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Versions: (draft-iyengar-quic-loss-recovery) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

QUIC                                                     J. Iyengar, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                             I. Swett, Ed.
Intended status: Standards Track                                  Google
Expires: September 14, 2017                               March 13, 2017


               QUIC Loss Detection and Congestion Control
                      draft-ietf-quic-recovery-02

Abstract

   QUIC is a new multiplexed and secure transport atop UDP.  QUIC builds
   on decades of transport and security experience, and implements
   mechanisms that make it attractive as a modern general-purpose
   transport.  QUIC implements the spirit of known TCP loss detection
   mechanisms, described in RFCs, various Internet-drafts, and also
   those prevalent in the Linux TCP implementation.  This document
   describes QUIC loss detection and congestion control, and attributes
   the TCP equivalent in RFCs, Internet-drafts, academic papers, and TCP
   implementations.

Note to Readers

   Discussion of this draft takes place on the QUIC working group
   mailing list (quic@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/search/?email_list=quic .

   Working Group information can be found at https://github.com/quicwg ;
   source code and issues list for this draft can be found at
   https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/labels/recovery .

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 14, 2017.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Design of the QUIC Transmission Machinery . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Relevant Differences Between QUIC and TCP . . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.1.  Monotonically Increasing Packet Numbers . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.2.  No Reneging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       2.1.3.  More ACK Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       2.1.4.  Explicit Correction For Delayed Acks  . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Loss Detection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Constants of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Variables of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Initialization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.  On Sending a Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.5.  On Ack Receipt  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.6.  On Packet Acknowledgment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.7.  Setting the Loss Detection Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.7.1.  Handshake Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.7.2.  Tail Loss Probe and Retransmission Timeout  . . . . .   9
       3.7.3.  Early Retransmit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.7.4.  Pseudocode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.8.  On Alarm Firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.9.  Detecting Lost Packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.9.1.  Handshake Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.9.2.  Pseudocode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix B.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13



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     B.1.  Since draft-ietf-quic-recovery-01 . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     B.2.  Since draft-ietf-quic-recovery-00:  . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     B.3.  Since draft-iyengar-quic-loss-recovery-01:  . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   QUIC is a new multiplexed and secure transport atop UDP.  QUIC builds
   on decades of transport and security experience, and implements
   mechanisms that make it attractive as a modern general-purpose
   transport.  The QUIC protocol is described in [QUIC-TRANSPORT].

   QUIC implements the spirit of known TCP loss recovery mechanisms,
   described in RFCs, various Internet-drafts, and also those prevalent
   in the Linux TCP implementation.  This document describes QUIC
   congestion control and loss recovery, and where applicable,
   attributes the TCP equivalent in RFCs, Internet-drafts, academic
   papers, and/or TCP implementations.

   This document first describes pre-requisite parts of the QUIC
   transmission machinery, then discusses QUIC's default congestion
   control and loss detection mechanisms, and finally lists the various
   TCP mechanisms that QUIC loss detection implements (in spirit.)

1.1.  Notational Conventions

   The words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "SHOULD", and "MAY" are used in this
   document.  It's not shouting; when they are capitalized, they have
   the special meaning defined in [RFC2119].

2.  Design of the QUIC Transmission Machinery

   All transmissions in QUIC are sent with a packet-level header, which
   includes a packet sequence number (referred to below as a packet
   number).  These packet numbers never repeat in the lifetime of a
   connection, and are monotonically increasing, which makes duplicate
   detection trivial.  This fundamental design decision obviates the
   need for disambiguating between transmissions and retransmissions and
   eliminates significant complexity from QUIC's interpretation of TCP
   loss detection mechanisms.

   Every packet may contain several frames.  We outline the frames that
   are important to the loss detection and congestion control machinery
   below.

   o  Retransmittable frames are frames requiring reliable delivery.
      The most common are STREAM frames, which typically contain
      application data.



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   o  Crypto handshake data is also sent as STREAM data, and uses the
      reliability machinery of QUIC underneath.

   o  ACK frames contain acknowledgment information.  QUIC uses a SACK-
      based scheme, where acks express up to 256 ranges.  The ACK frame
      also includes a receive timestamp for each packet newly acked.

