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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 4491

PKIX Working Group                         Serguei Leontiev, CRYPTO-PRO
Internet Draft                        Dennis Shefanovskij, DEMOS Co Ltd
Expires October 1, 2004                                   April 1, 2004
Intended Category: Informational

            Using the GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001 and
                  GOST R 34.11-94 algorithms with the
                Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                      Certificate and CRL Profile.

                   <draft-ietf-pkix-gost-cppk-01.txt>

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Comments or suggestions for improvement may be done via "ietf-pkix"
   mailing list, or directly to the authors.


Abstract

   This document describes identifiers and appropriate parameters for
   the algorithms GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001, GOST R 34.11-94,
   and also ASN.1 encoding scheme for digital signatures and public
   keys, used in Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).  This
   specification extends [RFC3279], "Algorithms and Identifiers for the
   Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate
   Revocation List (CRL) Profile" and, correspondingly, [RFC3280],
   "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure: Certificate and
   Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile". All implementations of



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   this specification MUST also satisfy the requirements of [RFC3280].

Table of Contents

   1      Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2      Algorithm Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.1    One-way Hash Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.1.1  One-way Hash Function GOST R 34.11-94 . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.2    Signature Algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.2.1  Signature Algorithm GOST R 34.10-94 . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.2.2  Signature Algorithm GOST R 34.10-2001 . . . . . . . . .   6
   2.3    Subject Public Key Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.3.1  GOST R 34.10-94 Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.3.2  GOST R 34.10-2001 Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   3      Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   4      References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
   Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   Author's Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44

1  Introduction

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document defines identifiers and corresponding algorithm
   parameters and attributes proposed by CRYPTO-PRO Company within
   "Russian Cryptographic Software Compatibility Agreement" community
   for the algorithms GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001, GOST R
   34.11-94, key derivation algorithms based on GOST R 34.10-94 public
   keys, key derivation algorithms based on GOST R 34.10-2001 public
   keys, and also ASN.1 encoding [X.660] for digital signatures and
   public keys, used in Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).

   This specification extends [RFC3279], "Algorithms and Identifiers for
   the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and
   Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile" and, correspondingly,
   [RFC3280], "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure: Certificate and
   Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile". All implementations of
   this specification MUST also satisfy the requirements of [RFC3280].

   This specification defines the content of the signatureAlgorithm,
   signatureValue, signature, and subjectPublicKeyInfo fields within
   Internet X.509 certificates and CRLs.

   This document defines the use of one-way hash-function GOST R
   34.11-94 [GOST3411] with digital signatures. This algorithm is used



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   in conjunction with digital signature algorithms.

   This specification describes the encoding of digital signatures,
   generated with the following cryptographic algorithms:

      * GOST R 34.10-94;
      * GOST R 34.10-2001.

   This document also defines the contents of the subjectPublicKeyInfo
   field for Internet X.509 certificates. For each algorithm, the
   appropriate alternatives for the keyUsage extension are provided.
   This specification describes encoding formats for public keys used
   with the following cryptographic algorithms:

      * GOST R 34.10-94 [GOST341094];
      * GOST R 34.10-2001 [GOST34102001];
      * Key derivation algorithm VKO GOST R 34.10-94 [CPALGS];
      * Key derivation algorithm VKO GOST R 34.10-2001 [CPALGS];

   ASN.1 modules, including all the definitions used in this document
   can be found in [CPALGS].

2  Algorithm Support

   This section is an overview of cryptographic algorithms, that may be
   used within the Internet X.509 certificates and CRL profile
   [RFC3280].  It describes one-way hash functions and digital signature
   algorithms, that may be used to sign certificates and CRLs, and
   identifies OIDs and ASN.1 encoding for public keys contained in a
   certificate.

   The conforming CAs and/or applications MUST fully support digital
   signatures and public keys for at least one of the specified
   algorithms.

2.1  One-way Hash Function

   This section identifies the use of one-way, collision free hash
   function GOST R 34.11-94 - the only one that can be used in digital
   signature algorithms GOST R 34.10-94/2001. The data that is hashed
   for certificates and CRL signing is fully described in [RFC3280].

