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Versions: 00 01

    Internet Draft                                        Diana Rawlins
    Expiration: May 2001                                       WorldCom
    File: draft-ietf-rap-acct-fr-pib-00.txt               Amol Kulkarni
                                                                  Intel
                                                           Kwok Ho Chan
                                                        Nortel Networks
                                                            Dinesh Dutt
                                                                  Cisco


     Framework of COPS-PR Policy Information Base for Accounting Usage

Status of this Memo

     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
     all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Drafts.

     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
     as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
     progress."

     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


Conventions used in this document

     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
     NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and
     "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
     [RFC-2119].

Abstract

   Currently there are no policy classes defined for the PEP to convey
   provisioned policy usage feedback to the PDP. The purpose of this
   document is to define the accounting framework PIB that specifies
   the policy classes common for COPS accounting type reports. The
   basic operation and objects for reporting usage information are
   defined in [COPS]. A specific clientSI accounting type object named
   REPORT is defined in [COPS-PR]. This document further describes
   operational behavior that is implied in [COPS] and [COPS-PR.]


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Table Of Contents

   1 Introduction.....................................................3
   2 General Concepts.................................................3
   2.1 Overview.......................................................3
   2.2 Normal Operation...............................................3
   2.3 Failover.......................................................4
   2.4 Context........................................................4
   2.5 Delete Request States..........................................4
   2.6 Periodic nature of report accounting...........................5
   3 Definition of Accounting Type Report Policy......................5
   4 Summary of the Accounting Framework Policy Information Base......6
   4.1 SPPI ACCESS clause Report......................................6
   4.2 Textual Conventions Counts.....................................7
   4.3 Accounting Type Report Group and PRCs..........................7
   4.3.1 The Accounting Type Report Device Table......................7
   4.3.2 The Accounting Type Report Resume Table......................7
   4.3.3 The Accounting Type Report Linkage Table.....................7
   4.3.4 The Filter Usage Table.......................................7
   5 The Accounting Framework PIB Module..............................8
   6 Security Considerations.........................................14
   7 Acknowledgements................................................14
   8 Authors' Addresses..............................................14
   9 References......................................................15





























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1 Introduction


   Policy usage reported by the PEP makes a richer set of information
   available to the PDP for decision-making. This report accounting
   information can influence future decisions made by the PDP and the
   resulting policy installed by the PDP at the PEP. For example, A PDP
   determining policy for a SIP signaled multimedia session may need to
   base the decision in part on usage information related to previously
   installed QoS policy decisions. Further, the PDP may coordinate this
   usage information with other external systems to determine the
   future policy such as the case with the PDP coordinating multimedia
   session QoS and clearinghouse authorizations [SIP-AAA-QOS]

   The scope of this document is to describe the policy class framework
   for policy usage monitored and reported by the PEP and collected at
   the PDP. The charging and billing models as well as other accounting
   events detectable by the PDP are beyond the scope of this framework.


2 General Concepts

2.1 Overview

   There are two aspects to defining policies for an accounting type
   report û the "who" aspect and the "what" aspect. The "who" is
   referred to generically as the selection criteria policy class. The
   "what" is referred to generically as the usage policy class. The
   usage policy and selection policy are associated with one another.
   The usage criteria policy class defines what is monitored, recorded
   and reported by the PEP. The selection criteria policy class
   specifies the conditions for the monitoring and recording of the
   associated usage policy. For example, a usage policy may be defined
   to provide counts of packets received. The selection criteria policy
   may identify the filter on which to base the packet counts. A third
   policy associates, or links, the selection and usage policies. This
   is the accounting type report linkage policy.


2.2 Normal Operation

   The PDP specifies the minimum accounting interval in the Accounting
   Timer object that is included in the Client Accept message during
   connection establishment. This specifies the frequency with which
   the PEP issues unsolicited accounting type reports. The PEP notifies
   the PDP of the maximum reporting interval as well as the selection
   criteria policy classes and usage policy classes it supports during
   the initial request for configuration data.