2.1.  Relevant Differences Between QUIC and TCP

   There are some notable differences between QUIC and TCP which are
   important for reasoning about the differences between the loss
   recovery mechanisms employed by the two protocols.  We briefly
   describe these differences below.

2.1.1.  Monotonically Increasing Packet Numbers

   TCP conflates transmission sequence number at the sender with
   delivery sequence number at the receiver, which results in
   retransmissions of the same data carrying the same sequence number,
   and consequently to problems caused by "retransmission ambiguity".
   QUIC separates the two: QUIC uses a packet sequence number (referred
   to as the "packet number") for transmissions, and any data that is to
   be delivered to the receiving application(s) is sent in one or more
   streams, with stream offsets encoded within STREAM frames inside of
   packets that determine delivery order.

   QUIC's packet number is strictly increasing, and directly encodes
   transmission order.  A higher QUIC packet number signifies that the
   packet was sent later, and a lower QUIC packet number signifies that
   the packet was sent earlier.  When a packet containing frames is
   deemed lost, QUIC rebundles necessary frames in a new packet with a
   new packet number, removing ambiguity about which packet is
   acknowledged when an ACK is received.  Consequently, more accurate
   RTT measurements can be made, spurious retransmissions are trivially
   detected, and mechanisms such as Fast Retransmit can be applied
   universally, based only on packet number.

   This design point significantly simplifies loss detection mechanisms
   for QUIC.  Most TCP mechanisms implicitly attempt to infer
   transmission ordering based on TCP sequence numbers - a non-trivial
   task, especially when TCP timestamps are not available.

2.1.2.  No Reneging

   QUIC ACKs contain information that is equivalent to TCP SACK, but
   QUIC does not allow any acked packet to be reneged, greatly
   simplifying implementations on both sides and reducing memory
   pressure on the sender.



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2.1.3.  More ACK Ranges

   QUIC supports up to 256 ACK ranges, opposed to TCP's 3 SACK ranges.
   In high loss environments, this speeds recovery.

2.1.4.  Explicit Correction For Delayed Acks

   QUIC ACKs explicitly encode the delay incurred at the receiver
   between when a packet is received and when the corresponding ACK is
   sent.  This allows the receiver of the ACK to adjust for receiver
   delays, specifically the delayed ack timer, when estimating the path
   RTT.  This mechanism also allows a receiver to measure and report the
   delay from when a packet was received by the OS kernel, which is
   useful in receivers which may incur delays such as context-switch
   latency before a userspace QUIC receiver processes a received packet.

3.  Loss Detection

   We now describe QUIC's loss detection as functions that should be
   called on packet transmission, when a packet is acked, and timer
   expiration events.

3.1.  Constants of interest

   Constants used in loss recovery and congestion control are based on a
   combination of RFCs, papers, and common practice.  Some may need to
   be changed or negotiated in order to better suit a variety of
   environments.

   kMaxTLPs (default 2):  Maximum number of tail loss probes before an
      RTO fires.

   kReorderingThreshold (default 3):  Maximum reordering in packet
      number space before FACK style loss detection considers a packet
      lost.

   kTimeReorderingFraction (default 1/8):  Maximum reordering in time
      sapce before time based loss detection considers a packet lost.
      In fraction of an RTT.

   kMinTLPTimeout (default 10ms):  Minimum time in the future a tail
      loss probe alarm may be set for.

   kMinRTOTimeout (default 200ms):  Minimum time in the future an RTO
      alarm may be set for.

   kDelayedAckTimeout (default 25ms):  The length of the peer's delayed
      ack timer.



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   kDefaultInitialRtt (default 100ms):  The default RTT used before an
      RTT sample is taken.

3.2.  Variables of interest

   We first describe the variables required to implement the loss
   detection mechanisms described in this section.

   loss_detection_alarm:  Multi-modal alarm used for loss detection.

   handshake_count:  The number of times the handshake packets have been
      retransmitted without receiving an ack.

   tlp_count:  The number of times a tail loss probe has been sent
      without receiving an ack.

   rto_count:  The number of times an rto has been sent without
      receiving an ack.

   smoothed_rtt:  The smoothed RTT of the connection, computed as
      described in [RFC6298]

   rttvar:  The RTT variance, computed as described in [RFC6298]

   initial_rtt:  The initial RTT used before any RTT measurements have
      been made.

   reordering_threshold:  The largest delta between the largest acked
      retransmittable packet and a packet containing retransmittable
      frames before it's declared lost.

   time_reordering_fraction:  The reordering window as a fraction of
      max(smoothed_rtt, latest_rtt).

   loss_time:  The time at which the next packet will be considered lost
      based on early transmit or exceeding the reordering window in
      time.

   sent_packets:  An association of packet numbers to information about
      them, including a number field indicating the packet number, a
      time field indicating the time a packet was sent, and a bytes
      field indicating the packet's size.  sent_packets is ordered by
      packet number, and packets remain in sent_packets until
      acknowledged or lost.







