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Versions: (RFC 7564) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Network Working Group                                     P. Saint-Andre
Internet-Draft                                                  Filament
Obsoletes: 7564 (if approved)                                M. Blanchet
Intended status: Standards Track                                Viagenie
Expires: January 26, 2018                                  July 25, 2017


     PRECIS Framework: Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of
           Internationalized Strings in Application Protocols
                      draft-ietf-precis-7564bis-10

Abstract

   Application protocols using Unicode code points in protocol strings
   need to properly handle such strings in order to enforce
   internationalization rules for strings placed in various protocol
   slots (such as addresses and identifiers) and to perform valid
   comparison operations (e.g., for purposes of authentication or
   authorization).  This document defines a framework enabling
   application protocols to perform the preparation, enforcement, and
   comparison of internationalized strings ("PRECIS") in a way that
   depends on the properties of Unicode code points and thus is more
   agile with respect to versions of Unicode.  As a result, this
   framework provides a more sustainable approach to the handling of
   internationalized strings than the previous framework, known as
   Stringprep (RFC 3454).  This document obsoletes RFC 7564.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 26, 2018.








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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison  . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  String Classes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.2.  IdentifierClass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.2.1.  Valid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.2.2.  Contextual Rule Required  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.3.  Disallowed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.4.  Unassigned  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.2.5.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  FreeformClass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.1.  Valid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.2.  Contextual Rule Required  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.3.  Disallowed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.4.  Unassigned  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.3.5.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.4.  Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Profiles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.1.  Profiles Must Not Be Multiplied beyond Necessity  . . . .  15
     5.2.  Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       5.2.1.  Width Mapping Rule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       5.2.2.  Additional Mapping Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       5.2.3.  Case Mapping Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.2.4.  Normalization Rule  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.2.5.  Directionality Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.3.  A Note about Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.  Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     6.1.  How to Use PRECIS in Applications . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     6.2.  Further Excluded Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.3.  Building Application-Layer Constructs . . . . . . . . . .  21



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   7.  Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.  Code Point Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   9.  Category Definitions Used to Calculate Derived Property . . .  25
     9.1.  LetterDigits (A)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.2.  Unstable (B)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.3.  IgnorableProperties (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.4.  IgnorableBlocks (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.5.  LDH (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.6.  Exceptions (F)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.7.  BackwardCompatible (G)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.8.  JoinControl (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.9.  OldHangulJamo (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.10. Unassigned (J)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.11. ASCII7 (K)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.12. Controls (L)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     9.13. PrecisIgnorableProperties (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     9.14. Spaces (N)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     9.15. Symbols (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     9.16. Punctuation (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     9.17. HasCompat (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     9.18. OtherLetterDigits (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   10. Guidelines for Designated Experts . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     11.1.  PRECIS Derived Property Value Registry . . . . . . . . .  30
     11.2.  PRECIS Base Classes Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     11.3.  PRECIS Profiles Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     12.1.  General Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     12.2.  Use of the IdentifierClass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     12.3.  Use of the FreeformClass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     12.4.  Local Character Set Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     12.5.  Visually Similar Characters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     12.6.  Security of Passwords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   13. Interoperability Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     13.1.  Coded Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     13.2.  Dependency on Unicode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     13.3.  Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     13.4.  Unicode Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     13.5.  Potential Changes to Handling of Certain Unicode Code
            Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     14.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     14.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
   Appendix A.  Changes from RFC 7564  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44





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1.  Introduction

   Application protocols using Unicode code points [Unicode] in protocol
   strings need to properly handle such strings in order to enforce
   internationalization rules for strings placed in various protocol
   slots (such as addresses and identifiers) and to perform valid
   comparison operations (e.g., for purposes of authentication or
   authorization).  This document defines a framework enabling
   application protocols to perform the preparation, enforcement, and
   comparison of internationalized strings ("PRECIS") in a way that
   depends on the properties of Unicode code points and thus is more
   agile with respect to versions of Unicode.  (PRECIS is restricted to
   Unicode and does not support any other coded character set
   [RFC6365].)

   As described in the PRECIS problem statement [RFC6885], many IETF
   protocols have used the Stringprep framework [RFC3454] as the basis
   for preparing, enforcing, and comparing protocol strings that contain
   Unicode code points, especially code points outside the ASCII range
   [RFC20].  The Stringprep framework was developed during work on the
   original technology for internationalized domain names (IDNs), here
   called "IDNA2003" [RFC3490], and Nameprep [RFC3491] was the
   Stringprep profile for IDNs.  At the time, Stringprep was designed as
   a general framework so that other application protocols could define
   their own Stringprep profiles.  Indeed, a number of application
   protocols defined such profiles.

   After the publication of [RFC3454] in 2002, several significant
   issues arose with the use of Stringprep in the IDN case, as
   documented in the IAB's recommendations regarding IDNs [RFC4690]
   (most significantly, Stringprep was tied to Unicode version 3.2).
   Therefore, the newer IDNA specifications, here called "IDNA2008"
   ([RFC5890], [RFC5891], [RFC5892], [RFC5893], [RFC5894]), no longer
   use Stringprep and Nameprep.  This migration away from Stringprep for
   IDNs prompted other "customers" of Stringprep to consider new
   approaches to the preparation, enforcement, and comparison of
   internationalized strings, as described in [RFC6885].

   This document defines a framework for a post-Stringprep approach to
   the preparation, enforcement, and comparison of internationalized
   strings in application protocols, based on several principles:

   1.  Define a small set of string classes that specify the Unicode
       code points appropriate for common application protocol
       constructs (where possible, maintaining compatibility with
       IDNA2008 to help ensure a more consistent user experience).





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   2.  Define each PRECIS string class in terms of Unicode code points
       and their properties so that an algorithm can be used to
       determine whether each code point or character category is
       (a) valid, (b) allowed in certain contexts, (c) disallowed, or
       (d) unassigned.

   3.  Use an "inclusion model" such that a string class consists only
       of code points that are explicitly allowed, with the result that
       any code point not explicitly allowed is forbidden.

   4.  Enable application protocols to define profiles of the PRECIS
       string classes if necessary (addressing matters such as width
       mapping, case mapping, Unicode normalization, and directionality)
       but strongly discourage the multiplication of profiles beyond
       necessity in order to avoid violations of the "Principle of Least
       Astonishment".

   It is expected that this framework will yield the following benefits:

   o  Application protocols will be more agile with regard to Unicode
      versions (recognizing that complete agility cannot be realized in
      practice).

   o  Implementers will be able to share code point tables and software
      code across application protocols, most likely by means of
      software libraries.

   o  End users will be able to acquire more accurate expectations about
      the code points that are acceptable in various contexts.  Given
      this more uniform set of string classes, it is also expected that
      copy/paste operations between software implementing different
      application protocols will be more predictable and coherent.

   Whereas the string classes define the "baseline" code points for a
   range of applications, profiling enables application protocols to
   apply the string classes in ways that are appropriate for common
   constructs such as usernames [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis], opaque
   strings such as passwords [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis], and nicknames
   [I-D.ietf-precis-7700bis].  Profiles are responsible for defining the
   handling of right-to-left code points as well as various mapping
   operations of the kind also discussed for IDNs in [RFC5895], such as
   case preservation or lowercasing, Unicode normalization, mapping of
   certain code points to other code points or to nothing, and mapping
   of fullwidth and halfwidth code points.

   When an application applies a profile of a PRECIS string class, it
   transforms an input string (which might or might not be conforming)
   into an output string that definitively conforms to the profile.  In



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   particular, this document focuses on the resulting ability to achieve
   the following objectives:

   a.  Enforcing all the rules of a profile for a single output string
       (e.g., to determine if a string can be included in a protocol
       slot, communicated to another entity within a protocol, stored in
       a retrieval system, etc.) to check whether the output string
       conforms to the rules of the profile.

   b.  Comparing two output strings to determine if they are equivalent,
       typically through octet-for-octet matching to test for
       "bit-string identity" (e.g., to make an access decision for
       purposes of authentication or authorization as further described
       in [RFC6943]).

   The opportunity to define profiles naturally introduces the
   possibility of a proliferation of profiles, thus potentially
   mitigating the benefits of common code and violating user
   expectations.  See Section 5 for a discussion of this important
   topic.

   In addition, it is extremely important for protocol designers and
   application developers to understand that the transformation of an
   input string to an output string is rarely reversible.  As one
   relatively simple example, case mapping would transform an input
   string of "StPeter" to "stpeter", and information about the
   capitalization of the first and third characters would be lost.
   Similar considerations apply to other forms of mapping and
   normalization.

   Although this framework is similar to IDNA2008 and includes by
   reference some of the character categories defined in [RFC5892], it
   defines additional character categories to meet the needs of common
   application protocols other than DNS.

   The character categories and calculation rules defined under
   Sections 8 and 9 are normative and apply to all Unicode code points.
   The code point table that results from applying the character
   categories and calculation rules to the latest version of Unicode can
   be found in an IANA registry.

2.  Terminology

   Many important terms used in this document are defined in [RFC5890],
   [RFC6365], [RFC6885], and [Unicode].  The terms "left-to-right" (LTR)
   and "right-to-left" (RTL) are defined in Unicode Standard Annex #9
   [UAX9].




