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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 5088

Network Working Group                              J.L. Le Roux (Editor)
Internet Draft                                            France Telecom
Category: Standard Track
Expires: March 2007                                J.P. Vasseur (Editor)
                                                       Cisco System Inc.

                                                          Yuichi Ikejiri
                                                      NTT Communications

                                                           Raymond Zhang
                                                              BT Infonet

                                                         September 2006


  OSPF protocol extensions for Path Computation Element (PCE) Discovery

               draft-ietf-pce-disco-proto-ospf-00.txt


Status of this Memo

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Abstract

   There are various circumstances in which it is highly desirable for a
   Path Computation Client (PCC) to be able to dynamically and
   automatically discover a set of Path Computation Element(s) (PCE),
   along with some of information that can be used for PCE selection.
   When the PCE is an LSR participating to the IGP, or even a server
   participating passively to the IGP, a simple and efficient way for

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   PCE discovery consists of relying on IGP flooding. For that purpose
   this document defines OSPF extensions for the advertisement of PCE
   Discovery information within an OSPF area or within the entire OSPF
   routing domain.


Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.

Table of Contents

   1.      Note........................................................3
   2.      Terminology.................................................3
   3.      Introduction................................................4
   4.      Overview....................................................5
   4.1.    PCE Information.............................................5
   4.1.1.  PCE Discovery Information...................................5
   4.1.2.  PCE Status Information......................................6
   4.2.    Flooding scope..............................................6
   5.      OSPF extensions.............................................6
   5.1.    The OSPF PCED TLV...........................................6
   5.1.1.  PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV.........................................7
   5.1.2.  PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV..........................................8
   5.1.3.  PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV........................................10
   5.1.3.1.  IPv4 area ID DOMAIN sub-TLV..............................11
   5.1.3.2.  IPv6 area ID DOMAIN sub-TLV..............................11
   5.1.3.3.  AS Number sub-TLV........................................12
   5.1.4.  PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV...................................12
   5.1.5.  GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV........................................13
   5.1.6.  The PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLV..................................14
   5.1.6.1.  Objective Functions sub-TLV..............................15
   5.1.6.2.  Opaque Objective Function sub-TLV........................16
   5.1.6.3.  Switch Caps sub-TLV......................................16
   5.2.    The OSPF PCES TLV..........................................17
   5.2.1.  The CONGESTION sub-TLV.....................................17
   6.      Elements of Procedure......................................19
   6.1.1.  PCES TLV specific procedures...............................19
   7.      Backward compatibility.....................................21
   8.      IANA considerations........................................21
   8.1.    OSPF TLVs..................................................21
   8.2.    Capability bits............................................21
   9.      Security Considerations....................................22
   10.     References.................................................22
   10.1.   Normative references.......................................22
   10.2.   Informative references.....................................23
   11.     Authors' Addresses:........................................23
   12.     Intellectual Property Statement............................24



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1. Note

   This document specifies new TLVs and sub-TLVs to be carried within
   the OSPF Router information LSA ([OSPF-CAP]). Because this document
   does not introduce any new element of procedure it will be discussed
   within the PCE Working Group with a review of the OSPF Working Group.

2. Terminology

   Terminology used in this document

      ABR: IGP Area Border Router.

      AS: Autonomous System.

      ASBR: AS Border Router.

      Domain: any collection of network elements within a common sphere
      of address management or path computational responsibility.
      Examples of domains include IGP areas and Autonomous Systems.

      Intra-area TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path does not cross IGP area
      boundaries.

      Intra-AS TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path does not cross AS boundaries.

      Inter-area TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path transits through
      two or more IGP areas.

      Inter-AS MPLS TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path transits
      through two or more ASes or sub-ASes (BGP confederations).

      LSR: Label Switch Router.

      PCC: Path Computation Client: any client application requesting a
      path computation to be performed by a Path Computation Element.

      PCE: Path Computation Element: an entity (component, application,
      or network node) that is capable of computing a network path or
      route based on a network graph, and applying computational
      constraints.

      PCECP: Path Computation Element Communication Protocol.

      TE LSP: Traffic Engineered Label Switched Path.








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3. Introduction

   [RFC4655] describes the motivations and architecture for a PCE-based
   path computation model for MPLS and GMPLS TE LSPs. The model allows
   the separation of PCE from PCC (also referred to as non co-located
   PCE) and allows cooperation between PCEs. This relies on a
   communication protocol between PCC and PCE, and between PCEs. The
   requirements for such communication protocol can be found in [PCECP-
   REQ] and the communication protocol is defined in [PCEP].

