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Versions: 00 01 02 RFC 2074

Draft                  RMON Protocol Identifiers                May 1996


           Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifiers
                  <draft-ietf-rmonmib-rmonprot-02.txt>

                              22 May 1996


                              Andy Bierman
                           Cisco Systems Inc.
                           abierman@cisco.com

                              Robin Iddon
                          AXON Networks, Inc.
                            robini@axon.com





                          Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''

To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet- Drafts Shadow
Directories on ds.internic.net (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim).
















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1.  Introduction


This memo defines an experimental portion of the Management Information
Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet
community.  In particular, it describes the algorithms required to
identify different protocol encapsulations managed with the Remote
Network Monitoring MIB Version 2 [RMON2]. Although related to the
original Remote Network Monitoring MIB [RFC1757], this document refers
only to objects found in the RMON-2 MIB.








































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2.  The SNMP Network Management Framework

The SNMP Network Management Framework presently consists of three major
components.  They are:

o    the SMI, described in RFC 1902 [RFC1902], - the mechanisms used for
     describing and naming objects for the purpose of management.

o    the MIB-II, STD 17, RFC 1213 [RFC1213], - the core set of managed
     objects for the Internet suite of protocols.

o    the protocol, RFC 1157 [RFC1157] and/or RFC 1905 [RFC1905], - the
     protocol for accessing managed information.


Textual conventions are defined in RFC 1903 [RFC1903], and conformance
statements are defined in RFC 1904 [RFC1904].


The Framework permits new objects to be defined for the purpose of
experimentation and evaluation.


2.1.  Object Definitions

Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the
Management Information Base or MIB.  Objects in the MIB are defined
using the subset of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) defined in the
SMI.  In particular, each object type is named by an OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
an administratively assigned name.  The object type together with an
object instance serves to uniquely identify a specific instantiation of
the object.  For human convenience, we often use a textual string,
termed the descriptor, to refer to the object type.

















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3.  Overview

The RMON-2 MIB [RMON2] uses hierarchically formatted OCTET STRINGs to
globally identify individual protocol encapsulations in the
protocolDirTable.

This guide contains algorithms and examples of protocol identifier
encapsulations for use as INDEX values in the protocolDirTable.

This document is not intended to be an authoritative reference on the
protocols described herein. Refer to the Official Internet Standards
document [RFC1800], the Assigned Numbers document [RFC1700], or other
appropriate RFCs, IEEE documents, etc. for complete and authoritative
protocol information.



3.1.  Terms

Several terms are used throughout this document, as well as in the
RMON-2 MIB [RMON2], that should be introduced:

layer-identifier:
     An octet string fragment representing a particular protocol
     encapsulation layer. A string fragment identifying a particular
     protocol encapsulation layer. This string is exactly four octets,
     (except for the 'vsnap' base-layer identifier, which is exactly
     eight octets) encoded in network byte order. A particular protocol
     encapsulation can be identified by starting with a base layer
     encapsulation (see the 'Base Protocol Identifiers' section for more
     detail), and following the encoding rules specified in the CHILDREN
     clause and assignment section for that layer. Then repeat for each
     identified layer in the encapsulation. (See section 4.2.10
     'Evaluating a Protocol-Identifier INDEX' for more detail.)

protocol:
     A particular protocol layer, as specified by encoding rules in this
     document. Usually refers to a single layer in a given
     encapsulation. Note that this term is sometimes used in the RMON-2
     MIB [RMON2] to name a fully-specified protocol-identifier string.
     In such a case, the protocol-identifier string is named for its
     upper-most layer. A named protocol may also refer to any
     encapsulation of that protocol.







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protocol-identifier string:
     An octet string representing a particular protocol encapsulation,
     as specified by encoding rules in this document. This string is
     identified in the RMON-2 MIB [RMON2] as the protocolDirID object. A
     protocol-identifier string is composed of one or more layer-
     identifiers.

protocol-identifier macro:
     A group of formatted text describing a particular protocol layer,
     as used within the RMON-2 MIB [RMON2]. The macro serves several
     purposes:

     - Name the protocol for use within the RMON-2 MIB [RMON2].
     - Describe how the protocol is encoded into an octet string.
     - Describe how child protocols are identified (if applicable),
       and encoded into an octet string.
     - Describe which protocolDirParameters are allowed for the protocol.
     - Describe how the associated protocolDirType object is encoded
       for the protocol.
     - Provide reference(s) to authoritative documentation for the
       protocol.

protocol-variant-identifier macro:
     A group of formatted text describing a particular protocol layer,
     as used within the RMON-2 MIB [RMON2]. This protocol is a variant
     of a well known encapsulation that may be present in the
     protocolDirTable. This macro is used to document the working group
     assigned protocols, which are needed to identify protocols which
     cannot be practically identified by examination of 'appropriate
     network traffic' (e.g. the packets which carry them). All other
     protocols (which can be identified by examination of appropriate
     network traffic) should be documented using the protocol-identifier
     macro. A protocol-variant-identifier is documented using the
     protocol-variant version of the protocol-identifier macro.

protocol-parameter:
     A single octet, corresponding to a specific layer-identifier in the
     protocol-identifier. This octet is a bit-mask indicating special
     functions or capabilities that this agent is providing for the
     corresponding protocol.

protocol-parameters string:
     An octet string, which contains one protocol-parameter for each
     layer-identifier in the protocol-identifier.  See the section
     'Mapping of the PARAMETERS Clause' for more detail.  This string is





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     identified in the RMON-2 MIB [RMON2] as the protocolDirParameters
     object.

protocolDirTable INDEX:
     A protocol-identifier and protocol-parameters octet string pair
     that have been converted to an INDEX value, according to the
     encoding rules in in section 7.7 of RFC 1902 [RFC1902].

pseudo-protocol:
     A convention or algorithm used only within this document for the
     purpose of encoding protocol-identifier strings.


3.2.  Relationship to the Remote Network Monitoring MIB

This document is intended to identify possible string values for the
OCTET STRING objects protocolDirID and protocolDirParameters.  Tables in
the new Protocol Distribution, Host, and Matrix groups use a local
INTEGER INDEX, in order to remain unaffected by changes in this
document. Only the protocolDirTable uses the strings (protocolDirID and
protocolDirParameters) described in this document.

This document is not intended to limit the protocols that may be
identified for counting in the RMON-2 MIB. Many protocol encapsulations,
not explicitly identified in this document, may be present in an actual
implementation of the protocolDirTable. Also, implementations of the
protocolDirTable may not include all the protocols identified in the
example section below.

This document is intentionally separated from the MIB objects to allow
frequent updates to this document without any republication of MIB
objects.  Protocol Identifier macros submitted from the RMON working
group and community at large (to the RMONMIB WG mailing list at
'rmonmib@cisco.com') will be collected and added to this document,
approximately three times a year. Macros submissions will be collected
in the RMONMIB WG archive under the directory
"ftp://ftp.cisco.com/ftp/rmonmib/rmon2_pi_macros/" or in the mailing
list message archive file "ftp://ftp.cisco.com/ftp/rmonmib/rmonmib".

This document does not discuss auto-discovery and auto-population of the
protocolDirTable. This functionality is not explicitly defined by the
RMON standard. An agent should populate the directory with 'interesting'
protocols--depending on the intended applications.







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3.3.  Relationship to the Other MIBs

The RMON Protocol Identifiers document is intended for use with the
protocolDirTable within the RMON MIB. It is not relevant to any other
MIB, or intended for use with any other MIB.













































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4.  Protocol Identifier Encoding

The protocolDirTable is indexed by two OCTET STRINGs, protocolDirID and
protocolDirParameters. To encode the table index, each variable-length
string is converted to an OBJECT IDENTIFIER fragment, according to the
encoding rules in section 7.7 of RFC 1902 [RFC1902]. Then the index
fragments are simply concatenated. (Refer to figures 1a - 1d below for
more detail.)