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   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

3.  Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison

   This document distinguishes between three different actions that an
   entity can take with regard to a string:

   o  Enforcement entails applying all of the rules specified for a
      particular string class or profile thereof to a single input
      string, for the purpose of checking whether the string conforms to
      all of the rules and thus determining if the string can be used in
      a given protocol slot.

   o  Comparison entails applying all of the rules specified for a
      particular string class or profile thereof to two separate input
      strings, for the purpose of determining if the two strings are
      equivalent.

   o  Preparation primarily entails ensuring that the code points in a
      single input string are allowed by the underlying PRECIS string
      class, and sometimes also entails applying one or more of the
      rules specified for a particular string class or profile thereof.
      Preparation can be appropriate for constrained devices that can to
      some extent restrict the code points in a string to a limited
      repertoire of characters but that do not have the processing power
      or onboard memory to perform operations such as Unicode
      normalization.  However, preparation does not ensure that an input
      string conforms to all of the rules for a string class or profile
      thereof.

         Note: The term "preparation" as used in this specification and
         related documents has a much more limited scope than it did in
         Stringprep; it essentially refers to a kind of preprocessing of
         an input string, not the actual operations that apply
         internationalization rules to produce an output string (here
         termed "enforcement") or to compare two output strings (here
         termed "comparison").

   In most cases, authoritative entities such as servers are responsible
   for enforcement, whereas subsidiary entities such as clients are
   responsible only for preparation.  The rationale for this distinction
   is that clients might not have the facilities (in terms of device
   memory and processing power) to enforce all the rules regarding
   internationalized strings (such as width mapping and Unicode
   normalization), although they can more easily limit the repertoire of



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   characters they offer to an end user.  By contrast, it is assumed
   that a server would have more capacity to enforce the rules, and in
   any case acts as an authority regarding allowable strings in protocol
   slots such as addresses and endpoint identifiers.  In addition, a
   client cannot necessarily be trusted to properly generate such
   strings, especially for security-sensitive contexts such as
   authentication and authorization.

4.  String Classes

4.1.  Overview

   Starting in 2010, various "customers" of Stringprep began to discuss
   the need to define a post-Stringprep approach to the preparation and
   comparison of internationalized strings other than IDNs.  This
   community analyzed the existing Stringprep profiles and also weighed
   the costs and benefits of defining a relatively small set of Unicode
   code points that would minimize the potential for user confusion
   caused by visually similar code points (and thus be relatively
   "safe") vs. defining a much larger set of Unicode code points that
   would maximize the potential for user creativity (and thus be
   relatively "expressive").  As a result, the community concluded that
   most existing uses could be addressed by two string classes:

   IdentifierClass:  a sequence of letters, numbers, and some symbols
      that is used to identify or address a network entity such as a
      user account, a venue (e.g., a chatroom), an information source
      (e.g., a data feed), or a collection of data (e.g., a file); the
      intent is that this class will minimize user confusion in a wide
      variety of application protocols, with the result that safety has
      been prioritized over expressiveness for this class.

   FreeformClass:  a sequence of letters, numbers, symbols, spaces, and
      other code points that is used for free-form strings, including
      passwords as well as display elements such as human-friendly
      nicknames for devices or for participants in a chatroom; the
      intent is that this class will allow nearly any Unicode code
      point, with the result that expressiveness has been prioritized
      over safety for this class.  Note well that protocol designers,
      application developers, service providers, and end users might not
      understand or be able to enter all of the code points that can be
      included in the FreeformClass -- see Section 12.3 for details.

   Future specifications might define additional PRECIS string classes,
   such as a class that falls somewhere between the IdentifierClass and
   the FreeformClass.  At this time, it is not clear how useful such a
   class would be.  In any case, because application developers are able
   to define profiles of PRECIS string classes, a protocol needing a



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   construct between the IdentifierClass and the FreeformClass could
   define a restricted profile of the FreeformClass if needed.

   The following subsections discuss the IdentifierClass and
   FreeformClass in more detail, with reference to the dimensions
   described in Section 5 of [RFC6885].  Each string class is defined by
   the following behavioral rules:

   Valid:  Defines which code points are treated as valid for the
      string.

   Contextual Rule Required:  Defines which code points are treated as
      allowed only if the requirements of a contextual rule are met
      (i.e., either CONTEXTJ or CONTEXTO as originally defined in the
      IDNA2008 specifications).

   Disallowed:  Defines which code points need to be excluded from the
      string.

   Unassigned:  Defines application behavior in the presence of code
      points that are unknown (i.e., not yet designated) for the version
      of Unicode used by the application.

   This document defines the valid, contextual rule required,
   disallowed, and unassigned rules for the IdentifierClass and
   FreeformClass.  As described under Section 5, profiles of these
   string classes are responsible for defining the width mapping,
   additional mappings, case mapping, normalization, and directionality
   rules.

4.2.  IdentifierClass

   Most application technologies need strings that can be used to refer
   to, include, or communicate protocol strings like usernames,
   filenames, data feed identifiers, and chatroom names.  We group such
   strings into a class called "IdentifierClass" having the following
   features.

4.2.1.  Valid

   o  Code points traditionally used as letters and numbers in writing
      systems, i.e., the LetterDigits ("A") category first defined in
      [RFC5892] and listed here under Section 9.1.

   o  Code points in the range U+0021 through U+007E, i.e., the
      (printable) ASCII7 ("K") category defined under Section 9.11.
      These code points are "grandfathered" into PRECIS and thus are




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      valid even if they would otherwise be disallowed according to the
      property-based rules specified in the next section.

      Note: Although the PRECIS IdentifierClass reuses the LetterDigits
      category from IDNA2008, the range of code points allowed in the
      IdentifierClass is wider than the range of code points allowed in
      IDNA2008.  The main reason is that IDNA2008 applies the Unstable
      category before the LetterDigits category, thus disallowing
      uppercase code points, whereas the IdentifierClass does not apply
      the Unstable category.

4.2.2.  Contextual Rule Required

   o  A number of code points from the Exceptions ("F") category defined
      under Section 9.6 (see Section 9.6 for a full list).

   o  Joining code points, i.e., the JoinControl ("H") category defined
      under Section 9.8.

4.2.3.  Disallowed

   o  Old Hangul Jamo code points, i.e., the OldHangulJamo ("I")
      category defined under Section 9.9.

   o  Control code points, i.e., the Controls ("L") category defined
      under Section 9.12.

   o  Ignorable code points, i.e., the PrecisIgnorableProperties ("M")
      category defined under Section 9.13.

   o  Space code points, i.e., the Spaces ("N") category defined under
      Section 9.14.

   o  Symbol code points, i.e., the Symbols ("O") category defined under
      Section 9.15.

   o  Punctuation code points, i.e., the Punctuation ("P") category
      defined under Section 9.16.

   o  Any code point that is decomposed and recomposed into something
      other than itself under Unicode normalization form KC, i.e., the
      HasCompat ("Q") category defined under Section 9.17.  These code
      points are disallowed even if they would otherwise be valid
      according to the property-based rules specified in the previous
      section.






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   o  Letters and digits other than the "traditional" letters and digits
      allowed in IDNs, i.e., the OtherLetterDigits ("R") category
      defined under Section 9.18.

4.2.4.  Unassigned

   Any code points that are not yet designated in the Unicode coded
   character set are considered unassigned for purposes of the
   IdentifierClass, and such code points are to be treated as
   disallowed.  See Section 9.10.

4.2.5.  Examples

   As described in the Introduction to this document, the string classes
   do not handle all issues related to string preparation and comparison
   (such as case mapping); instead, such issues are handled at the level
   of profiles.  Examples for profiles of the IdentifierClass can be
   found in [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis] (the UsernameCaseMapped and
   UsernameCasePreserved profiles).

4.3.  FreeformClass

   Some application technologies need strings that can be used in a
   free-form way, e.g., as a password in an authentication exchange (see
   [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis]) or a nickname in a chatroom (see
   [I-D.ietf-precis-7700bis]).  We group such things into a class called
   "FreeformClass" having the following features.

      Security Warning: As mentioned, the FreeformClass prioritizes
      expressiveness over safety; Section 12.3 describes some of the
      security hazards involved with using or profiling the
      FreeformClass.

      Security Warning: Consult Section 12.6 for relevant security
      considerations when strings conforming to the FreeformClass, or a
      profile thereof, are used as passwords.

4.3.1.  Valid

   o  Traditional letters and numbers, i.e., the LetterDigits ("A")
      category first defined in [RFC5892] and listed here under
      Section 9.1.

   o  Letters and digits other than the "traditional" letters and digits
      allowed in IDNs, i.e., the OtherLetterDigits ("R") category
      defined under Section 9.18.





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   o  Code points in the range U+0021 through U+007E, i.e., the
      (printable) ASCII7 ("K") category defined under Section 9.11.

   o  Any code point that is decomposed and recomposed into something
      other than itself under Unicode normalization form KC, i.e., the
      HasCompat ("Q") category defined under Section 9.17.

   o  Space code points, i.e., the Spaces ("N") category defined under
      Section 9.14.

   o  Symbol code points, i.e., the Symbols ("O") category defined under
      Section 9.15.

   o  Punctuation code points, i.e., the Punctuation ("P") category
      defined under Section 9.16.