   The PDP responds to the initial request for configuration with a
   DECISION that installs policies. The PDP may also specify maximum
   reporting intervals. The PEP monitors and records the usage per the

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   selection criteria defined by the PDP. Periodically the PEP reports
   the usage with an accounting type REPORT. The interval of the
   reporting may be defined for the policy instance as long as the
   interval does not conflict with the intervals specified in the
   Client Accept or device reporting limitations.

   While it is not anticipated, if the volume of the usage policy
   instances for an accounting type report exceeds the maximum message
   size, multiple report messages containing the usage policy instances
   are constructed and issued to the PDP for that accounting interval.
   The Report-Type Object has a new parameter, Continuation Flag. This
   4-bit element is set to 0x1 to indicate additional report messages
   are immediately following and contain information related to the
   current report. The last accounting type report message in the
   series for this particular accounting interval clears the
   Continuation Flag.

   The PDP is the collection point for the usage information monitored
   and reported by the PEP clients within the administrative domain.
   The PDP may also collect other accounting event information that is
   outside the scope of this document.


2.3 Failover

   In the event the connection is lost between the PEP and PDP, the PEP
   continues to track usage information as long as it continues to
   operate with the installed policy. When the locally installed policy
   at the PEP expires, the usage policy data also expires.

   Upon successful reconnection where the PEP is still caching policy,
   the PDP indicates to the PEP that the PEP may resume sending of the
   accounting type report messages. The PDP does this
   deterministically. It issues an unsolicited decision containing the
   frwkAtRptResumeIndicator set to resume reporting. The PDP is aware
   of the request state Handle(s) and the supported PRCs either through
   the state synchronization mechanism or because the PDP considers
   itself synchronized with the PEP upon reconnection.

2.4 Context

   The monitoring and recording of usage policies is subject to context
   switches in a manner similar to enforcement policy. The usage policy
   is monitored, recorded and reported while the associated PIB
   instance is active. The PEP should retain existing accounting data
   during inactive contexts and resume it's monitoring and reporting
   when the PIB instance becomes active again.

2.5 Delete Request States

   The PEP may send any outstanding accounting data monitored during
   the interval to the PDP via an unsolicited report immediately prior
   to issuing a Delete Request State if the time interval since the

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   last report is not less than the interval defined by the Accounting
   Timer.  This is also the case when the PDP initiates the Delete
   Request State with a decision request delete state.

2.6 Periodic nature of report accounting

   The PDP informs the PEP of the minimal accounting interval it
   supports in the Accounting Timer object during client connection
   establishment. The PEP notifies the PDP of its maximum accounting
   interval capability during the initial configuration request. The
   PDP may specify accounting intervals in the specific accounting
   policies per the PEP's indicated capabilities.

   Generally the accounting policy is periodic in nature and the
   reporting is unsolicited. The unsolicited reports are supplied
   within the interval decided by the PDP. Note that periodic
   unsolicited reports (as dictated by timer intervals) use a
   deterministic amount of network resources.

   There may be instances where the nature of the accounting policy for
   a given client type or accounting PIB module is such that it is
   useful for the PDP to control when it receives the feedback. The PDP
   may therefore have the capability to solicit the accounting report.

3 Definition of Accounting Type Report Policy

   There are three basic types of policy used to define what the PEP is
   to monitor, record and report. These are the selection criteria
   policy, the usage policy and the accounting type report linkage
   policy.

   The selection criteria policy is installed by the PDP. It defines
   the conditions used by the PEP to monitor and record a usage policy.
   Generally, the selection criterion is an existing PRC such as the
   frwkIPFilterTable. This PRC is useful for specifying conditions on
   which to base usage û i.e. count the number of packets received for
   this filter. The filter (source address, destination address, etc.)
   in this case defines the conditions. In the case of the accounting
   framework PIB, the frwkIPFilterTable is the only PRC used to base
   selection on.

