | required |-------+
   +-----------------------+----------+       |
                                              | 1..*
                                              V
                                      +--------------+
                                      | SpectrumSpec |
                                      +--------------+

   Parameters:

   location:  The GeoLocation (Section 5.1) identifies the location at
      which the spectrum schedule applies.

   spectrumSpecs:  The SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) list is REQUIRED.  At
      least one entry MUST be included.  Each entry represents schedules
      of available spectrum for a ruleset.  More than one entry MAY be
      included to support multiple rulesets at a location.

5.16.  DeviceValidity

   The DeviceValidity element is used to indicate whether a device is
   valid.  See Section 4.6.2.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |DeviceValidity                         |
   +----------------------------+----------+
   |deviceDesc:DeviceDescriptor | required |
   |isValid:boolean             | required |
   |reason:string               | optional |
   +----------------------------+----------+

   Parameters:

   deviceDesc:  The DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) that was used to
      check for validity is REQUIRED.

   isValid:  This is a REQUIRED boolean value that indicates whether the
      device is valid.

   reason:  If the device identifier is not valid, the Database MAY
      include a reason.  The reason MAY be in any language.  Its maximum
      length is 128 octets.





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5.17.  Error Element

   If the Database responds to a PAWS request message with an error, it
   MUST include an Error element.

   +----------------------------------+
   |Error                             |
   +----------------+-----------------+
   |code:int        | required        |
   |message:string  | optional        |
   |data:any        | see description |
   +----------------+-----------------+

   Parameters:

   code:  An integer code that indicates the error type is REQUIRED.
      Values MUST be within the range, -32768 to 32767, inclusive.

   message:  A description of the error is OPTIONAL.  It MAY be in any
      language.  Its maximum length is 128 octets.

   data:  The Database MAY include additional data.  For some errors,
      additional data may be required (see Table 1).  The device MUST
      ignore any data parameters it does not understand.

   The following table lists predefined and reserved error codes.  They
   are loosely grouped into the following categories:

   -100s:  Indicates compatibility issues, e.g., version mismatch,
      unsupported or unimplemented features.

   -200s:  Indicates that the device request contains an error that
      needs to be modified before making another request.

   -300s:  Indicates authorization-related issues.

   Values that are not defined explicitly in the Error Codes
   Table (Table 1) below are unassigned.  To define new error codes, see
   PAWS Error Code Registry (Section 9.3).

   Code   Name             Description & Additional parameters
   ------ ---------------- ---------------------------------------------
   0      (reserved)
   -100   (reserved)
   -101   VERSION          The Database does not support the specified
                           version of the message. This error does not
                           use any additional data.
   -102   UNSUPPORTED      The Database does not support the device. For



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                           example, it does not support the ruleset
                           specified in the request. This error does not
                           use any additional data.
   -103   UNIMPLEMENTED    The Database does not implement the optional
                           request or optional feature. This error does
                           not use any additional data.
   -104   OUTSIDE_COVERAGE The specified geolocation is outside the
                           coverage area of the Database. The Database
                           MAY include a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7) to
                           provide a list of alternate databases that
                           might be appropriate for the requested
                           location. See OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error (Section
                           5.17.1) for more details.
   -105   DATABASE_CHANGE  The Database has changed its URI. The
                           Database MAY include a DbUpdateSpec (Section
                           5.7) in the error response to provide devices
                           with one or more alternate database URIs. The
                           device needs to update its preconfigured
                           entry for the responding database with the
                           alternate databases listed in the
                           DbUpdateSpec. See DATABASE_CHANGE Error
                           (Section 5.17.2) for more details.
   -200   (reserved)
   -201   MISSING          A required parameter is missing. The Database
                           MUST include a list of the required parameter
                           names. The Database MAY include only names of
                           parameters that are missing, but MAY include
                           a full list.  Including the full list of
                           missing parameters may reduce the number of
                           re-queries from the device. See MISSING Error
                           (Section 5.17.3) for more details.
   -202   INVALID_VALUE    A parameter value is invalid in some way. The
                           Database SHOULD include a message indicating
                           which parameter and why its value is invalid.
                           This error does not use any additional data.
   -300   (reserved)
   -301   UNAUTHORIZED     The device is not authorized to used the
                           Database. Authorization may be determined by
                           the ruleset or be dependent on prior
                           arrangement between the device and Database.
                           This error does not use any additional data.
   -302   NOT_REGISTERED   Device registration required, but the device
                           is not registered.  This error does not use
                           any additional data.
   -32000 (reserved)       Reserved for JSON-RPC error codes.
   to
   -32768




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                           Table 1: Error Codes

5.17.1.  OUTSIDE_COVERAGE Error

   When the error code is OUTSIDE_COVERAGE, the Database MAY include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" parameter,
   and, if present, the ErrorData contains a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)
   element that provides a list of alternate databases that might be
   appropriate for the requested location.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +-----------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | optional |--->|ErrorData                    |
   +----------------+----------+    +------------------+----------+
                                    |spec:DbUpdateSpec | optional |
                                    +------------------+----------+

5.17.2.  DATABASE_CHANGE Error

   When the error code is DATABASE_CHANGE, the Database MAY include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" parameter,
   and, if present, the ErrorData contains a DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)
   element that provides a list of alternate databases.

   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +-----------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | optional |--->|ErrorData                    |
   +----------------+----------+    +------------------+----------+
                                    |spec:DbUpdateSpec | required |
                                    +------------------+----------+

5.17.3.  MISSING Error

   When the error code is MISSING, the Database MUST include an
   ErrorData element within its Error response as the "data" parameter,
   and the ErrorData element MUST include a list of the missing required
   parameters and MAY include the list of all required parameters.








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   +---------------------------+
   |Error                      |
   +----------------+----------+
   |code:int        | required |
   |message:string  | optional |    +---------------------------+
   |data:ErrorData  | required |--->|ErrorData                  |
   +----------------+----------+    +----------------+----------+ 1..*
                                    |parameters:list | required |--+
                                    +----------------+----------+  |
                                                                   v
                                                                 string

   Parameters:

   parameters:  List of one or more parameter names (strings).  The name
      of a parameter is expressed using dotted notation, when
      appropriate, e.g., "deviceDesc.serialNumber".

6.  Message Encoding

   PAWS is encoded using JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] (see also "The JavaScript
   Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format" [RFC7159]).  Each
   component described in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4)
   corresponds to one or more JSON-RPC methods.  This section discusses
   how to encode the data models presented in Section 4 and Section 5
   into JSON and provides some example encodings.  The JSON examples may
   contain ellipses (...) to represent additional properties or elements
   that have been omitted in order to make the examples more concise.