2.1.1  One-way Hash Function GOST R 34.11-94

   GOST R 34.11-94 has been developed by "GUBS of Federal Agency
   Government Communication and Information" and "All-Russian Scientific
   and Research Institute of Standardization".  The algorithm GOST R
   34.11-94 produces a 256-bit hash value of the arbitrary finite bit



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   length input. This document does not contain GOST R 34.11-94 full
   specification, which can be found in [GOSTR3411] in Russian. It's
   brief technical description in english can be found in [Schneier95],
   ch. 18.11, p. 454.

   This function is always used with default parameter set
   gostR3411CryptoProParamSetAI (see section 8.2 of [CPALGS]).

2.2  Signature Algorithms

   Conforming CAs may use GOST R 34.10-94 or GOST R 34.10-2001 signature
   algorithms to sign certificates and CRLs.  The signatureAlgorithm
   field of Certificate or CertificateList indicates the signature
   algorithm ID, and associated parameters.  This section also defines
   algorithm identifiers and parameters that MUST be used in the
   signatureAlgorithm field in a Certificate or CertificateList.

   Signature algorithms are always used conjointly with a one-way hash
   function GOST R 34.11-94 as indicated in [GOSTR341094] and
   [GOSTR34102001].

   This section identifies OIDs for GOST R 34.10-94 and GOST R
   34.10-2001 algorithms. The contents of the parameters component for
   each algorithm may vary and details are provided below for each
   algorithm separately.

2.2.1  Signature Algorithm GOST R 34.10-94

   GOST R 34.10-94 has been developed by "GUBS of Federal Agency
   Government Communication and Information" and "All-Russian Scientific
   and Research Institute of Standardization".  This signature algorithm
   MUST be used conjointly with one-way, collision free hash function
   GOST R 34.11-94. This document does not contain GOST R 34.10-94
   standard description, which is fully described in [GOSTR341094] in
   Russian, and brief description in English could be found in
   [Schneier95] ch. 20.3, p. 495.

   The ASN.1 OID used to identify GOST R 34.10-94 signature algorithm in
   fields signatureAlgorithm in Certificate and CertificateList is:

   id-CryptoPro-algorithms OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
         { iso(1) member-body(2) ru(643) rans(2) cryptopro(2) }

   id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-94 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
         { id-CryptoPro-algorithms gostR3411-94-with-gostR3410-94(4)}

   GostR3410-94-CertificateSignatureAlgorithms
      ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {



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         { NULL IDENTIFIED BY
                       id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-94 } |
         { GostR3410-94-PublicKeyParameters IDENTIFIED BY
                       id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-94 } }

   GostR3410-94-PublicKeyParameters are defined in section 2.3.1.

   When the id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-94 algorithm identifier
   appears in an AlgorithmIdentifier and parameters are omitted, the
   parameters from the public key of the signer's certificate MUST be
   used.  If the parameters from the public key of the signer's
   certificate are also omited, and it's issuer's certificate has the
   same public key algorithm, parameters from the public key of the
   issuer's certificate MUST be used, and so on.

   Signature algorithm GOST R 34.10-94 generates digital signature in
   the form of a binary 512-bit vector (<r'>256||<s>256).  That is, the
   least-significant (1-st) bit of signatureValue BIT STRING contains
   the least-significant (1-st) bit of <s>, and the most-significant
   (512th) bit of signatureValue contains the most-significant (256th)
   bit of <r'>.

2.2.2  Signature Algorithm GOST R 34.10-2001

   GOST R 34.10-2001 was developed by "GUBS of Federal Agency Government
   Communication and Information" and "All-Russian Scientific and
   Research Institute of Standardization".  This signature algorithm
   MUST be used conjointly with one-way, collision free hash function
   GOST R 34.11-94. This document does not contain GOST R 34.10-2001
   standard description, which is fully described in [GOSTR34102001].

