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Versions: (draft-ertekin-rohc-ipsec-extensions-hcoipsec) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 5858

Network Working Group                                         E. Ertekin
Internet-Draft                                                  M. Casey
Expires: February 28, 2008                                   J. Pezeshki
                                                             C. Christou
                                                     Booz Allen Hamilton
                                                         August 27, 2007

    IPsec Extensions to Support Robust Header Compression over IPsec

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).


   Integrating RoHC with IPsec (RoHCoIPsec) offers the combined benefits
   of IP security services and efficient bandwidth utilization.  Before
   this can be realized, however, several extensions to the Security
   Policy Database (SPD), the Security Association Database (SAD), and
   the IPsec process are required.  This document describes the IPsec

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   extensions required to support RoHCoIPsec.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Extensions to IPsec Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     2.1.  Security Policy Database (SPD)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     2.2.  Security Association Database (SAD) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   3.  Extensions to IPsec Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     3.1.  Addition to the IANA Protocol Numbers Registry  . . . . . . 5
     3.2.  Nested IPComp and RoHCoIPsec Processing . . . . . . . . . . 5
     3.3.  CID Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements  . . . . . . . . . . 9

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1.  Introduction

   Using IPsec ([IPSEC]) protection offers various security services for
   IP traffic.  However, for tunnel-mode security associations, these
   benefits come at the cost of additional packet headers, which
   increase packet overhead.  As described in [ROHCOIPSEC], Robust
   Header Compression (RoHC [ROHC]) can be used with IPsec to reduce the
   overhead associated with IPsec-protected packets.

   IPsec-protected traffic is carried between peers by Security
   Associations (SAs), whose parameters are negotiated on a case-by-case
   basis.  The Security Policy Database (SPD) specifies the services
   that are to be offered to IP datagrams, and the parameters associated
   with SAs that have been established are stored in the Security
   Association Database (SAD).  To fully integrate RoHC and IPsec,
   various extensions to the SPD and SAD that incorporate RoHC-relevant
   parameters are required.

   In addition, two extensions to the IPsec processing methodology are
   required.  First, a mechanism for identifying RoHC packets must be
   defined.  Second, the order of the inbound and outbound processing
   must be enumerated when nesting IP Compression (IPComp [IPCOMP]),
   RoHC, and IPsec processing.

2.  Extensions to IPsec Databases

   The following subsections specify extensions to the SPD and the SAD
   to support RoHCoIPsec.

2.1.  Security Policy Database (SPD)

   In general, the SPD is responsible for specifying the security
   services that are offered to IP datagrams.  Entries in the SPD
   specify how to derive the corresponding values for SAD entries.  To
   support RoHC, the SPD must be extended to include per-channel RoHC
   parameters.  Together, the existing IPsec SPD parameters and the RoHC
   parameters will dictate packet disposition for traffic that is to be
   compressed, and subsequently protected by IPsec.

   The fields contained within each SPD entry are defined in [IPSEC],
   Section  To support RoHC, several processing info fields
   must be added to the SPD; these fields contain information regarding
   the RoHC profiles and channel parameters supported by the local RoHC
   instance.  The per-channel configuration parameters required for RoHC
   in the SPD are as follows (note that this information must only be
   included in the SPD if the processing info field is set to PROTECT,
   and if the IPsec mode is set to tunnel mode):

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      MAX_CID: The highest context ID number to be used by the
      compressor.  MAX_CID must be at least 0 and at most 16383 (The
      value 0 implies having one context).  The suggested value for
      MAX_CID is 15.

      PROFILES: This indicates the RoHC profiles supported by the
      decompressor.  The list of possible values this field may assume
      is defined in the [ROHCPROF] registry.

      MRRU: The size of the largest reconstructed unit that the
      decompressor is expected to reassemble from segments.  In general,
      is not anticipated that a RoHC over IPsec instance will use RoHC
      segmentation features.  Consequently, the suggested value for MRRU
      is 0.

      MAX_HEADER: The largest header size (in octets) that can be
      compressed.  Note that the four RoHC profiles defined in RFC 3095
      do not provide for a MAX_HEADER parameter.  The parameter
      MAX_HEADER is therefore without consequence in these profiles.
      Other profiles (e.g., ones based on RFC 2507) can make use of the
      parameter by explicitly referencing it.

   Note: The RoHC LARGE_CIDS channel parameter is set implicitly, based
   on the value of MAX_CID.  Furthermore, the RoHC FEEDBACK_FOR channel
   parameter is set implicitly to the RoHC channel associated with the
   SA in the reverse direction.  Because both of these RoHC channel
   parameters are set implicitly, they are not stored in the SPD or SAD.

2.2.  Security Association Database (SAD)

   Each entry within the SAD defines the parameters associated with each
   established SA.  Unless if the "populate from packet" (PFP) flag is
   asserted for a particular field, SAD entries are determined by the
   corresponding SPD entries during the creation of the SA.

   The data items contained within the SAD are defined in [IPSEC],
   Section  To support RoHC, this list of data items is
   augmented to include a "RoHC Data Item" field that defines the RoHC
   parameters.  These parameters (i.e., MAX_CID, PROFILES, MRRU, and
   MAX_HEADER) are enumerated above in Section 2.1.  In addition, the
   FEEDBACK_FOR parameter is also included, which is associated with the
   SA in the reverse direction.  The RoHC parameters used for a given SA
   may be initialized manually (i.e., administratively configured for
   manual SAs), or initialized via a key exchange protocol (e.g.  IKEv2
   [IKEV2]) that has been extended to support the negotiation of RoHC
   parameters [IKEV2EXT].