   The PCE architecture requires, of course, that a PCC be aware of the
   location of one or more PCEs in its domain, and also potentially of
   some PCEs in other domains, e.g. in case of inter-domain TE LSP
   computation.

   A network may comprise a large number of PCEs with potentially
   distinct capabilities. In such context it would be highly desirable
   to have a mechanism for automatic and dynamic PCE discovery, which
   would allow PCCs to automatically discover a set of PCEs, along with
   additional information required for PCE selection, and to dynamically
   detect new PCEs or any modification of PCE information.
   Detailed requirements for such a PCE discovery mechanism are
   described in [PCE-DISC-REQ].

   Moreover, it may also be useful to discover when a PCE experiences
   some processing congestion state and exits such state, in order for
   the PCCs to take some appropriate actions (e.g. redirect to another
   PCE). Note that the PCE selection algorithm is out of the scope of
   this document.

   When PCCs are LSRs participating to the IGP, and PCEs are LSRs or a
   servers also participating to the IGP, an efficient mechanism for PCE
   discovery within an IGP routing domain consists of relying on IGP
   advertisements.

   This document defines OSPF extensions allowing a PCE in the OSPF
   routing domain to advertise its location along with some information
   useful for PCE selection so as to satisfy dynamic PCE discovery
   requirements set forth in [PCE-DISC-REQ]. This document also defines
   extensions allowing a PCE in the OSPF routing domain to advertise its
   potential processing congestion state.

   Generic capability mechanisms for OSPF have been defined in [OSPF-
   CAP] the purpose of which is to allow a router to advertise its
   capability within an OSPF area or an entire OSPF routing domain. Such
   OSFP extensions fully satisfy the aforementioned dynamic PCE
   discovery requirements.

   This document defines two new sub-TLVs (named the PCE Discovery
   (PCED) TLV and the PCE Status (PCES) TLV), to be carried within the
   OSPF Router Information LSA ([OSPF-CAP]).


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   The PCE information advertised is detailed in section 4. Protocol
   extensions and procedures are defined in section 5 and 6.

   This document does not define any new OSPF element of procedure but
   how the procedures defined in [OSPF-CAP] should be used.

   The routing extensions defined in this document allow for PCE
   discovery within an OSPF Routing domain. Solutions for PCE discovery
   across AS boundaries are beyond the scope of this document, and for
   further study.

   Similar extensions to ISIS for PCE discovery can be found in [ISIS-
   PCE-DISCO].

4. Overview

4.1. PCE Information

   PCE information advertised within the IGP includes PCE Discovery
   Information and PCE Status information.

4.1.1. PCE Discovery Information

   The PCE Discovery information is comprised of:

   - The PCE location: This an IPv4 and/or IPv6 address that must be
     used to reach the PCE. It is RECOMMENDED to use addresses always
     reachable;

   - The PCE inter-domain functions: this refers to the PCE path
     computation scope (i.e. inter-area, inter-AS, inter-layer…);

   - The PCE domain(s): This is the set of one or more domain(s) where
     the PCE has visibility and can compute paths;

   - The PCE Destination domain(s): This is the set of one or more
      destination domain(s) towards which a PCE can compute paths;

   - A set of general PCECP capabilities (e.g. support for request
     prioritization) and path computation specific capabilities
     (e.g. supported constraints, supported objective functions).

   It may also contain optional elements to describe more complex
   capabilities.

   PCE Discovery information is by nature a static information that does
   not change with PCE activity. Changes in PCE Discovery information
   may occur as a result of PCE configuration updates, PCE
   deployment/activation, PCE deactivation/suppression or PCE failure.
   Hence, this information is not expected to change frequently.



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4.1.2. PCE Status Information

   The PCE Status is optional information that can be used to report a
   PCE processing congested state along with an estimated congestion
   duration. This is a dynamic information, which may change with PCE
   activity.

   Procedures for a PCE to move from a processing congested state to a
   non congested state are beyond the scope of this document, but the
   rate at which a PCE Status change is advertised MUST not impact by
   any mean the IGP scalability. Particular attention should be given on
   procedures to avoid state oscillations.

4.2. Flooding scope

   The flooding scope for PCE Discovery Information can be limited to
   one or more OSPF areas the PCE belongs to or can be extended across
   the entire OSPF routing domain.
   Note that some PCEs may belong to multiple areas, in which case the
   flooding scope may comprise these areas. This could be the case of an
   ABR for instance advertising its PCE information within the backbone
   area and/or a subset of its attached IGP area(s).