The first OCTET STRING (protocolDirID) is composed of one or more 4-
octet "layer-identifiers". The entire string uniquely identifies a
particular protocol encapsulation tree. The second OCTET STRING,
(protocolDirParameters) which contains a corresponding number of 1-octet
protocol-specific parameters, one for each 4-octet layer-identifier in
the first string.

A protocol layer is normally identified by a single 32-bit value.  Each
layer-identifier is encoded in the ProtocolDirID OCTET STRING INDEX as
four sub-components [ a.b.c.d ], where 'a' - 'd' represent each byte of
the 32-bit value in network byte order.  If a particular protocol layer
cannot be encoded into 32 bits, (except for the 'vsnap' base layer) then
it must be defined as a 'wgAssigned' protocol (see below for details on
working group assigned protocols).



























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The following figures show the differences between the OBJECT IDENTIFIER
and OCTET STRING encoding of the protocol identifier string.

                   Fig. 1a
         protocolDirTable INDEX Format
         -----------------------------

     +---+--------------------------+---+---------------+
     | c !                          | c !  protocolDir  |
     | n !  protocolDirID           | n !  Parameters   |
     | t !                          | t !               |
     +---+--------------------------+---+---------------+

                   Fig. 1b
         protocolDirTable OCTET STRING Format
         ------------------------------------

      protocolDirID
     +----------------------------------------+
     |                                        |
     |              4 * N octets              |
     |                                        |
     +----------------------------------------+

     protocolDirParameters
     +----------+
     |          |
     | N octets |
     |          |
     +----------+

                    Fig. 1c
        protocolDirTable INDEX Format Example
        -------------------------------------

     protocolDirID                   protocolDirParameters
     +---+--------+--------+--------+--------+---+---+---+---+---+
     | c |  proto |  proto |  proto |  proto | c |par|par|par|par|
     | n |  base  |    L3  |   L4   |   L5   | n |ba-| L3| L4| L5|
     | t |(+flags)|        |        |        | t |se |   |   |   |
     +---+--------+--------+--------+--------+---+---+---+---+---+ subOID
     | 1 | 4 or 8 |    4   |    4   |    4   | 1 |1/2| 1 | 1 | 1 | count

     where N is the number of protocol-layer-identifiers required
     for the entire encapsulation of the named protocol. Note that





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     the 'vsnap' base layer identifier is encoded into 8 sub-identifiers,
     All other protocol layers are either encoded into 4 sub-identifiers
     or encoded as a 'wgAssigned' protocol.

                    Fig. 1d
       protocolDirTable OCTET STRING Format Example
       --------------------------------------------

     protocolDirID
     +--------+--------+--------+--------+
     |  proto |  proto |  proto |  proto |
     |   base |    L3  |   L4   |   L5   |
     |        |        |        |        |
     +--------+--------+--------+--------+ octet
     | 4 or 8 |    4   |    4   |    4   | count


     protocolDirParameters
     +---+---+---+---+
     |par|par|par|par|
     |ba-| L3| L4| L5|
     |se |   |   |   |
     +---+---+---+---+ octet
     |1/2| 1 | 1 | 1 | count

     where N is the number of protocol-layer-identifiers required
     for the entire encapsulation of the named protocol. Note that
     the 'vsnap' base layer identifier is encoded into 8
     protocolDirID sub-identifiers and 2 protocolDirParameters
     sub-identifiers.


Although this example indicates four encapsulated protocols, in
practice, any non-zero number of layer-identifiers may be present,
theoretically limited only by OBJECT IDENTIFIER length restrictions, as
specified in section 3.5 of RFC 1902 [RFC1902].

Note that these two strings would not be concatenated together if ever
returned in a GetResponse PDU, since they are different MIB objects.
However, protocolDirID and protocolDirParameters are not currently
readable MIB objects.









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4.1.  ProtocolDirTable INDEX Format Examples

 -- HTTP; fragments counted from IP and above
 ether2.ip.tcp.www-http =
    16.0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.6.0.0.0.80.4.0.1.0.0

 -- SNMP over UDP/IP over SNAP
 snap.ip.udp.snmp =
    16.0.0.0.3.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.17.0.0.0.161.4.0.0.0.0

 -- SNMP over IPX over SNAP
 snap.ipx.snmp =
    12.0.0.0.3.0.0.129.55.0.0.144.15.3.0.0.0

 -- SNMP over IPX over raw8023
 -- wgAssigned(ipxOverRaw8023(1)).snmp =
    12.0.0.0.5.0.0.0.1.0.0.155.15.3.0.0.0

 -- IPX over LLC
 llc.ipx =
    8.0.0.0.2.0.224.224.3.2.0.0

 -- SNMP over UDP/IP over any link layer
 -- wildcard-ether2.ip.udp.snmp
    16.1.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.17.0.0.0.161.4.0.0.0.0

 -- IP over any link layer; base encoding is IP over ether2
 -- wildcard-ether2.ip
    8.2.1.0.1.0.0.8.0.2.0.0

-- Appletalk Phase 2 over ether2
-- ether2.atalk
   8.0.0.0.1.0.0.128.155.2.0.0

-- Appletalk Phase 2 over vsnap
-- vsnap(apple).atalk
   12.0.0.0.4.0.8.0.7.0.0.128.155.3.0.0.0


4.2.  Protocol Identifier Macro Format

The following example is meant to introduce the protocol-identifier
macro. (The syntax is not quite ASN.1.) This macro is used to represent
both protocols and protocol-variants.






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If the 'VariantOfPart' component of the macro is present, then the macro
represents a protocol-variant instead of a protocol.  A protocol-
variant-identifier is used only for working group assigned protocols,
enumerated under the 'wgAssigned' base-layer.


     RMON-PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER MACRO ::=
     BEGIN
             PIMacroName "PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER"
                     VariantOfPart
                     "PARAMETERS"   ParamPart
                     "ATTRIBUTES"   AttrPart
                     "DESCRIPTION"  Text
                     ChildDescrPart
                     AddrDescrPart
                     DecodeDescrPart
                     ReferPart
             "::=" "{" EncapsPart "}"

             PIMacroName ::=
                 identifier

             VariantOfPart ::=
                 "VARIANT-OF" identifier | empty

             ParamPart ::=
                 "{" ParamList "}"

             ParamList ::=
                 Params | empty

             Params ::=
                 Param | Params "," Param

             Param ::=
                 identifier "(" nonNegativeNumber ")"

             AttrPart ::=
                 "{" AttrList "}"

             AttrList ::=
                 Attrs | empty

             Attrs ::=
                 Attr | Attrs "," Attr





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             Attr ::=
                 identifier "(" nonNegativeNumber ")"

             ChildDescrPart ::=
                 "CHILDREN" Text | empty

             AddrDescrPart ::=
                 "ADDRESS-FORMAT" Text | empty

             DecodeDescrPart ::=
                 "DECODING" Text | empty

             ReferPart ::=
                 "REFERENCE" Text | empty

             EncapsPart ::=
                 "{" Encaps "}"

             Encaps ::=
                 Encap | Encaps "," Encap

             Encap ::=
                 BaseEncap | NormalEncap | VsnapEncap | WgEncap

             BaseEncap ::=
                 nonNegativeNumber

             NormalEncap ::=
                 identifier nonNegitiveNumber

             VsnapEncap ::=
                 identifier "(" nonNegativeNumber ")" nonNegativeNumber

             WgEncap ::=
                 "wgAssigned" nonNegativeNumber
                 | "wgAssigned" identifier
                 | "wgAssigned" identifier "(" nonNegativeNumber ")"

             Text ::=
                 """" string """"
     END









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4.2.1.  Mapping of the Protocol Name

The 'PIMacroName' value should be a lower-case ASCII string, and contain
the name or acronym identifying the protocol.  NMS applications may
treat protocol names as case-insensitive strings, and agent
implementations must make sure the protocolDirTable does not contain any
instances of the protocolDirDescr object which differ only in the case
of one of more letters (if the identifiers are intended to represent
different protocols).

