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Versions: (draft-coene-rserpool-applic) 00 01 02

Reliable Server Pooling Working                                 L. Coene
group                                                            Siemens
Internet-Draft                                                 P. Conrad
Expires: April 15, 2004                           University of Delaware
                                                                  P. Lei
                                                                   Cisco
                                                        October 16, 2003


              Reliable Server pool applicability Statement
                  <draft-ietf-rserpool-applic-01.txt>

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 15, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes the applicability of the reliable server pool
   architecture and protocols to applications which want to have High
   availability services. This is accomplished by using redundant
   servers and failover between servers of the same pool in case of
   server failure. Processing load in a pool may de distributed/shared
   between the members of the pool according to a certain policy. Also
   some guidance is given on the choice of underlying transport protocol
   (and corresponding transport protocol mapping) for transporting
   application data and Rserpool specific control data.



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Table of Contents

   1.    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.1   Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   1.2   Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.    Reliable serverpool  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.1   Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.2   ASAP/ENRP applicability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.2.1 Minimal Rserpool service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.2.2 Full Rserpool service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.    Application and Control data Transport . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.1   Rserpool use between 2 pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.2   state sharing via the cookie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.3   PE Registration Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.4   Failover Callback Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.5   PE Selection Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.6   Upper Layer/Application Level Acknowledgements . . . . . . .  8
   3.7   RSerPool Managed Data Channel  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.    Transport protocols used by ENRP & ASAP  . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.1   ASAP on top of UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.2   ASAP on top of TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.3   ASAP on top of SCTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.4   Address hiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.    Proxies and Rserpool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.    Issues for Reliable Server pooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.1   State transfer accoss the server pool  . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.    Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   8.    Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
         References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 18




















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1. INTRODUCTION

   Reliable server pooling provides protocols for providing higly
   available services. The services are located in pool of redundant
   servers and if a server fails, another server will take over. The
   only requirement put on these servers belonging to the pool is that
   if state is maintained by the server, this state must be transfered
   to the other server taking over. The mechanism for transfering this
   state information is NOT part of the Reliable server pooling
   architecture and/or protocols and must be provided by other
   protocols.

   The goal is to provide server based redundancy. Transport and network
   level redundancy are handled by the transport and network layer
   protocols.

   The application may choose to distribute its traffic over the servers
   of the pool conforming to a certain policy.

   The application wishing to make use of Rserpool protocols may use
   different transport layers(such as UDP, TCP and SCTP). However some
   transport layers may have restrictions build in in the way they might
   be operating in the Rserpool architecture and its protocols.

1.1 Scope

   The scope of this document is to explore the different ways that
   Reliable server pool protocols can be used in order to provide a
   highly available service towards applications with different
   requirements.

1.2 Terminology

   The terms are commonly identified in related work and can be found in
   the Aggregate Server Access Protocol and Endpoint Name Resolution
   Protocol Common Parameters documentRFC ARCH [2].















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2. Reliable serverpool

2.1 Architecture

   A overview of the reliable server pool architecture is given in the
   Rserpool architecture document RFC ARCH [2].

   The Rserpool architecture is made up of clients(Pool Users - PU) and
   servers(Pool Elements - PE). Both PU and PE's can be grouped into a
   pool in which a PE provides a service(File transfer, storage, bank
   transaction) to a PU. The PU's  may try to find out via the endpoint
   resolution protocol(ENRP) which PE's are active. The PU can set up a
   communication channel with a particular PE(chosen out of the server
   pool) by using the Aggregate Server Access Protocol (ASAP) or by
   using directly any of the transport protocols(UDP/TCP/SCTP/RTP). ASAP
   may be running on top of UDP, TCP or SCTP.

   The minimum mode of using Rserpool is to use only the ENRP for
   Endpoint name resolution. The PU may setup the client - server
   communication WITHOUT ASAP, but using present transport
   protocols(such as UDP, TCP..)

   The normal use of Rserpool is to use ENRP for Enpoint name resolution
   and  ASAP for client - server communication. ASAP may be using as
   underlying transport protocol UDP, TCP or SCTP.