5. OSPF extensions

5.1. The OSPF PCED TLV

   The OSPF PCE Discovery TLV (PCED TLV) is made of a set of non-ordered
   sub-TLVs.

   The format of the OSPF PCED TLV and its sub-TLVs is the identical as
   the TLV format used by the Traffic Engineering Extensions to OSPF
   [OSPF-TE]. That is, the TLV is composed of 2 octets for the type, 2
   octets specifying the TLV length and a value field. The Length field
   defines the length of the value portion in octets.
   The TLV is padded to four-octet alignment; padding is not included in
   the length field (so a three octet value would have a length of
   three, but the total size of the TLV would be eight octets).  Nested
   TLVs are also 32-bit aligned.  Unrecognized types are ignored.  All
   types between 32768 and 65535 are reserved for vendor-specific
   extensions.  All other undefined type codes are reserved for future
   assignment by IANA.
   The OSPF PCED TLV has the following format:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   //                            sub-TLVs                          //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value=2)
         Length   Variable
         Value    This comprises one or more sub-TLVs

   Sub-TLVs types are under IANA control.

   Currently five sub-TLVs are defined (type values to be assigned by
   IANA):
         Sub-TLV type  Length               Name
               1      variable     PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV
               2         4         PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV
               3      variable     PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV
               4      variable     PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV
               5      variable     GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV
               6      variable     PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLV

   The sub-TLVs PCE-ADDRESS and PATH SCOPE MUST always be present within
   the PCED TLV.

   The sub-TLVs PCE-DOMAINS and PCE-DEST-DOMAINS are optional. They MAY
   be present in some specific inter-domain cases.

   The GENERAL-CAP and PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLVs are optional and MAY be
   present in the PCED TLV to facilitate the PCE selection process.

   Any non recognized sub-TLV MUST be silently ignored.

   Additional sub-TLVs could be added in the future to advertise
   additional information.

   The PCED TLV is carried within an OSPF Router Information LSA
   defined in [OSPF-CAP].


5.1.1. PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV

   The PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV specifies the IP address(es) that MUST be
   used to reach the PCE. It is RECOMMENDED to make use of an address
   that is always reachable, provided that the PCE is alive.
   The PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV is mandatory; it MUST be present within the
   PCED TLV. It MAY appear twice, when the PCE has both an IPv4 and IPv6
   address. It MUST not appear more than twice.









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   The format of the PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV is as follows:


        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     address-type              |          Reserved             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       //                       PCE IP Address                        //
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                            PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV format

         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =1)
         Length   4 (IPv4) or 16 (IPv6)

         Address-type:
                       1   IPv4
                       2   IPv6

         PCE IP Address: The IP address to be used to reach the PCE.
                         This is the address that will be used for
                         setting up PCC-PCE communication sessions.

5.1.2. PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV

   The PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV indicates the PCE path computation scope(s),
   which refers to the PCE ability to compute or take part into the
   computation of intra-area, inter-area, inter-AS or inter-layer_TE
   LSP(s).

   The PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV is mandatory; it MUST be present within the
   PCED TLV. There MUST be exactly one PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV within each
   PCED TLV.

   The PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV contains a set of bit flags indicating the
   supported path scopes (intra-area, inter-area, inter-AS, inter-layer)
   and four fields indicating PCE preferences.

   The PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV has the following format:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|1|2|3|4|5|   Reserved        |PrefL|PrefR|PrefS|PrefY| Res   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


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         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value =3)
         Length   Variable
         Value    This comprises a 2 bytes flag where each bit
                  represents a supported path scope, as well as four
                  preference fields allowing to specify PCE preferences.

         The following bits are defined:

         Bit      Path Scope

          0      L bit: Can compute intra-area path
          1      R bit: Can act as PCE for inter-area TE LSPs
                        computation
          2      Rd bit: Can act as a default PCE for inter-area TE LSPs
                         computation
          3      S bit: Can act as PCE for inter-AS TE LSPs computation
          4      Sd bit: Can act as a default PCE for inter-AS TE LSPs
                         computation
          5      Y bit: Can compute or take part into the computation of
                        paths across layers.

   Pref-L field: PCE's preference for intra-area TE LSPs computation.

   Pref-R field: PCE’s preference for inter-area TE LSPs computation.