6.1.  JSON-RPC Binding

   The JSON-RPC [JSON-RPC] protocol consists of two basic objects,
   Request and Response:

   o  The JSON-RPC Request object encapsulates a PAWS functionality
      (operation) and the request message

   o  The JSON-RPC Response object encapsulates a PAWS response message
      and Error element

   The Database and device MUST support JSON-RPC 2.0 encoding, with the
   restriction that the "id" parameter in the messages MUST be a string.

   The JSON-RPC Request for PAWS has the following form:







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   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "method": "spectrum.paws.methodName",
     "params": <PAWS_REQ>,
     "id": "idString"
   }

   where "method" is the name of a PAWS functionality (operation), and
   <PAWS_REQ> represents one of the PAWS request messages associated
   with the method (see Section 4.3 through Section 4.6).  Method names
   are defined with the prefix, "spectrum.paws.".

   The non-error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "result": <PAWS_RESP>,
     "id": "idString"
   }

   where <PAWS_RESP> represents one of the PAWS response messages
   associated with the method.

   The error JSON-RPC Response for PAWS has the following form:

   {
     "jsonrpc": "2.0",
     "error": {
       "code": -102,
       "message": "An appropriate error message.",
       "data": { ... }
     },
     "id": "idString"
   }

   where the "error" object corresponds to the Error Element
   (Section 5.17), and "code" is an error code described in the same
   section.  The Database SHOULD attempt to use the most specific
   applicable PAWS error code.  When an accurate one is not available,
   it SHOULD fall back to standard JSONRPC error codes as defined in
   JSONRPC specification.  For example, if the Database receives invalid
   JSON from the device, it should respond with "-32700", signifying a
   parse error.  As a last resort, the Database MAY send a suitable HTTP
   5xx response.







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6.1.1.  Method Names

   Table 2 defines the method name, request object, and response object
   for each functionality defined in Protocol Functionalities
   (Section 4).

   +------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
   | Method Name            | Request            | Response            |
   +------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+
   | spectrum.paws.init     | INIT_REQ (Section  | INIT_RESP (Section  |
   |                        | 4.3.1)             | 4.3.2)              |
   | spectrum.paws.register | REGISTRATION_REQ   | REGISTRATION_RESP   |
   |                        | (Section 4.4.1)    | (Section 4.4.2)     |
   | spectrum.paws.getSpect | AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ | AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP |
   | rum                    | (Section 4.5.1)    | (Section 4.5.2)     |
   | spectrum.paws.getSpect | AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BAT | AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATC |
   | rumBatch               | CH_REQ (Section    | H_RESP (Section     |
   |                        | 4.5.3)             | 4.5.4)              |
   | spectrum.paws.notifySp | SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIF | SPECTRUM_USE_RESP   |
   | ectrumUse              | Y (Section 4.5.5)  | (Section 4.5.6)     |
   | spectrum.paws.verifyDe | DEV_VALID_REQ      | DEV_VALID_RESP      |
   | vice                   | (Section 4.6.1)    | (Section 4.6.2)     |
   +------------------------+--------------------+---------------------+

                                  Table 2

6.1.2.  JSON Encoding of Data Models

   JSON [RFC7159] encoding of the data models described in Section 4 and
   Section 5 is straightforward:

   o  Each data model describes the contents of a JSON object

   o  Each parameter of a data model corresponds to a member of the
      corresponding JSON object

      *  The parameter name of the data model is the same as the member
         name of the JSON object

      *  The parameter data type describes the type of the member value

   o  Primitive types map to JSON type, as described in Section 4,
      repeated here:

      string  A JSON string, restricted to UTF-8 encoding

      int  A JSON number, without a fractional or exponent part




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      float  A JSON number

      boolean  One of the JSON values, true or false

   o  The list type maps to a JSON array, except that all values in the
      array are of the same type

   o  When the parameter data type refers to another data model, that
      data model describes a nested JSON object

   o  The encoded JSON object for each of the Request and Response
      message listed in the Method Names Table (Table 2) also includes
      the following members:

      type  The name of the message, e.g., "INIT_REQ"

      version  The PAWS version, e.g., "1.0"

   See the following sections for examples.

6.2.  Example Encoding: init Method

   An example of the "init" JSON-RPC request is shown below;

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.init",
    "params": {
     "type": "INIT_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      "rulesetIds": ["FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010"]
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     }
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

   An example of the corresponding JSON-RPC response is shown below:






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   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "INIT_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "rulesetInfos": [
       {
         "authority": "us",
         "rulesetId": "FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010",
         "maxLocationChange": 100,
         "maxPollingSecs": 86400
       }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.3.  Example Encoding: getSpectrum Method

   An example of the "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC request is shown below:

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "method": "spectrum.paws.getSpectrum",
    "params": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ",
     "version": "1.0",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      "rulesetIds": ["FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010"]
     },
     "location": {
      "point": {
       "center": {"latitude": 37.0, "longitude": -101.3}
      }
     },
     "antenna": {"height": 10.2, "heightType": "AGL"}
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

   The following example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC response contains:

   o  A schedule with two time ranges

   o  A spectrum profile for one resolution bandwidth (6 MHz)




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   o  The power levels for two frequency segments are shown:

      *  From 518 MHz to 542 MHz

      *  From 620 MHz to 626 MHz

   o  In practice, each "profiles" list contains (frequency, power)
      points to cover all frequencies governed by the associated
      ruleset.  See the Spectrum (Section 5.11) section for a more
      detailed discussion on the representation.

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      "fccId": "YYY",
      "rulesetIds": ["FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010"]
     },
     "spectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "authority": "us",
         "rulesetId": "FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010"
       },
       "needsSpectrumReport": false,
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":36.0},
               {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":36.0}
              ],
              [
               {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":30.0},



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               {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":30.0}
              ],
              ...
            ]
           }
         ]
        },
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
          ...
         ]
        }
       ]
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

   The following example "getSpectrum" JSON-RPC response includes a
   spectrum profile that contains specifications for two different
   bandwidth resolutions (6 MHz and 100 kHz):

   {
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
     "type": "AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP",
     "version": "1.0",
     "timestamp": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",
     "deviceDesc": {
      "serialNumber": "XXX",
      ...
     },
     "spectrumSpecs": [
      {
       "rulesetInfo": {
         "authority": "xx",
         ...
       },
       "needsSpectrumReport": false,
       "spectrumSchedules": [
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T14:30:21Z",



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          "stopTime": "2013-03-02T20:00:00Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 6e6,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":36.0},
               {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":36.0}
              ],
              [
               {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":30.0}
              ],
              ...
            ]
           },
           {
            "resolutionBwHz": 1e5,
            "profiles": [
              ...
              [
               {"hz":5.18e8, "dbm":27.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":27.0},
               {"hz":5.36e8, "dbm":30.0},
               {"hz":5.42e8, "dbm":30.0}
              ],
              [
               {"hz":6.20e8, "dbm":27.0},
               {"hz":6.26e8, "dbm":27.0}
              ],
              ...
            ]
           }
         ]
        },
        {
         "eventTime": {
          "startTime": "2013-03-02T22:00:00Z",
          "stopTime": "2013-03-03T14:30:21Z"
         },
         "spectra": [
          ...
         ]
        }