4.3.2.  Contextual Rule Required

   o  A number of code points from the Exceptions ("F") category defined
      under Section 9.6 (see Section 9.6 for a full list).

   o  Joining code points, i.e., the JoinControl ("H") category defined
      under Section 9.8.

4.3.3.  Disallowed

   o  Old Hangul Jamo code points, i.e., the OldHangulJamo ("I")
      category defined under Section 9.9.

   o  Control code points, i.e., the Controls ("L") category defined
      under Section 9.12.

   o  Ignorable code points, i.e., the PrecisIgnorableProperties ("M")
      category defined under Section 9.13.

4.3.4.  Unassigned

   Any code points that are not yet designated in the Unicode coded
   character set are considered unassigned for purposes of the
   FreeformClass, and such code points are to be treated as disallowed.

4.3.5.  Examples

   As described in the Introduction to this document, the string classes
   do not handle all issues related to string preparation and comparison
   (such as case mapping); instead, such issues are handled at the level
   of profiles.  Examples for profiles of the FreeformClass can be found




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   in [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis] (the OpaqueString profile) and
   [I-D.ietf-precis-7700bis] (the Nickname profile).

4.4.  Summary

   The following table summarizes the differences between the
   IdentifierClass and the FreeformClass, i.e., the disposition of a
   code point as valid, contextual rule required, disallowed, or
   unassigned) depending on its PRECIS category.










































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    +===============================+=================+===============+
    |        CATEGORY               | IDENTIFIERCLASS | FREEFORMCLASS |
    +===============================+=================+===============+
    | (A) LetterDigits              | Valid           | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (B) Unstable                  |          [N/A (unused)]         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (C) IgnorableProperties       |          [N/A (unused)]         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (D) IgnorableBlocks           |          [N/A (unused)]         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (E) LDH                       |          [N/A (unused)]         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (F) Exceptions                | Contextual      | Contextual    |
    |                               | Rule Required   | Rule Required |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (G) BackwardCompatible        |      [Handled by IDNA Rules]    |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (H) JoinControl               | Contextual      | Contextual    |
    |                               | Rule Required   | Required      |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (I) OldHangulJamo             | Disallowed      | Disallowed    |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (J) Unassigned                | Unassigned      | Unassigned    |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (K) ASCII7                    | Valid           | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (L) Controls                  | Disallowed      | Disallowed    |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (M) PrecisIgnorableProperties | Disallowed      | Disallowed    |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (N) Spaces                    | Disallowed      | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (O) Symbols                   | Disallowed      | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (P) Punctuation               | Disallowed      | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (Q) HasCompat                 | Disallowed      | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+
    | (R) OtherLetterDigits         | Disallowed      | Valid         |
    +-------------------------------+-----------------+---------------+

              Table 1: Comparative Disposition of Code Points








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5.  Profiles

   This framework document defines the valid, contextual-rule-required,
   disallowed, and unassigned rules for the IdentifierClass and the
   FreeformClass.  A profile of a PRECIS string class MUST define the
   width mapping, additional mappings (if any), case mapping,
   normalization, and directionality rules.  A profile MAY also restrict
   the allowable code points above and beyond the definition of the
   relevant PRECIS string class (but MUST NOT add as valid any code
   points that are disallowed by the relevant PRECIS string class).
   These matters are discussed in the following subsections.

   Profiles of the PRECIS string classes are registered with the IANA as
   described under Section 11.3.  Profile names use the following
   convention: they are of the form "Profilename of BaseClass", where
   the "Profilename" string is a differentiator and "BaseClass" is the
   name of the PRECIS string class being profiled; for example, the
   profile of the FreeformClass used for opaque strings such as
   passwords is the OpaqueString profile [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis].

5.1.  Profiles Must Not Be Multiplied beyond Necessity

   The risk of profile proliferation is significant because having too
   many profiles will result in different behavior across various
   applications, thus violating what is known in user interface design
   as the "Principle of Least Astonishment".

   Indeed, we already have too many profiles.  Ideally we would have at
   most two or three profiles.  Unfortunately, numerous application
   protocols exist with their own quirks regarding protocol strings.
   Domain names, email addresses, instant messaging addresses, chatroom
   nicknames, filenames, authentication identifiers, passwords, and
   other strings are already out there in the wild and need to be
   supported in existing application protocols such as DNS, SMTP, the
   Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP), Internet Relay
   Chat (IRC), NFS, the Internet Small Computer System Interface
   (iSCSI), the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), and the Simple
   Authentication and Security Layer (SASL), among others.

   Nevertheless, profiles must not be multiplied beyond necessity.

   To help prevent profile proliferation, this document recommends
   sensible defaults for the various options offered to profile creators
   (such as width mapping and Unicode normalization).  In addition, the
   guidelines for designated experts provided under Section 10 are meant
   to encourage a high level of due diligence regarding new profiles.





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5.2.  Rules

5.2.1.  Width Mapping Rule

   The width mapping rule of a profile specifies whether width mapping
   is performed on a string, and how the mapping is done.  Typically,
   such mapping consists of mapping fullwidth and halfwidth code points,
   i.e., code points with a Decomposition Type of Wide or Narrow, to
   their decomposition mappings; as an example, FULLWIDTH DIGIT ZERO
   (U+FF10) would be mapped to DIGIT ZERO (U+0030).

   The normalization form specified by a profile (see below) has an
   impact on the need for width mapping.  Because width mapping is
   performed as a part of compatibility decomposition, a profile
   employing either normalization form KD (NFKD) or normalization form
   KC (NFKC) does not need to specify width mapping.  However, if
   Unicode normalization form C (NFC) is used (as is recommended) then
   the profile needs to specify whether to apply width mapping; in this
   case, width mapping is in general RECOMMENDED because allowing
   fullwidth and halfwidth code points to remain unmapped to their
   compatibility variants would violate the "Principle of Least
   Astonishment".  For more information about the concept of width in
   East Asian scripts within Unicode, see Unicode Standard Annex #11
   [UAX11].

      Note: Because the East Asian width property is not guaranteed to
      be stable by the Unicode Standard (see
      <http://unicode.org/policies/stability_policy.html> for details),
      the results of applying a given width mapping rule might not be
      consistent across different versions of Unicode.

5.2.2.  Additional Mapping Rule

   The additional mapping rule of a profile specifies whether additional
   mappings are performed on a string, such as:

      Mapping of delimiter code points (such as '@', ':', '/', '+', and
      '-')

      Mapping of special code points (e.g., non-ASCII space code points
      to ASCII space or control code points to nothing).

   The PRECIS mappings document [RFC7790] describes such mappings in
   more detail.







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5.2.3.  Case Mapping Rule

   The case mapping rule of a profile specifies whether case mapping
   (instead of case preservation) is performed on a string, and how the
   mapping is applied (e.g., mapping uppercase and titlecase code points
   to their lowercase equivalents).

   If case mapping is desired (instead of case preservation), it is
   RECOMMENDED to use the Unicode toLowerCase() operation defined in the
   Unicode Standard [Unicode].  In contrast to the Unicode toCaseFold()
   operation, the toLowerCase() operation is less likely to violate the
   "Principle of Least Astonishment", especially when an application
   merely wishes to convert uppercase and titlecase code points to the
   lowercase equivalents while preserving lowercase code points.
   Although the toCaseFold() operation can be appropriate when an
   application needs to compare two strings (such as in search
   operations), in general few application developers and even fewer
   users understand its implications, so toLowerCase() is almost always
   the safer choice.

      Note: Neither toLowerCase() nor toCaseFold() is designed to handle
      various language-specific issues (such as so-called "dotless i" in
      several Turkic languages).  The reader is referred to the PRECIS
      mappings document [RFC7790], which describes these issues in
      greater detail.

   In order to maximize entropy and minimize the potential for false
   accepts, it is NOT RECOMMENDED for application protocols to map
   uppercase and titlecase code points to their lowercase equivalents
   when strings conforming to the FreeformClass, or a profile thereof,
   are used in passwords; instead, it is RECOMMENDED to preserve the
   case of all code points contained in such strings and then perform
   case-sensitive comparison.  See also the related discussion in
   Section 12.6 and in [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis].

5.2.4.  Normalization Rule

   The normalization rule of a profile specifies which Unicode
   normalization form (D, KD, C, or KC) is to be applied (see Unicode
   Standard Annex #15 [UAX15] for background information).

   In accordance with [RFC5198], normalization form C (NFC) is
   RECOMMENDED.

   Protocol designers and application developers need to understand that
   use certain Unicode normalization forms, especially NFKC and NFKD,
   can result in significant loss of information in various
   circumstances, and that these circumstances can vary depending on the



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   language and script of the strings to which the normalization forms
   are applied.  Extreme care should be taken when specifying the use of
   these normalization forms.

5.2.5.  Directionality Rule

   The directionality rule of a profile specifies how to treat strings
   containing what are often called "right-to-left" (RTL) code points
   (see Unicode Standard Annex #9 [UAX9]).  RTL code points come from
   scripts that are normally written from right to left and are
   considered by Unicode to, themselves, have right-to-left
   directionality.  Some strings containing RTL code points also contain
   "left-to-right" (LTR) code points, such as ASCII numerals, as well as
   code points without directional properties.  Consequently, such
   strings are known as "bidirectional strings".