   Pref-S field: PCE’s preference for inter-AS TE LSPs computation.

   Pref-Y field: PCE's preference for inter-layer TE LSPs computation.

   Res: Reserved for future usage.

   The bits L, R, S and Y bits are set when the PCE can act as a PCE for
   intra-area, inter-area, inter-AS and inter-layer TE LSPs computation
   respectively. These bits are non exclusive.

   When set the Rd bit indicates that the PCE can act as a default PCE
   for inter-area TE LSPs computation (the PCE can compute path for any
   destination area). Similarly, when set the Sd bit indicates that the
   PCE can act as a default PCE for inter-AS TE LSPs computation (the
   PCE can compute path for any destination AS).

   When the Rd bit is set the PCE-DEST-DOMAIN TLV (see 5.1.4) does not
   contain any Area ID DOMAIN sub-TLV.

   Similarly, when the Sd bit is set the PCE-DEST-DOMAIN TLV does not
   contain any AS DOMAIN sub-TLV.

   The PrefL, PrefR, PrefS and PrefY fields are 3-bit long and allow the
   PCE to specify a preference for each computation scope, where 7
   reflects the highest preference. Such preference can be used for
   weighted load balancing of requests. An operator may decide to

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   configure a preference to each PCE so as to balance the path
   computation load among them, with respect to their respective CPU
   capacity. The algorithms used by a PCC to load balance its path
   computation requests according to such PCE’s preference is out of the
   scope of this document. Same or distinct preferences may be used for
   different scopes. For instance an operator that wants a PCE capable
   of both inter-area and inter-AS computation to be used preferably for
   inter-AS computation may configure a PrefS higher than the PrefR.

   When the L bit, R bit, S or Y bit are cleared, the PrefL, PrefR,
   PrefS, PrefY fields MUST respectively be set to 0.


5.1.3. PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV

   The PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV specifies the set of domains (areas, AS)
   where the PCE has topology visibility and can compute paths. It
   contains a set of one or more sub-TLVs where each sub-TLV identifies
   a domain.

   The PCED TLV MUST include zero or one PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV.
   The PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV MUST be present when PCE domains cannot be
   inferred by other IGP information, for instance when the PCE is
   inter-area capable (i.e. when the R bit is set) and the flooding
   scope is the entire OSPF routing domain.

   The PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV has the following format:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   //                    DOMAIN sub-TLVs                          //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value =3)
         Length   Variable
         Value    This comprises a set of one or more DOMAIN sub-TLVs
                  where each DOMAIN sub-TLV identifies a domain where
                  the PCE has topology visibility and can compute paths.

   Sub-TLVs types are under IANA control.

   Currently three DOMAIN sub-TLVs are defined (suggested type values to
   be assigned by IANA):
            Sub-TLV type  Length               Name
                1      variable     IPv4 area ID sub-TLV
                2      variable     IPv6 area ID sub-TLV
                3      variable     AS number sub-TLV

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   The PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV MUST include at least one DOMAIN sub-TLV.
   Note than when the PCE visibility is an entire AS, the PCE-DOMAINS
   sub-TLV MUST uniquely include one AS number sub-TLV.

5.1.3.1. IPv4 area ID DOMAIN sub-TLV

   The IPv4 area ID DOMAIN sub-TLV carries an IPv4 OSPF area identifier.
   It has the following format:


        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                       IPv4 Area ID                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =1)
         Length   4
         IPv4 OSPF area ID: The IPv4 identifier of the OSPF area


5.1.3.2. IPv6 area ID DOMAIN sub-TLV

   The IPv6 area ID sub-TLV carries an IPv6 OSPF area identifier. It has
   the following format:


        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                       IPv6 Area ID                            |
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =2)
         Length   16
         IPv6 OSPF area ID: The IPv6 identifier of the OSPF area








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5.1.3.3. AS Number sub-TLV

   The AS Number sub-TLV carries an AS number. It has the following
   format:

        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                       AS Number                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =3)
         Length   4
         AS Number:  AS number identifying an AS. When coded on two
                     bytes (which is the current defined format as the
                     time of writing this document), the AS Number field
                     MUST have its left two bytes set to 0.


5.1.4. PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV

   The PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV specifies the set of destination domains
   (areas, AS) toward which a PCE can compute path. It means that the
   PCE can compute or take part in the computation of inter-domain LSPs
   whose destinations are located within one of these domains. It
   contains a set of one or more sub-TLVs where each sub-TLV identifies
   a domain.