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3.3.  Initialization

   At the beginning of the connection, initialize the loss detection
   variables as follows:

      loss_detection_alarm.reset()
      handshake_count = 0
      tlp_count = 0
      rto_count = 0
      if (UsingTimeLossDetection())
        reordering_threshold = infinite
        time_reordering_fraction = kTimeReorderingFraction
      else:
        reordering_threshold = kReorderingThreshold
        time_reordering_fraction = infinite
      loss_time = 0
      smoothed_rtt = 0
      rttvar = 0
      initial_rtt = kDefaultInitialRtt

3.4.  On Sending a Packet

   After any packet is sent, be it a new transmission or a rebundled
   transmission, the following OnPacketSent function is called.  The
   parameters to OnPacketSent are as follows:

   o  packet_number: The packet number of the sent packet.

   o  is_retransmittble: A boolean that indicates whether the packet
      contains at least one frame requiring reliable deliver.  The
      retransmittability of various QUIC frames is described in
      [QUIC-TRANSPORT].  If false, it is still acceptable for an ack to
      be received for this packet.  However, a caller MUST NOT set
      is_retransmittable to true if an ack is not expected.

   o  sent_bytes: The number of bytes sent in the packet.

   Pseudocode for OnPacketSent follows:

    OnPacketSent(packet_number, is_retransmittable, sent_bytes):
      sent_packets[packet_number].packet_number = packet_number
      sent_packets[packet_number].time = now
      if is_retransmittable:
        sent_packets[packet_number].bytes = sent_bytes
        SetLossDetectionAlarm()






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3.5.  On Ack Receipt

   When an ack is received, it may acknowledge 0 or more packets.

   Pseudocode for OnAckReceived and UpdateRtt follow:

      OnAckReceived(ack):
        // If the largest acked is newly acked, update the RTT.
        if (sent_packets[ack.largest_acked]):
          rtt_sample = now - sent_packets[ack.largest_acked].time
          if (rtt_sample > ack.ack_delay):
            rtt_sample -= ack.delay
          UpdateRtt(rtt_sample)
        // Find all newly acked packets.
        for acked_packet_number in DetermineNewlyAckedPackets():
          OnPacketAcked(acked_packet_number)

        DetectLostPackets(ack.largest_acked_packet)
        SetLossDetectionAlarm()


      UpdateRtt(rtt_sample):
        // Based on {{RFC6298}}.
        if (smoothed_rtt == 0):
          smoothed_rtt = rtt_sample
          rttvar = rtt_sample / 2
        else:
          rttvar = 3/4 * rttvar + 1/4 * (smoothed_rtt - rtt_sample)
          smoothed_rtt = 7/8 * smoothed_rtt + 1/8 * rtt_sample

3.6.  On Packet Acknowledgment

   When a packet is acked for the first time, the following
   OnPacketAcked function is called.  Note that a single ACK frame may
   newly acknowledge several packets.  OnPacketAcked must be called once
   for each of these newly acked packets.

   OnPacketAcked takes one parameter, acked_packet, which is the packet
   number of the newly acked packet, and returns a list of packet
   numbers that are detected as lost.

   Pseudocode for OnPacketAcked follows:

      OnPacketAcked(acked_packet_number):
        handshake_count = 0
        tlp_count = 0
        rto_count = 0
        sent_packets.remove(acked_packet_number)



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3.7.  Setting the Loss Detection Alarm

   QUIC loss detection uses a single alarm for all timer-based loss
   detection.  The duration of the alarm is based on the alarm's mode,
   which is set in the packet and timer events further below.  The
   function SetLossDetectionAlarm defined below shows how the single
   timer is set based on the alarm mode.