   The ASN.1 OID used to identify GOST R 34.10-2001 signature algorithm
   in fields signatureAlgorithm of Certificate and CertificateList is:

   id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-2001 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
         { id-CryptoPro-algorithms gostR3411-94-with-gostR3410-2001(3) }

   GostR3410-2001-CertificateSignatureAlgorithms
     ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {
       { NULL IDENTIFIED BY
                       id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-2001 } |
       { GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyParameters IDENTIFIED BY
                       id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-2001 } }

   GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyParameters are defined in section 2.3.2.

   When the id-GostR3411-94-with-GostR3410-2001 algorithm identifier
   appears in an AlgorithmIdentifier and parameters are omitted, the



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   parameters from the public key of the signer's certificate MUST be
   used.  If the parameters from the public key of the signer's
   certificate are also omited, and it's issuer's certificate has the
   same public key algorithm, parameters from the public key of the
   issuer's certificate MUST be used, and so on.

   Signature algorithm GOST R 34.10-2001 generates digital signature in
   the form of a binary 512-bit vector (<r'>256||<s>256).  That is, the
   least-significant (1-st) bit of signatureValue BIT STRING contains
   the least-significant (1-st) bit of <s>, and the most-significant
   (512th) bit of signatureValue contains the most-significant (256th)
   bit of <r'>.

2.3  Subject Public Key Algorithms

   In according to [RFC3280] the certificates may contain a public key
   for any algorithm. Within the framework of this specification the
   only GOST R 34.10-94 and GOST R 34.10-2001 public key algorithms
   defined. The algorithm and associated parameters are definable as OID
   in certificate through ASN.1 structure AlgorithmIdentifier.

   This section identifies defines OID and public key parameters for the
   GOST R 34.10-94 and GOST R 34.10-2001 algorithms. The appropriate CA
   MUST use the predefined OID issuing certificates containing public
   keys for these algorithms. The appropriate applications supporting
   any of these algorithms MUST fully recognize the OID identified in
   this section

2.3.1  GOST R 34.10-94 Keys

   This section defines OID and parameter encoding for inclusion of GOST
   R 34.10-94 public key in certificate.  Such public key can be used
   for digital signature validation algorithm GOST R 34.10-94
   [GOSTR341094], and for key derivation algorithm VKO GOST R 34.10-94
   [CPALGS].

   An assumed cryptographic key usage MAY be specified by keyUsage
   extension [RFC3280]. The usage of the same key for signature and key
   derivation is NOT RECOMMENDED, but possible.

   Public key OID for GOST R 34.10-94 declared in this document is:

   id-GostR3410-94 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
       { id-CryptoPro-algorithms gostR3410-94(20) }

   SubjectPublicKeyInfo.algorithm.algorithm field (see [RFC3280]) for
   GOST R 34.10-94 keys MUST be id-GostR3410-94;




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   SubjectPublicKeyInfo.algorithm.parameters in this case MUST have the
   following structure:

    GostR3410-94-PublicKeyParameters ::=
        SEQUENCE {
            publicKeyParamSet
                OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
            digestParamSet
                OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
            encryptionParamSet
                OBJECT IDENTIFIER OPTIONAL
        }

   where:
    * publicKeyParamSet - public key parameters identifier for GOST R
   34.10-94 (see section 8.3 of [CPALGS])
    * digestParamSet - parameters identifier for GOST R 34.11-94 (see
   section 8.2 of [CPALGS])
    * encryptionParamSet - optional parameters identifier for GOST
   28147-89 (see section 8.1 of [CPALGS]) MAY be present in any
   certificate and MUST be present if keyUsage includes keyAgreement or
   keyEnchiperment.

   If GOST R 34.10-94 algorithm parameters are omitted in
   subjectPublicKeyInfo, and CA signs subject certificate using GOST R
   34.10-94, then GOST R 34.10-94 parameters taken from
   subjectPublicKeyInfo field of issuer certificate are applicable to
   public key of GOST R 34.10-94 subject. That is, cryptographic
   parameters inheritance takes place. If subjectPublicKeyInfo
   AlgorithmIdentifier field contain no parameters, but CA sign
   certificate using signature algorithm different from GOST R 34.10-94,
   such certificate MUST be rejected by conforming applications.