   The usage policy defines what attributes are monitored and recorded
   by the PEP. These policies have an ACCESS clause of Report.
   Generally, the usage policies specify counts related to a specific
   action such as a packet being dropped. The accounting framework PIB
   defines one usage policy class, frwkAtRptFilterStats. It counts
   packets and bytes as well as records the timestamp when the last
   packet was received. Usage PRCs may be generic, collecting basic
   statistics, or specific to a particular usage. The PDP decides which
   PRC(s) best suit(s) its requirements. The PEP may support only one
   usage PRC, in which case all statistics are gathered using instances
   of that PRC. Alternatively, the PEP may support multiple usage PRCs.
   The PDP then decides which PRC to associate with a particular

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   selection criterion. Multiple selection criteria may be associated
   with multiple instances of a single PRC.

   The accounting type report linkage permits the same selection
   criteria instance to be re-used for various usage policies. For
   example, the same IP Filter selection criteria could be the basis of
   different usage policies such as packet count, drop count, and
   remark count. The accounting type report linkage references the
   selection criteria instance as well as defines the policy class of
   the usage PRC. As noted above, the selection criteria policy may be
   used for enforcement policies as well as usage policies. This is the
   case with the frwkIPFilterTable.

       -------------------     -----------------    -----------------
      |                   |   |                |   |                 |
      | Select Criteria   |   |Linkage Instance|   |Usage Instance   |
      |                   |   |-instance ID    |   |- instance ID    |
      | -instance ID      |<--|-PRID of select |-->|- PRID of Linkage|
      | -conditionsà      |   |-PRC of usage   |   |- countsà        |
      |                   |   |                |   |                 |
       -------------------     ----------------     -----------------

                               Figure 1

   Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between a selection criteria,
   linkage and usage policies.

   The PDP is not aware of the instance identifier of the usage policy
   when installing the selection criteria and accounting type report
   linkage policies. The usage policy is enabled on the PEP by the
   accounting type report linkage and the PEP designates the instance
   identifier. The usage policy class always contains an attribute of
   type Prid. This attribute contains the value of the accounting type
   report linkage PRID [COPS-PR] installed by the PDP. The Prid type is
   a textual convention for an object identifier that is the PRC of the
   table used for the selection criteria and where the last sub-
   identifier is an instance ID of the accounting type report linkage.


4 Summary of the Accounting Framework Policy Information Base


4.1 SPPI ACCESS clause Report

   The selection criteria and linkage policy classes follow the
   definitions specified by [SPPI.] This structure specifies well-
   defined policy classes and their instances residing in a common,
   virtual repository [FR-PIB.] The additional PIB-ACCESS clause
   attribute of "report" denotes the usage policy class reported by the
   PEP.




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4.2 Textual Conventions Counts

   The usage policy attributes are often defined in the terms of
   counts. This type is a non-negative value that is incremented. This
   value is to "stick" at the maximum value if the maximum value is
   reached before the reporting interval. It is reset to the value zero
   after the usage is reported to the PDP and continues the incremental
   operation. A textual convention defining the counts is defined in
   the Accounting Framework PIB.

4.3 Accounting Type Report Group and PRCs

   It is useful to define reporting intervals and restart
   characteristics as well as the common usage and selection criteria
   polices. These policy classes are common to account type reporting
   for various technologies and apply to ALL SUBJECT-CATEGORIES. The
   policy classes belong to a new group, Accounting Type Report Group.
   The policy classes in the Accounting Type Report Group are:

   1) Accounting Type Report Device Intervals Table
   2) Accounting Type Report Linkage Table
   3) Accounting Type Filter Statistics Usage Table


4.3.1 The Accounting Type Report Device Table

   This table contains exactly one row. It defines the maximum
   reporting interval in seconds that the PEP can support.

4.3.2 The Accounting Type Report Resume Table

   This table contains one row. It indicates that the PDP, to which a
   PEP having cached usage policy has reconnected, is ready to receive
   the accounting type report messages from the PEP.

4.3.3 The Accounting Type Report Linkage Table

   This table links the selection criteria instance with the usage
   instance. It specifies the PRID of the selection criteria and the
   PRC of the usage instance. This table permits the reuse of a
   selection criteria instance for multiple usage policies.

   The linkage table also permits the definition of a maximum reporting
   interval to use when issuing the accounting type reports for the
   usage instance. The interval is not to conflict with the maximum
   interval for the device defined in the Accounting Type Report Device
   Table.