It is possible that different encapsulations of the same protocol (which
are represented by different entries in the protocolDirTable) will be
assigned the same protocol name.

A protocol name should match the "most well-known" name or acronym for
the indicated protocol.  For example, the document indicated by the URL:

    ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/protocol-numbers

defines IP Protocol field values, so protocol-identifier macros for
children of IP should be given names consistent with the protocol names
found in this authoritative document.



4.2.2.  Mapping of the VARIANT-OF Clause

This clause is present for working group assigned protocols only.  It
identifies the protocol-identifier macro that most closely represents
this particular protocol, and is known as the "reference protocol".  (A
protocol-identifier macro must exist for the reference protocol.) When
this clause is present in a protocol-identifier macro, the macro is
called a 'protocol-variant-identifier'.

Any clause (e.g. CHILDREN, ADDRESS-FORMAT) in the reference protocol-
identifier macro should not be duplicated in the protocol-variant-
identifier macro, if the 'variant' protocols' semantics are identical
for a given clause.

Since the PARAMETERS and ATTRIBUTES clauses must be present in a
protocol-identifier, an empty 'ParamPart' and 'AttrPart' (i.e.
"PARAMETERS {}") must be present in a protocol-variant-identifier macro,
and the 'ParamPart' and 'AttrPart' found in the reference protocol-
identifier macro examined instead.






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Note that if a 'wgAssigned' protocol is defined that is not a variant of
any other documented protocol, then the protocol-identifier macro should
be used instead of the protocol-variant-identifier version of the macro.



4.2.3.  Mapping of the PARAMETERS Clause

The protocolDirParameters object provides an NMS the ability to turn on
and off expensive probe resources. An agent may support a given
parameter all the time, not at all, or subject to current resource load.

The PARAMETERS clause is a list of bit definitions which can be directly
encoded into the associated ProtocolDirParameters octet in network byte
order. Zero or more bit definitions may be present. Only bits 0-7 are
valid encoding values. This clause defines the entire BIT set allowed
for a given protocol. A conforming agent may choose to implement a
subset of zero or more of these PARAMETERS.

By convention, the following common bit definitions are used by
different protocols.  These bit positions must not be used for other
parameters. They should be reserved if not used by a given protocol.
Bits are encoded in network-byte order.



























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         Table 3.1  Reserved PARAMETERS Bits
         ------------------------------------

     Bit Name              Description
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------
     0   countsFragments   higher-layer protocols encapsulated within
                           this protocol will be counted correctly even
                           if this protocol fragments the upper layers
                           into multiple packets.
     1   tracksSessions    correctly attributes all packets of a protocol
                           which starts sessions on well known ports or
                           sockets and then transfers them to dynamically
                           assigned ports or sockets thereafter (e.g. TFTP).


The PARAMETERS clause must be present in all protocol-identifier macro
declarations, but may be equal to zero (empty). Note that an NMS must
determine if a given PARAMETER bit is supported by attempting to create
the desired protocolDirEntry The associated ATTRIBUTE bits for
'countsFragments' and 'tracksSessions' do not exist.


4.2.3.1.  Mapping of the 'countsFragments(0)' BIT

This bit indicates whether the probe is correctly attributing all
fragmented packets of the specified protocol, even if individual frames
carrying this protocol cannot be identified as such.  Note that the
probe is not required to actually present any re-assembled datagrams
(for address-analysis, filtering, or any other purpose) to the NMS.

This bit may only be set in a protocolDirParameters octet which
corresponds to a protocol that supports fragmentation and reassembly in
some form. Note that TCP packets are not considered 'fragmented-streams'
and so TCP is not eligible.

This bit may be set in at most one protocolDirParameters octet within a
protocolDirTable INDEX.



4.2.3.2.  Mapping of the 'tracksSessions(1)' BIT

The 'tracksSessions(1)' bit indicates whether frames which are part of
remapped-sessions (e.g. TFTP download sessions) are correctly counted by
the probe. For such a protocol, the probe must usually analyze all





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packets received on the indicated interface, and maintain some state
information, (e.g. the remapped UDP port number for TFTP).

The semantics of the 'tracksSessions' parameter are independent of the
other protocolDirParameters definitions, so this parameter may be
combined with any other legal parameter configurations.



4.2.4.  Mapping of the ATTRIBUTES Clause

The protocolDirType object provides an NMS with an indication of a
probe's capabilities for decoding a given protocol, or the general
attributes of the particular protocol.

The ATTRIBUTES clause is a list of bit definitions which are encoded
into the associated instance of ProtocolDirType. The BIT definitions are
specified in the SYNTAX clause of the protocolDirType MIB object.
































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         Table 3.2  Reserved ATTRIBUTES Bits
         ------------------------------------

     Bit Name              Description
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------
     0  hasChildren        indicates that there may be children of
                           this protocol defined in the protocolDirTable
                           (by either the agent or the manager).
     1  addressRecognitionCapable
                           indicates that this protocol can be used
                           to generate host and matrix table entries.


The ATTRIBUTES clause must be present in all protocol-identifier macro
declarations, but may be empty.


4.2.5.  Mapping of the DESCRIPTION Clause

The DESCRIPTION clause provides a textual description of the protocol
identified by this macro.  Notice that it should not contain details
about items covered by the CHILDREN, ADDRESS-FORMAT, DECODING and
REFERENCE clauses.

The DESCRIPTION clause must be present in all protocol-identifier macro
declarations.


4.2.6.  Mapping of the CHILDREN Clause

The CHILDREN clause provides a description of child protocols for
protocols which support them. It has three sub-sections:

  -  Details on the field(s)/value(s) used to select the child protocol,
     and how that selection process is performed

  -  Details on how the value(s) are encoded in the protocol identifier
     octet string

  -  Details on how child protocols are named with respect to their
     parent protocol label(s)

The CHILDREN clause must be present in all protocol-identifier macro
declarations in which the 'hasChildren(0)' BIT is set in the ATTRIBUTES
clause.





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4.2.7.  Mapping of the ADDRESS-FORMAT Clause

The ADDRESS-FORMAT clause provides a description of the OCTET-STRING
format(s) used when encoding addresses.

This clause must be present in all protocol-identifier macro
declarations in which the 'addressRecognitionCapable(1)' BIT is set in
the ATTRIBUTES clause.

4.2.8.  Mapping of the DECODING Clause

The DECODING clause provides a description of the decoding procedure for
the specified protocol. It contains useful decoding hints for the
implementor, but should not over-replicate information in documents
cited in the REFERENCE clause.  It might contain a complete description
of any decoding information required.

For 'extensible' protocols ('hasChildren(0)' BIT set) this includes
offset and type information for the field(s) used for child selection as
well as information on determining the start of the child protocol.

For 'addressRecognitionCapable' protocols this includes offset and type
information for the field(s) used to generate addresses.

The DECODING clause is optional, and may be omitted if the REFERENCE
clause contains pointers to decoding information for the specified
protocol.


4.2.9.  Mapping of the REFERENCE Clause

If a publicly available reference document exists for this protocol it
should be listed here.  Typically this will be a URL if possible; if not
then it will be the name and address of the controlling body.

The CHILDREN, ADDRESS-FORMAT, and DECODING clauses should limit the
amount of information which may currently be obtained from an
'authoritative' document, such as the Assigned Numbers document
[RFC1700]. Any duplication or paraphrasing of information should be
brief and consistent with the authoritative document.

The REFERENCE clause is optional, but should be implemented if an
authoritative reference exists for the protocol (especially for standard
protocols).






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4.2.10.  Evaluating a Protocol-Identifier INDEX

The following evaluation is done after protocolDirTable INDEX value has
been converted into two OCTET STRINGs according to the INDEX encoding
rules specified in the SMI [RFC1902].

Protocol-identifiers are evaluated left to right, starting with the
protocolDirID, which length should be evenly divisible by four. The
protocolDirParameters length should be exactly one quarter of the
protocolDirID string length.

