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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 RFC 5857

Network Working Group                                          R. Jasani
Internet-Draft                                               J. Pezeshki
Intended status: Experimental                                 E. Ertekin
Expires: March 26, 2007                                      C. Christou
                                                     Booz Allen Hamilton
                                                      September 22, 2006


Extensions to IKEv2 to Support Header Compression over IPsec (HCoIPsec)
                 draft-ietf-rohc-ikev2-extensions-hcoipsec-00.txt


Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 26, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   When using Header Compression (HC) schemes in conjunction with IPsec
   (i.e., [HCOIPSEC]) a mechanism is needed to negotiate both the HC
   scheme and any associated configuration parameters between end-points
   prior to operation.  Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is a mechanism which
   can be leveraged to handle these negotiations.  This document
   specifies extensions to Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) that will allow



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   header compression schemes and their associated configuration
   parameters to be negotiated for IPsec security associations.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Header Compression Channel Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.1.  Header Compression Scheme Negotiation  . . . . . . . . . .  3
       3.1.1.  Notify Payload For RoHC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
         3.1.1.1.  Profiles Suboption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.1.2.  Notify Payload For IPHC/cRTP/ECRTP . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.1.3.  Notify Payload For None  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 15





























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1.  Introduction

   Packet header overhead incurred by applications that use IPsec can
   result in inefficient bandwidth utilization of the communications
   channel.  Coupling header compression with IPsec [IPSEC] (i.e.,
   [HCOIPSEC]) offers an efficient way to deploy these applications
   securely.

   HC schemes require their configuration parameters to be negotiated
   between the compressor and decompressor, prior to operation.  Current
   hop-by-hop HC schemes negotiate these parameters through a link-layer
   protocol such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).  This document
   proposes the use of IPsec's parameter negotiation mechanism, IKE, to
   handle HC scheme and parameter negotiation for HCoIPsec.  This
   document details how IKEv2 must be extended to provide the
   functionality required to initialize an HC channel and negotiate HC
   scheme parameters.


2.  Audience

   The target audience of this document includes those who are involved
   with the design and development of Header Compression (HC) schemes,
   IPsec mechanisms, and the IETF HCoIPsec participants.  In addition,
   this document is intended for vendors developing IPsec encryption/
   decryption devices that may be deployed in bandwidth-constrained, IP
   networking environments.


3.  Header Compression Channel Negotiation

   The initialization of a HC session entails negotiating the HC scheme
   to be used, as well as any configuration parameters that are required
   by that particular HC scheme.  IKEv2, an extensible protocol that
   negotiates parameters via request/response message pairs (e.g.
   exchange), will be used to initialize a HCoIPsec session.

   IKEv2 negotiation of a HCoIPsec session is implemented with a Notify
   payload as part of the IKE_AUTH and CREATE_CHILD_SA exchanges.  The
   new Notify payload will be used to negotiate:

   1.  HC scheme
   2.  HC scheme configuration parameters

3.1.  Header Compression Scheme Negotiation

   An IPsec end-point may be able to support multiple compression types,
   including RObust Header Compression (ROHC) [ROHC], IP Header



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   Compression (IPHC) [IPHC], Compressed RTP CRTP [CRTP], and/or
   Enhanced Compressed RTP ECRTP [ECRTP].  As such, for a given Child
   SA, the configuration parameters for these HC schemes will be
   negotiated at either the establishment or rekeying of a Child SA.

   The Notify payload will be used during the IKE_AUTH and
   CREATE_CHILD_SA exchanges to negotiate the HCoIPsec session.  This
   payload will contain the proposed/accepted HC schemes for the Child
   SA, as well as the configuration parameters for each scheme.  A new
   Notify Message Type value, denoted HC_SUPPORTED, will be added to
   indicate that the Notify payload is conveying HC information.  In
   addition, the supported HC schemes and their corresponding
   configuration parameters will be communicated in the Notification
   Data field.

   Note: The prioritized list of allowable HC schemes within the
   Notification Data field of the Notify payload should always end with
   NONE, indicating uncompressed traffic.