4.3.4 The Filter Usage Table

   This table describes the packet counts, byte counts, last timestamp
   when a packet was received and the PRID of the associated Accounting

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   Type Report Linkage instance. The count and timestamp information is
   monitored and recorded by the PEP and supplied to the PDP with the
   accounting type report message within the maximum interval
   specified.


5 The Accounting Framework PIB Module

   ACCOUNTING-FRAMEWORK-PIB PIB-DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

      IMPORTS
          ExtUTCTime, Unsigned32, Unsigned64, IpAddress,
          Integer32, MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE
                  FROM COPS-PR-SPPI
          TruthValue, TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
                  FROM SNMPv2-TC
          PolicyInstanceId, PolicyReferenceId
                  FROM COPS-PR-SPPI-TC;
          RoleCombination
                  FROM POLICY-DEVICE-AUX-MIB;

      acctPolFrameworkPib  MODULE-IDENTITY
          SUBJECT-CATEGORIES  { all }
          LAST-UPDATED "200011171000Z"
          ORGANIZATION "IETF RAP WG"
          CONTACT-INFO "
                        Diana Rawlins
                        WorldCom
                        901 International Parkway
                        Richardson, TX 75081
                        Phone: 972 729 1044
                        Email: diana.rawlins@wcom.com

                       Amol Kulkarni
                       JF3-206
                       2111 NE 25th Ave
                       Hillsboro, Oregon 97124
                       Phone: 503-712-1168
                       Email: amol.kulkarni@intel.com

                       Kwok Ho Chan
                       Nortel Networks, Inc.
                       600 Technology Park Drive
                       Billerica, MA 01821 USA
                       Phone: 978-288-8175
                       Email: khchan@nortelnetworks.com "


      DESCRIPTION
              "The PIB module containing the base set of policy rule
              classes that are required for support of all accounting
              and reporting policies"


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          ::= { tbd }
   --
   -- The accounting type report group
   --

   frwkAtRptGroupClasses
                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { acctPolFrameworkPib  2 }

   --
   -- Textual Conventions
   --
   Count ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
          STATUS       current
          DESCRIPTION
              "A count represents a value used by attributes that
               record policy usage. A count is of value zero or
               greater and is incremented according to defined
               policy usage. When the maximum value is reached, the
               value sticks. The value is reset to zero upon
               reporting the value to the PDP."

   SYNTAX Unsigned64 ( 0..18446744073709551615)

   --
   -- The accounting type report device characteristics
   --

   frwkAtRptDevTable OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX          SEQUENCE OF FrwkAtRptDevEntry
           PIB-ACCESS      notify
           STATUS          current
           DESCRIPTION
                 "This class contains a single PRI that specifies the
                 common reporting characteristics for the device."

           ::= { frwkAtRptGroupClasses  1}

   frwkAtRptDevEntry OBJECT-TYPE
           SYNTAX  FrwkAtRptDevEntry
           STATUS  current
           DESCRIPTION
                   "An instance of this class specifies the max
                    interval supported by the PEP."

           ::= { frwkAtRptDevTable 1}

   FrwkAtRptDevEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
           frwkAtRptDevPrid   InstanceId,
           frwkAtRptDevMax    Unsigned32
        }

   frwkAtRptDevPrid OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX        InstanceID

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        STATUS        current
        DESCRIPTION
           " An arbitrary integer index that uniquely identifies an
             instance of the frwkAtRptDevTable class."

        ::= { frwkAtRptDevEntry 1}

   frwkAtRptDevMax OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX  Unsigned32
        STATUS  current
        DESCRIPTION
                  "The maximum reporting interval in seconds between
                   accounting type reporting messages issued by the
                   PEP. "

        ::= { frwkAtRptDevEntry 2 }


   --
   --  resume reporting indicator
   --

   frwkAtRptResumeTable OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX          SEQUENCE OF FrwkAtRptResumeEntry
        PIB-ACCESS      install
        STATUS          current
        DESCRIPTION
                 "This class contains a single PRI that indicates
                 that the PEP is to resume the sending of
                 accounting type reports."