   Public key GOST R 34.10-94 MUST be ASN.1 encoded in following way.

   In GOST R 34.10-94 public key is a number y = a^x (mod p), where a
   and p  - parameters, and y is a bit-vector (<y>1024), at that
   encoding should present <y>1024 (BIT STRING) as a vector holding
   data in a little-endian. At first, a key is presented as an   OCTET
   STRING, and then, being DER-encoded, presented as a BIT STRING.

   GostR3410-94-PublicKey ::= BIT STRING

   GostR3410-94-PublicKeyOctetString ::= OCTET STRING

   If the keyUsage extension is present in an end-entity certificate,
   which contains a GOST R 34.10-94 public key, the following values MAY
   be present:



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      digitalSignature;
      nonRepudiation.
      keyEncipherment;
      keyAgreement.

   If the keyAgreement or keyEnchiperment extension is present in a
   certificate GOST R 34.10-94 public key, the following values MAY be
   present as well:

      encipherOnly;
      decipherOnly.

   The keyUsage extension MUST NOT assert both encipherOnly and
   decipherOnly.

   If the keyUsage extension is present in an CA or CRL signer
   certificate which contain a GOST R 34.10-94 public key, the following
   values MAY be present:

      digitalSignature;
      nonRepudiation;
      keyCertSign;
      cRLSign.

2.3.2  GOST R 34.10-2001 Keys

   This section defines OID and parameter encoding for inclusion of GOST
   R 34.10-2001 public key in certificate.  Such public key can be used
   for digital signature validation algorithm GOST R 34.10-2001
   [GOSTR34102001], and for key derivation algorithm VKO GOST R
   34.10-2001 [CPALGS].

   An assumed cryptographic key usage MAY be specified by keyUsage
   extension [RFC3280]. The usage of the same key for signature and key
   derivation is NOT RECOMMENDED, but possible.

   Public key OID for GOST R 34.10-2001 declared in this document is:

   id-GostR3410-2001 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
       { id-CryptoPro-algorithms gostR3410-2001(19) }

   SubjectPublicKeyInfo.algorithm.algorithm field (see [RFC3280]) for
   GOST R 34.10-2001 keys MUST be id-GostR3410-2001;

   SubjectPublicKeyInfo.algorithm.parameters in this case MUST have the
   following structure:

    GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyParameters ::=



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        SEQUENCE {
            publicKeyParamSet
                OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
            digestParamSet
                OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
            encryptionParamSet
                OBJECT IDENTIFIER OPTIONAL
        }

   where:
    * publicKeyParamSet - public key parameters identifier for  GOST R
   34.10-2001 (see section 8.4 of [CPALGS])
    * digestParamSet - parameters identifier for GOST R 34.11-94 (see
   section 8.2 of [CPALGS])
    * encryptionParamSet - optional parameters identifier for GOST
   28147-89 (see section 8.1 of [CPALGS]) MAY be present in any
   certificate and MUST be present if keyUsage includes keyAgreement or
   keyEnchiperment.

   If GOST R 34.10-2001 algorithm parameters are omitted in
   subjectPublicKeyInfo, and CA signs subject certificate using GOST R
   34.10-2001, then GOST R 34.10-2001 parameters taken from
   subjectPublicKeyInfo field of issuer certificate are applicable to
   public key of GOST R 34.10-2001 subject. That is, cryptographic
   parameters inheritance takes place. If subjectPublicKeyInfo
   AlgorithmIdentifier field contain no parameters, but CA sign
   certificate using signature algorithm different from GOST R
   34.10-2001, such certificate MUST be rejected by conforming
   applications.