   Presenting bidirectional strings in different layout systems (e.g., a
   user interface that is configured to handle primarily an RTL script
   vs. an interface that is configured to handle primarily an LTR
   script) can yield display results that, while predictable to those
   who understand the display rules, are counter-intuitive to casual
   users.  In particular, the same bidirectional string (in PRECIS
   terms) might not be presented in the same way to users of those
   different layout systems, even though the presentation is consistent
   within any particular layout system.  In some applications, these
   presentation differences might be considered problematic and thus the
   application designers might wish to restrict the use of bidirectional
   strings by specifying a directionality rule.  In other applications,
   these presentation differences might not be considered problematic
   (this especially tends to be true of more "free-form" strings) and
   thus no directionality rule is needed.

   The PRECIS framework does not directly address how to deal with
   bidirectional strings across all string classes and profiles, and
   does not define any new directionality rules, because at present
   there is no widely accepted and implemented solution for the safe
   display of arbitrary bidirectional strings beyond the Unicode
   bidirectional algorithm [UAX9].  Although rules for management and
   display of bidirectional strings have been defined for domain name
   labels and similar identifiers through the "Bidi Rule" specified in
   the IDNA2008 specification on right-to-left scripts [RFC5893], those
   rules are quite restrictive and are not necessarily applicable to all
   bidirectional strings.

   The authors of a PRECIS profile might believe that they need to
   define a new directionality rule of their own.  Because of the
   complexity of the issues involved, such a belief is almost always
   misguided, even if the authors have done a great deal of careful



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   research into the challenges of displaying bidirectional strings.
   This document strongly suggests that profile authors who are thinking
   about defining a new directionality rule think again, and instead
   consider using the "Bidi Rule" [RFC5893] (for profiles based on the
   IdentifierClass) or following the Unicode bidirectional algorithm
   [UAX9] (for profiles based on the FreeformClass or in situations
   where the IdentifierClass is not appropriate).

5.3.  A Note about Spaces

   With regard to the IdentifierClass, the consensus of the PRECIS
   Working Group was that spaces are problematic for many reasons,
   including the following:

   o  Many Unicode code points are confusable with ASCII space.

   o  Even if non-ASCII space code points are mapped to ASCII space
      (U+0020), space code points are often not rendered in user
      interfaces, leading to the possibility that a human user might
      consider a string containing spaces to be equivalent to the same
      string without spaces.

   o  In some locales, some devices are known to generate a code point
      other than ASCII space (such as ZERO WIDTH JOINER, U+200D) when a
      user performs an action like hitting the space bar on a keyboard.

   One consequence of disallowing space code points in the
   IdentifierClass might be to effectively discourage their use within
   identifiers created in newer application protocols; given the
   challenges involved with properly handling space code points
   (especially non-ASCII space code points) in identifiers and other
   protocol strings, the PRECIS Working Group considered this to be a
   feature, not a bug.

   However, the FreeformClass does allow spaces, which enables
   application protocols to define profiles of the FreeformClass that
   are more flexible than any profiles of the IdentifierClass.  In
   addition, as explained in Section 6.3, application protocols can also
   define application-layer constructs containing spaces.

6.  Applications

6.1.  How to Use PRECIS in Applications

   Although PRECIS has been designed with applications in mind,
   internationalization is not suddenly made easy through the use of
   PRECIS.  Indeed, because it is extremely difficult for protocol
   designers and application developers to do the right thing for all



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   users when supporting internationalized strings, often the safest
   option is to support only the ASCII range [RFC20] in various protocol
   slots.  This state of affairs is unfortunate but is the direct result
   of the complexities involved with human languages (e.g., the vast
   number of code points, scripts, user communities, and rules with
   their inevitable exceptions), which kinds of strings application
   developers and their users wish to support, the wide range of devices
   that users employ to access services enabled by various Internet
   protocols, and so on.

   Despite these significant challenges, application and protocol
   developers sometimes persevere in attempting to support
   internationalized strings in their systems.  These developers need to
   think carefully about how they will use the PRECIS string classes, or
   profiles thereof, in their applications.  This section provides some
   guidelines to application developers (and to expert reviewers of
   application protocol specifications).

   o  Don't define your own profile unless absolutely necessary (see
      Section 5.1).  Existing profiles have been designed for wide
      reuse.  It is highly likely that an existing profile will meet
      your needs, especially given the ability to specify further
      excluded code points (Section 6.2) and to build application-layer
      constructs (see Section 6.3).

   o  Do specify:

      *  Exactly which entities are responsible for preparation,
         enforcement, and comparison of internationalized strings (e.g.,
         servers or clients).

      *  Exactly when those entities need to complete their tasks (e.g.,
         a server might need to enforce the rules of a profile before
         allowing a client to gain network access).

      *  Exactly which protocol slots need to be checked against which
         profiles (e.g., checking the address of a message's intended
         recipient against the UsernameCaseMapped profile
         [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis] of the IdentifierClass, or checking
         the password of a user against the OpaqueString profile
         [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis] of the FreeformClass).

      See [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis] and [RFC7622] for definitions of
      these matters for several applications.







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6.2.  Further Excluded Characters

   An application protocol that uses a profile MAY specify particular
   code points that are not allowed in relevant slots within that
   application protocol, above and beyond those excluded by the string
   class or profile.

   That is, an application protocol MAY do either of the following:

   1.  Exclude specific code points that are allowed by the relevant
       string class.

   2.  Exclude code points matching certain Unicode properties (e.g.,
       math symbols) that are included in the relevant PRECIS string
       class.

   As a result of such exclusions, code points that are defined as valid
   for the PRECIS string class or profile will be defined as disallowed
   for the relevant protocol slot.

   Typically, such exclusions are defined for the purpose of backward
   compatibility with legacy formats within an application protocol.
   These are defined for application protocols, not profiles, in order
   to prevent multiplication of profiles beyond necessity (see
   Section 5.1).

6.3.  Building Application-Layer Constructs

   Sometimes, an application-layer construct does not map in a
   straightforward manner to one of the base string classes or a profile
   thereof.  Consider, for example, the "simple user name" construct in
   the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) [RFC4422].
   Depending on the deployment, a simple user name might take the form
   of a user's full name (e.g., the user's personal name followed by a
   space and then the user's family name).  Such a simple user name
   cannot be defined as an instance of the IdentifierClass or a profile
   thereof, because space code points are not allowed in the
   IdentifierClass; however, it could be defined using a space-separated
   sequence of IdentifierClass instances, as in the following ABNF
   [RFC5234] from [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis]:

      username   = userpart *(1*SP userpart)
      userpart   = 1*(idpoint)
                   ;
                   ; an "idpoint" is a Unicode code point that
                   ; can be contained in a string conforming to
                   ; the PRECIS IdentifierClass
                   ;



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   Similar techniques could be used to define many application-layer
   constructs, say of the form "user@domain" or "/path/to/file".

7.  Order of Operations

   To ensure proper comparison, the rules specified for a particular
   string class or profile MUST be applied in the following order:

   1.  Width Mapping Rule

   2.  Additional Mapping Rule

   3.  Case Mapping Rule

   4.  Normalization Rule

   5.  Directionality Rule

   6.  Behavioral rules for determining whether a code point is valid,
       allowed under a contextual rule, disallowed, or unassigned

   As already described, the width mapping, additional mapping, case
   mapping, normalization, and directionality rules are specified for
   each profile, whereas the behavioral rules are specified for each
   string class.  Some of the logic behind this order is provided under
   Section 5.2.1 (see also the PRECIS mappings document [RFC7790]).  In
   addition, this order is consistent with IDNA2008, and with both
   IDNA2003 and Stringprep before then, for the purpose of enabling code
   reuse and of ensuring as much continuity as possible with the
   Stringprep profiles that are obsoleted by several PRECIS profiles.

   Because of the order of operations specified here, applying the rules
   for any given PRECIS profile is not necessarily an idempotent
   procedure (e.g., under certain circumstances, such as when Unicode
   normalization form KC is used, performing Unicode normalization after
   case mapping can still yield uppercase characters for certain code
   points).  Therefore, an implementation SHOULD apply the rules
   repeatedly until the output string is stable; if the output string
   does not stabilize after reapplying the rules three (3) additional
   times, the implementation SHOULD terminate application of the rules
   and reject the input string as invalid.

8.  Code Point Properties

   In order to implement the string classes described above, this
   document does the following:





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   1.  Reviews and classifies the collections of code points in the
       Unicode coded character set by examining various code point
       properties.

   2.  Defines an algorithm for determining a derived property value,
       which can vary depending on the string class being used by the
       relevant application protocol.

   This document is not intended to specify precisely how derived
   property values are to be applied in protocol strings.  That
   information is the responsibility of the protocol specification that
   uses or profiles a PRECIS string class from this document.  The value
   of the property is to be interpreted as follows.

   PROTOCOL VALID  Those code points that are allowed to be used in any
      PRECIS string class (currently, IdentifierClass and
      FreeformClass).  The abbreviated term "PVALID" is used to refer to
      this value in the remainder of this document.

