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 Network Working Group                                           R. Santitoro
 Internet Draft                                               Nortel Networks
 Document: draft-ietf-rap-modify-sender-behavior-00.txt
 Category: Standards Track                                         R. Pabbati
 Expiration: December 2001                                          Y. Bernet
                                                                    Microsoft
 
                                                                    July 2001
 
              RSVP ErrorValues Used to Modify Sender Behavior
 
               draft-ietf-rap-modify-sender-behavior-00.txt
 
 Status of this Memo
 
    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
    provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].
 
    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
    Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups
    may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts
    are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated,
    replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is
    inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material or to cite
    them other than as "work in progress."
    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
 
 Conventions used in this document
 
    The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
    "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
    document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [2].
 
 1. Abstract
 
    This draft defines several mechanisms by which network policies can use
    RSVP signaling to control the behavior of compliant sending applications.
    Specifically, two new error codes are defined for use in the RSVP Policy
    Data object [RFC 2752]. In addition, a new use of the DCLASS object [RFC
    2996] is defined.
 
 2. Introduction
 
    The initial focus of RSVP was to offer enhanced service to quantitative,
    multimedia applications. Over the past few years, we have learned that
    this focus is inconsistent with the priorities of many network managers.
    Most network managers are primarily concerned with maintaining control of
    their network resources to protect qualitative, mission critical traffic.
    Ironically, this usually means either disallowing or severely restricting
    the deployment of just the type of multimedia application that RSVP was
 
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    originally intended to serve. If it were possible to better control the
    behavior of these applications, they would become more deployable. RSVP
    can be used to do so.
 
    From the perspective of a sender and a receiver of application traffic,
    the conventional usage of RSVP is as follows:
 
    1. Application sends PATH message.
 
    2. Receiver uses RESV message to request reservation of resources for
       transmitted traffic.
 
    3. Network either dedicates resources to the transmitted traffic or not
       (makes an admission control decision).
 
    4. The admission control decision is indicated to the *receiver*.
 
    5. Sender sends traffic regardless of the admission control decision.
 
    RSVP signaling focuses on allocating network resources rather than
    controlling the behavior of the sending application. (Certain
    applications may use out of band signaling between receiver and sender.
    This signaling can be used to convey the network's admission control
    decision from the receiver to the sender, in order to impact the behavior
    of the sender. However, there is no explicit mechanism by which network
    policies can use RSVP to control the behavior of the sender).
 
    RSVP has been adapted to address pragmatic concerns.  Its integration
    with DiffServ [RFC 2998] addresses scalability concerns.  The definition
    of the null service [RFC 2997] applies it to the type of qualitative
    mission critical applications that network managers deem most important
    to protect.  Finally, the specification of the DCLASS object [RFC 2996]
    provides a mechanism by which network policies can control the behavior
    of sending applications (by using RSVP signaling to tell the sending
    application or host which DSCP to use in marking its traffic).
 
    The ErrorValues and the DCLASS usage proposed in this draft provide the
    ability for network policies to explicitly control the behavior of
    sending applications.
 
    The first ErrorValue informs the sending application that it MUST NOT
    send the traffic described in its PATH message. The second ErrorValue
    informs the sending application that prioritized resources are not
    available but that it may proceed to send with no resource guarantees.
    (The ErrorValues are intended to be included in PATH_ERR messages, in
    response to corresponding PATH messages).
 
    Finally, the inclusion of a DCLASS object in a PATH_ERR message is also
    discussed.  In RFC 2996, the DCLASS object is discussed primarily in the
    context of RESV messages that are returned to the sender when a
    reservation request is admitted in the network.  By including a DCLASS
    object in PATH_ERR messages as described in this document, it is possible
 
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    to control the behavior of the sender when a reservation request is not
    admitted.
 
 3. New ErrorValues for Policy Error Object
 
    The Policy Error Object from the Policy Data Object (P-Type=1 or 2, A-
    Type=4, SubType=0) contains the ErrorValue field.  The following two new
    ErrorValues are defined below.
 
    ErrorValue                                 Description
    ------------------   ----------------------------------------------------
    7  DO_NOT_SEND       The network cannot accommodate the traffic described
                         in the sender's PATH message. The application must
                         not transmit this traffic.
 
    6  NO_QOS_PROVIDED   The application may send the traffic described in
                         the PATH message but the network will not offer any
                         service assurances.
 