   GOST R 34.10-2001 public key MUST be ASN.1 encoded in a following
   way. GOST R 34.10-2001 specifies that public key is a point on the
   elliptic curve Q = dP,  where d is a private key, P is a base point,
   and Q presents in a way of 512-bit vector  (<Xq>256||<Yq>256). This
   vector is DER-encoded as two data blocks. At first, <Xq>256 block,
   then <Yq>256 block. subjectPublicKey field BIT STRING type is
   presented as a  taken up object  GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyOctetString.

   At that, least-significant of the first octet
   (GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyOctetString[0]) corresponds to least-
   significant (1-st) of vector  <Xq>256||<Yq>256 (Yq1 =
   (GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyOctetString[0] & 1)).

   Whereas most-significant of  64-th octet
   (GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyOctetString[63]) corresponds to most-
   significant  (512-d)  of vector  <Xq>256||<Yq>256 (Xq256 =
   ((GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyOctetString[63] & 0x80)>>7)).




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   In other words, <Xq>256||<Yq>256 vector is stored in little-endian,
   that correspond binary vector form and their concatenation in GOST R
   34.10-2001 ch. 5.3.  At first, key is placed in OCTET STRING, than is
   DER-encoded and placed in BIT STRING.

   GostR3410-2001-PublicKey ::= BIT STRING

   GostR3410-2001-PublicKeyOctetString ::= OCTET STRING

   If the keyUsage extension is present in an end-entity certificate,
   which conveys a GOST R 34.10-2001 public key, the following values
   MAY be present:

      digitalSignature,
      nonRepudiation,
      keyEncipherment,
      keyAgreement.

   If the keyAgreement or keyEnchiperment extension is present in a
   certificate, the following values MAY be present:

      encipherOnly,
      decipherOnly.

   The keyUsage extension MUST NOT assert both encipherOnly and
   decipherOnly.

   If the keyUsage extension is present in an CA or CRL signer
   certificate which contain a GOST R 34.10-2001 public key, the
   following values MAY be present:

      digitalSignature,
      nonRepudiation,
      keyCertSign,
      cRLSign.

3  Security Considerations

   It is RECCOMENDED, that applications verify signature values and
   subject public keys to conform to [GOSTR34102001], [GOSTR341094]
   standards prior to their use.

   When certificate is used as analogue to a manual signing, in the
   context of Russian Federal Digital Signature Law [RFDSL], certificate
   MUST contain keyUsage extension, it MUST be critical, and keyUsage
   MUST NOT include keyEncipherment and keyAgreement.

   When certificate validity period (typicaly 5 years for end entities



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   and 7 years for CAs in Russia) is not equal to the private key
   validity period (typicaly 15 months in Russia) it is RECOMENDED to
   use private key usage period extension.

   For security discussion concerning use of algorithm parameters, see
   section Security Considerations from [CPALGS].

4  References


   [GOST28147]     "Cryptographic Protection for Data Processing Sys-
                   tem", GOST 28147-89, Gosudarstvennyi Standard of
                   USSR, Government Committee of the USSR for Standards,
                   1989. (In Russian);


   [GOSTR341094]   "Information technology. Cryptographic Data Security.
                   Produce and check procedures of Electronic Digital
                   Signatures based on Asymmetric Cryptographic Algo-
                   rithm.", GOST R 34.10-94, Gosudarstvennyi Standard of
                   Russian Federation, Government Committee of the Rus-
                   sia for Standards, 1994. (In Russian);


   [GOSTR34102001] "Information technology. Cryptographic data security.
                   Signature and verification processes of [electronic]
                   digital signature.", GOST R 34.10-2001, Gosudarstven-
                   nyi Standard of Russian Federation, Government Com-
                   mittee of the Russia for Standards, 2001. (In Rus-
                   sian);


   [GOSTR341194]   "Information technology. Cryptographic Data Security.
                   Hashing function.", GOST R 34.10-94, Gosudarstvennyi
                   Standard of Russian Federation, Government Committee
                   of the Russia for Standards, 1994. (In Russian);


   [RFDSL]         Russian Federal Digital Signature Law, 10 Jan 2002
                   N1-FZ


   [CPALGS]        "Additional cryptographic algorithms for use with
                   GOST 28147-89, GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001,
                   and GOST R 34.11-94 algorithms", V. Popov, I. Kurep-
                   kin, S. Leontiev, February 2004, draft-popov-crypto-
                   pro-cpalgs-01.txt work in progress;




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   [Schneier95]    B. Schneier, Applied cryptography, second edition,
                   John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995;


   [RFC3280]       Housley, R., Polk, W., Ford, W.  and D.  Solo,
                   "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
                   and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC
                   3280, April 2002.