   The PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV has the following format:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   //                    DOMAIN sub-TLVs                          //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value =3)
         Length   Variable
         Value    This comprises a set of one or more Area and/or AS
                  DOMAIN sub-TLVs where each DOMAIN sub-TLV identifies a
                  domain toward which a PCE can compute paths.

   The PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV MUST be present if the R bit is set and
   the Rd bit is cleared, and/or, if the S bit is set and the Sd bit is
   cleared.


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   The PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV MUST include at least one DOMAIN sub-
   TLV. It MUST include at least one area ID sub-TLV, if the R bit of
   the PATH-SCOPE TLV is set and the Rd bit of the PATH-SCOPE TLV is
   cleared. Similarly, it MUST include at least one AS number sub-TLV if
   the S bit of the PATH-SCOPE TLV is set and the Sd bit of the PATH-
   SCOPE TLV is cleared.

5.1.5. GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV

   The GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV is an optional TLV used to indicate PCECP
   related capabilities. It MAY be present within the PCED TLV. It MUST
   not be present more than once.
   The value field of the GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV is made of a 32-bit flag,
   where each bit corresponds to a general PCE capability. It MAY also
   include optional sub-TLVs to encode more complex capabilities.

   The format of the GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV is as follows:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                 General Capabilities Flag                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      //                    Optional sub-TLVs                         //
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =1)
         Length   Variable.
         Value    This comprises a 32-bit flag. The bits are indexed
                  from the most significant to the least significant,
                  where each bit represents one general PCE capability.
                  Optional TLVs may be added to specify more complex
                  capabilities: there is no optional TLV currently
                  defined.

   IANA is requested to manage the space of the General Capabilities 32-
   bit flag.

   The following bits are to be assigned by IANA:

     Bit       Capabilities

      0      P bit: Support for Request prioritization.
      1      M bit: Support for multiple messages within the same
                    request message.

     2-31    Reserved for future assignments by IANA.


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5.1.6. The PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLV

   The PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLV is an optional TLV used to indicate path
   computation specific capabilities. It MAY be present within the PCED
   TLV. It MUST not be present more than once.
   It is made of a 32-bit flag, where each bit corresponds to a path
   computation capability. It MAY also include optional sub-TLVs to
   encode more complex capabilities.

   The format of the PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLV is as follows:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Path Computation Capabilities Flag               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      //                    Optional sub-TLVs                         //
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =1)
         Length   Variable.
         Value    This comprises a 32 bit flag. Bits are indexed from
                  the most significant to the least significant, where
                  each bit represents one path computation capability.
                  Optional TLVs may be defined to specify more complex
                  capabilities. Three optional sub-TLVs are currently
                  defined.

   IANA is requested to manage the space of the Path Commutation
   Capabilities 32-bit flag.

   The following bits are to be assigned by IANA:


     Bit       Capabilities

      0      G bit: Capability to handle GMPLS link constraints
      1      B bit: Capability to compute bidirectional paths
      2      D bit: Capability to compute link/node/SRLG diverse paths
      3      L bit: Capability to compute load-balanced paths
      4      S bit: Capability to compute a set of paths in a
                    synchronized Manner
      5      O bit: Support for multiple objective functions
      6      P bit: Capability to handle path constraints (e.g. hop
             count, metric bound)



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     7-31    Reserved for future assignments by IANA.

   The G, B, D, L, S, O and P bits are not exclusive.

   Three optional sub-TLVs are currently defined for the PATH-COMP-CAP
   TLV:
   - The Objective Functions sub-TLV (type to be defined, suggested
      value =1) that carries a list of supported objective functions,
      where each objective function is identified by a 16 bit integer.
   - The Opaque Objective Function sub-TLV (type to be defined,
      suggested value =2) that allows the user to encode a specific
      objective function in any appropriate language.
   - The Switch Caps sub-TLV (type to be defined, suggested value =3)
      that carries a list of supported switching capabilities. It means
      that the PCE can compute path for the listed switching
      capabilities.

5.1.6.1. Objective Functions sub-TLV

   The format of the Objective Functions sub-TLV is as follows

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             function 1        |   function 2                  |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      //                                                             //
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             function N        |                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value =1)
         Length   Variable (N*2), where N is the number of supported
                  objective functions.
         Value    This comprises a set of one or more 16 bit function
                  ids, where each function id identifies a supported
                  objective function.