3.7.1.  Handshake Packets

   The initial flight has no prior RTT sample.  A client SHOULD remember
   the previous RTT it observed when resumption is attempted and use
   that for an initial RTT value.  If no previous RTT is available, the
   initial RTT defaults to 200ms.  Once an RTT measurement is taken, it
   MUST replace initial_rtt.

   Endpoints MUST retransmit handshake frames if not acknowledged within
   a time limit.  This time limit will start as the largest of twice the
   rtt value and MinTLPTimeout.  Each consecutive handshake
   retransmission doubles the time limit, until an acknowledgement is
   received.

   Handshake frames may be cancelled by handshake state transitions.  In
   particular, all non-protected frames SHOULD be no longer be
   transmitted once packet protection is available.

   When stateless rejects are in use, the connection is considered
   immediately closed once a reject is sent, so no timer is set to
   retransmit the reject.

   Version negotiation packets are always stateless, and MUST be sent
   once per per handshake packet that uses an unsupported QUIC version,
   and MAY be sent in response to 0RTT packets.

3.7.2.  Tail Loss Probe and Retransmission Timeout

   Tail loss probes [I-D.dukkipati-tcpm-tcp-loss-probe] and
   retransmission timeouts[RFC6298] are an alarm based mechanism to
   recover from cases when there are outstanding retransmittable
   packets, but an acknowledgement has not been received in a timely
   manner.

3.7.3.  Early Retransmit

   Early retransmit [RFC5827] is implemented with a 1/4 RTT timer.  It
   is part of QUIC's time based loss detection, but is always enabled,
   even when only packet reordering loss detection is enabled.




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3.7.4.  Pseudocode

   Pseudocode for SetLossDetectionAlarm follows:

    SetLossDetectionAlarm():
       if (retransmittable packets are not outstanding):
         loss_detection_alarm.cancel();
         return

       if (handshake packets are outstanding):
         // Handshake retransmission alarm.
         if (smoothed_rtt == 0):
           alarm_duration = 2 * initial_rtt
         else:
           alarm_duration = 2 * smoothed_rtt
         alarm_duration = max(alarm_duration, kMinTLPTimeout)
         alarm_duration = alarm_duration << handshake_count
       else if (loss_time != 0):
         // Early retransmit timer or time loss detection.
         alarm_duration = loss_time - now
       else if (tlp_count < kMaxTLPs):
         // Tail Loss Probe
         if (retransmittable_packets_outstanding = 1):
           alarm_duration = 1.5 * smoothed_rtt + kDelayedAckTimeout
         else:
           alarm_duration = kMinTLPTimeout
         alarm_duration = max(alarm_duration, 2 * smoothed_rtt)
       else:
         // RTO alarm
         if (rto_count = 0):
           alarm_duration = smoothed_rtt + 4 * rttvar
           alarm_duration = max(alarm_duration, kMinRTOTimeout)
         else:
           alarm_duration = loss_detection_alarm.get_delay() << 1

       loss_detection_alarm.set(now + alarm_duration)

3.8.  On Alarm Firing

   QUIC uses one loss recovery alarm, which when set, can be in one of
   several modes.  When the alarm fires, the mode determines the action
   to be performed.

   Pseudocode for OnLossDetectionAlarm follows:







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      OnLossDetectionAlarm():
        if (handshake packets are outstanding):
          // Handshake retransmission alarm.
          RetransmitAllHandshakePackets();
          handshake_count++;
        // TODO: Clarify early retransmit and time loss.
        else if (loss_time != 0):
          // Early retransmit or Time Loss Detection
          DetectLostPackets(largest_acked_packet)
        else if (tlp_count < kMaxTLPs):
          // Tail Loss Probe.
          if (HasNewDataToSend()):
            SendOnePacketOfNewData()
          else:
            RetransmitOldestPacket()
          tlp_count++
        else:
          // RTO.
          RetransmitOldestTwoPackets()
          rto_count++

        SetLossDetectionAlarm()

3.9.  Detecting Lost Packets

   Packets in QUIC are only considered lost once a larger packet number
   is acknowledged.  DetectLostPackets is called every time an ack is
   received.  If the loss detection alarm fires and the loss_time is
   set, the previous largest acked packet is supplied.