 3.1. DO_NOT_SEND (ErrorValue=7)
 
    This ErrorValue is used to instruct sending applications not to send the
    traffic described in the PATH messages for the corresponding session.
    Note that this ErrorValue does not preclude sending altogether. Rather,
    it precludes sending per the profile described in the PATH messages for
    the session.  Compliant applications respond either by refraining from
    sending altogether, or by modifying their traffic profile (typically, to
    a less demanding profile).  The new traffic profile will be reflected in
    subsequent PATH messages and is less likely to elicit the DO_NOT_SEND
    response from the network.
 
    This ErrorValue enables network managers (via a policy management system)
    to limit the impact of certain applications on the network resources.  It
    is important to distinguish this mechanism from alternate control
    mechanisms available to the network manager.
 
    One alternative is to simply deny QoS to the sending application (as in
    rejecting RESV messages on the corresponding session).  Although this
    approach prevents the traffic transmitted on the session from interfering
    with other prioritized traffic, it does not prevent it from consuming
    best-effort resources.  Thus, the transmitted traffic will compete with
    all other best-effort applications.
 
    Another alternative is available to the network manager in certain cases.
    If the network is capable, it may force the traffic transmitted on the
    session to a less than best-effort (LBE) queue.  To do so, the network
    must identify the traffic on the session.  It may do so either by
    extracting the classification information for the session from the
    corresponding RSVP messages, or by causing the sending host to mark the
    traffic with a DSCP corresponding to LBE service. (The latter approach
    uses the DCLASS object as described in section 4).
 
 
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    While forcing traffic to an LBE queue does protect best-effort traffic,
    it requires functionality that may or may not be available in different
    parts of the network.  The DO_NOT_SEND ErrorValue makes it possible to
    deploy compliant applications on networks that do not support this
    functionality.
 
    Finally, an often-used alternative is to simply refuse to allow the
    deployment of aggressive applications on the network.
 
 3.2 NO_QOS_PROVIDED (ErrorValue=6)
 
    This ErrorValue indicates to the sending application that it will receive
    prioritized service for the traffic described in the PATH message for the
    corresponding session.  Unlike the DO_NOT_SEND ErrorValue, it does not
    preclude the application from sending.  Rather, it warns the application
    that transmitted traffic will not be assured any particular QoS.
 
    From the network perspective, this response is similar to rejecting RESV
    messages for the corresponding session.  However, unlike RESV message
    rejection (which is not indicated to the sender and may or may not be
    indicated to the receiver), the NO_QOS_PROVIDED ErrorValue gives
    immediate and explicit indication to the sender.
 
    The sender may respond to the NO_QOS_PROVIDED ErrorValue by either:
 
    - Not sending traffic on the corresponding session,
 
    - Proceeding to send the traffic described by the corresponding PATH
      message (with no QoS assurances) or
 
    - Modifying its traffic profile (typically, to a less demanding profile).
      The new traffic profile will be reflected in subsequent PATH messages
      and is less likely to elicit the NO_QOS_PROVIDED response from the
      network.
 
 4. Use of the DCLASS Object in PATH_ERR Messages
 
    As discussed in section 3.1, it is often desirable to force certain
    traffic to an LBE queue in the network. To do so, PEPs must either store
    classification information to be used in identifying the traffic
    (typically in the form of a 5-tuple), or the traffic must be marked
    explicitly for LBE service.  One way to mark traffic for LBE service is
    by marking the transmitted packets with an LBE DSCP.  The DCLASS object
    [RFC 2996] can be used by policy management systems to tell senders the
    DSCP with which to mark their traffic flows.  RFC 2996 focuses on the use
    of the DCLASS object in RSVP RESV messages.
 
    However, senders only receive RESV messages if the network has admitted
    the RSVP request.  If the network rejects the RSVP request, no RESV
    message will arrive at the sender and there is no mechanism by which to
    force the sender to mark the rejected traffic with a specific DSCP. In
    the absence of alternate mechanisms, rejected traffic is either sent with
 
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    the best-effort DSCP (DSCP=0) or is not sent at all (DO_NOT_SEND
    response).  We therefore propose that the DCLASS object be used in
    PATH_ERR messages when it is necessary to mark traffic on a session for
    which the corresponding RSVP request was rejected.  A DCLASS object in a
    PATH_ERR message can specify a DSCP that is interpreted by the network
    PEPs to correspond to an LBE service.
 