   SPECIFIC CLASS PROTOCOL VALID  Those code points that are allowed to
      be used in specific string classes.  In the remainder of this
      document, the abbreviated term *_PVAL is used, where * = (ID |
      FREE), i.e., either "FREE_PVAL" or "ID_PVAL".  In practice, the
      derived property ID_PVAL is not used in this specification,
      because every ID_PVAL code point is PVALID.

   CONTEXTUAL RULE REQUIRED  Some characteristics of the code point,
      such as its being invisible in certain contexts or problematic in
      others, require that it not be used in a string unless specific
      other code points or properties are present in the string.  As in
      IDNA2008, there are two subdivisions of CONTEXTUAL RULE REQUIRED
      -- the first for Join_controls (called "CONTEXTJ") and the second
      for other code points (called "CONTEXTO").  A string MUST NOT
      contain any characters whose validity is context-dependent, unless
      the validity is positively confirmed by a contextual rule.  To
      check this, each code point identified as CONTEXTJ or CONTEXTO in
      the PRECIS Derived Property Value registry MUST have a non-null
      rule.  If such a code point is missing a rule, the string is
      invalid.  If the rule exists but the result of applying the rule
      is negative or inconclusive, the proposed string is invalid.  The
      most notable of the CONTEXTUAL RULE REQUIRED code points are the
      Join Control code points U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER and U+200C ZERO
      WIDTH NON-JOINER, which have a derived property value of CONTEXTJ.
      See Appendix A of [RFC5892] for more information.

   DISALLOWED  Those code points that are not permitted in any PRECIS
      string class.




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   SPECIFIC CLASS DISALLOWED  Those code points that are not to be
      included in one of the string classes but that might be permitted
      in others.  In the remainder of this document, the abbreviated
      term *_DIS is used, where * = (ID | FREE), i.e., either "FREE_DIS"
      or "ID_DIS".  In practice, the derived property FREE_DIS is not
      used in this specification, because every FREE_DIS code point is
      DISALLOWED.

   UNASSIGNED  Those code points that are not designated (i.e., are
      unassigned) in the Unicode Standard.

   The algorithm to calculate the value of the derived property is as
   follows (implementations MUST NOT modify the order of operations
   within this algorithm, because doing so would cause inconsistent
   results across implementations):

   If .cp. .in. Exceptions Then Exceptions(cp);
   Else If .cp. .in. BackwardCompatible Then BackwardCompatible(cp);
   Else If .cp. .in. Unassigned Then UNASSIGNED;
   Else If .cp. .in. ASCII7 Then PVALID;
   Else If .cp. .in. JoinControl Then CONTEXTJ;
   Else If .cp. .in. OldHangulJamo Then DISALLOWED;
   Else If .cp. .in. PrecisIgnorableProperties Then DISALLOWED;
   Else If .cp. .in. Controls Then DISALLOWED;
   Else If .cp. .in. HasCompat Then ID_DIS or FREE_PVAL;
   Else If .cp. .in. LetterDigits Then PVALID;
   Else If .cp. .in. OtherLetterDigits Then ID_DIS or FREE_PVAL;
   Else If .cp. .in. Spaces Then ID_DIS or FREE_PVAL;
   Else If .cp. .in. Symbols Then ID_DIS or FREE_PVAL;
   Else If .cp. .in. Punctuation Then ID_DIS or FREE_PVAL;
   Else DISALLOWED;

   The value of the derived property calculated can depend on the string
   class; for example, if an identifier used in an application protocol
   is defined as profiling the PRECIS IdentifierClass then a space
   character such as U+0020 would be assigned to ID_DIS, whereas if an
   identifier is defined as profiling the PRECIS FreeformClass then the
   character would be assigned to FREE_PVAL.  For the sake of brevity,
   the designation "FREE_PVAL" is used herein, instead of the longer
   designation "ID_DIS or FREE_PVAL".  In practice, the derived
   properties ID_PVAL and FREE_DIS are not used in this specification,
   because every ID_PVAL code point is PVALID and every FREE_DIS code
   point is DISALLOWED.

   Use of the name of a rule (such as "Exceptions") implies the set of
   code points that the rule defines, whereas the same name as a
   function call (such as "Exceptions(cp)") implies the value that the
   code point has in the Exceptions table.



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   The mechanisms described here allow determination of the value of the
   property for future versions of Unicode (including code points added
   after Unicode 5.2 or 7.0 depending on the category, because some
   categories mentioned in this document are simply pointers to IDNA2008
   and therefore were defined at the time of Unicode 5.2).  Changes in
   Unicode properties that do not affect the outcome of this process
   therefore do not affect this framework.  For example, a code point
   can have its Unicode General_Category value change from So to Sm, or
   from Lo to Ll, without affecting the algorithm results.  Moreover,
   even if such changes were to result, the BackwardCompatible list
   (Section 9.7) can be adjusted to ensure the stability of the results.

9.  Category Definitions Used to Calculate Derived Property

   The derived property obtains its value based on a two-step procedure:

   1.  Code points are placed in one or more character categories either
       (1) based on core properties defined by the Unicode Standard or
       (2) by treating the code point as an exception and addressing the
       code point based on its code point value.  These categories are
       not mutually exclusive.

   2.  Set operations are used with these categories to determine the
       values for a property specific to a given string class.  These
       operations are specified under Section 8.

      Note: Unicode property names and property value names might have
      short abbreviations, such as "gc" for the General_Category
      property and "Ll" for the Lowercase_Letter property value of the
      gc property.

   In the following specification of character categories, the operation
   that returns the value of a particular Unicode code point property
   for a code point is designated by using the formal name of that
   property (from the Unicode PropertyAliases.txt file [PropertyAliases]
   followed by "(cp)" for "code point".  For example, the value of the
   General_Category property for a code point is indicated by
   General_Category(cp).

   The first ten categories (A-J) shown below were previously defined
   for IDNA2008 and are referenced from [RFC5892] to ease the
   understanding of how PRECIS handles various code points.  Some of
   these categories are reused in PRECIS, and some of them are not;
   however, the lettering of categories is retained to prevent overlap
   and to ease implementation of both IDNA2008 and PRECIS in a single
   software application.  The next eight categories (K-R) are specific
   to PRECIS.




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9.1.  LetterDigits (A)

   This category is defined in Section 2.1 of [RFC5892] and is included
   by reference for use in PRECIS.

9.2.  Unstable (B)

   This category is defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC5892].  However, it is
   not used in PRECIS.

9.3.  IgnorableProperties (C)

   This category is defined in Section 2.3 of [RFC5892].  However, it is
   not used in PRECIS.

   Note: See the PrecisIgnorableProperties ("M") category below for a
   more inclusive category used in PRECIS identifiers.

9.4.  IgnorableBlocks (D)

   This category is defined in Section 2.4 of [RFC5892].  However, it is
   not used in PRECIS.

9.5.  LDH (E)

   This category is defined in Section 2.5 of [RFC5892].  However, it is
   not used in PRECIS.

   Note: See the ASCII7 ("K") category below for a more inclusive
   category used in PRECIS identifiers.

9.6.  Exceptions (F)

   This category is defined in Section 2.6 of [RFC5892] and is included
   by reference for use in PRECIS.

9.7.  BackwardCompatible (G)

   This category is defined in Section 2.7 of [RFC5892] and is included
   by reference for use in PRECIS.

   Note: Management of this category is handled via the processes
   specified in [RFC5892].  At the time of this writing (and also at the
   time that RFC 5892 was published), this category consisted of the
   empty set; however, that is subject to change as described in
   RFC 5892.





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9.8.  JoinControl (H)

   This category is defined in Section 2.8 of [RFC5892] and is included
   by reference for use in PRECIS.

   Note: In particular, the code points ZERO WIDTH JOINER (U+200D) and
   ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER (U+200C) are necessary to produce certain
   combinations of characters in certain scripts (e.g., Arabic, Persian,
   and Indic scripts), but if used in other contexts can have
   consequences that violate the principle of least user astonishment.
   Therefore these code points are allowed only in contexts where they
   are appropriate, specifically where the relevant rule (CONTEXTJ or
   CONTEXTO) has been defined.  See [RFC5892] and [RFC5894] for further
   discussion.

9.9.  OldHangulJamo (I)

   This category is defined in Section 2.9 of [RFC5892] and is included
   by reference for use in PRECIS.

   Note: Exclusion of these code points results in disallowing certain
   archaic Korean syllables and of restricting supported Korean
   syllables to preformed, modern Hangul characters.

9.10.  Unassigned (J)

   This category is defined in Section 2.10 of [RFC5892] and is included
   by reference for use in PRECIS.

9.11.  ASCII7 (K)

   This PRECIS-specific category consists of all printable, non-space
   code points from the 7-bit ASCII range.  By applying this category,
   the algorithm specified under Section 8 exempts these code points
   from other rules that might be applied during PRECIS processing, on
   the assumption that these code points are in such wide use that
   disallowing them would be counter-productive.

   K: cp is in {0021..007E}

9.12.  Controls (L)

   This PRECIS-specific category consists of all control code points.

   L: Control(cp) = True






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9.13.  PrecisIgnorableProperties (M)

   This PRECIS-specific category is used to group code points that are
   discouraged from use in PRECIS string classes.