3.9.1.  Handshake Packets

   The receiver MUST ignore unprotected packets that ack protected
   packets.  The receiver MUST trust protected acks for unprotected
   packets, however.  Aside from this, loss detection for handshake
   packets when an ack is processed is identical to other packets.

3.9.2.  Pseudocode

   DetectLostPackets takes one parameter, acked, which is the largest
   acked packet.

   Pseudocode for DetectLostPackets follows:








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   DetectLostPackets(largest_acked):
     loss_time = 0
     lost_packets = {}
     delay_until_lost = infinite;
     if (time_reordering_fraction != infinite):
       delay_until_lost =
         (1 + time_reordering_fraction) * max(latest_rtt, smoothed_rtt)
     else if (largest_acked.packet_number == largest_sent_packet):
       // Early retransmit alarm.
       delay_until_lost = 9/8 * max(latest_rtt, smoothed_rtt)
     foreach (unacked less than largest_acked.packet_number):
       time_since_sent = now() - unacked.time_sent
       packet_delta = largest_acked.packet_number - unacked.packet_number
       if (time_since_sent > delay_until_lost):
         lost_packets.insert(unacked)
       else if (packet_delta > reordering_threshold)
         lost_packets.insert(unacked)
       else if (loss_time == 0 && delay_until_lost != infinite):
         loss_time = delay_until_lost - time_since_sent

     // Inform the congestion controller of lost packets and
     // lets it decide whether to retransmit immediately.
     OnPacketsLost(lost_packets)
     foreach (packet in lost_packets)
       sent_packets.remove(packet.packet_number)

4.  Congestion Control

   (describe NewReno-style congestion control [RFC6582] for QUIC.)
   (describe appropriate byte counting.) (define recovery based on
   packet numbers.) (describe min_rtt based hystart.) (describe how
   QUIC's F-RTO [RFC5682] delays reducing CWND.) (describe PRR
   [RFC6937])

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.  Yet.

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [QUIC-TRANSPORT]
              Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based
              Multiplexed and Secure Transport".






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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

6.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.dukkipati-tcpm-tcp-loss-probe]
              Dukkipati, N., Cardwell, N., Cheng, Y., and M. Mathis,
              "Tail Loss Probe (TLP): An Algorithm for Fast Recovery of
              Tail Losses", draft-dukkipati-tcpm-tcp-loss-probe-01 (work
              in progress), February 2013.

   [RFC5682]  Sarolahti, P., Kojo, M., Yamamoto, K., and M. Hata,
              "Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting
              Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP", RFC 5682,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5682, September 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5682>.

   [RFC5827]  Allman, M., Avrachenkov, K., Ayesta, U., Blanton, J., and
              P. Hurtig, "Early Retransmit for TCP and Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol (SCTP)", RFC 5827,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5827, May 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5827>.

   [RFC6298]  Paxson, V., Allman, M., Chu, J., and M. Sargent,
              "Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer", RFC 6298,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6298, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6298>.

   [RFC6582]  Henderson, T., Floyd, S., Gurtov, A., and Y. Nishida, "The
              NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm",
              RFC 6582, DOI 10.17487/RFC6582, April 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6582>.

   [RFC6937]  Mathis, M., Dukkipati, N., and Y. Cheng, "Proportional
              Rate Reduction for TCP", RFC 6937, DOI 10.17487/RFC6937,
              May 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6937>.

Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

Appendix B.  Change Log

      *RFC Editor's Note:* Please remove this section prior to
      publication of a final version of this document.






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Internet-Draft             QUIC Loss Detection                March 2017


B.1.  Since draft-ietf-quic-recovery-01

   o  Changes initial default RTT to 100ms

   o  Added time-based loss detection and fixes early retransmit

   o  Clarified loss recovery for handshake packets

   o  Fixed references and made TCP references informative

B.2.  Since draft-ietf-quic-recovery-00:

   o  Improved description of constants and ACK behavior

B.3.  Since draft-iyengar-quic-loss-recovery-01:

   o  Adopted as base for draft-ietf-quic-recovery.

   o  Updated authors/editors list.

   o  Added table of contents.

Authors' Addresses

   Jana Iyengar (editor)
   Google

   Email: jri@google.com


   Ian Swett (editor)
   Google

   Email: ianswett@google.com

















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