Protocol-identifier parsing starts with the base layer identifier, which
must be present, and continues for one or more upper layer identifiers,
until all OCTETs of the protocolDirID have been used. Layers may not be
skipped, so identifiers such as 'SNMP over IP' or 'TCP over anylink' can
not exist.

The base-layer-identifier also contains a 'special function identifier'
which may apply to the rest of the protocol identifier.

Wild-carding at the base layer within a protocol encapsulation is the
only supported special function at this time. Refer to the 'Base
Protocol Identifiers' section for wildcard encoding rules.

After the protocol-tree identified in protocolDirID has been parsed,
each parameter bit-mask (one octet for each 4-octet layer-identifier) is
evaluated, and applied to the corresponding protocol layer.

A protocol-identifier label may map to more than one value.  For
instance, 'ip' maps to 5 distinct values, one for each supported
encapsulation.  (see the 'IP' section under 'L3 Protocol Identifiers'),

It is important to note that these macros are conceptually expanded at
implementation time, not at run time.

If all the macros are expanded completely by substituting all possible
values of each label for each child protocol, a list of all possible
protocol-identifiers is produced.  So 'ip' would result in 5 distinct
protocol-identifiers.  Likewise each child of 'ip' would map to at least
5 protocol-identifiers, one for each encapsulation (e.g. ip over ether2,
ip over LLC, etc.).









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5.  Protocol Identifier Macros

The following PROTOCOL IDENTIFIER macros can be used to construct
protocolDirID and protocolDirParameters strings.

The sections defining protocol examples are intended to grow over
subsequent releases. Minimal protocol support is included at this time.
(Refer to section 3.2 for details on the protocol macro update
procedure.)

An identifier is encoded by constructing the base-identifier, then
adding one layer-identifier for each encapsulated protocol.


5.1.  Base Identifier Encoding

The first layer encapsulation is called the base identifier and it
contains optional protocol-function information and the base layer (e.g.
MAC layer) enumeration value used in this protocol identifier.

The base identifier is encoded as four octets as shown in figure 2.

          Fig. 2
     base-identifier format
     +---+---+---+---+
     |   |   |   |   |
     | f |op1|op2| m |
     |   |   |   |   |
     +---+---+---+---+ octet
     | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | count

The first octet ('f') is the special function code, found in table 4.1.
The next two octets ('op1' and 'op2') are operands for the indicated
function. If not used, an operand must be set to zero.  The last octet,
'm', is the enumerated value for a particular base layer encapsulation,
found in table 4.2.  All four octets are encoded in network-byte-order.



5.1.1.  Protocol Identifier Functions

The base layer identifier contains information about any special
functions to perform during collections of this protocol, as well as the
base layer encapsulation identifier.






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The first three octets of the identifier contain the function code and
two optional operands. The fourth octet contains the particular base
layer encapsulation used in this protocol (fig. 2).

     Table 4.1  Assigned Protocol Identifier Functions
     -------------------------------------------------

           Function     ID    Param1               Param2
           ----------------------------------------------------
           none          0    not used (0)         not used (0)
           wildcard      1    not used (0)         not used (0)



5.1.1.1.  Function 0: No-op

If the function ID field (1st octet) is equal to zero, the the 'op1' and
'op2' fields (2nd and 3rd octets) must also be equal to zero. This
special value indicates that no functions are applied to the protocol
identifier encoded in the remaining octets. The identifier represents a
normal protocol encapsulation.


5.1.1.2.  Function 1: Protocol Wildcard Function

The wildcard function (function-ID = 1), is used to aggregate counters,
by using a single protocol value to indicate potentially many base layer
encapsulations of a particular network layer protocol. A
protocolDirEntry of this type will match any base-layer encapsulation of
the same protocol.

The 'op1' field (2nd octet) is not used and must be set to zero.

The 'op2' field (3rd octet) is not used and must be set to zero.

Each wildcard protocol identifier must be defined in terms of a 'base
encapsulation'. This should be as 'standard' as possible for
interoperability purposes. If an encapsulation over 'ether2' is
permitted, than this should be used as the base encapsulation.

The agent may also be requested to count some or all of the individual
encapsulations for the same protocols, in addition to wildcard counting.
Note that the RMON-2 MIB [RMON2] does not require that agents maintain
counters for multiple encapsulations of the same protocol.  It is an
implementation-specific matter as to how an agent determines which





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protocol combinations to allow in the protocolDirTable at any given
time.



5.2.  Base Layer Protocol Identifiers

The base layer is mandatory, and defines the base encapsulation of the
packet and any special functions for this identifier.

There are no suggested protocolDirParameters bits for the base layer.

The suggested ProtocolDirDescr field for the base layer is given by the
corresponding "Name" field in the table 4.1 below. However,
implementations are only required to use the appropriate integer
identifier values.

For most base layer protocols, the protocolDirType field should contain
bits set for  the 'hasChildren(0)' and 'addressRecognitionCapable(1)'
attributes.  However, the special 'wgAssigned' base layer should have no
parameter or attribute bits set.

By design, only 255 different base layer encapsulations are supported.
There are five base encapsulation values defined at this time. New base
encapsulations (e.g. for new media types) are expected to be added over
time.


     Table 4.2  Base Layer Encoding Values
     --------------------------------------

           Name          ID
           ------------------
           ether2        1
           llc           2
           snap          3
           vsnap         4
           wgAssigned    5


5.2.1.  Ether2 Encapsulation

ether2 PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {





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        hasChildren(0),
        addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "DIX Ethernet, also called Ethernet-II."
    CHILDREN
       "The Ethernet-II type field is used to select child protocols.
       This is a 16-bit field.  Child protocols are deemed to start at
       the first octet after this type field.

       Children of this protocol are encoded as [ 0.0.0.1 ], the
       protocol identifier for 'ether2' followed by [ 0.0.a.b ] where
       'a' and 'b' are the network byte order encodings of the MSB and
       LSB of the Ethernet-II type value.

       For example, a protocolDirID-fragment value of:
          0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0 defines IP encapsulated in ether2.

       Children of are named as 'ether2' followed by the type field
       value in hexadecimal.  The above example would be declared as:
          ether2 0x0800"
    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "Ethernet addresses are 6 octets in network order."
    DECODING
       "Only type values greater than or equal to 1500 decimal indicate
       Ethernet-II frames; lower values indicate 802.3 encapsulation
       (see below)."
    REFERENCE
       "A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Ethernet
       Networks; RFC 894 [RFC894].

       The authoritative list of Ether Type values is identified by the
       URL:

          ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/ethernet-numbers"
    ::= { 1 }

5.2.2.  LLC Encapsulation

llc PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
        hasChildren(0),
        addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }





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    DESCRIPTION
       "The LLC (802.2) protocol."
    CHILDREN
       "The LLC SSAP and DSAP (Source/Dest Service Access Points) are
       used to select child protocols.  Each of these is one octet long,
       although the least significant bit is a control bit and should be
       masked out in most situations.  Typically SSAP and DSAP (once
       masked) are the same for a given protocol - each end implicitly
       knows whether it is the server or client in a client/server
       protocol.  This is only a convention, however, and it is possible
       for them to be different.  The SSAP is matched against child
       protocols first.  If none is found then the DSAP is matched
       instead.  The child protocol is deemed to start at the first
       octet after the LLC control field(s).

       Children of 'llc' are encoded as [ 0.0.0.2 ], the protocol
       identifier component for LLC followed by [ 0.0.0.a ] where 'a' is
       the SAP value which maps to the child protocol.  For example, a
       protocolDirID-fragment value of:
          0.0.0.2.0.0.0.240

       defines NetBios over LLC.

       Children are named as 'llc' followed by the SAP value in
       hexadecimal.  So the above example would have been named:
          llc 0xf0"
    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "The address consists of 6 octets of MAC address in network
       order.  Source routing bits should be stripped out of the address
       if present."
    DECODING
       "Notice that LLC has a variable length protocol header; there are
       always three octets (DSAP, SSAP, control).  Depending on the
       value of the control bits in the DSAP, SSAP and control fields
       there may be an additional octet of control information.