2.2 ASAP/ENRP applicability

2.2.1 Minimal Rserpool service

   The minimum service provided by Rserpool is the use of ENRP for
   Endpoint name resolution. The ENRP procol may be running over TCP or
   SCTP.

   o  Endpoint name resolution

   o  no automatic failover from one PE to another, has to be done by
      the application itself

   o  bussinesscard or cookie mechanism not possible

   o  May be used by already existing applications which do not want to
      change the interface between PU and PE.

   o  Only PU-NS and PE-NS communication will use Rserpool protocols






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2.2.2 Full Rserpool service

   The fullservice provided by Rserpool is the use of ENRP for Endpoint
   name resolution  and the Use of ASAP for PU - PE communication . ENRP
   may be running  over TCP or SCTP while ASAP may be running over TCP,
   SCTP, UDP or RTP.

   o  Endpoint name resolution

   o  automatic failover from one PE to another is transparent for the
      application itself

   o  bussinesscard exhange for determining if a PU is a pool or not. It
      allows the PE to treat the PU's as pool and use Rserpool protocols
      for it

   o  cookie mechanism can be used for state transfer between PE's

   o  May be used by allready existing applications which do not want to
      change the interface between PU and PE.

   o  All entities will use Rserpool protocols for communication with
      their respective peers




























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3. Application and Control data Transport

3.1 Rserpool use between 2 pools

   Bussinesscards will allow to detect if their peer is part of a pool
   itself. Both the PU and the PE can be part of their own pools. If the
   PU or PE would fails, then the businesscard will have informed the
   respective peer to contact a alternative fellow PE/PU belonging to
   the pool.

3.2 state sharing via the cookie

   Every time a response is send back, a cookie could be send along the
   response. The cookie is "encrypted" and is stored by the PU, no
   modification at all it done to the cookie . If a PE fails then the
   cookie is send to a alternate PE, the PE check if the cookie is
   valid. The contents of the cookie is only provided and validated by
   the PE. It can be used for state sharing between the PE.

3.3 PE Registration Services

   Pool Elements ("server") must use the following services to add or
   remove themselves from server pools: REGISTER, to add the pool
   element into a server pool using {pool handle, mapping mode, protocol
   or mapping id, port, policy info} where mapping mode is defined in
   Section 5.  A response result code is returned. DEREGISTER, to remove
   the pool element from a server pool using {pool handle, mapping mode,
   protocol or mapping id, port, policy info} where mapping mode is
   defined in Section 5.  A response result code is returned. TBD: if
   REGISTER also returns an opaque instance id, the application can just
   use that id for DEREGISTER, instead of passing in the (same)
   parameters used in REGISTER.

3.4 Failover Callback Function

   The charter of the RSerPool Working Group specifically states that
   transaction failover is out of scope for RSerPool, i.e.  "if a server
   fails during processing of a transaction this transaction may be
   lost.  Some services may provide a way to handle the failure, but
   this is not guaranteed."  Accordingly, the RSerPool framework
   provides a "hook" for applications to provide their own application-
   specific failover mechanism(s).

   Specifically, an application can specify a callback function that is
   invoked whenever a failover has taken place.  This callback function
   is invoked immediately after the new transport layer connection/
   association is established with a new server, and gives the
   application the opportunity to send one or more messages that may



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   help the server to resume any transaction or session that was in
   progress when the first server failed.

   As a simple example of how such a callback is useful, consider a file
   transfer service built using RSerPool.  Let us assume that some FTP
   mirroring software is used to maintain mirrored sites, and that the
   actual mirroring is out of scope.  However, we would like to use
   RSerPool to select a server from among the available mirror sites,
   and to failover in the middle of a file transfer if a primary server
   fails.

   For this example, assume that a simple request/response protocol is
   used, where one request message results in one or more response
   messages.  Each request message contains the filename, and the offset
   desired within the file, (default zero.) Each response message
   contains some portion of the file, along with the offset, length of
   the portion in this message, and the length of the entire file.

   A single request results is sufficient to result in a sequence of
   response messages from the requested offset to the end of the file.
   For simplicity, assume that the response messages are delivered by
   the underlying transport strictly in order (although this requirement
   could be relaxed if a small amount of extra complexity were
   introduced.)

   In this protocol, all that is needed for failover is for the
   application to keep track of the number of bytes that it has read
   from the server, and to provide a callback function that reissues the
   request to the new server, replacing the offset with this number.
   When there is no failover, only one request message is sent and the
   minimum number of response messages are returned; in the event of
   failover(s), single new request message is sent for each failover
   that occurs.