   M: Default_Ignorable_Code_Point(cp) = True or
      Noncharacter_Code_Point(cp) = True

   The definition for Default_Ignorable_Code_Point can be found in the
   DerivedCoreProperties.txt file [DerivedCoreProperties].

   Note: In general, these code points are constructs such as so-called
   soft hypens, certain joining code points, various specialized code
   points for use within Unicode itself (e.g., language tags and
   variation selectors), and so on.  Disallowing these code points in
   PRECIS reduces the potential for unexpected results in the use of
   internationalized strings.

9.14.  Spaces (N)

   This PRECIS-specific category is used to group code points that are
   space code points.

   N: General_Category(cp) is in {Zs}

9.15.  Symbols (O)

   This PRECIS-specific category is used to group code points that are
   symbols.

   O: General_Category(cp) is in {Sm, Sc, Sk, So}

9.16.  Punctuation (P)

   This PRECIS-specific category is used to group code points that are
   punctuation code points.

   P: General_Category(cp) is in {Pc, Pd, Ps, Pe, Pi, Pf, Po}

9.17.  HasCompat (Q)

   This PRECIS-specific category is used to group any code point that is
   decomposed and recomposed into something other than itself under
   Unicode normalization form KC.

   Q: toNFKC(cp) != cp





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   Typically this category is true of code points that are
   "compatibility decomposable characters" as defined in the Unicode
   Standard.

   The toNFKC() operation returns the code point in normalization form
   KC.  For more information, see Section 5 of Unicode Standard Annex
   #15 [UAX15].

9.18.  OtherLetterDigits (R)

   This PRECIS-specific category is used to group code points that are
   letters and digits other than the "traditional" letters and digits
   grouped under the LetterDigits (A) class (see Section 9.1).

   R: General_Category(cp) is in {Lt, Nl, No, Me}

10.  Guidelines for Designated Experts

   Experience with internationalization in application protocols has
   shown that protocol designers and application developers usually do
   not understand the subtleties and tradeoffs involved with
   internationalization and that they need considerable guidance in
   making reasonable decisions with regard to the options before them.

   Therefore:

   o  Protocol designers are strongly encouraged to question the
      assumption that they need to define new profiles, because existing
      profiles are designed for wide reuse (see Section 5 for further
      discussion).

   o  Those who persist in defining new profiles are strongly encouraged
      to clearly explain a strong justification for doing so, and to
      publish a stable specification that provides all of the
      information described under Section 11.3.

   o  The designated experts for profile registration requests ought to
      seek answers to all of the questions provided under Section 11.3
      and to encourage applicants to provide a stable specification
      documenting the profile (even though the registration policy for
      PRECIS profiles is Expert Review and a stable specification is not
      strictly required).

   o  Developers of applications that use PRECIS are strongly encouraged
      to apply the guidelines provided under Section 6 and to seek out
      the advice of the designated experts or other knowledgeable
      individuals in doing so.




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   o  All parties are strongly encouraged to help prevent the
      multiplication of profiles beyond necessity, as described under
      Section 5.1, and to use PRECIS in ways that will minimize user
      confusion and insecure application behavior.

   Internationalization can be difficult and contentious; designated
   experts, profile registrants, and application developers are strongly
   encouraged to work together in a spirit of good faith and mutual
   understanding to achieve rough consensus on profile registration
   requests and the use of PRECIS in particular applications.  They are
   also encouraged to bring additional expertise into the discussion if
   that would be helpful in adding perspective or otherwise resolving
   issues.

11.  IANA Considerations

11.1.  PRECIS Derived Property Value Registry

   IANA has created and now maintains the "PRECIS Derived Property
   Value" registry that records the derived properties for the versions
   of Unicode that are released after (and including) version 7.0.  The
   derived property value is to be calculated in cooperation with a
   designated expert [RFC5226] according to the rules specified under
   Sections 8 and 9.

   The IESG is to be notified if backward-incompatible changes to the
   table of derived properties are discovered or if other problems arise
   during the process of creating the table of derived property values
   or during expert review.  Changes to the rules defined under
   Sections 8 and 9 require IETF Review.

   Note: IANA is requested to not make further updates to this registry
   until it receives notice from the IESG that the issues described in
   [IAB-Statement] and Section 13.5 of this document have been settled.

11.2.  PRECIS Base Classes Registry

   IANA has created the "PRECIS Base Classes" registry.  In accordance
   with [RFC5226], the registration policy is "RFC Required".

   The registration template is as follows:

   Base Class:  [the name of the PRECIS string class]

   Description:  [a brief description of the PRECIS string class and its
      intended use, e.g., "A sequence of letters, numbers, and symbols
      that is used to identify or address a network entity."]




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   Specification:  [the RFC number]

   The initial registrations are as follows:

   Base Class: FreeformClass.
   Description: A sequence of letters, numbers, symbols, spaces, and
         other code points that is used for free-form strings.
   Specification: Section 4.3 of [[this document]].

   Base Class: IdentifierClass.
   Description: A sequence of letters, numbers, and symbols that is
         used to identify or address a network entity.
   Specification: Section 4.2 of [[this document]].

11.3.  PRECIS Profiles Registry

   IANA has created the "PRECIS Profiles" registry to identify profiles
   that use the PRECIS string classes.  In accordance with [RFC5226],
   the registration policy is "Expert Review".  This policy was chosen
   in order to ease the burden of registration while ensuring that
   "customers" of PRECIS receive appropriate guidance regarding the
   sometimes complex and subtle internationalization issues related to
   profiles of PRECIS string classes.

   The registration template is as follows:

   Name:  [the name of the profile]

   Base Class:  [which PRECIS string class is being profiled]

   Applicability:  [the specific protocol elements to which this profile
      applies, e.g., "Localparts in XMPP addresses."]

   Replaces:  [the Stringprep profile that this PRECIS profile replaces,
      if any]

   Width Mapping Rule:  [the behavioral rule for handling of width,
      e.g., "Map fullwidth and halfwidth code points to their
      compatibility variants."]

   Additional Mapping Rule:  [any additional mappings that are required
      or recommended, e.g., "Map non-ASCII space code points to ASCII
      space."]

   Case Mapping Rule:  [the behavioral rule for handling of case, e.g.,
      "apply the Unicode toLowerCase() operation"]





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   Normalization Rule:  [which Unicode normalization form is applied,
      e.g., "NFC"]

   Directionality Rule:  [the behavioral rule for handling of right-to-
      left code points, e.g., "The 'Bidi Rule' defined in RFC 5893
      applies."]

   Enforcement:  [which entities enforce the rules, and when that
      enforcement occurs during protocol operations]

   Specification:  [a pointer to relevant documentation, such as an RFC
      or Internet-Draft]

   In order to request a review, the registrant shall send a completed
   template to the precis@ietf.org list or its designated successor.

   Factors to focus on while defining profiles and reviewing profile
   registrations include the following:

   o  Would an existing PRECIS string class or profile solve the
      problem?  If not, why not?  (See Section 5.1 for related
      considerations.)

   o  Is the problem being addressed by this profile well defined?

   o  Does the specification define what kinds of applications are
      involved and the protocol elements to which this profile applies?

   o  Is the profile clearly defined?

   o  Is the profile based on an appropriate dividing line between user
      interface (culture, context, intent, locale, device limitations,
      etc.) and the use of conformant strings in protocol elements?

   o  Are the width mapping, case mapping, additional mappings,
      normalization, and directionality rules appropriate for the
      intended use?

   o  Does the profile explain which entities enforce the rules, and
      when such enforcement occurs during protocol operations?

   o  Does the profile reduce the degree to which human users could be
      surprised or confused by application behavior (the "Principle of
      Least Astonishment")?

   o  Does the profile introduce any new security concerns such as those
      described under Section 12 of this document (e.g., false accepts
      for authentication or authorization)?



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12.  Security Considerations

12.1.  General Issues

   If input strings that appear "the same" to users are programmatically
   considered to be distinct in different systems, or if input strings
   that appear distinct to users are programmatically considered to be
   "the same" in different systems, then users can be confused.  Such
   confusion can have security implications, such as the false accepts
   and false rejects discussed in [RFC6943] (the terms "false positives"
   and "false negatives" are used in that document).  One starting goal
   of work on the PRECIS framework was to limit the number of times that
   users are confused (consistent with the "Principle of Least
   Astonishment").  Unfortunately, this goal has been difficult to
   achieve given the large number of application protocols already in
   existence.  Despite these difficulties, profiles should not be
   multiplied beyond necessity (see Section 5.1).  In particular,
   application protocol designers should think long and hard before
   defining a new profile instead of using one that has already been
   defined, and if they decide to define a new profile then they should
   clearly explain their reasons for doing so.

   The security of applications that use this framework can depend in
   part on the proper preparation, enforcement, and comparison of
   internationalized strings.  For example, such strings can be used to
   make authentication and authorization decisions, and the security of
   an application could be compromised if an entity providing a given
   string is connected to the wrong account or online resource based on
   different interpretations of the string (again, see [RFC6943]).

   Specifications of application protocols that use this framework are
   strongly encouraged to describe how internationalized strings are
   used in the protocol, including the security implications of any
   false accepts and false rejects that might result from various
   enforcement and comparison operations.  For some helpful guidelines,
   refer to [RFC6943], [RFC5890], [UTR36], and [UTS39].