       LLC can be present on several different media.  For 802.3 and
       802.5 its presence is mandated (but see ether2 and raw802.3
       encapsulations).  For 802.5 there is no other link layer
       protocol.

       Notice also that the raw802.3 link layer protocol may take
       precedence over this one in a protocol specific manner such that
       it may not be possible to utilize all LSAP values if raw802.3 is
       also present."





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    REFERENCE
       "The authoritative list of LLC LSAP values is controlled by the
       IEEE Registration Authority:
       IEEE Registration Authority
          c/o Iris Ringel
          IEEE Standards Dept
          445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331
          Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
          Phone +1 908 562 3813
          Fax: +1 908 562 1571"
    ::= { 2 }

5.2.3.  SNAP over LLC (OUI=000) Encapsulation

snap PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
        hasChildren(0),
        addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "The Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) is layered on top of LLC
       protocol, allowing Ethernet-II protocols to be run over a media
       restricted to LLC."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of 'snap' are identified by Ethernet-II type values;
       the SNAP PID (Protocol Identifier) field is used to select the
       appropriate child.  The entire SNAP protocol header is consumed;
       the child protocol is assumed to start at the next octet after
       the PID.

       Children of 'snap' are encoded as [ 0.0.0.3 ], the protocol
       identifier for 'snap', followed by [ 0.0.a.b ] where 'a' and 'b'
       are the MSB and LSB of the Ethernet-II type value.  For example,
       a protocolDirID-fragment value of:
          0.0.0.3.0.0.8.0

       defines the IP/SNAP protocol.

       Children of this protocol are named 'snap' followed by the
       Ethernet-II type value in hexadecimal.  The above example would
       be named:

          snap 0x0800"
    ADDRESS-FORMAT





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         "The address format for SNAP is the same as that for LLC"
    DECODING
       "SNAP is only present over LLC.  Both SSAP and DSAP will be 0xAA
       and a single control octet will be present.  There are then three
       octets of OUI and two octets of PID.  For this encapsulation the
       OUI must be 0x000000 (see 'vsnap' below for non-zero OUIs)."
    REFERENCE
       "SNAP Identifier values are assigned by the IEEE Standards
       Office.  The address is:
               IEEE Registration Authority
               c/o Iris Ringel
               IEEE Standards Dept
               445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331
               Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
               Phone +1 908 562 3813
               Fax: +1 908 562 1571"
    ::= { 3 }

5.2.4.  SNAP over LLC (OUI != 000) Encapsulation

vsnap PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
        hasChildren(0),
        addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "This pseudo-protocol handles all SNAP packets which do not have
       a zero OUI.  See 'snap' above for details of those that do."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of 'vsnap' are selected by the 3 octet OUI; the PID is
       not parsed; child protocols are deemed to start with the first
       octet of the SNAP PID field, and continue to the end of the
       packet.

       Children of 'vsnap' are encoded as [ 0.0.0.4 ], the protocol
       identifier for 'vsnap', followed by [ 0.a.b.c.0.0.d.e ] where
       'a', 'b' and 'c' are the 3 octets of the OUI field in network
       byte order. This is in turn followed by the 16-bit EtherType
       value, where the 'd' and 'e' represent the MSB and LSB of the
       EtherType, respectively.

       For example, a protocolDirID-fragment value of:
         0.0.0.4.0.8.0.7.0.0.128.155






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       defines the Appletalk Phase 2 protocol over vsnap.

       Note that two protocolDirParameters octets must be present in
       protocolDirTable INDEX values for 'vsnap' protocols.  The first
       protocolDirParameters octet defines the actual parameters. The
       second protocolDirParameters octet is not used and must be set to
       zero.

       Children are named as 'vsnap(<OUI>) <ethertype>', where the
       '<OUI>' field is represented as 3 octets in hexadecimal notation
       or the ASCII string associated with the OUI value. The
       <ethertype> field is represented by the 2 byte EtherType value in
       hexadecimal notation. So the above example would be named:

         'vsnap(0x080007) 0x809b' or 'vsnap(apple) 0x809b'"
    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "The LLC address format is inherited by 'vsnap'.  See the 'llc'
       protocol identifier for more details."
    DECODING
       "Same as for 'snap' except the OUI is non-zero."
    REFERENCE
       "SNAP Identifier values are assigned by the IEEE Standards
       Office.  The address is:
               IEEE Registration Authority
               c/o Iris Ringel
               IEEE Standards Dept
               445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331
               Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
               Phone +1 908 562 3813
               Fax: +1 908 562 1571"
    ::= { 4 }

5.2.5.  Working Group Assigned Protocols

wgAssigned PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "This branch contains protocols which do not conform easily to
       the hierarchical format utilized in the other link layer
       branches.  Usually, such a protocol 'almost' conforms to a
       particular 'well-known' identifier format, but additional
       criteria are used (e.g. configuration-based), making protocol
       identification difficult or impossible by examination of
       appropriate network traffic.  preventing the any 'well-known'





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       protocol-identifier macro from being used.

       Sometimes well-known protocols are simply remapped to a different
       port number by one or more venders (e.g. SNMP). These protocols
       can be identified with the 'user-extensibility' feature of the
       protocolDirTable, and do not need special working group
       assignments.

       A centrally located list of these enumerated protocols must be
       maintained by the RMON working group to insure interoperability.
       (See section 3.2 for details on the document update procedure.)
       Support for new link-layers will be added explicitly, and only
       protocols which cannot possibly be represented in a better way
       will be considered as 'wgEnumerated' protocols.

       Working group protocols are identified by the base-layer-selector
       value [ 0.0.0.5 ], followed by the four octets [ a.b.c.d ] of the
       integer value corresponding to the particular WG protocol.

       Do not create children of this protocol unless you are sure that
       they cannot be handled by the more conventional link layers
       above."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of this protocol are identified by implementation-
       specific means, described (as best as possible) in the 'DECODING'
       clause within the protocol-variant-identifier macro for each
       enumerated protocol.

       For example, a protocolDirID-fragment value of:
          0.0.0.5.0.0.0.1

       defines the IPX protocol encapsulated directly in 802.3

       Children are named 'wgAssigned' followed by the name or numeric
       of the particular working group assigned protocol. The above
       example would be named:

          'wgAssigned 1' or 'wgAssigned ipxOverRaw8023'"

    DECODING
       "The 'wgAssigned' base layer is a pseudo-protocol and is not
       decoded."
    REFERENCE
       "Refer to individual PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER macros for information
       on each child of the working group assigned protocol."





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    ::= { 5 }

5.2.5.1.  Working Group Assigned Protocol Identifiers

The following protocol-variant-identifier macro declarations are used to
identify the RMONMIB WG assigned protocols in a proprietary way, by
simple enumeration. Note that an additional four-octet layer identifier
may be used for some enumerations (as with the 'vsnap' base-layer
identifier). Refer to the 'CHILDREN' clause in the protocol-identifier
macro for a particular protocol to determine the number of octets in the
'wgAssigned' layer-identifier.

ipxOverRaw8023 PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    VARIANT-OF  "ipx"
    PARAMETERS  { }
    ATTRIBUTES  { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "This pseudo-protocol describes an encapsulation of IPX over
       802.3, without a type field.

       Refer to the macro for IPX for additional information about this
       protocol."
    DECODING
       "Whenever the 802.3 header indicates LLC a set of protocol
       specific tests needs to be applied to determine whether this is a
       'raw8023' packet or a true 802.2 packet.  The nature of these
       tests depends on the active child protocols for 'raw8023' and is
       beyond the scope of this document."
    ::= { wgAssigned 1 }


5.3.  L3: Children of Base Protocol Identifiers

Network layer protocol identifier macros contain additional information
about the network layer, and is found immediately following a base
layer-identifier in a protocol identifier.