   Objectives functions and their identification will be defined in a
   separate document.

   The Objective Functions sub-TLV is optional, it MAY be present with
   the PATH-COMP-CAP TLV. When present it MUST be present only once in
   the PATH-COMP-CAP TLV.





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5.1.6.2. Opaque Objective Function sub-TLV

The format of the Opaque Objective Function sub-TLV is as follows

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Opaque objective function                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value =2)
         Length   Variable
         Value    This encode a specific objective function in any
                  appropriate language.

The Opaque Objective Function sub-TLV is optional. The PATH-COMP-CAP TLV
MAY comprise 0, one or more Opaque Objective Function sub-TLVs.

5.1.6.3. Switch Caps sub-TLV

The format of the Switch Caps sub-TLV is as follows

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   SC type     |   SC type     |   SC type     |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      //                                                             //
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value =3)
         Length   Variable = N, where N is the number of supported
                  switching capabilities
         Value    This comprises a set of one or more 8-bit switching
                  types, where each switching type identifies a
                  supported switching capability.

Switching type values are defined in [RFC4203].

The Switch Caps sub-TLV is optional, it MAY be present in the PATH-COMP-
CAP TLV. When present it MUST be present only once in the PATH-COMP-CAP
TLV.



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5.2. The OSPF PCES TLV

   The OSPF PCE Status TLV (PCES TLV) carries information related to PCE
   processing congestion state.
   The PCES TLV is carried within an OSPF Router Information LSA which
   is defined in [OSPF-CAP].

   The OSPF PCES TLV has the following format:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   //                      PCE ADDRESS sub-TLV                     //
   //                     CONGESTION sub-TLV                     //
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         Type     To be defined by IANA (suggested value=3)
         Length   Variable
         Value    This comprises a PCE ADDRESS sub-TLV, identifying the
                  PCE and a CONGESTION sub-TLV that contains congestion
                  information.

   Sub-TLV types are under IANA control.

   Currently two sub-TLVs are defined (type values to be assigned by
   IANA):
         Sub-TLV type  Length               Name
               1      variable     PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV
               2         4         CONGESTION sub-TLV

   The PCE-ADDRESS and CONGESTION sub-TLVs MUST be present once
   in a PCES TLV. The PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV is defined in section 5.1.1.
   It carries one of the PCE IP addresses and is used to identify the
   PCE the processing congestion state information is applied to. This
   is required as the PCES and PCED TLVs may be carried in separate
   Router Information LSAs.

   Any non recognized sub-TLV MUST be silently ignored.

   Additional sub-TLVs could be added in the future to advertise
   additional congestion information.

5.2.1. The CONGESTION sub-TLV

   The CONGESTION sub-TLV is used to indicate whether a PCE experiences
   a processing congestion state or not along with optionally the
   expected PCE congestion duration.
   The CONGESTION sub-TLV is mandatory. It MUST be carried once within
   the PCES TLV.

   The format of the CONGESTION sub-TLV is as follows:

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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |C|       Reserved              |      Congestion Duration      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         Type     To be assigned by IANA (suggested value =2)
         Length   4

         Value
           -C bit: When set this indicates that the PCE experiences
                   congestion and cannot support any new request. When
                   cleared this indicates that the PCE does not
                   experience congestion an can support a new request.

           -Congestion Duration: 2-bytes, the estimated PCE congestion
                                 duration in seconds.

   When C is set and the Congestion Duration field is equal to 0, this
   means that the Congestion Duration is unknown.
   When C is cleared the Congestion Duration MUST be set to 0.



























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6. Elements of Procedure

   The PCES and PCED TLV are advertised within an OSPFv2 Router
   Information LSA (Opaque type of 4 and Opaque ID of 0) or OSPFv3
   Router information LSA (function code of 12) which are defined in
   [OSPF-CAP].  As such, elements of procedure are inherited
   from those defined in [OSPF-CAP].

   As the PCES information is likely to change more frequently than the
   PCED information, it is RECOMMENDED to carry PCES and PCED TLVs in
   separate Router Information LSAs, so as not to carry all PCED
   information each time the PCE status changes.