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       ]
      }
     ]
    },
    "id": "xxxxxx"
   }

6.4.  Example Encoding: DeviceOwner vCard

   The DeviceOwner (Section 5.5) data model contains member values that
   are JSON encodings of vCard, as described in "jCard: The JSON format
   for vCard" [RFC7095].  An example fragment is provided below:

     {
       ...
       "deviceOwner": {
         "owner": [
           "vcard", [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["kind", {}, "text", "org"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "Racafrax, Inc."]
           ]
         ],
         "operator": [
           "vcard", [
             ["version", {}, "text", "4.0"],
             ["fn", {}, "text", "John Frax"],
             ["adr", {}, "text",
               ["", "", "100 Main Street",
                "Summersville", "CA", "90034", "USA"
               ]
             ],
             ["tel", {}, "uri", "tel:+1-213-555-1212"],
             ["email", {}, "text", "j.frax@rackafrax.com"]
           ]
         ]
       }
     }

7.  HTTPS Binding

   This section describes the use of "HTTP Over TLS" [RFC2818] (HTTPS)
   as the transfer mechanism for PAWS.  TLS provides message integrity
   and confidentiality between the Master Device and the Database.  The
   Master Device MUST implement server authentication, as described in
   Section 3.1 of "HTTP Over TLS" [RFC2818].  The device uses the URI
   determined (either statically configured or dynamically discovered)




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   to authenticate the server.  The device SHOULD fail a request if
   server authentication fails.

   Depending on prior relationship between a database and device, the
   server MAY require client authentication, as described in the
   "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol" [RFC5246], to authenticate
   the device.

   To enable databases to handle large numbers of requests from large
   numbers of devices, the Database MAY support and devices SHOULD
   support "Stateless TLS Session Resumption" [RFC5077].

   A PAWS request message is carried in the body of an HTTP POST
   request.  A PAWS response message is carried in the body of an HTTP
   response.  A PAWS response SHOULD include a Content-Length header.

   The POST method is the only method REQUIRED for PAWS.  If a database
   chooses to support GET, it MUST be an escaped URI, but the encoding
   of the URI is outside the scope of this document.  The database MAY
   refuse to support the GET request by returning an HTTP error code,
   such as 405 (method not allowed).

   The Database MAY redirect a PAWS request by returning a HTTP 3xx
   response (as defined by "HTTP/1.1: Semantics and Content" [RFC7231],
   Section 6.4).  The Database MUST provide the redirect URI in the
   Location header of the 3xx response, and the device MUST handle
   redirects by using the Location header provided by the Database.
   When redirecting, the device MUST observe the delay indicated by the
   Retry-After header.  The device MUST authenticate the Database that
   returns the redirect response before following the redirect.  Also,
   the device MUST authenticate the Database indicated in the redirect.
   Since the device may communicate with a Database (which it
   authenticated) without user interaction, when the response code is
   301 (Moved Permanently), the device MAY redirect without asking a
   user for confirmation, even thought it is in response to an HTTP POST
   method.

   The Database SHOULD use HTTP status code "307 Temporary Redirect" to
   indicate that the device SHOULD resubmit the same request to an
   alternate URI.  The device MAY revert to the original URI for the
   very next request, or MAY continue to use the alternate URI for a
   period of time, e.g.,:

   o  For the remainder of its session, or

   o  For a fixed period of time, or

   o  Until power cycled, or



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   o  Until it receives another redirect

   However, the device does not need to modify its stored list of URIs.

   Before the URL of the Database changes permanently, it SHOULD use the
   database-change (DbUpdateSpec (Section 5.7)) mechanism to notify
   devices, as described in the Configuration Update portion of the
   Database Discovery (Section 4.1) section.  After the Database has
   moved, requests to the original URL MAY return HTTP status code "301
   Moved Permanently" to indicate that the device SHOULD resubmit the
   request, and all future requests, to the indicated alternate URI.

8.  Extensibility

8.1.  Defining Ruleset Identifiers

   A ruleset represents a set of device-side requirements for which the
   device has been certified.  It typically corresponds to, but is not
   limited to, a set of rules that govern a specific set of radio
   spectrum for a regulatory domain.

   Ruleset identifiers are defined and registered in the Ruleset ID
   Registry following the procedure in Section 9.1.  Ruleset ID values
   MUST conform to the ruleset-id ABNF.  If the Ruleset ID requires
   additional parameters, they are registered in the PAWS Parameters
   Registry, as described by Section 9.2.

   ruleset-id = 1*64ruleset-char
   ruleset-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" / "."

   When defining a Ruleset ID:

   o  It can be useful for the identifier to be descriptive of the set
      of rules that allow a device to operate within one or more
      regulatory domains.  For example, it might include the name of a
      regulatory body or a certification process.

   o  The identifier SHOULD include some sort of version information,
      such as a year and/or version number.

   o  The maximum length of the identifier is 64 octets.

8.2.  Defining New Message Parameters

   New request or response parameters for use with PAWS are defined and
   registered in the parameters registry following the procedure in
   Section 9.2.




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   Parameter names MUST conform to the param-name ABNF and parameter
   values syntax MUST be well-defined (e.g., using ABNF, or a reference
   to the syntax of an existing parameter).

   param-name = 1*64name-char
   name-char = ALPHA / DIGIT / "_"

   Parameter names use lowerCamelCase by convention.  The maximum length
   of a name is 64 octets.

   Unregistered vendor-specific parameter extensions that are not
   commonly applicable, and are specific to the implementation details
   of the Database where they are used SHOULD use a vendor-specific
   prefix that is not likely to conflict with other registered values
   (e.g., begin with 'companyname').

8.3.  Defining Additional Error Codes

   Additional error codes can be registered to extend the set listed in
   Section 5.17, following the procedures in Section 9.3.  If the error
   code requires additional response parameters, they are registered in
   the PAWS Parameters Registry, as described by Section 9.2.

   By convention, the error code is a negative integer value, using one
   of the range of values defined in Error Codes (Section 5.17).  If an
   appropriate category does not exist, a value from a different range
   may be used.

9.  IANA Considerations

   [RFC Editor/IANA: Please replace "[[ this document ]]" with the RFC
   number of this document as indicated below, and remove this note
   prior to publication]

   There are three registries associated with PAWS:

   o  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry (Section 9.1)

   o  PAWS Parameter Registry (Section 9.2)

   o  PAWS Error Code Registry (Section 9.3)

   A registrant should contact IANA directly at http://www.iana.org to
   apply for new registry assignments.  Prior to the registration
   request, the registrant is encouraged to post to the paws@ietf.org
   mailing list, including the specification or its draft, to get early
   feedback.