   [RFC3279]       Algorithms and Identifiers for the Internet X.509
                   Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate
                   Revocation List (CRL) Profile.  L.  Bassham, W.
                   Polk, R.  Housley.  April 2002.


   [RFC2119]       Bradner, S., "Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate
                   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.


   [TLS]           The TLS Protocol Version 1.0.  T.  Dierks, C.  Allen.
                   January 1999, RFC 2246.


   [X.660]         ITU-T Recommendation X.660 Information Technology -
                   ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Encoding
                   Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Dis-
                   tinguished Encoding Rules (DER), 1997.


Acknowledgments

   This document was created in accordance with "Russian Cryptographic
   Software Compatibility Agreement", signed by FGUE STC "Atlas",
   CRYPTO-PRO, Factor-TC, MD PREI, Infotecs GmbH, SPRCIS (SPbRCZI),
   Cryptocom, R-Alpha.  The goal of this agreement is to achieve mutual
   compatibility of the products and solutions.

   The authors wish to thank:

      Microsoft Corporation Russia for provided information about
      company products and solutions, and also for technical consulting
      in PKI.

      RSA Security Russia and Demos Co Ltd for active colaboration and
      critical help in creation of this document.

      RSA Security Inc for compatibility testing of the proposed data



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      formats while incorporating them into RSA Keon product.

      Baltimore Technology plc for compatibility testing of the proposed
      data formats while incorporating them into UniCERT product.

      Russ Hously (Vigil Security, LLC, housley@vigilsec.com) and
      Vasilij Sakharov (DEMOS Co Ltd, svp@dol.ru) for initiative
      creating this document.

   This document is based on a contribution of CRYPTO-PRO company.  Any
   substantial use of the text from this document must reference CRYPTO-
   PRO.  CRYPTO-PRO requests that all material mentioning or referencing
   this document identify this as "CRYPTO-PRO CPPK".

   Author's Addresses

   Serguei Leontiev
   CRYPTO-PRO
   38, Obraztsova,
   Moscow, 127018, Russian Federation
   EMail: lse@cryptopro.ru

   Dennis Shefanovski
   DEMOS Co Ltd
   6/1, Ovchinnikovskaja naberezhnaya,
   Moscow, 113035, Russian Federation
   EMail: sdb@dol.ru

   Alexandr Afanasiev
   Factor-TC
   office 711, 14, Presnenskij val,
   Moscow, 123557, Russian Federation
   EMail: aaaf@factor-ts.ru

   Nikolaj Nikishin
   Infotecs GmbH
   p/b 35, 80-5, Leningradskij prospekt,
   Moscow, 125315, Russian Federation
   EMail: nikishin@infotecs.ru

   Boleslav Izotov
   FGUE STC "Atlas"
   38, Obraztsova,
   Moscow, 127018, Russian Federation
   EMail: izotov@stcnet.ru

   Elena Minaeva
   MD PREI



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   build 3, 6A, Vtoroj Troitskij per.,
   Moscow, Russian Federation
   EMail: evminaeva@mo.msk.ru

   Serguei Murugov
   R-Alpha
   4/1, Raspletina,
   Moscow, 123060, Russian Federation
   EMail: msm@office.ru

   Igori Ustinov
   Cryptocom
   office 239, 51, Leninskij prospekt,
   Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
   EMail: igus@cryptocom.ru

   Anatolij Erkin
   SPRCIS (SPbRCZI)
   1, Obrucheva,
   St.Petersburg, 195220, Russian Federation
   EMail: erkin@nevsky.net


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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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