   In OSPFv2 the flooding scope is controlled by the opaque LSA type (as
   defined in [RFC2370]) and in OSPFv3 by the S1/S2 bits (as defined in
   [OSPF-v3]). If the flooding scope is local to an area then the PCED
   or PCES TLV MUST be carried within an OSPFv2 type 10 router
   information LSA or an OSPFV3 Router Information LSA with the S1 bit
   set and the S2 bit cleared.  If the flooding scope is the entire
   domain then the PCED or PCES TLV MUST be carried within an OSPFv2
   type 11 Router Information LSA or OSPFv3 Router Information LSA with
   the S1 bit cleared and the S2 bit set.
   Note that when only the L bit of the PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV is set and
   the flooding scope MUST be local.
   Note that the flooding scope of the PCED and PCES TLVs may be
   distinct, in which case they will be carried in separate LSA.

   A router MUST originate a new OSPF router information LSA whenever
   the content of the PCED TLV or PCES TLV changes or whenever required
   by the regular OSPF procedure (LSA refresh (every LSRefreshTime)).

   PCED and PCES sub-TLVs are OPTIONAL. When an OSPF LSA does not
   contain any PCED or PCES sub-TLV, this means that the PCE information
   of that node is unknown.

   Note that a change in PCED or PCES information MUST not trigger any
   SPF computation.

   The way PCEs retrieve their own information is out of the scope of
   this document. Some information may be configured on the PCE (e.g.
   address, preferences, scope) and other information may be
   automatically retrieved by the PCE (e.g. areas of visibility).

6.1.1. PCES TLV specific procedures

   When a PCE enters into a processing congestion state, the conditions
   of which are implementation dependent, it SHOULD originate a Router
   Information LSA with a PCES TLV with the C bit set, and optionally a
   non-null expected congestion duration.

   When a PCE leaves the processing congestion state, the conditions of
   which are implementation dependent, there are two cases:

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        - If the congestion duration in the previously originated PCES
   TLV was null, it SHOULD originate a PCES TLV with the C bit cleared
   and a null congestion duration;
        - If the congestion duration in the previously originated PCES
   TLV was non null, it MAY originate a PCES TLV. Note that in some
   particular cases it may be desired to originate a PCES TLV with the C
   bit cleared if the saturation duration was over estimated.

   The congestion duration allows reducing the amount of OSPF flooding,
   as only uncongested-congested state transitions are flooded.

   An implementation SHOULD support an appropriate dampening algorithm
   so as to dampen OSPF flooding in order to not impact the OSPF
   scalability. It is RECOMMENDED to introduce some hysteresis for
   congestion state transition, so as to avoid state oscillations that
   may impact OSPF performances. For instance two thresholds MAY be
   configured: A resource saturation upper-threshold and a resource
   saturation lower-threshold. An LSR enters the congested state when
   the CPU load reaches the upper threshold and leaves the congested
   state when the CPU load goes under the lower threshold.

   Upon receipt of an updated PCES TLV a PCC should take appropriate
   actions. In particular, the PCC SHOULD stop sending requests to a
   congested PCE, and SHOULD gradually start sending again requests to a
   no longer congested PCE.




























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7. Backward compatibility

   The PCED and PCES TLVs defined in this document do not introduce any
   interoperability issue.
   A router not supporting the PCED/PCES TLVs SHOULD just silently
   ignore the TLVs as specified in [OSPF-CAP].

8. IANA considerations

8.1. OSPF TLVs

   IANA will assign a new codepoint for the OSPF PCED TLV defined in
   this document and carried within the Router Information LSA.
   IANA is requested to manage sub-TLV types for the PCED TLV.

   Five sub-TLVs types are defined for this TLV and should be assigned
   by IANA:
        -PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV (suggested value = 1)
        -PATH-SCOPE sub-TLV (suggested value = 2)
        -PCE-DOMAINS sub-TLV (suggested value = 3)
        -PCE-DEST-DOMAINS sub-TLV (suggested value =4)
        -GENERAL-CAP sub-TLV (suggested value = 5)
        -PATH-COMP-CAP sub-TLV (suggested value = 6)

   Three sub-TLVs types are defined for the PCE-DOMAINS and PCE-DEST-
   DOMAINS TLVs and should be assigned by IANA:
        -IPv4 area ID sub-TLV (suggested value = 1)
        -IPv6 area ID sub-TLV (suggested value = 2)
        -AS number sub-TLV (suggested value = 3)

   Three sub-TLV types are defined for the PATH-COMP-CAP TLV and should
   be assigned by IANA:
        -Objective Functions sub-TLV (suggested value =1)
        -Opaque Objective Function TLV (suggested value =2)
        -Switch Caps sub-TLV (suggested value =3)