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   All registries use the Specification Required policy [RFC5226], with
   a Designated Expert appointed by the IESG.  Specific criteria that
   the Designated Expert should use in assessing registrations are given
   below in the description of each registry.  The Designated Expert
   should take advice from the community through the paws@ietf.org
   mailing list, and the registrant is encouraged to post to the mailing
   list before formally requesting the registration from IANA.  The
   intention is that new registrations will be accompanied by a
   published specification.  But in order to allow for the allocation of
   values prior to publication of the specification, the Designated
   Expert can approve allocations once it seems clear that the
   specification will be published.

9.1.  PAWS Ruleset ID Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry.

   Ruleset type names for inclusion in PAWS messages are registered on
   the advice of one or more Designated Experts, with Specification
   Required [RFC5226].  The specification must include a reference to
   the regulatory domain to which it applies.  To increase
   interoperability, it is more desirable to have fewer rulesets than to
   have many rulesets with small variations.  Consequently, the
   Designated Expert should avoid duplication and should encourage the
   registrant to look for alternatives if there are only small
   variations from an existing ruleset.  The Designated Expert should
   ensure that the proposed registration is complete with respect to its
   associated regulatory domain and may seek an expert familiar with
   those rules to participate in the review on the paws@ietf.org mailing
   list.

9.1.1.  Registration Template

   Ruleset identifier:  The name of the ruleset.  See [[ this document
      ]], Section 8.1 for the format requirements of this identifier.

   Specification document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

   Additional parameter requirements:  List of additional parameters to
      associate with the ruleset ID and any additional requirements on
      message parameters.  New parameters are registered separately in
      the PAWS Parameters Registry, as described by Section 8.2.






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9.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Ruleset ID Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, they are the only regulatory
   domains that have finalized rules.  There is no intent to restrict
   the protocol to any particular set of authorities.

   The initial contents of the PAWS Ruleset ID Registry are listed
   below; each section corresponds to a single row in the registry.  The
   PAWS Ruleset ID Registry will include the following parameters:
   'Ruleset name', 'Additional parameter requirements', and
   'Specification document(s)'.  IANA will post each registration
   template that is not included in the text of an RFC.

9.1.2.1.  Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

   For the additional parameters that start with the "fcc" prefix, see
   PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.2.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset identifier:  FccTvBandWhiteSpace-2010

   Specification document(s):  This ruleset refers to the FCC rules for
      TV-band White Space operations established in the Code of Federal
      Regulations (CFR), Title 47, Part 15, Subpart H [FCC-CFR47-15H].

   Each of the following tables defines additional parameters for the
   indicated PAWS message.  Note that the Requirement column lists FCC,
   not PAWS, requirements/optionality rules,

                Available Spectrum Request (Section 4.5.1)

   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | Parameter     | Type                        | Requirement | Notes |
   | Name          |                             |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | deviceDesc    | DeviceDescriptor (Section   | REQUIRED    |       |
   |               | 5.2)                        |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+










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             Available Spectrum Batch Request (Section 4.5.3)

   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | Parameter     | Type                        | Requirement | Notes |
   | Name          |                             |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+
   | deviceDesc    | DeviceDescriptor (Section   | REQUIRED    |       |
   |               | 5.2)                        |             |       |
   +---------------+-----------------------------+-------------+-------+

                      DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   +-------------------+--------+-------------+------------------------+
   | Parameter Name    | Type   | Requirement | Notes                  |
   +-------------------+--------+-------------+------------------------+
   | fccId             | string | REQUIRED    | Specifies a device's   |
   |                   |        |             | FCC certification ID   |
   |                   |        |             | (Section 9.2.2.1).     |
   | fccTvbdDeviceType | string | REQUIRED    | Specifies the FCC      |
   |                   |        |             | Device Type (Section   |
   |                   |        |             | 9.2.2.2) of TV-band    |
   |                   |        |             | White Space device, as |
   |                   |        |             | defined by the FCC     |
   |                   |        |             | rules.                 |
   +-------------------+--------+-------------+------------------------+

   The following table lists additional DeviceOwner (Section 5.5)
   parameter requirements.

                         DeviceOwner (Section 5.5)

   +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | Parameter | Type  | Additional Requirement                        |
   | Name      |       |                                               |
   +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | owner     | vCard | The owner is required to contain the          |
   |           |       | formatted name of an individual or            |
   |           |       | organization using the "fn" property. When    |
   |           |       | the name is that of an organization, the      |
   |           |       | entry also is required to contain the "kind"  |
   |           |       | property, with a value of "org".              |
   | operator  | vCard | The operator entry is required to contain the |
   |           |       | following properties for the contact person   |
   |           |       | responsible for the device's operation: "fn", |
   |           |       | "adr", "tel", and "email".                    |
   +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+





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9.1.2.2.  European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

   For the additional parameters that start with the "etsi" prefix, see
   PAWS Parameters Registry Initial Contents (Section 9.2.2) for more
   information.

   Ruleset identifier:  ETSI-EN-301-598-1.1.1

   Specification document(s):  This ruleset refers to the ETSI
      Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598] established by ETSI.

   Each of the following tables defines additional parameters for the
   indicated PAWS message.  Note that the Requirement column lists ETSI,
   not PAWS, requirements/optionality rules,





































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                      DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   +-------------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------+
   | Parameter Name          | Type  | Requirement | Notes             |
   +-------------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------+
   | manufacturerId          | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies a       |
   |                         | g     |             | device's          |
   |                         |       |             | manufacturer's    |
   |                         |       |             | identifier. See   |
   |                         |       |             | [[ this document  |
   |                         |       |             | ]], Section 5.2.  |
   | modelId                 | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies a       |
   |                         | g     |             | device's model    |
   |                         |       |             | identifier. See   |
   |                         |       |             | [[ this document  |
   |                         |       |             | ]], Section 5.2.  |
   | etsiEnDeviceType        | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the     |
   |                         | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | device type       |
   |                         |       |             | (Section          |
   |                         |       |             | 9.2.2.3).         |
   | etsiEnDeviceEmissionsCl | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the     |
   | ass                     | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | device emissions  |
   |                         |       |             | class (Section    |
   |                         |       |             | 9.2.2.4).         |
   | etsiEnTechnologyId      | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the     |
   |                         | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | technology ID     |
   |                         |       |             | (Section          |
   |                         |       |             | 9.2.2.5).         |
   | etsiEnDeviceCategory    | strin | REQUIRED    | Specifies the     |
   |                         | g     |             | device's ETSI     |
   |                         |       |             | device category   |
   |                         |       |             | (Section          |
   |                         |       |             | 9.2.2.6).         |
   +-------------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------+














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                    AVAIL_SPECTRUM_REQ (Section 4.5.1)