   The Notify payload used to convey HC information must begin with the
   following payload header:


    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ! Next Payload  !C!  RESERVED   !         Payload Length        !
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   !  Protocol ID  !   SPI Size    !      Notify Message Type      !
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   !                                                               !
   ~                Security Parameter Index (SPI)                 ~
   !                                                               !
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 1: Notify Payload Header

   Next Payload (1 octet)
      Identifier for the payload type of the next payload in the
      message.  If the current payload is the last in the message, then
      this field will be 0.  The Next Payload value of the previous
      payload must be 41, indicating that this current payload is a
      Notify Payload.

   Critical (1 bit)
      This value is set to zero, indicating that the recipient must skip
      this payload if it does not understand the payload type code in
      the Next Payload field of the previous payload.




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   RESERVED (7 bits)
      Must be sent as zero, and must be ignored on receipt.

   Payload Length (2 octets)
      Length in octets of the current payload, including the generic
      payload header.

   Protocol ID (1 octet)
      If this notification concerns an existing SA, this field indicates
      the SA type.  This field must contain either (2) to indicate AH or
      (3) to indicate ESP on the Child SA.  For notifications that do
      not relate to an existing SA, this field must be sent as zero and
      ignored on receipt.  This value must not be set to (1), since this
      refers to IKE_SA notifications.  All other values for this field
      are reserved to IANA for future assignment.

   SPI Size (1 octet)
      Length in octets of the SPI as defined by the IPsec protocol ID or
      zero if no SPI is applicable.

   Notify Message Type (2 octets)
      Specifies the type of notification message.  This field must be
      set to HC_SUPPORTED.

   SPI (variable length)
      Security Parameter Index.

   Following the Notify payload header, the remainder of the payload is
   used to identify the proposed HC schemes, and their associated
   configuration parameters.  Each scheme will be listed in the
   following format:


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     HC ID     |   Next HC ID  |      HC Parameter Length      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   !                                                               !
   ~               HC Scheme Configuration Parameters              ~
   !                                                               !
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 2: Portion of HC Notify Payload Body (repeated for each
   proposed HC scheme)

   HC ID (1 octet)




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      Identifies the HC scheme that is being defined within the HC
      Scheme Configuration Parameters field(s).  The order in which the
      HC ID fields occur within the HC Notify payload define the order
      of preference (i.e. the first HC scheme defined is the scheme most
      preferred by the initiator).

   Next HC ID (1 octet)
      Identifies the HC scheme that will be defined after the HC Scheme
      Configuration Parameters field(s).  If this is the last HC scheme
      to be proposed, this value is set to zero.

   HC Parameter Length (2 octets)
      The length, in octets, of the configuration parameters for this
      particular HC scheme.

   HC Scheme Configuration Parameters (Variable Length)
      The negotiable parameters for the particular HC scheme.

3.1.1.  Notify Payload For RoHC

   For ROHC, the NOTIFY payload will be of the following form (ignoring
   the header depicted in Figure 1):


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  HC ID (ROHC) |   Next HC ID  |      HC Parameter Length      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            MAX_CID            |             MRRU              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           MAX_HEADER          |          suboptions...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 3: Portion of HC Notify Payload Body for negotiating RoHC
   parameters

   HC ID
      1 (ROHC)

   HC Parameter Length
      >= 6

   MAX_CID
      The MAX_CID field is two octets and indicates the maximum value of
      a context identifier.  This value must be at least 0 and at most
      16383 (The value 0 implies having one context).




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      Suggested value: 15

      Note: The value of LARGE_CIDS will be implicitly determined by
      this value (i.e. if MAX_CID is <= 15, LARGE_CIDS will be assumed
      to be 0).

   MRRU
      The MRRU field is two octets and indicates the maximum
      reconstructed reception unit (see [ROHC], section 5.1.1).

      Suggested value: 0

   MAX_HEADER
      The largest header size in octets that may be compressed.