   IANA will assign a new codepoint for the OSPF PCES TLV defined in
   this document and carried within the Router Information LSA.
   IANA is requested to manage sub-TLV types for the PCES TLV.  Two sub-
   TLVs types are defined for this TLV and should be assigned by IANA:
        -PCE-ADDRESS sub-TLV (suggested value = 1)
        -CONGESTION sub-TLV (suggested value = 2)


8.2. Capability bits

   IANA is requested to manage the space of the General Capabilities
   32-bit flag and the Path Computation Capabilities 32-bit flag defined
   in this document, numbering them in the usual IETF notation starting
   at zero and continuing through 31.
   New bit numbers may be allocated only by an IETF Consensus action.
   Each bit should be tracked with the following qualities:

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      - Bit number
      - Defining RFC
      - Name of bit

   Currently two bits are defined in the General Capabilities flag. Here
   are the suggested values:
      -0: Support for Request prioritization.
      -1: Support for multiple messages within the same request message

   Currently six bits are defined in the Path Computation Capabilities
   flag. Here are the suggested values:

      -0: Capability to handle GMPLS Constraints
      -1: Capability to compute bidirectional paths
      -2: Capability to compute link/node/SRLG diverse paths
      -3: Capability to compute load-balanced paths
      -4: Capability to compute a set of paths in a
          synchronized Manner
      -5: Support for multiple objective function
      -6: Capability to handle path constraints (e.g. hop count, metric
          bound)

9. Security Considerations

   Any new security issues raised by the procedures in this document
   depend upon the opportunity for LSAs to be snooped, the
   ease/difficulty of which has not been altered. As the LSAs may now
   contain additional information regarding PCE capabilities, this
   new information would also become available.

10. References

10.1. Normative references

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3667] Bradner, S., "IETF Rights in Contributions", BCP 78, RFC
   3667, February 2004.

   [BCP79] Bradner, S., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF
   Technology", RFC 3979, March 2005.

   [OSPF-v2] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, April 1998.

   [OSPF-v3] Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., and J. Moy, "OSPF for IPv6",
             RFC 2740, December 1999.

   [RFC2370] Coltun, R., “The OSPF Opaque LSA Option”, RFC 2370, July
   1998.



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   [OSPF-TE] Katz, D., Yeung, D., Kompella, K., "Traffic Engineering
   Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630, September 2003.

   [OSPF-CAP] Lindem, A., Shen, N., Aggarwal, R., Shaffer, S., Vasseur,
   J.P., "Extensions to OSPF for advertising Optional Router
   Capabilities", draft-ietf-ospf-cap, work in progress.

   [RFC4655] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J.P., Ash, J., "Path Computation
   Element (PCE)-based Architecture", RFC4655, August 2006.

   [PCE-DISCO-REQ] Le Roux, J.L., et al. "Requirements for PCE
   discovery", draft-ietf-pce-discovery-reqs, work in progress

   [RFC4203] Kompella, Rekhter, " OSPF Extensions in Support of
   Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC4203, October
   2005.


10.2. Informative references

   [PCECP-REQ] Ash, J., Le Roux, J.L., " PCE Communication Protocol
   Generic Requirements", draft-ietf-pce-comm-protocol-gen-reqs, work in
   progress.

   [PCEP] Vasseur et al., “Path Computation Element (PCE) communication
   Protocol (PCEP) - Version 1”, draft-ietf-pce-pcep, work in progress.

   [ISIS-PCE-DISCO], Le Roux, Vasseur et la., "ISIS Extensions for PCE
   Discovery", draft-ietf-pce-disco-isis, work in progress.

11. Authors' Addresses:

   Jean-Louis Le Roux (Editor)
   France Telecom
   2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
   22307 Lannion Cedex
   FRANCE
   Email: jeanlouis.leroux@orange-ft.com

   Jean-Philippe Vasseur (Editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   1414 Massachusetts avenue
   Boxborough , MA - 01719
   USA
   Email: jpv@cisco.com

   Yuichi Ikejiri
   NTT Communications Corporation
   1-1-6, Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 100-8019
   JAPAN
   Email: y.ikejiri@ntt.com

Le Roux, Vasseur et al. OSPF extensions for PCE Discovery    [Page 23]


Internet Draft  draft-ietf-pce-disco-proto-ospf-00.txt  September 2006



   Raymond Zhang
   BT Infonet
   2160 E. Grand Ave.
   El Segundo, CA 90025
   USA
   Email: raymond_zhang@infonet.com


12. Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.

   Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

   Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.





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