   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | Parameter   | Type   | Requirement | Notes                        |
   | Name        |        |             |                              |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | requestType | string | OPTIONAL    | Modifies the available-      |
   |             |        |             | spectrum request type. If    |
   |             |        |             | specified, the only valid    |
   |             |        |             | value is, "Generic Slave",   |
   |             |        |             | and the Database is required |
   |             |        |             | to respond with generic      |
   |             |        |             | operating parameters for any |
   |             |        |             | Slave Device.                |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+

             Available Spectrum Batch Request (Section 4.5.3)

   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | Parameter   | Type   | Requirement | Notes                        |
   | Name        |        |             |                              |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+
   | requestType | string | OPTIONAL    | Modifies the available-      |
   |             |        |             | spectrum request type. If    |
   |             |        |             | specified, the only valid    |
   |             |        |             | value is, "Generic Slave",   |
   |             |        |             | and the Database is required |
   |             |        |             | to respond with generic      |
   |             |        |             | operating parameters for any |
   |             |        |             | Slave Device.                |
   +-------------+--------+-------------+------------------------------+

   The following tables define additional requirements for the
   DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) and RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)
   parameters that appear in the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.5.2) and
   AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.5.4) messages.  Note that this
   means the Database is modifying the DeviceDescriptor sent by the
   Master Device to return device-specific restrictions.













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                      DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   +--------------------------------+-------+----------+---------------+
   | Parameter Name                 | Type  | Requirem | Notes         |
   |                                |       | ent      |               |
   +--------------------------------+-------+----------+---------------+
   | needsSpectrumReport            | boole | REQUIRED | The Database  |
   |                                | an    |          | is required   |
   |                                |       |          | to set this   |
   |                                |       |          | to true to    |
   |                                |       |          | indicate that |
   |                                |       |          | the device    |
   |                                |       |          | must report   |
   |                                |       |          | spectrum      |
   |                                |       |          | usage.        |
   | maxTotalBwHz                   | float | REQUIRED | Specifies a   |
   |                                |       |          | constraint on |
   |                                |       |          | total allowed |
   |                                |       |          | bandwidth.    |
   | maxContiguousBwHz              | float | REQUIRED | Specifies a   |
   |                                |       |          | constraint on |
   |                                |       |          | total allowed |
   |                                |       |          | contiguous    |
   |                                |       |          | bandwidth.    |
   | etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOpera | strin | REQUIRED | Specifies a   |
   | tionRestriction                | g     |          | constraint on |
   |                                |       |          | simultaneous  |
   |                                |       |          | channel       |
   |                                |       |          | operation     |
   |                                |       |          | (Section      |
   |                                |       |          | 9.2.2.7). If  |
   |                                |       |          | it is not     |
   |                                |       |          | provided, the |
   |                                |       |          | default value |
   |                                |       |          | is "0".       |
   +--------------------------------+-------+----------+---------------+

                         RulesetInfo (Section 5.6)

   +-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------------+
   | Parameter Name    | Type  | Requirement | Notes                   |
   +-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------------+
   | maxLocationChange | float | OPTIONAL    | Specifies a constraint  |
   |                   |       |             | on maximum location     |
   |                   |       |             | changes.                |
   +-------------------+-------+-------------+-------------------------+





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9.2.  PAWS Parameters Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Parameters Registry.

   Additional parameters for inclusion in PAWS requests, responses, or
   sub-messages are registered on the advice of one or more Designated
   Experts, with Specification Required [RFC5226].

   The Designated Expert should avoid duplication, i.e., avoid adding a
   new parameter when an existing one suffices.  When a set of
   parameters is added in support of a new ruleset (Section 9.1), the
   parameters should share a common prefix that reflects the ruleset ID.
   The prefix may be omitted, of course, if a parameter has more general
   applicability.  Similarly, when a parameter is not associated with a
   ruleset, the Designated Expert should ensure that the parameter name
   does not have a prefix used by existing ruleset parameters (e.g.,
   "fcc", "etsi") or are the initials of an organization that has not
   yet registered anything, but reasonably might.

9.2.1.  Registration Template

   Parameter name:  The name of the parameter (e.g., "example").

   Parameter usage location:  The location(s) where the parameter can be
      used.  The possible locations are the named requests, responses,
      and messages defined in Protocol Functionalities (Section 4) and
      Protocol Parameters (Section 5).

   Specification document(s):  Reference to the document that specifies
      the parameter, preferably including a URI that can be used to
      retrieve a copy of the document.  An indication of the relevant
      sections also may be included, but is not required.

9.2.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   The PAWS Parameters Registry enables protocol extensibility to
   support any regulatory domain and ruleset.  The initial contents of
   the registry, however, include only FCC-specific and ETSI-specific
   entries, because, as of this writing, they are the only regulatory
   domains that have established rules.  There is no intent to restrict
   the protocol to any particular set of authorities.

   The PAWS Parameters Registry's initial contents are listed below;
   each section corresponds to a row of the registry.  The PAWS
   Parameters Registry will include the following parameters: 'Parameter
   name', 'Parameter usage location', and 'Specification document(s)'.
   IANA will post each registration template that is not included in the
   text of an RFC.



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9.2.2.1.  FCC ID

   Parameter name:  fccId

   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the
      device's FCC certification identifier.  A valid FCC ID is limited
      to 19 characters in the ASCII value range, as proposed in FCC
      Administration Topics Review [FCC-Review-2012-10].  For the
      purposes of the PAWS protocol, the maximum length of the fccId
      value is 32 octets.

9.2.2.2.  FCC Device Type

   Parameter name:  fccTvbdDeviceType

   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   Specification document(s):  [[ this document ]] Specifies the TV Band
      White Space device type, as defined by the FCC.  Valid values are
      "FIXED", "MODE_1", "MODE_2".

9.2.2.3.  ETSI Device Type

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceType

   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device type, as
      defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid
      values are single-letter strings, such as "A", "B", etc.  Consult
      the documentation for details about the device types.

9.2.2.4.  ETSI Device Emissions Class

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceEmissionsClass

   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      emissions class, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598], that characterises the out-of-block emissions
      of the device.  The values are represented by numeric strings,
      such as "1", "2", "3", etc.  Consult the documentation for details
      about emissions classes





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9.2.2.5.  ETSI Technology Identifier

   Parameter name:  etsiEnTechnologyId

   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      technology identifier, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  The maximum length of the string value is 64
      octets.  Consult the documentation for valid values.

9.2.2.6.  ETSI Device Category

   Parameter name:  etsiEnDeviceCategory

   Parameter usage location:  DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2)

   Specification document(s):  Specifies the White Space Device
      category, as defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard
      [ETSI-EN-301-598].  Valid values are the strings, "master" and
      "slave".  It is case insensitive.