      Suggested value: 168 octets

      The value of MAX_HEADER should be large enough so that at least
      the outer network layer header can be compressed.  To increase
      compression efficiency MAX_HEADER should be set to a value large
      enough to cover common combinations of network and transport layer
      headers.

      Note: The MAX_HEADER parameter is not used for all RoHC profiles.
      If none of the RoHC profiles require this field, this value is
      ignored.

   suboptions
      The suboptions field consists of zero or more suboptions.  Each
      suboption consists of a type field, a length field and zero or
      more parameter octets, as defined by the suboption type.  The
      value of the length field indicates the length of the suboption in
      its entirety, including the lengths of the type and length fields.




       0                   1                   2
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |  Parameters...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure 4: Suboption for RoHC

      Note: When a pair of SAs are created (one in each direction), the
      ROHC channel parameter FEEDBACK_FOR is set implicitly to the other
      SA of the pair (e.g. the SA pointing in the reverse direction).



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3.1.1.1.  Profiles Suboption

   The set of profiles to be enabled on a Child SA is subject to
   negotiation.


    0                   1                   2
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |  Parameters...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 5: Profiles suboption

   Type
      1

   Length
      2n+2

   Value
      n octet-pairs in ascending order, each octet-pair specifying a
      ROHC profile supported.  Values negotiated are assigned in the
      RoHC profile identifiers registry [ROHCPROF].

3.1.2.  Notify Payload For IPHC/cRTP/ECRTP

   For IPHC/cRTP/ECRTP, the NOTIFY payload will be of the following form
   (ignoring the header depicted in Figure 1):


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | HC ID (ECRTP) |   Next HC ID  |      HC Parameter Length      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           TCP_SPACE           |         NON_TCP_SPACE         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         F_MAX_PERIOD          |          F_MAX_TIME           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           MAX_HEADER          |          suboptions...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 6: Portion of HC Notify Payload Body for negotiating IPHC/
   cRTP/ECRTP parameters

   HC ID




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      2 (ECRTP)
      3 (cRTP)
      4 (IPHC)

   HC Parameter Length
      >= 10

   TCP_SPACE
      The TCP_SPACE field is two octets and indicates the maximum value
      of a context identifier in the space of context identifiers
      allocated for TCP.

      Suggested value: 15

      TCP_SPACE must be at least 0 and at most 255 (the value 0 implies
      having one context).

   NON_TCP_SPACE
      The NON_TCP_SPACE field is two octets and indicates the maximum
      value of a context identifier in the space of context identifiers
      allocated for non-TCP.  These context identifiers are carried in
      COMPRESSED_NON_TCP, COMPRESSED_UDP and COMPRESSED_RTP packet
      headers.

      Suggested value: 15

      NON_TCP_SPACE must be at least 0 and at most 65535 (the value 0
      implies having one context).

   F_MAX_PERIOD
      Maximum interval between full headers.  No more than F_MAX_PERIOD
      COMPRESSED_NON_TCP headers may be sent between FULL_HEADER
      headers.

      Suggested value: 256

      A value of zero implies infinity, i.e. there is no limit to the
      number of consecutive COMPRESSED_NON_TCP headers.

   F_MAX_TIME
      Maximum time interval between full headers.  COMPRESSED_NON_TCP
      headers may not be sent more than F_MAX_TIME seconds after sending
      the last FULL_HEADER header.

      Suggested value: 5 seconds






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      A value of zero implies infinity.

   MAX_HEADER
      The largest header size in octets that may be compressed.

      Suggested value: 168 octets

      The value of MAX_HEADER should be large enough so that at least
      the outer network layer header can be compressed.  To increase
      compression efficiency MAX_HEADER should be set to a value large
      enough to cover common combinations of network and transport layer
      headers.

   suboptions
      The suboptions field consists of zero or more suboptions.  Each
      suboption consists of a type field, a length field and zero or
      more parameter octets, as defined by the suboption type.  The
      value of the length field indicates the length of the suboption in
      its entirety, including the lengths of the type and length fields.