12.2.  Use of the IdentifierClass

   Strings that conform to the IdentifierClass and any profile thereof
   are intended to be relatively safe for use in a broad range of
   applications, primarily because they include only letters, digits,
   and "grandfathered" non-space code points from the ASCII range; thus,
   they exclude spaces, code points with compatibility equivalents, and
   almost all symbols and punctuation marks.  However, because such
   strings can still include so-called confusable code points (see
   Section 12.5), protocol designers and implementers are encouraged to




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   pay close attention to the security considerations described
   elsewhere in this document.

12.3.  Use of the FreeformClass

   Strings that conform to the FreeformClass and many profiles thereof
   can include virtually any Unicode code point.  This makes the
   FreeformClass quite expressive, but also problematic from the
   perspective of possible user confusion.  Protocol designers are
   hereby warned that the FreeformClass contains code points they might
   not understand, and are encouraged to profile the IdentifierClass
   wherever feasible; however, if an application protocol requires more
   code points than are allowed by the IdentifierClass, protocol
   designers are encouraged to define a profile of the FreeformClass
   that restricts the allowable code points as tightly as possible.
   (The PRECIS Working Group considered the option of allowing
   "superclasses" as well as profiles of PRECIS string classes, but
   decided against allowing superclasses to reduce the likelihood of
   security and interoperability problems.)

12.4.  Local Character Set Issues

   When systems use local character sets other than ASCII and Unicode,
   this specification leaves the problem of converting between the local
   character set and Unicode up to the application or local system.  If
   different applications (or different versions of one application)
   implement different rules for conversions among coded character sets,
   they could interpret the same name differently and contact different
   application servers or other network entities.  This problem is not
   solved by security protocols, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS)
   [RFC5246] and the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)
   [RFC4422], that do not take local character sets into account.

12.5.  Visually Similar Characters

   Some code points are visually similar and thus can cause confusion
   among humans.  Such characters are often called "confusable
   characters" or "confusables".

   The problem of confusable characters is not necessarily caused by the
   use of Unicode code points outside the ASCII range.  For example, in
   some presentations and to some individuals the string "ju1iet"
   (spelled with DIGIT ONE, U+0031, as the third character) might appear
   to be the same as "juliet" (spelled with LATIN SMALL LETTER L,
   U+006C), especially on casual visual inspection.  This phenomenon is
   sometimes called "typejacking".





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   However, the problem is made more serious by introducing the full
   range of Unicode code points into protocol strings.  A well-known
   example is confusion between CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A, U+0430, and
   LATIN SMALL LETTER A, U+0061.  As another example, the code points
   U+13DA U+13A2 U+13B5 U+13AC U+13A2 U+13AC U+13D2 from the Cherokee
   block look similar to the ASCII code points representing "STPETER" as
   they might appear when presented using a "creative" font family.
   Confusion among such characters is perhaps not unexpected, given that
   the alphabetic writing systems involved all bear a family resemblance
   or historical lineage.  Perhaps more surprising is confusion among
   characters from disparate writing systems, such as LATIN CAPITAL
   LETTER O, U+004F; DIGIT ZERO, U+0030; LAO DIGIT ZERO, U+0ED0; NEW TAI
   LUE DIGIT ZERO, U+19D0; ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL A, U+12D0; and
   other graphemes that have the appearance of open circles.  And the
   reader needs to be aware that the foregoing represent merely a small
   sample of characters that are confusable in Unicode.

   In some instances of confusable characters, it is unlikely that the
   average human could tell the difference between the real string and
   the fake string.  (Indeed, there is no programmatic way to
   distinguish with full certainty which is the fake string and which is
   the real string; in some contexts, the string formed of Cherokee code
   points might be the real string and the string formed of ASCII code
   points might be the fake string.)  Because PRECIS-compliant strings
   can contain almost any properly encoded Unicode code point, it can be
   relatively easy to fake or mimic some strings in systems that use the
   PRECIS framework.  The fact that some strings are easily confused
   introduces security vulnerabilities of the kind that have also
   plagued the World Wide Web, specifically the phenomenon known as
   phishing.

   Despite the fact that some specific suggestions about identification
   and handling of confusable characters appear in the Unicode Security
   Considerations [UTR36] and the Unicode Security Mechanisms [UTS39],
   it is also true (as noted in [RFC5890]) that "there are no
   comprehensive technical solutions to the problems of confusable
   characters."  Because it is impossible to map visually similar
   characters without a great deal of context (such as knowing the font
   families used), the PRECIS framework does nothing to map similar-
   looking characters together, nor does it prohibit some characters
   because they look like others.

   Nevertheless, specifications for application protocols that use this
   framework are strongly encouraged to describe how confusable
   characters can be abused to compromise the security of systems that
   use the protocol in question, along with any protocol-specific
   suggestions for overcoming those threats.  In particular, software
   implementations and service deployments that use PRECIS-based



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   technologies are strongly encouraged to define and implement
   consistent policies regarding the registration, storage, and
   presentation of visually similar characters.  The following
   recommendations are appropriate:

   1.  An application service SHOULD define a policy that specifies the
       scripts or blocks of code points that the service will allow to
       be registered (e.g., in an account name) or stored (e.g., in a
       filename).  Such a policy SHOULD be informed by the languages and
       scripts that are used to write registered account names; in
       particular, to reduce confusion, the service SHOULD forbid
       registration or storage of strings that contain code points from
       more than one script and SHOULD restrict registrations to code
       points drawn from a very small number of scripts (e.g., scripts
       that are well understood by the administrators of the service, to
       improve manageability).

   2.  User-oriented application software SHOULD define a policy that
       specifies how internationalized strings will be presented to a
       human user.  Because every human user of such software has a
       preferred language or a small set of preferred languages, the
       software SHOULD gather that information either explicitly from
       the user or implicitly via the operating system of the user's
       device.

   The challenges inherent in supporting the full range of Unicode code
   points have in the past led some to hope for a way to
   programmatically negotiate more restrictive ranges based on locale,
   script, or other relevant factors; to tag the locale associated with
   a particular string; etc.  As a general-purpose internationalization
   technology, the PRECIS framework does not include such mechanisms.

12.6.  Security of Passwords

   Two goals of passwords are to maximize the amount of entropy and to
   minimize the potential for false accepts.  These goals can be
   achieved in part by allowing a wide range of code points and by
   ensuring that passwords are handled in such a way that code points
   are not compared aggressively.  Therefore, it is NOT RECOMMENDED for
   application protocols to profile the FreeformClass for use in
   passwords in a way that removes entire categories (e.g., by
   disallowing symbols or punctuation).  Furthermore, it is NOT
   RECOMMENDED for application protocols to map uppercase and titlecase
   code points to their lowercase equivalents in such strings; instead,
   it is RECOMMENDED to preserve the case of all code points contained
   in such strings and to compare them in a case-sensitive manner.





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   That said, software implementers need to be aware that there exist
   tradeoffs between entropy and usability.  For example, allowing a
   user to establish a password containing "uncommon" code points might
   make it difficult for the user to access a service when using an
   unfamiliar or constrained input device.

   Some application protocols use passwords directly, whereas others
   reuse technologies that themselves process passwords (one example of
   such a technology is the Simple Authentication and Security Layer
   [RFC4422]).  Moreover, passwords are often carried by a sequence of
   protocols with backend authentication systems or data storage systems
   such as RADIUS [RFC2865] and the Lightweight Directory Access
   Protocol (LDAP) [RFC4510].  Developers of application protocols are
   encouraged to look into reusing these profiles instead of defining
   new ones, so that end-user expectations about passwords are
   consistent no matter which application protocol is used.

   In protocols that provide passwords as input to a cryptographic
   algorithm such as a hash function, the client will need to perform
   proper preparation of the password before applying the algorithm,
   because the password is not available to the server in plaintext
   form.

   Further discussion of password handling can be found in
   [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis].

13.  Interoperability Considerations

13.1.  Coded Character Sets

   It is known that some existing applications and systems do not
   support the full Unicode coded character set, or even any characters
   outside the ASCII repertoire [RFC20].  If two (or more) applications
   or systems need to interoperate when exchanging data (e.g., for the
   purpose of authenticating the combination of a username and
   password), naturally they will need to have in common at least one
   coded character set and the repertoire of characters being exchanged
   (see [RFC6365] for definitions of these terms).  Establishing such a
   baseline is a matter for the application or system that uses PRECIS,
   not for the PRECIS framework.

13.2.  Dependency on Unicode

   The only coded character set supported by PRECIS is Unicode.  If an
   application or system does not support Unicode or uses a different
   coded character set [RFC6365], then the PRECIS rules cannot be
   applied to that application or system.




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13.3.  Encoding

   Although strings that are consumed in PRECIS-based application
   protocols are often encoded using UTF-8 [RFC3629], the exact encoding
   is a matter for the application protocol that uses PRECIS, not for
   the PRECIS framework or for specifications that define PRECIS string
   classes or profiles thereof.