9.2.2.7.  ETSI Simultaneous Channel Operation Restriction

   Parameter name:  etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOperationRestriction

   Parameter usage location:  SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9)

   Specification document(s):  Specifies the constraint on the device
      maximum total Effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP), as
      defined by the ETSI Harmonised Standard [ETSI-EN-301-598].  The
      values are represented by numeric strings, such as "0", "1", etc.
      Consult the documentation for the specification of the power
      constraint corresponding to each parameter value.

9.3.  PAWS Error Code Registry

   This specification establishes the PAWS Error Code Registry.

   Additional error codes for inclusion in PAWS error messages are
   registered on the advice of one or more Designated Experts, with
   Specification Required [RFC5226].

   Error codes are intended to be used for automated error handling by
   devices.  Before approval, the Designated Expert should consider
   whether a device would handle the new error code differently from an
   existing error code, or whether the difference could be communicated




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   effectively to the end-user via the "reason" parameter of the Error
   (Section 5.17) object.

9.3.1.  Registration Template

   Code:  Integer value of the error code.  The value MUST be an
      unassigned value in the range -32768 to 32767, inclusive.

   Name:  Name of the error.

   Description:  Description of the error and its associated parameters,
      if any.

   Additional parameters:  Additional parameters that are returned in
      the data portion of the error (See Section 5.17).  New parameters
      MUST be registered separately in the PAWS Parameters Registry, as
      described by Section 9.2.

9.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   Initial registry contents are defined in the Table of Error Codes
   (Table 1).  Note that the third column, "Description & Additional
   parameters", contains both the description of the error code and the
   specification of additional parameters, when applicable.

   The PAWS Error Code Registry will include the following parameters:
   'Code', 'Name', 'Description', and 'Additional parameters'.  The
   registry will also include the error-code categories describing
   -100s, -200s, and -300s as a note (see Error Codes (Section 5.17)).
   IANA will post each registration template that is not included in the
   text of an RFC.

10.  Security Considerations

   PAWS is a protocol whereby a Master Device requests a schedule of
   available spectrum at its location (or location of its Slave Devices)
   before it (they) can operate using those frequencies.  Whereas the
   information provided by the Database must be accurate and conform to
   the applicable ruleset, the Database cannot enforce, through the
   protocol, that a client device uses only the spectrum it provided.
   In other words, devices can put energy in the air and cause
   interference without asking the Database.  Hence, PAWS security
   considerations do not include protection against malicious use of the
   White Space spectrum.  For more detailed information on specific
   requirements and security considerations associated with PAWS, see
   "Protocol to Access White Space database: PAWS Use Cases and
   Requirements" [RFC6953].




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   By using PAWS, the Master Device and the Database expose themselves
   to the following risks:

   o  Accuracy: The Master Device receives incorrect spectrum-
      availability information.

   o  Privacy: An unauthorized entity intercepts identifying data for
      the Master Device or its Slave Devices, such as serial number and
      location.

   Protection from these risks depends on the success of the following
   steps:

   1.  The Master Device must determine the address of a proper
       database.

   2.  The Master Device must connect to the proper database.

   3.  The Database must determine or compute accurate spectrum-
       availability information.

   4.  PAWS messages must be transmitted unmodified between the Database
       and the Master Device.

   5.  PAWS messages must be encrypted between the Database and the
       Master Device to prevent exposing private information.

   6.  For a Slave Device, the spectrum-availability information also
       must be transmitted unmodified and secure between the Master
       Device and the Slave Device.

   7.  When a Listing Server is required, any attack that would prevent
       reaching a Listing Server would result in all devices relying on
       that Listing Server ceasing their use of any Whitespace.

   Of these, only steps 1, 2, 4, and 5 are within the scope of this
   document.  This document addresses Step 1 by allowing static
   provisioning of one or more trusted Databases; dynamic provisioning
   is out of scope.  Step 3 is dependent on specific database
   implementations and rulesets and is outside the scope of this
   document.  Step 6 requires a protocol between master and slave
   devices and is thus outside the scope of this document.

   Use of "HTTP Over TLS" [RFC2818] ensures steps 2, 4, and 5, as
   detailed in the following sections:

   o  Assurance of Proper Database (Section 10.1)




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   o  Protection Against Modification (Section 10.2)

   o  Protection Against Eavesdropping (Section 10.3)

   Any specification for an alternate transport MUST define mechanisms
   that ensure each of these steps.

10.1.  Assurance of Proper Database

   This document assumes that the Database is contacted using a domain
   name or an IP address.  Using HTTP over TLS, the Database
   authenticates its identity, either as a domain name or IP address, to
   the Master Device by presenting a certificate containing that
   identifier as a "subjectAltName" (i.e., as a dNSName or IP address).
   If the Master Device has external information as to the expected
   identity or credentials of the proper database (e.g., a certificate
   fingerprint), checks of the subjectAltName MAY be omitted.  Note that
   in order for the presented certificate to be valid at the client, the
   client must be able to validate the certificate.  In particular, the
   validation path of the certificate must end in one of the client's
   trust anchors, even if that trust anchor is the Database certificate
   itself.  A Master Device should allow for the fact that a Database
   can change its certificate authorities (CAs) over time.

10.2.  Protection Against Modification

   To prevent a PAWS response message from being modified en route,
   messages must be transmitted over an integrity-protected channel.
   Using HTTP over TLS, the channel will be protected by appropriate
   cypher suites.

10.3.  Protection Against Eavesdropping

   Using HTTP over TLS, messages protected by appropriate cypher suites
   are also protected from eavesdropping or otherwise unrestricted
   reading by unauthorized parties en route.

10.4.  Client Authentication Considerations

   Although the Database can inform a device of available spectrum it
   can use, the Database cannot enforce that the Master Device uses any/
   only those frequencies.  Indeed, a malicious device can operate
   without ever contacting a database.  Note also that, whereas a
   malicious device may send fraudulent SPECTRUM_USE_NOTIFY
   (Section 4.5.5) messages, in the regulatory domains that have
   established rules, such notifications do not change the available-
   spectrum answers, so no harm can result from such messages.




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   Consequently, client authentication is not required for the core PAWS
   (although it may be required by specific regulatory domains).

   Depending on a prior relationship between a Database and Master
   Device, the Database MAY require client authentication.  TLS provides
   client authentication, but there are some considerations:

   o  As indicated in Section 3.2 of "HTTP Over TLS" [RFC2818], the TLS
      client authentication procedure only determines that the device
      has a certificate chain rooted in an appropriate CA (or a self-
      signed certificate).  The database would not know what the client
      identity ought to be, unless it has some external source of
      information.  Distribution and management of such information,
      including revocation lists, are outside the scope of this
      document.

   o  Authentication schemes are secure only to the extent that secrets
      or certificates are kept secure.  When there are a vast number of
      deployed devices using PAWS, the possibility that device keys will
      not leak becomes small.  Implementations should consider how to
      manage the system in the eventuality that there is a leak.