The ProtocolDirParameters supported at the network layer are
'countsFragments(0)', and 'tracksSessions(1). An agent may choose to
implement a subset of these parameters.

The protocol-name should be used for the ProtocolDirDescr field.  The
ProtocolDirType ATTRIBUTES used at the network layer are
'hasChildren(0)' and 'addressRecognitionCapable(1)'. Agents may choose
to implement a subset of these attributes for each protocol, and





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therefore limit which tables the indicated protocol can be present (e.g.
protocol distribution, host, and matrix tables)..

The following protocol-identifier macro declarations are given for
example purposes only. They are not intended to constitute an exhaustive
list or an authoritative source for any of the protocol information
given.  However, any protocol that can encapsulate other protocols must
be documented here in order to encode the children identifiers into
protocolDirID strings. Leaf protocols should be documented as well, but
an implementation can identify a leaf protocol even if it isn't listed
here (as long as the parent is documented).


5.3.1.  IP

ip PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS {
          countsFragments(0)  -- This parameter applies to all child
                              -- protocols.
    }
    ATTRIBUTES {
        hasChildren(0),
        addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "The protocol identifiers for the Internet Protocol (IP). Note
       that IP may be encapsulated within itself, so more than one of
       the following identifiers may be present in a particular
       protocolDirID string."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of 'ip' are selected by the value in the Protocol field
       (one octet), as defined in the PROTOCOL NUMBERS table within the
       Assigned Numbers Document.

       The value of the Protocol field is encoded in an octet string as
       [ 0.0.0.a ], where 'a' is the protocol field .

       Children of 'ip' are encoded as [ 0.0.0.a ], and named as 'ip a'
       where 'a' is the protocol field value. For example, a
       protocolDirID-fragment value of:
          0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.1

       defines an encapsulation of ICMP (ether2.ip.icmp)"
    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "4 octets of the IP address, in network byte order.  Each ip





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       packet contains two addresses, the source address and the
       destination address."
    DECODING
       "Note: ether2/ip/ipip4/udp is a different protocolDirID than
       ether2/ip/udp, as identified in the protocolDirTable. As such,
       two different local protocol index values will be assigned by the
       agent. E.g. (full INDEX values shown):
        ether2/ip/ipip4/udp 16.0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.4.0.0.0.17.4.0.0.0.0
        ether2/ip/udp       12.0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.17.3.0.0.0 "
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 791 [RFC791] defines the Internet Protocol; The following
       URL defines the authoritative repository for the PROTOCOL NUMBERS
       Table:

          ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/protocol-numbers"
    ::= {
          ether2 0x0800,
          llc 0x06,
          snap 0x0800,
          ip 4,
          ip 94
    }



5.3.2.  IPX

ipx PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
         hasChildren(0),
         addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Novell IPX"
    CHILDREN
       "Children of IPX are defined by the 16 bit value of the
       Destination Socket field.  The value is encoded into an octet
       string as [ 0.0.a.b ], where 'a' and 'b' are the network byte
       order encodings of the MSB and LSB of the destination socket
       field."
    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "4 bytes of Network number followed by the 6 bytes Host address
       each in network byte order".
    REFERENCE





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       "The IPX protocol is defined by the Novell Corporation

       A complete description of IPX may be secured at the following
       address:
              Novell, Inc.
              122 East 1700 South
              P. O. Box 5900
              Provo, Utah 84601 USA
              800 526 5463
              Novell Part # 883-000780-001"
    ::= {
        ether2     0x8137,           -- 0.0.129.55
        llc        0xe0e003,         -- 0.224.224.3
        snap       0x8137,           -- 0.0.129.55
        wgAssigned 0x1               -- 0.0.0.1   (ipxOverRaw8023)
    }


5.3.3.  ARP

arp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "An Address Resolution Protocol message (request or response).
       This protocol does not include Reverse ARP (RARP) packets, which
       are counted separately."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 826 [RFC826] defines the Address Resolution Protocol."
    ::= {
        ether2 0x806,   -- [ 0.0.8.6 ]
        snap 0x806
    }

5.3.4.  IDP

idp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
         hasChildren(0),
         addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Xerox IDP"
    CHILDREN





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       "Children of IDP are defined by the 8 bit value of the Packet
       type field.  The value is encoded into an octet string as [
       0.0.0.a ], where 'a' is the value of the packet type field in
       network byte order."
    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "4 bytes of Network number followed by the 6 bytes Host address
       each in network byte order".
    REFERENCE
       "Xerox Corporation, Document XNSS 028112, 1981"
    ::=  {
       ether2  0x600,     -- [ 0.0.6.0 ]
       snap    0x600
    }


5.3.5.  Appletalk ARP

atalkarp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Appletalk Address Resolution Protocol."
    REFERENCE
       "AppleTalk Phase 2 Protocol Specification, document ADPA
       #C0144LL/A."
    ::=   {
      ether2 0x80f3,  --  [ 0.0.128.243 ]
      vsnap(0x080007) 0x80f3
    }

5.3.6.  Appletalk

atalk PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
        hasChildren(0),
        addressRecognitionCapable(1)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "AppleTalk Protocol."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of ATALK are defined by the 8 bit value of the DDP type
       field.  The value is encoded into an octet string as [ 0.0.0.a ],
       where 'a' is the value of the DDP type field in network byte
       order."





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    ADDRESS-FORMAT
       "2 bytes of Network number followed by 1 byte of node id each in
       network byte order".
    REFERENCE
       "AppleTalk Phase 2 Protocol Specification, document ADPA
       #C0144LL/A."
    ::=   {
      ether2  0x809b,   -- [ 0.0.128.155 ]
      vsnap(0x080007) 0x809b
    }


5.4.  L4: Children of L3 Protocols

5.4.1.  ICMP

icmp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Internet Message Control Protocol."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 792 [RFC792] defines the Internet Control Message Protocol."
    ::= { ip 1 }

5.4.2.  TCP

tcp  PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
         hasChildren(0)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Transmission Control Protocol."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of TCP are identified by the 16 bit Destination Port
       value as specified in RFC 793. They are encoded as [ 0.0.a.b],
       where 'a' is the MSB and 'b' is the LSB of the Destination Port
       value. Both bytes are encoded in network byte order.  For
       example, a protocolDirId-fragment of:
           0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.6.0.0.0.23

       identifies an encapsulation of the telnet protocol
       (ether2.ip.tcp.telnet)"
    REFERENCE





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       "RFC 793 [RFC793] defines the Trasmission Control Protocol.

       The following URL defines the authoritative repository for
       reserved and registered TCP port values:

         ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/port-numbers"
    ::=  { ip 6 }

5.4.3.  UDP

udp  PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
         hasChildren(0)
    }
    DESCRIPTION
       "User Datagram Protocol."
    CHILDREN
       "Children of UDP are identified by the 16 bit Destination Port
       value as specified in RFC 768. They are encoded as [ 0.0.a.b ],
       where 'a' is the MSB and 'b' is the LSB of the Destination Port
       value. Both bytes are encoded in network byte order.  For
       example, a protocolDirId-fragment of:
           0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.17.0.0.0.161

       identifies an encapsulation of SNMP (ether2.ip.udp.snmp)"
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 768 [RFC768] defines the User Datagram Protocol.