           ::= { frwkAtRptGroupClasses  2}

   frwkAtRptResumeEntry OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX  FrwkAtRptResumeEntry
        STATUS  current
        DESCRIPTION
                   "An instance of this class can indicate when to
                    resume sending accounting type reports
                    by the PEP."

           ::= { frwkAtRptResumeTable 1}

   FrwkAtRptResumeEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
           frwkAtRptResumePrid       InstanceId,
           frwkAtRptResumeIndicator  INTEGER
        }

   frwkAtRptDevPrid OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX        InstanceID
        STATUS        current
        DESCRIPTION
           " An arbitrary integer index that uniquely identifies an

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             instance of the frwkAtRptResumeTable class."

        ::= { frwkAtRptResumeEntry 1}

   frwkAtRptResumeIndicator OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX  INTEGER {
                    NO_REPORTS(0),
                    SEND_REPORTS(1)
                }
        STATUS  current
        DESCRIPTION
                  "The value indicates if the PEP is to send cached
                   usage policies via accounting type report messages.
                   The enumeration values are:
                   (0)  DonÆt send accounting type report messages
                   (1)  Resume accounting type report messages. Send
                        cached usage policies now "

          ::= { frwkAtRptResumeEntry 2 }




   --
   -- The Accounting Type Report Linkage Table
   --

   frwkAtRptLinkTable OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX          SEQUENCE OF FrwkAtRptLinkEntry
        PIB-ACCESS      notify
        STATUS          current
        DESCRIPTION
                 "This class associates the selection criteria with the
                  usage policy. It also permit the defining of the max
                  interval used for reporting the usage instance."

        ::= { frwkAtRptGroupClasses  3}

   frwkAtRptLinkEntry OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX          FrwkAtRptLinkEntry
        STATUS          current
        DESCRIPTION
                 "This class associates the selection criteria with the
                  usage policy. It also permit the defining of the max
                  interval used for reporting the usage instance."
        PIB-INDEX {frwkAtRptLinkId}
        UNIQUENESS { frwkAtRptLinkId,
                    frwkAtRptLinkSel,
                    frwkAtRptLinkUsage }
        ::= {frwkAtRptLinkTable 1}

   FrwkAtRptLinkEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
          frwkAtRptLinkId         InstanceID,

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          frwkAtRptLinkSel        Prid,
          frwkAtRptLinkUsage      OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
          frwkAtRptLinkInterval   Integer32

   }

   frwkAtRptLinkId OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX        InstanceID
        STATUS        current
        DESCRIPTION
           " An arbitrary integer index that uniquely identifies an
             instance of the frwkAtRptLinkTable class."
        ::= { frwkAtRptLinkEntry 1}

   frwkAtRptLinkSel OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX       Prid
        STATUS       current
        DESCRIPTION
            "The PRID of the selection criteria instance that
             defines the conditions to use by the PEP for
             monitoring the usage."

        ::= { frwkAtRptLinkEntry 2}

   frwkAtRptLinkUsage OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX      OBJECT IDENTIFIER
        STATUS      current
        DESCRIPTION
             "The PRC of the usage policy class that the PEP uses to
             monitor,record and report."

        ::= { frwkAtRptLinkEntry 3}

   frwkAtRptInterval  OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX   Integer32
        STATUS   current
        DESCRIPTION
                "Maximum interval in seconds between issuing accounting
                 type reports of this policy instance."

        ::= { frwkAtRptLinkEntry 4}

   --
   -- The filter statistics usage
   --

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageTable OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX          SEQUENCE OF FrwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry
        PIB-ACCESS      report
        STATUS          current
        DESCRIPTION
                 "This class defines the usage attributes that the PEP
                  is to monitor, record and report. It contains the

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                  of the PRID of the linkage instance associating
                  the selection criteria instance with the usage
                  instance."