       0                   1                   2
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |  Parameters...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure 7: Suboption for IPHC/cRTP/ECRTP

3.1.3.  Notify Payload For None

   For None, the Notify payload will be of the following form (ignoring
   the header depicted in Figure 1):


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | HC ID (NONE ) |   NEXT HC ID  |      HC PARAMETER LENGTH      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 8: Portion of HC Notify Payload Body for no HC scheme

   HC ID





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      0

   HC Parameter Length
      0

   Note: None (e.g. no HC) should always be proposed last.  If proposed
   last, the Next HC ID field for this set of fields must be set to
   zero.


4.  Security Considerations

   The negotiated HC schemes and parameters negotiated via IKEv2 do not
   add any any new vulnerabilities beyond those associated with the
   normal operation of IKEv2.


5.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines a new Notify Message Type value of which future
   assignments will be managed by the IANA.

   The following registry should be updated:
      IKEv2 Notify Message Types (REF4306, Section 3.10.1)

   The following registry should be created:
      HC ID (Section 4.1)

   The following HC IDs should be allocated:


      HC ID  Document   Identifier
        0    RFCthis       None
        1    RFCthis       ROHC
        2    RFCthis       ECRTP
        3    RFCthis       cRTP
        4    RFCthis       IPHC


6.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Mr. Sean O'Keeffe, Mr. James Kohler,
   and Ms. Linda Noone of the Department of Defense, and well as Mr.
   Rich Espy of OPnet for their contributions and support in the
   development of this document.  In addition, the authors would like to
   thank the following for their numerous reviews and comments to this
   document:




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      Mr. Tero Kivinen
      Dr. Stephen Kent

   Finally, the authors would also like to thank Mr. Tom Conkle, Ms.
   Renee Esposito, and Mr. Etzel Brower.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [IPSEC]    Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [HCOIPSEC]
              Ertekin, E., Christou, C., and R. Jasani, "Integration of
              Header Compression over IPsec Security Associations", work
              in progress , June 2006.

   [IPHC]     Nordgren, M., Pink, B., and S. Pink, "IP Header
              Compression", RFC 2509, February 1999.

   [CRTP]     Casner, S. and V. Jacobson, "Compressing IP/UDP/RTP
              Headers for Low-Speed Serial Links", RFC 2508,
              February 1999.

   [ECRTP]    Koren, T. and et. al., "Compressing IP/UDP/RTP Headers on
              Links with High Delay, Packet Loss, and Reordering",
              RFC 3545, July 2003.

   [ROHC]     Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H.,
              Hannu, H., Jonsson, L., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le, K.,
              Liu, Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K.,
              Wiebke, T., Yoshimura, T., and H. Zheng, "RObust Header
              Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP,
              ESP, and uncompressed", RFC 3095, July 2001.

   [ROHCPROF]
              "RObust Header Compression (ROHC) Profile Identifiers",
              IANA list , October 2005.

7.2.  Informative References

   [ROHCPPP]  Bormann, C., "Robust Header Compression (ROHC) over PPP",
              RFC 3241, April 2002.

   [IPHCPPP]  Engan, M., Casner, S., Bormann, C., and T. Koren, "IP
              Header Compression over PPP", RFC 3544, July 2003.



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   [AH]       Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
              December 2005.

   [ESP]      Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, December 2005.

   [CRTPE]    Degermark, M., Hannu, H., Jonsson, L., and K. Svanbro,
              "Evaluation of CRTP Performance over Cellular Radio
              Networks", IEEE Personal Communication Magazine , Volume
              7, number 4, pp. 20-25, August 2000.

   [ROHCE]    Ash, J. and et. al, "Requirements for ECRTP over MPLS",
              work in progress , December 2004.

   [TCRTP]    Thompson, B., "Tunneling of Multiplexed Compressed RTP",
              work in progress , September 2004.


Authors' Addresses

   Rohan Jasani
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Email: jasani_rohan@bah.com


   Jonah Pezeshki
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Email: pezeshki_jonah@bah.com


   Emre Ertekin
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Email: ertekin_emre@bah.com






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   Chris Christou
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Email: christou_chris@bah.com












































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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).





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