       The following URL defines the authoritative repository for
       reserved and registered UDP port values:

         ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/port-numbers"
   ::= { ip 17 }

5.5.  L5: Applicataion Layer Protocols

5.5.1.  FTP

5.5.1.1.  FTP-DATA
ftp-data PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "The File Transfer Protocol Data Port; the FTP Server process





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       default data-connection port. "
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 959 [RFC959] defines the File Transfer Protocol.  Refer to
       section 3.2 of [RFC959] for details on FTP data connections."
    ::= { tcp 20 }

5.5.1.2.  FTP Control

ftp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "The File Transfer Protocol Control Port; An FTP client initiates
       an FTP control connection by sending FTP commands from user port
       (U) to this port."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 959 [RFC959] defines the File Transfer Protocol."
    ::= { tcp 21 }

5.5.2.  Telnet

telnet PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "The Telnet Protocol; The purpose of the TELNET Protocol is to
       provide a fairly general, bi-directional, eight-bit byte oriented
       communications facility.  Its primary goal is to allow a standard
       method of interfacing terminal devices and terminal-oriented
       processes to each other. "
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 854 [RFC854] defines the basic Telnet Protocol."
    ::= { tcp 23 }

5.5.3.  SMTP

smtp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol; SMTP control and data
       messages are sent on this port."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 821 [RFC821] defines the basic Simple Mail Transfer
       Protocol."





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    ::= { tcp 25 }

5.5.4.  DNS

domain PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Domain Name Service Protocol; DNS may be transported by either
       UDP [RFC768] or TCP [RFC793].  If the transport is UDP, DNS
       requests restricted to 512 bytes in length may be sent to this

       port."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 1035 [RFC1035] defines the Bootstrap Protocol."
    ::= { udp 53,
          tcp 53  }

5.5.5.  BOOTP

5.5.5.1.  Bootstrap Server Protocol

bootps PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Bootstrap Protocol Server Protocol; BOOTP Clients send requests
       (usually broadcast) to the bootps port."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 951 [RFC951] defines the Bootstrap Protocol."
    ::= { udp 67 }

5.5.5.2.  Bootstrap Client Protocol

bootpc PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Bootstrap Protocol Client Protocol; BOOTP Server replies are
       sent to the BOOTP Client using this destination port."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 951 [RFC951] defines the Bootstrap Protocol."
    ::= { udp 68 }








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5.5.6.  TFTP

tftp PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS {
        tracksSessions(1)
    }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Trivial File Transfer Protocol; Only the first packet of each
       TFTP transaction will be sent to port 69. If the tracksSessions
       attribute is set, then packets for each TFTP transaction will be
       attributed to tftp, instead of the unregistered port numbers that
       will be encoded in subsequent packets."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 1350 [RFC1350] defines the TFTP Protocol (revision 2); RFC
       1782 [RFC1782] defines TFTP Option Extensions; RFC 1783 [RFC1783]
       defines the TFTP Blocksize Option; RFC 1784 [RFC1784] defines
       TFTP Timeout Interval and Transfer Size Options."

    ::= { udp 69 }

5.5.7.  HTTP

www-http PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Hypertext Transfer Protocol; "
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 1945 [RFC1945] defines the Hypertext Transfer Protocol
       (HTTP/1.0)."
    ::= { tcp 80 }

5.5.8.  POP3

pop3 PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Post Office Protocol -- Version 3. Clients establish connections
       with POP3 servers by using this destination port number."
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 1725 [RFC1725] defines Version 3 of the Post Office
       Protocol."
    ::= { tcp 110 }





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5.5.9.  SUNRPC

sunrpc PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES {
                hasChildren(0)   -- port mapper function numbers
        }
    DESCRIPTION
       "SUN Remote Procedure Call Protocol. Port mapper function
       requests are sent to this destination port."
    CHILDREN
       Specific RPC functions are represented as children of the sunrpc
       protocol. Each 'RPC function protocol' is identified by its
       function number assignment. RPC function number assignments are
       defined by different naming authorities, depending of the
       function identifier value.
       From [RFC1831]:

       Program numbers are given out in groups of hexadecimal 20000000
       (decimal 536870912) according to the following chart:

                     0 - 1fffffff   defined by rpc@sun.com
              20000000 - 3fffffff   defined by user
              40000000 - 5fffffff   transient
              60000000 - 7fffffff   reserved
              80000000 - 9fffffff   reserved
              a0000000 - bfffffff   reserved
              c0000000 - dfffffff   reserved
              e0000000 - ffffffff   reserved

       Children of 'sunrpc' are encoded as [ 0.0.0.111], the protocol
       identifier component for 'sunrpc', followed by [ a.b.c.d ], where
       a.b.c.d is the 32 bit binary RPC program number encoded in
       network byte order.  For example, a protocolDirID-fragment value
       of:
           0.0.0.111.0.1.134.163

       defines the NFS function (and protocol).

       Children are named as 'sunrpc' followed by the RPC function
       number in base 10 format. For example, NFS would be named:
           'sunrpc 100003'.
    REFERENCE
       "RFC 1831 [RFC1831] defines the Remote Procedure Call Protocol
       Version 2.  The authoritative list of RPC Functions is identified





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       by the URL:
           ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/sun-rpc-numbers"
    ::= { udp 111 }

5.5.10.  NFS

nfs  PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS {
                countsFragments(0)
        }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Sun Network File System (NFS);"
    DECODING
       "The first packet in an NFS transaction is sent to the port-
       mapper, and therefore decoded statically by monitoring RFC
       portmap requests [RFC1831]. Any subsequent NFS fragments must be
       decoded and correctly identified by 'remembering' the port
       assignments used in each RPC function call (as identified
       according to the procedures in the RPC Specification Version 2
       [RFC1831]).

       The 'countsFragments(0)' PARAMETER bit is used to indicate
       whether the probe can (and should) monitor portmapper activity to
       correctly attribute all NFS packets."
    REFERENCE
       "The NFS Version 3 Protocol Specification is defined in RFC 1813
       [RFC1813]."
    ::= {
        sunrpc 100003           --  [0.1.134.163]
    }

5.5.11.  SNMP

5.5.11.1.  SNMP Request/Response
snmp  PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Simple Network Management Protocol. Includes SNMPv1 and SNMPv2
       protocol versions. Does not include SNMP trap packets."
    REFERENCE
       "The SNMP SMI is defined in RFC 1902 [RFC1902]. The SNMP
       protocol is defined in RFC 1905 [RFC1905].  Transport mappings
       are defined in RFC 1906 [RFC1906]; RFC 1420 (SNMP over IPX)





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       [RFC1420]; RFC 1419 (SNMP over AppleTalk) [RFC1419]."
    ::= {
        udp 161,
        ipx 0x900f,   -- [ 0.0.144.15 ]
        atalk 8
    }

5.5.11.2.  SNMP Trap

snmptrap PROTOCOL-IDENTIFIER
    PARAMETERS { }
    ATTRIBUTES { }
    DESCRIPTION
       "Simple Network Management Protocol Trap Port."
    REFERENCE
       "The SNMP SMI is defined in RFC 1902 [RFC1902]. The SNMP
       protocol is defined in RFC 1905 [RFC1905].  Transport mappings
       are defined in RFC 1906 [RFC1906]; RFC 1420 (SNMP over IPX)
       [RFC1420]; RFC 1419 (SNMP over AppleTalk) [RFC1419]."
    ::= {
        udp 162,
        ipx 0x9010,
        atalk 9
    }

6.  Acknowledgements

This document was produced by the IETF RMONMIB Working Group.

The authors wish to thank the following people for their contributions
to this document:

     Anil Singhal
     Frontier Software Development, Inc.

     Jeanne Haney
     Bay Networks

     Dan Hansen
     Network General Corp.










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7.  References

[RFC768]
     Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
     USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1980.

[RFC791]
     Postel, J., ed., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program
     Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 791, USC/Information Sciences
     Institute, September 1981.

[RFC792]
     Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol - DARPA Internet
     Program Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 792, USC/Information
     Sciences Institute, September 1981.

[RFC793]
     Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet Program
     Protocol Specification", STD 5, RFC 793, USC/Information Sciences
     Institute, September 1981.

[RFC821]
     Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 821,
     USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1982.

[RFC826]
     Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol or
     "Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48-bit Ethernet Addresses
     for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37, RFC 826, MIT-LCS,
     November 1982.

[RFC854]
     Postel, J. and Reynolds, J., "Telnet Protocol Specification", RFC
     854, ISI, May 1983.

[RFC894]
     C.OHornig, "A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over
     Ethernet Networks", RFC 894, Symbolics, April 1984.