 5. Policies and Policy Server Support
 
    The mechanisms described are expected to be supported by policy servers
    (PDPs) that are COPS/RSVP [COPS-RSVP] conversant.  The following examples
    illustrate the types of policies that may be authored.
 
 5.1 Prevent Streaming Video App. from Compromising Best-Effort Services
 
    A policy would be created in a PDP that controls PEPs in the affected
    part of the network where streaming video applications are to be blocked.
    The policy would apply to all PATH messages including the application ID
    [RFC 2872] corresponding to the streaming video application. It would
    respond to each such PATH message with a PATH_ERR message specifying the
    DO_NOT_SEND ErrorValue.
 
 5.2 Allocate Prioritized Service to a Limited Volume of Streaming Video
     Application traffic while Preventing Excess Traffic from Compromising
     Best-Effort Service
 
    A policy would be created in a PDP that controls PEPs in the affected
    part of the network. The policy would admit RSVP resource requests
    including the application ID corresponding to the streaming video
    application, up to a maximum allowed bandwidth.  Once the maximum
    bandwidth is reached, additional resource requests will be rejected
    (using the conventional RESV_ERR message).  The network will preclude
    additional traffic by responding to the sender's PATH messages with a
    PATH_ERR message specifying the DO_NOT_SEND ErrorValue.
 
 5.3 Allocate Prioritized Service to a Limited Volume of Streaming Audio
     Traffic while Forcing Excess Traffic to LBE Service
 
    A policy would be created in a PDP that controls PEPs in the affected
    part of the network.  The policy would admit RSVP resource requests
    including the application ID corresponding to the streaming audio
    application, up to a maximum bandwidth.  Once the maximum bandwidth is
    reached, additional resource requests will be rejected (using the
    conventional RESV_ERR message).  However, additional traffic will not be
    precluded but rather, relegated to an LBE service.  PATH_ERR messages
    specifying the NO_QOS_PROVIDED ErrorValue and a DCLASS object (specifying
    a DSCP corresponding to LBE service) will be sent in response to PATH
    messages corresponding to the additional traffic. These will provide
    explicit and immediate notification to the sending application indicating
    that its traffic will not receive prioritized service and that it must be
    marked for LBE service.
 
 
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 6. Security Considerations
 
    Security mechanisms defined in [RFC 2752] apply to this draft.
 
 7. References
 
    [RFC 2753]  Yavatkar R., et. al. "A Framework for Policy-based Admission
                Control", RFC 2753, January 2000.
 
    [RFC 2750]  Herzog S., "RSVP Extensions for Policy Control", RFC 2750,
                January 2000.
 
    [RFC 2752]  Yadav S., et. al. "Identity Representation for RSVP", RFC
                2752, January 2000.
 
    [RFC 2872]  Bernet Y., Pabbati R. "Application and Sub Application
                Identity Policy Element for Use with RSVP", RFC 2872, June
                2000.
 
    [RFC 2996]  Bernet Y. "Format of the RSVP DCLASS Object", RFC 2996,
                November 2000.
 
    [COPS-RSVP] Herzog S., et. al. "COPS usage for RSVP", RFC 2749, January
                2000.
    [RFC 2997]  Bernet Y., et. al. "Specification of the Null Service Type",
                RFC 2997, November 2000.
 
    [RFC 2998]  Bernet Y., et. al. "A Framework for Integrated Services
                Operation over DiffServ Networks", RFC 2998, November 2000.
 
 8. Acknowledgements
 
    The authors would like to thank Kwok-Ho Chan, Ron Pashby, Eric Edwards
    and Nabil Seddigh for their input into the creation of this document.
 
 9. Author's Addresses
 
    Ralph Santitoro
    Nortel Networks
    4100 Guardian Street
    Simi Valley, CA 93063
    Phone: 805-527-3024
    Email: rsantito@nortelnetworks.com
 
    Ramesh Pabbati
    Microsoft
    1 Microsoft Way
    Redmond, WA  98054
    Phone: 425-936-9438
    Email: rameshpa@microsoft.com
 
    Yoram Bernet
 
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    Microsoft
    1 Microsoft Way
    Redmond, WA  98054
    Phone: 425-936-9568
    Email: yoramb@microsoft.com
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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