11.  Contributors

   This document draws heavily from the following Internet Draft
   documents, draft-das-paws-protocol and draft-wei-paws-framework.  The
   editor would like to specifically call out and thank the contributing
   authors of these two documents.

      Donald Joslyn
      Spectrum Bridge Inc.
      1064 Greenwood Blvd.
      Lake Mary, FL  32746
      U.S.A.
      Email: d.joslyn at spectrumbridge dot com


      Xinpeng Wei
      Huawei
      Phone: +86 13436822355
      Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com


12.  Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: Gabor Bajko,
   Ray Bellis, Teco Boot, Nancy Bravin, Rex Buddenberg, Gerald
   Chouinard, Stephen Farrell, Michael Fitch, Joel M.  Halpern, Daniel



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   Harasty, Michael Head, Jussi Kahtava, Warren Kumari, Kalle Kulsmanen,
   Paul Lambert, Andy Lee, Anthony Mancuso, Basavaraj Patil, Scott
   Probasco, Brian Rosen, Andy Sago, Peter Stanforth, John Stine, and
   Juan Carlos Zuniga.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [JSON-RPC]
              "JSON-RPC 2.0 Specification",
              <http://www.jsonrpc.org/specification>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, January 2008.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5491]  Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
              Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)
              Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
              RFC 5491, March 2009.

   [RFC6350]  Perreault, S., "vCard Format Specification", RFC 6350,
              August 2011.

   [RFC7095]  Kewisch, P., "jCard: The JSON Format for vCard", RFC 7095,
              January 2014.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, June 2014.



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13.2.  Informative References

   [ETSI-EN-301-598]
              European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI),
              "ETSI EN 301 598 (V1.1.1): White Space Devices (WSD);
              Wireless Access Systems operating in the 470 MHz to 790
              MHz frequency band; Harmonized EN covering the essential
              requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive", April
              2014, <http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
              etsi_en/301500_301599/301598/01.01.01_60/
              en_301598v010101p.pdf>.

   [FCC-CFR47-15H]
              U. S. Government, "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations,
              Title 47, Part 15, Subpart H: Television Band Devices",
              December 2010, <http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/
              text-idx?rgn=div6&view=text&node=47:1.0.1.1.16.8>.

   [FCC-Review-2012-10]
              Federal Communications Commission, "Administration Topics
              Review", October 2012,
              <http://transition.fcc.gov/bureaus/oet/ea/presentations/
              files/oct12/2b-TCB-Admin-Issues-Oct-2012-GT.pdf>.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-uncertainty]
              Thomson, M. and J. Winterbottom, "Representation of
              Uncertainty and Confidence in PIDF-LO", draft-ietf-
              geopriv-uncertainty-01 (work in progress), July 2014.

   [ISO3166-1]
              "Country Codes",
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes.htm>.

   [ITUT.X520.2008]
              International Telecommunication Union, "ITU-T
              Recommendation X.520: Information technology - Open
              Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Selected
              attribute types", November 2008,
              <http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.520-200811-I>.

   [RFC6953]  Mancuso, A., Probasco, S., and B. Patil, "Protocol to
              Access White-Space (PAWS) Databases: Use Cases and
              Requirements", RFC 6953, May 2013.








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   [WGS-84]   National Imagery and Mapping Agency, "Department of
              Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Its Definition and
              Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems, NIMA TR8350.2
              Third Edition Amendment 1", January 2000, <http://earth-
              info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/tr8350_2.html>.

Appendix A.  Database Listing Server Support

   As discussed in Database Discovery (Section 4.1), some regulatory
   domains support the preconfiguration of devices with the URI of a
   listing server, to which devices can connect to obtain a list of
   databases certified by the regulatory domain.  Regulatory domains may
   require the device to periodically contact the Database Listing
   Server to validate and/or update its list of certified databases.  If
   the device is unable to validate its list of certified databases
   within the required period, regulatory rules may require the device
   to treat this inability as equivalent to the device having no
   available spectrum.

   A sample JSON response from a Database Listing Server might be
   represented as follows:

   {
     "lastUpdateTime": "2014-06-28T10:00:00Z",
     "maxRefreshMinutes": 1440
     "dbs": [
       {
         "name": "Some Operator",
         "uris": [
           {
             "uri": "https://example.some.operator.com",
             "protocol": "paws"
           },
           ...
         ]
       },
       ...
     ]
   }

   In parameters in this sample message are:

   lastUpdateTime  The time at which the database entries were last
      updated.

   maxRefreshMinutes  The maximum interval, expressed in minutes, that
      is allowed between device requests to the Database Listing Server.




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   dbs  A list of entries for certified databases, each containing the
      following

      name  The name of the database operator.

      uris  One or more URIs for each database, allowing a database to
         support more than one protocol.

      uri, protocol  Each protocol supported by a certified database is
         associated with a separate URI (PAWS protocol URI shown).

Appendix B.  Changes / Author Notes.

   To be removed before publication

   Changes from 12:

   o  Define primitive types in Section 4, specifying UTF-8 for strings
      and remove UTF-8 references elsewhere.

   o  Replace or rephrase "parameter" when reference is to higher-level
      structure.

   o  Replace "MUST" with non-2119 language (maximum length is xxx
      octets.

   o  Rephrase statements that reflected regulatory, not PAWS
      requirements (e.g., deletion of "MUST" or "MAY" and rephrasing as
      a regulatory requirement).

   o  Replace "Paws protocol (redundant) to "PAWS"

   o  Change "geo-location" to "geolocation"

   o  General references to "Database" changed to "database."

   o  Simplify Section 6 by showing several JSON encoding examples.

   o  Change "Device" to "device"

   o  Moved treatment of List Server as discovery mechanism to
      Appendix and added JSON-encoded DB List Server response example.

   Changes from 11:

   o  Change "regulatory rules" to "ruleset"

   o  Change "regulatory specifics" to "ruleset specifics"



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   o  Change "regulatory-specific" to "ruleset-specific"

   o  Change "regulatory domain" to "ruleset" where appropriate

   o  Replace "depends on regulatory domain" to "optional" in tables

   o  Add "optional" to "*other" in tables

   o  Change "regulators" to "regulatory domains"

   o  Change "REQUIRED" error name to "MISSING"

   o  Changed the IANA instructions and added DE instructions to each
      section

   o  Reformat and reorder IANA sections

   Changes from 10:

   o  Ruleset Name change: ETSI-EN-301-598-1.0.9 and update reference to
      PDF

   o  Add new ETSI parameter:
      etsiEnSimultaneousChannelOperationRestriction

   o  Separate protocol requirements from regulatory requirements

   Changes from 09:

   o  Updated format of the IANA section

   Changes from 08:

   o  Fix JSON typos.