        ::= { frwkAtRptGroupClasses  4}

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX          FrwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry
        STATUS          current
        DESCRIPTION
                 "Defines the attributes the PEP is to monitor,
                  record and report."
        PIB-INDEX {frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageId}
        UNIQUENESS { frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsagePRID }

        ::= {frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageTable 1}

   FrwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
         frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageId          InstanceID,
         frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsagePRID        Prid,
         frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsagePacketCount Counts,
         frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageByteCount   Counts,
         fwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageTimeStamp    ExtUTCTime

   }

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageId   OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX       InstanceId
        STATUS       current
        DESCRIPTION
                  "Arbitrary integer index that uniquely identifies
                   an instance of the class."
        ::= { frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry 1 }

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsagePRID  OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX      Prid
        STATUS       current
        DESCRIPTION
                  "The PRID of the selection criteria policy instance
                   used to base this usage policy instance upon. The
                   PRID is composed of the PRC of the selection
                   criteria
                   Instance and the last sub-identifier is that value
                   Of the selection criteria policy instance."

        ::= { frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry 2 }

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsagePacketCount OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX       Unsigned32
        STATUS       current
        DESCRIPTION
                  "The count of packets matching the specified filter
                   during the reporting interval."

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        ::= {frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry 3}

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageByteCount OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX       Unsigned64
        STATUS       current
        DESCRIPTION
                   "The byte count of packets matching the
                    specified filter during the reporting interval."

        ::= { frwkAtRptFilterStatsUsageEntry 4}

   frwkAtRptFilterStatsSelectTimeStamp OBJECT-TYPE
        SYNTAX   ExtUTCTime
        STATUS       current
        DESCRIPTION
                   "The last timestamp when a packet was received."

        ::= { frwkAtRptFilterStatsSelectEntry 5}

   END

6 Security Considerations

   The accounting information is sensitive and requires that
   authorized messaging occur between the PEP and the PDP. This
   protection can be accomplished with IPSEC between the PEP and the
   PDP or using the security mechanisms described in the base COPS
   protocol.

7 Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Dave Durham and Russell Fenger of
   Intel and John K. Gallant of WorldCom for their contribution to
   this document.

8 Authors' Addresses

         Diana Rawlins
         WorldCom
         901 International Parkway
         Richardson, Texas 75081
         Phone: 972-729-1044
         Email: Diana.Rawlins@wcom.com

         Amol Kulkarni
         JF3-206
         2111 NE 25th Ave
         Hillsboro, Oregon 97124
         Phone: 503-712-1168
         Email: amol.kulkarni@intel.com

         Kwok Ho Chan

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         Nortel Networks, Inc.
         600 Technology Park Drive
         Billerica, MA 01821 USA
         Phone: 978-288-8175
         Email: khchan@nortelnetworks.com

         Dinesh G Dutt
         Cisco Systems, Inc.
         170 Tasman Dr.
         San Jose, CA 95134-1706
         Phone: 408-527-0955
         Email: ddutt@cisco.com


9 References

   [COPS] Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Durham, D., Herzog, S., Rajan, R.,
   and A. Sastry, "The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol"
   RFC 2748, January 2000.

   [COPS-PR] K. Chan, D. Durham, S. Gai, S. Herzog, K. McCloghrie, F.
    Reichmeyer, J. Seligson, A. Smith, R. Yavatkar, "COPS Usage for
    Policy Provisioning," draft-ietf-rap-cops-pr-02.txt, March 2000.

   [SPPI] K. McCloghrie, et.al., "Structure of Policy Provisioning
   Information," draft-ietf-rap-sppi-00.txt, march 2000.

   [FR-PIB] M. Fine, K. McCloghrie, J. Seligson, K. Chan, S. Hahn, A.
    Smith, F. Reichmeyer "Framework Policy Information Base", Internet
    Draft , March 2000

   [DSPIB] M. Fine, K. McCloghrie, J. Seligson, K. Chan, S. Han, A.
   Smith, F. Reichmeyer, "Differentiated Services Quality of Service
   Policy Information Base", Internet Draft, March 2000

   [SIP-AAA-QOS] Gross, G.,Sinnreich, H. Rawlins D., Havinis, T. " QoS
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