13.4.  Unicode Versions

   It is extremely important for protocol designers and application
   developers to undersatnd that various changes can occur across
   versions of the Unicode Standard, and such changes can result in
   instability of PRECIS categories.  The following are merely a few
   examples:

   o  As described in [RFC6452], between Unicode 5.2 (current at the
      time IDNA2008 was originally published) and Unicode 6.0, three
      code points underwent changes in their GeneralCategory, resulting
      in modified handling depending on which version of Unicode is
      available on the underlying system.

   o  The HasCompat() categorization of a given input string could
      change if, for example, the string includes a precomposed
      character that was added in a recent version of Unicode.

   o  The East Asian width property, which is used in many PRECIS width-
      mapping rules, is not guaranteed to be stable across Unicode
      versions.

   Other such differences might arise between the version of Unicode
   current at the time of this writing (7.0) and future versions.

13.5.  Potential Changes to Handling of Certain Unicode Code Points

   As part of the review of Unicode 7.0 for IDNA, a question was raised
   about a newly added code point that led to a re-analysis of the
   normalization rules used by IDNA and inherited by this document
   (Section 5.2.4).  Some of the general issues are described in
   [IAB-Statement] and pursued in more detail in [IDNA-Unicode].

   At the time of writing, these issues have yet to be settled.
   However, implementers need to be aware that this specification is
   likely to be updated in the future to address these issues.  The
   potential changes include but might not be limited to the following:

   o  The range of code points in the LetterDigits category
      (Sections 4.2.1 and 9.1) might be narrowed.



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   o  Some code points with special properties that are now allowed
      might be excluded.

   o  More "Additional Mapping Rules" (Section 5.2.2) might be defined.

   o  Alternative normalization methods might be added.

   As described in Section 11.1, until these issues are settled, it is
   reasonable for the IANA to apply the same precautionary principle
   described in [IAB-Statement] to the PRECIS Derived Property Value
   Registry as is applied to the Internationalized Domain Names for
   Applications (IDNA) Parameters registry: that is, to not make further
   updates to the registry.

   Nevertheless, implementations and deployments are unlikely to
   encounter significant problems as a consequence of these issues or
   potential changes if they follow the advice given in this
   specification to use the more restrictive IdentifierClass whenever
   possible or, if using the FreeformClass, to allow only a restricted
   set of code points, particularly avoiding code points whose
   implications they do not understand.

14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC20]    Cerf, V., "ASCII format for network interchange", STD 80,
              RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc20>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5198]  Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network
              Interchange", RFC 5198, DOI 10.17487/RFC5198, March 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5198>.

   [RFC6365]  Hoffman, P. and J. Klensin, "Terminology Used in
              Internationalization in the IETF", BCP 166, RFC 6365,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6365, September 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6365>.

   [Unicode]  The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard",
              <http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/>.





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14.2.  Informative References

   [DerivedCoreProperties]
              The Unicode Consortium, "DerivedCoreProperties-7.0.0.txt",
              Unicode Character Database, February 2014,
              <http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCD/latest/ucd/
              DerivedCoreProperties.txt>.

   [Err4568]  RFC Errata, "Erratum ID 4568", RFC 7564,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org>.

   [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis]
              Saint-Andre, P. and A. Melnikov, "Preparation,
              Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings
              Representing Usernames and Passwords", draft-ietf-precis-
              7613bis-11 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-precis-7700bis]
              Saint-Andre, P., "Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison
              of Internationalized Strings Representing Nicknames",
              draft-ietf-precis-7700bis-10 (work in progress), July
              2017.

   [IAB-Statement]
              Internet Architecture Board, "IAB Statement on Identifiers
              and Unicode 7.0.0", February 2015,
              <https://www.iab.org/documents/correspondence-reports-
              documents/2015-2/iab-statement-on-identifiers-and-unicode-
              7-0-0/>.

   [IDNA-Unicode]
              Klensin, J. and P. Faltstrom, "IDNA Update for Unicode
              7.0.0", Work in Progress, draft-klensin-idna-5892upd-
              unicode70-04, March 2015.

   [PropertyAliases]
              The Unicode Consortium, "PropertyAliases-7.0.0.txt",
              Unicode Character Database, November 2013,
              <http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCD/latest/ucd/
              PropertyAliases.txt>.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, DOI 10.17487/RFC2865, June 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2865>.






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   [RFC3454]  Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of
              Internationalized Strings ("stringprep")", RFC 3454,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3454, December 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3454>.

   [RFC3490]  Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
              "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 3490, DOI 10.17487/RFC3490, March 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3490>.

   [RFC3491]  Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
              Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)",
              RFC 3491, DOI 10.17487/RFC3491, March 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3491>.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.

   [RFC4422]  Melnikov, A., Ed. and K. Zeilenga, Ed., "Simple
              Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)", RFC 4422,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4422, June 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4422>.

   [RFC4510]  Zeilenga, K., Ed., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Technical Specification Road Map", RFC 4510,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4510, June 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4510>.

   [RFC4690]  Klensin, J., Faltstrom, P., Karp, C., and IAB, "Review and
              Recommendations for Internationalized Domain Names
              (IDNs)", RFC 4690, DOI 10.17487/RFC4690, September 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4690>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.



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   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, DOI 10.17487/RFC5890, August 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5890>.

   [RFC5891]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names in
              Applications (IDNA): Protocol", RFC 5891,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5891, August 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5891>.

   [RFC5892]  Faltstrom, P., Ed., "The Unicode Code Points and
              Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 5892, DOI 10.17487/RFC5892, August 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5892>.

   [RFC5893]  Alvestrand, H., Ed. and C. Karp, "Right-to-Left Scripts
              for Internationalized Domain Names for Applications
              (IDNA)", RFC 5893, DOI 10.17487/RFC5893, August 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5893>.

   [RFC5894]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Background, Explanation, and
              Rationale", RFC 5894, DOI 10.17487/RFC5894, August 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5894>.

   [RFC5895]  Resnick, P. and P. Hoffman, "Mapping Characters for
              Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)
              2008", RFC 5895, DOI 10.17487/RFC5895, September 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5895>.

   [RFC6452]  Faltstrom, P., Ed. and P. Hoffman, Ed., "The Unicode Code
              Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications
              (IDNA) - Unicode 6.0", RFC 6452, DOI 10.17487/RFC6452,
              November 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6452>.

   [RFC6885]  Blanchet, M. and A. Sullivan, "Stringprep Revision and
              Problem Statement for the Preparation and Comparison of
              Internationalized Strings (PRECIS)", RFC 6885,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6885, March 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6885>.

   [RFC6943]  Thaler, D., Ed., "Issues in Identifier Comparison for
              Security Purposes", RFC 6943, DOI 10.17487/RFC6943, May
              2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6943>.







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   [RFC7564]  Saint-Andre, P. and M. Blanchet, "PRECIS Framework:
              Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of
              Internationalized Strings in Application Protocols",
              RFC 7564, DOI 10.17487/RFC7564, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7564>.

   [RFC7622]  Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Address Format", RFC 7622,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7622, September 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7622>.

   [RFC7790]  Yoneya, Y. and T. Nemoto, "Mapping Characters for Classes
              of the Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of
              Internationalized Strings (PRECIS)", RFC 7790,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7790, February 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7790>.

   [UAX11]    Unicode Standard Annex #11, "East Asian Width", edited by
              Ken Lunde. An integral part of The Unicode Standard,
              <http://unicode.org/reports/tr11/>.

   [UAX15]    Unicode Standard Annex #15, "Unicode Normalization Forms",
              edited by Mark Davis and Ken Whistler. An integral part of
              The Unicode Standard, <http://unicode.org/reports/tr15/>.

   [UAX9]     Unicode Standard Annex #9, "Unicode Bidirectional
              Algorithm", edited by Mark Davis, Aharon Lanin, and Andrew
              Glass. An integral part of The Unicode Standard,
              <http://unicode.org/reports/tr9/>.

   [UTR36]    Unicode Technical Report #36, "Unicode Security
              Considerations", by Mark Davis and Michel Suignard,
              <http://unicode.org/reports/tr36/>.

   [UTS39]    Unicode Technical Standard #39, "Unicode Security
              Mechanisms", edited by Mark Davis and Michel Suignard,
              <http://unicode.org/reports/tr39/>.














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Appendix A.  Changes from RFC 7564

   The following changes were made from [RFC7564].

   o  Recommended the Unicode toLowerCase() operation over the Unicode
      toCaseFold() operation in most PRECIS applications.

   o  Clarified the meaning of "preparation" and described the
      motivation for including it in PRECIS.

   o  Updated references.

   See [RFC7564] for a description of the differences from [RFC3454].

Appendix B.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Martin Duerst, William Fisher, John Klensin, Christian
   Schudt, and Sam Whited for their feedback.  Thanks to Sam Whited also
   for submitting [Err4568].

   See [RFC7564] for acknowledgements related to the specification that
   this document supersedes.

   Some algorithms and textual descriptions have been borrowed from
   [RFC5892].  Some text regarding security has been borrowed from
   [RFC5890], [I-D.ietf-precis-7613bis], and [RFC7622].

Authors' Addresses

   Peter Saint-Andre
   Filament
   18335 E 103rd Ave, Suite 203
   Commerce City, CO  80022
   USA

   Phone: +1 720 256 6756
   EMail: peter@filament.com
   URI:   https://filament.com/


   Marc Blanchet
   Viagenie
   246 Aberdeen
   Quebec, QC  G1R 2E1
   Canada

   EMail: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://www.viagenie.ca/



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