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3.  Extensions to IPsec Processing

3.1.  Addition to the IANA Protocol Numbers Registry

   In order to demultiplex header-compressed from uncompressed traffic
   on a RoHC-enabled SA, a "RoHC" value must be reserved in the IANA
   Protocol Numbers registry.  If an outbound packet has a compressed
   header, the Next Header field of the security protocol header (e.g.,
   AH [AH], ESP [ESP]) must be set to the "RoHC" protocol identifer.  If
   the packet header has not been compressed, the Next Header field
   remains unaltered.  Conversely, for an inbound packet, the value of
   the security protocol Next Header field is checked to determine if
   the packet maintains a RoHC header.

3.2.  Nested IPComp and RoHCoIPsec Processing

   IPComp ([IPCOMP]) is another mechanism that can be implemented to
   reduce the size of an IP datagram.  If IPComp and RoHCoIPsec are
   implemented in a nested fashion, the order of the outbound and
   inbound processing steps must be carefully enumerated.

   For outbound packets that are to be processed by IPcomp and RoHC:
   o  The appropriate RoHC compression profile is applied to the packet
   o  IPComp is applied, and the packet is sent to the IPsec process
   o  The security protocol is applied to the packet

   Conversely, for inbound packets that are to be both RoHC- and IPcomp-
   o  A packet received on a RoHC-enabled SA is IPsec-processed
   o  The datagram is decompressed based on the appropriate IPComp
   o  The packet is sent to the RoHC module for header decompression

3.3.  CID Reuse

   All RoHCoIPsec implementations that intend to reuse CIDs (i.e. remap
   a previously used but now retired CID value in order to conserve CID
   space) must support the ROHC-DOWN profile, as defined in [ROHC-DOWN].
   This profile must be used to shut down the CID value before is can be

4.  Security Considerations

   A malfunctioning RoHC compressor (i.e., the compressor located at the
   ingress of the IPsec tunnel) has the ability to send packets to the
   decompressor (i.e., the decompressor located at the egress of the
   IPsec tunnel) that do not match the original packets emitted from the

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   end-hosts.  Such a scenario will result in a decreased efficiency
   between compressor and decompressor.  Furthermore, this may result in
   Denial of Service, as the decompression of a significant number of
   invalid packets may drain the resources of an IPsec device.

   In addition, some RoHCoIPsec implementations may allow an attacker to
   identify new traffic flows by monitoring the relative size of the
   encrypted packets (i.e. a group of "long" packets, followed by a long
   series of "short" packets may indicate a new flow for some RoHCoIPsec
   implementations).  To mitigate this concern, RoHC padding mechanisms
   may be used to arbitrarily add padding to transmitted packets to
   randomize packet sizes.

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to allocate one value within the "Protocol Numbers"
   registry [PROTOCOL] for "RoHC".  This value will be used to indicate
   that the next level protocol header is a RoHC header.

6.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Mr. Sean O'Keeffe, Mr. James Kohler,
   Ms. Linda Noone of the Department of Defense, and Mr. A. Rich Espy of
   OPnet for their contributions and support for developing this
   document.  In addition, the authors would like to thank Mr. Rohan
   Jasani for his valuable assistance.  Finally, the authors would like
   to thank the following for their numerous reviews and comments to
   this document:

   o  Dr. Stephen Kent
   o  Dr. Carsten Bormann
   o  Mr. Lars-Erik Jonnson
   o  Mr. Pasi Eronen

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [IPSEC]    Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [ROHC]     Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H.,
              Hannu, H., Jonsson, L., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le, K.,
              Liu, Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K.,
              Wiebke, T., Yoshimura, T., and H. Zheng, "RObust Header

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              Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP,
              ESP, and uncompressed", RFC 3095, July 2001.

   [IPCOMP]   Shacham, A., Monsour, R., Pereira, and Thomas, "IP Payload
              Compression Protocol (IPComp)", RFC 3173, September 2001.

   [IKEV2]    Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
              RFC 4306, December 2005.

              Pezeshki, J., Ertekin, E., and C. Christou, "Extensions to
              IKEv2 to Support Robust Header Compression over IPsec
              (RoHCoIPsec)", work in progress , February 2007.

   [AH]       Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
              December 2005.

   [ESP]      Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, December 2005.

              Bormann, C., "A ROHC Profile for CID shutdown (ROHC-
              DOWN)", work in progress , July 2007.

7.2.  Informative References

              Ertekin, E., Christou, C., Jasani, R., and J. Pezeshki,
              "Integration of Robust Header Compression (ROHC) over
              IPsec Security Associations", work in progress ,
              August 2007.

              IANA, ""RObust Header Compression (ROHC) Profile
              Identifiers", IANA registry at:

              IANA, ""Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers", IANA registry
              at: http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers".

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Authors' Addresses

   Emre Ertekin
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171

   Email: ertekin_emre@bah.com

   Michele Casey
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171

   Email: casey_michele@bah.com

   Jonah Pezeshki
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171

   Email: pezeshki_jonah@bah.com

   Chris Christou
   Booz Allen Hamilton
   13200 Woodland Park Dr.
   Herndon, VA  20171

   Email: christou_chris@bah.com

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