[RFC951]
     Croft, B., and J. Gilmore, "BOOTSTRAP Protocol (BOOTP)", RFC 951,
     Stanford and SUN Microsytems, September 1985.

[RFC959]
     Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol", RFC 959,





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     USC/Information Sciences Institute, October 1985.

[RFC1035]
     Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation and Specification",
     STD 13, RFC 1035, USC/Information Sciences Institute, November
     1987.

[RFC1157]
     Case, J., M. Fedor, M. Schoffstall, J. Davin, "Simple Network
     Management Protocol", RFC 1157, SNMP Research, Performance Systems
     International, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, May 1990.

[RFC1213]
     McCloghrie, K., and M. Rose, Editors, "Management Information Base
     for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II", STD 17,
     RFC 1213, Hughes LAN Systems, Performance Systems International,
     March 1991.

[RFC1350]
     Sollins, K., "TFTP Protocol (revision 2)", RFC 1350, MIT, July
     1992.

[RFC1419]
     Minshall, G., and M.  Ritter, "SNMP over AppleTalk", RFC 1419,
     Novell, Inc., Apple Computer, Inc., March 1993.

[RFC1420]
     Bostock, S., "SNMP over IPX", RFC 1420, Novell, Inc., March 1993.

[RFC1700]
     Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", STD 2, RFC 1700,
     USC/Information Sciences Institute, October 1994.

[RFC1725]
     Myers, J., and M. Rose, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3", RFC
     1725, Carnegie Mellon, Dover Beach Consulting, November 1994.

[RFC1757]
     S. Waldbusser, "Remote Network Monitoring MIB", RFC 1757, Carnegie
     Mellon University, February 1995.

[RFC1782]
     Malkin, G., and A. Harkin, T "TFTP Option Extension", RFC 1782,
     Xylogics, Inc., Hewlett Packard Co., March 1995.






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[RFC1783]
     Malkin, G., and A. Harkin, T "TFTP BlockOption Option", RFC 1783,
     Xylogics, Inc., Hewlett Packard Co., March 1995.

[RFC1784]
     Malkin, G., and A. Harkin, "TFTP Timeout Interval and Transfer Size
     Options", RFC 1784, Xylogics, Inc., Hewlett Packard Co., March
     1995.

[RFC1800]
     Postel, J., Editor, "Internet Official Protocol Standards", STD 1,
     RFC 1800, IAB, July 1995.

[RFC1831]
     Srinivasan, R., "Remote Procedure Call Protocol Version 2", RFC
     1831, Sun Microsystems, Inc., August 1995.

[RFC1902]
     SNMPv2 Working Group, Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and
     S. Waldbusser, "Structure of Management Information for version 2
     of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1902,
     January 1996.

[RFC1903]
     SNMPv2 Working Group, Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and
     S. Waldbusser, "Textual Conventions for version 2 of the Simple
     Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1903, January 1996.

[RFC1904]
     SNMPv2 Working Group, Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and
     S. Waldbusser, "Conformance Statements for version 2 of the Simple
     Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1904, January 1996.

[RFC1905]
     SNMPv2 Working Group, Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and
     S. Waldbusser, "Protocol Operations for version 2 of the Simple
     Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1905, January 1996.

[RFC1906]
     SNMPv2 Working Group, Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and S.
     Waldbusser, "Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the Simple Network
     Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1906, January 1996.

[RFC1945]
     Berners-Lee, T., and R. Fielding, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --





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     HTTP/1.0", RFC 1945, MIT/UC-Irvine, November 1995.

[RMON2]
     S. Waldbusser, "Remote Network Monitoring MIB (RMON-2)", draft-
     ietf-rmonmib-rmon2-03.txt, International Network Services, January
     1996.












































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8.  Security Considerations

Security issues are not discussed in this memo.


9.  Authors' Addresses

     Andy Bierman
     Cisco Systems, Inc.
     170 West Tasman Drive
     San Jose, CA 95134
     Phone: 408-527-3711
     Email: abierman@cisco.com

     Robin Iddon
     3Com/AXON
     40/50 Blackfrias Street
     Edinburgh, UK
     Phone: +44 131.558.3888
     Email: robini@axon.com






























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Table of Contents


1 Introduction ....................................................    2
2 The SNMP Network Management Framework ...........................    3
2.1 Object Definitions ............................................    3
3 Overview ........................................................    4
3.1 Terms .........................................................    4
3.2 Relationship to the Remote Network Monitoring MIB .............    6
3.3 Relationship to the Other MIBs ................................    7
4 Protocol Identifier Encoding ....................................    8
4.1 ProtocolDirTable INDEX Format Examples ........................   11
4.2 Protocol Identifier Macro Format ..............................   11
4.2.1 Mapping of the Protocol Name ................................   14
4.2.2 Mapping of the VARIANT-OF Clause ............................   14
4.2.3 Mapping of the PARAMETERS Clause ............................   15
4.2.3.1 Mapping of the 'countsFragments(0)' BIT ...................   16
4.2.3.2 Mapping of the 'tracksSessions(1)' BIT ....................   16
4.2.4 Mapping of the ATTRIBUTES Clause ............................   17
4.2.5 Mapping of the DESCRIPTION Clause ...........................   18
4.2.6 Mapping of the CHILDREN Clause ..............................   18
4.2.7 Mapping of the ADDRESS-FORMAT Clause ........................   19
4.2.8 Mapping of the DECODING Clause ..............................   19
4.2.9 Mapping of the REFERENCE Clause .............................   19
4.2.10 Evaluating a Protocol-Identifier INDEX .....................   20
5 Protocol Identifier Macros ......................................   21
5.1 Base Identifier Encoding ......................................   21
5.1.1 Protocol Identifier Functions ...............................   21
5.1.1.1 Function 0: No-op .........................................   22
5.1.1.2 Function 1: Protocol Wildcard Function ....................   22
5.2 Base Layer Protocol Identifiers ...............................   23
5.2.1 Ether2 Encapsulation ........................................   23
5.2.2 LLC Encapsulation ...........................................   24
5.2.3 SNAP over LLC (OUI=000) Encapsulation .......................   26
5.2.4 SNAP over LLC (OUI != 000) Encapsulation ....................   27
5.2.5 Working Group Assigned Protocols ............................   28
5.2.5.1 Working Group Assigned Protocol Identifiers ...............   30
5.3 L3: Children of Base Protocol Identifiers .....................   30
5.3.1 IP ..........................................................   31
5.3.2 IPX .........................................................   32
5.3.3 ARP .........................................................   33
5.3.4 IDP .........................................................   33
5.3.5 Appletalk ARP ...............................................   34
5.3.6 Appletalk ...................................................   34
5.4 L4: Children of L3 Protocols ..................................   35





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5.4.1 ICMP ........................................................   35
5.4.2 TCP .........................................................   35
5.4.3 UDP .........................................................   36
5.5 L5: Applicataion Layer Protocols ..............................   36
5.5.1 FTP .........................................................   36
5.5.1.1 FTP-DATA ..................................................   36
5.5.1.2 FTP Control ...............................................   37
5.5.2 Telnet ......................................................   37
5.5.3 SMTP ........................................................   37
5.5.4 DNS .........................................................   38
5.5.5 BOOTP .......................................................   38
5.5.5.1 Bootstrap Server Protocol .................................   38
5.5.5.2 Bootstrap Client Protocol .................................   38
5.5.6 TFTP ........................................................   39
5.5.7 HTTP ........................................................   39
5.5.8 POP3 ........................................................   39
5.5.9 SUNRPC ......................................................   40
5.5.10 NFS ........................................................   41
5.5.11 SNMP .......................................................   41
5.5.11.1 SNMP Request/Response ....................................   41
5.5.11.2 SNMP Trap ................................................   42
6 Acknowledgements ................................................   42
7 References ......................................................   43
8 Security Considerations .........................................   47
9 Authors' Addresses ..............................................   47

























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