   o  Added note that JSON schema is not intended to be formally
      validated

   o  Finalize paws-iana-review@ietf.org as the email for updating the
      PAWS IANA registries

   o  URLs to URIs

   o  Typo fixes

   Changes from 07:

   o  Propose ruleset ID name for ETSI: ETSI-EN-301-598-1.0.0-draft



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   o  Change TBD email address to paws-iana-review@ietf.org for
      proposing changes to the PAWS IANA registries

   o  Moved discussion of required vCard properties to regulatory-
      specific sections

   o  Fixed vCard examples for organization names: Use "fn" property,
      but set "kind" to "org".

   o  Shorten parameter names:

      *  freqHz -> hz

      *  powerDbmPerBw -> dbm

   Changes from 06:

   o  Multi-ruleset support:

      *  Changed RulesetInfo to have single ruleset ID

      *  Changed INIT_RESP to return a list of RulesetInfo parameters,
         rather than a single one

      *  Changed REGISTRATION_RESP to return a list of RulesetInfo
         parameters to indicate the regulatory domains for which
         registration was accepted

      *  Added SpectrumSpec (Section 5.9) parameter to represent
         available-spectrum specification for one regulatory domain,
         allowing AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP and AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP to
         include answers for multiple regulatory domains

      *  Changed GeoSpectrumSchedule to GeoSpectrumSpec (Section 5.15)
         for supporting batch responses to represent available spectrum
         for multiple regulatory domains at a location

   o  To avoid ambiguity or redundant information, clarified that:

      *  Event-time intervals within a single set of schedules MUST be
         disjoint

      *  A single Spectrum element MUST cover the entire range of
         frequencies governed by a ruleset, rather than splitting them
         to present a "channelized" view

   o  Add "ruleset" to Terminology section




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   o  Sync Terminology section with Use Case document

   o  Add "masterDeviceDesc" to Device Validate request

   o  Add "masterDeviceLocation" to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM requests and the
      SPECTRUM_NOTIFY message.  Change "location" to be the location of
      the Slave Device, if the request is made by a Master Device on
      behalf of a Slave Device

   o  Update vCard reference and example

   o  Add jsonrpc 2.0 to all sample messages

   o  Clarify that Listing Servers may be preconfigured in a device

   o  Clarify meaning of maximum power levels vs bandwidth, including
      renaming parameter names:

   o

      *  maxPowerDBm -> powerDbmPerBw

      *  bandwidth -> resolutionBwHz

   o  Explicitly allowed generic JSON-RPC error codes as possible codes.

   o  Replace SHALL with MUST for consistency

   o  Replace URI with URL for consistency

   o  Reduce clutter in JSON encoding examples by removing string-
      concatenation characters

   o  Changed "depends" to "depends on regulatory rules" in several
      places

   Changes from 05:

   o  Remove requirement for JSON-RPC 1.0

   o  More typo fixes and clarifications

   Changes from 04:

   o  Add "masterDeviceDesc" parameter to the available-spectrum
      requests to allow both Master and Slave device descriptors when
      the Master is making the request on behalf of a Slave.




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   o  Add "requestType" parameter to the available-spectrum requests to
      support requesting generic operating parameters for any Slave
      Device.

   o  Add DbUpdateSpec as optional parameter to all response messages
      and to the error response to allow a Device to detect a database
      change at any stage of the control flow.

   o  For the OUTSIDE_COVERAGE error, added ability to return a list of
      alternate databases

   o  Explicitly allow JSON-RPC v2.0 and v1.0 encodings

   o  Relaxed language that state, "MUST stop operation" to "MUST cease
      use of spectrum under rules for database-managed spectrum".  I.e.,
      the device may have other fallback strategies allowed by
      regulators.

   Changes from 03:

   o  Expanded the Database Discovery mechanism to describe in more
      detail pre-configuration with URLs of databases and database-
      listing servers, including mechanisms for updating the
      configurations when things change

      *  Add database-change field to Available Spectrum Response
         (Section 4.5.2)

   o  Added fields that are anticipated to be needed by the ETSI
      harmonized standard for White Space Devices:

      *  Added bandwidth constraints to the Available Spectrum Response
         (Section 4.5.2)

      *  Updated Available Spectrum Response to return RulesetInfo,
         rather than just a ruleset identifier

      *  Added optional device-manufacturer and device-model IDs to the
         DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) message.  Also moved fccId from
         this message to the IANA section.

      *  Expanded IANA (Section 9) sections

   o  Clarified restrictions on the specification of the vertices of a
      Polygon.

   o  Changed default confidence level to 95% for a point with
      uncertainty



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   o  Clarified how devices without absolute time source can use the
      timestamps in the response messages

   o  Change method names to start with "spectrum.paws." prefix

   o  Added maximum string lengths

   o  Updated author contact info

   o  More typo fixes

   Changes from 02:

   o  Added timestamp to the AVAIL_SPECTRUM_RESP (Section 4.5.2) and
      AVAIL_SPECTRUM_BATCH_RESP (Section 4.5.4) data models to serve as
      a reference for the event times in the response.  This was
      accidentally omitted (but was specified in their JSON encodings
      (Section 6)).

   o  Fixed typos throughout the JSON encoding (Section 6) sections,
      typically adding missing commas.

   Changed from 01:

   o  Added a description of message sequences to support multiple
      rulesets and multiple jurisdictions Section 3.1.

   o  Modified DeviceDescriptor (Section 5.2) to add rulesetIds
      parameter

   o  Modified RulesetInfo (Section 5.6), AvailableSpectrumResponse
      (Section 4.5.2) to add rulesetId parameter.

   o  Add Extensibility (Section 8) section.

   o  Filled in IANA (Section 9) section.

   o  Removed blank Example Messages section

   Changes from 00:

   o  Add JSON encoding

   o  Adopt RFC5491 for GeoLocation

   o  Adopt vCard for contact information





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   o  Add Response Code section and update text referencing the defined
      response codes

   o  Change DeviceIdentifier to be DeviceDescriptor, allowing
      identifiers and device-characteristic fields to be included.

Authors' Addresses

   Vincent Chen (editor)
   Google
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   US

   Email: vchen@google.com


   Subir Das
   Applied Communication Sciences
   150 Mount Airy Road
   Basking Ridge, NJ  07920
   U.S.A.

   Email: sdas at appcomsci dot com


   Lei Zhu
   Huawei

   Phone: +86 13910157020
   Email: lei.zhu@huawei.com


   John Malyar
   iconectiv (formerly Telcordia Interconnection Solutions)
   444 Hoes Lane/RRC 4E1106
   Piscataway, NJ  08854
   U.S.A.

   Email: jmalyar at iconectiv dot com











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   Peter J. McCann
   Huawei
   400 Crossing Blvd, 2nd Floor
   Bridgewater, NJ  08807
   USA

   Phone: +1 908 541 3563
   Email: peter.mccann@huawei.com











































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