   While this is a simple example, for more complex application
   requirements, the failover callback could be used in a variety of
   ways: The client might send security credentials for authentication
   by the server, and/or to provide a "key" by which the server could
   locate and setup state by accessing some application-specific (and
   out-of-scope) state sharing mechanism used by the servers. The client
   might keep track of various synchronization points in the
   transaction, and use the failover callback to replay message from a
   recent synchronization point.

3.5 PE Selection Services

   When automatic failover is enabled, selection of a new pool element
   according to the pool policy in place is automatically performed by



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   the RSerPool framework in case of a detected failure (e.g.  provides
   automatic failover).  No application intervention is required.
   Automatic failover may be enabled by setting the appropriate send
   flag when used in conjuction with data channel services (described in
   Section 4.6) or explicitly during initialization when data channel
   services are not used. FAILOVER_INDICATION, delivered by callback,
   indicates that a failover has occurred and that any required
   application level state recovery should be performed.  The newly
   selected pool element handle is provided. Business Card services:
   when automatic failover is used, the exchange of business cards for
   rendezvous services is automatically performed by the RSerPool
   framework (e.g.  no application intervention is required. When
   automatic failover is not enabled, failover detection and selection
   of an alternate PE must be done by the upper layer/ application.  The
   following primitives are provided: GET_PRIMARY_SERVER, takes as input
   a pool handle and returns the {IP address, transport protocol,
   transport protocol port} of the primary server. GET_NEXT_SERVER has a
   dual meaning.  First, it indicates to the RSerPool layer the failure
   of the server returned by a previous GET_PRIMARY_SERVER or
   GET_NEXT_SERVER call.  Second, it provides the {IP address, transport
   protocol, transport protocol port} of the next server that should be
   contacted, according to the best information available to the
   RSerPool layer at the present time. The appropriate pool policy for
   server selection for the pool should be used for selecting the next
   server.

3.6  Upper Layer/Application Level Acknowledgements

   The RSerPool framework provides an upper layer/application level ack
   service.  The upper layer protocol may request that the peer
   acknowledge receipt and successful processing of its sent data,
   providing an additional degree of confidence over transport level
   message retrieval.  When used in conjuction with the data channel
   services (described in Section 4.6), any unacknowledged data will be
   automatically sent to a new pool element in case of failover, if
   desired (e.g.  automatic failover is enabled).  The following service
   primitive is used to acknowledge an upper layer acknowledgement
   request. ULP_ACK, responds to a received upper layer acknowledgement
   request.

3.7 RSerPool Managed Data Channel

   The RSerPool framework provides these services to send and receive
   application layer data, which are used in place of the direct call of
   transport level system functions (e.g.  send/sendto, recv/recvfrom)
   and provides additional functionality to those calls.

   DATA_SEND, to send data to a pool element by using a pool handle,



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   specific pool element handle, or by transport address.  An upper
   layer acknowledgement may be requested with this service. Appropriate
   error code(s) are returned.  When sending to a pool handle, the
   specific pool element handle is returned.

   DATA_INDICATION, delivered by callback, to indicate that data has
   been received from a pool element and to pass that data to the
   application layer protocol.  An application layer acknowledgement
   request can be indicated along with the data.

   The application MAY direct that the RSerPool framework multiplex both
   the control and data channels onto the same SCTP association/TCP
   connection/ etc., if desired.






































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4. Transport protocols used by ENRP & ASAP

4.1 ASAP on top of UDP

   UDP is a unreliable message transport delivery protocol, so if a
   message gets lost due to a changeover of server(or client), then the
   message will not be retransmitted after changeover has occured. New
   messages will be sent to alternate server/client within the
   serverpool.

   This service may be of some importance to services where realtime
   constraints apply.(Example video servers: a few lost message ain't
   that important as long as the big bulk of messages get through). No
   congestion control is done and as such no real measure of the
   congestion status on the server(or client) is taken into account,
   thus making loadsharing harder. Only the ENRP server responsible for
   that particular server pool will have an up to date view of the load
   distribution in the pool.

4.2 ASAP on top of TCP

   TCP provides full reliable delivery with congestion control of the
   message to its peer node. It provides for a single homed, single
   stream delivery of a byte stream from or to the server. Change over
   will retrieve the unsent messages and send them on another TCP
   connection to a different server of the server pool.

4.3 ASAP on top of SCTP

   PR-SCTP is the only know protocol which allows the choice of full,
   partial or no reliable delivery with congestion control of the
   message to its peer node. If the no-reliable delivery option is
   selected of SCTP, then ASAP will function as described in ASAP over
   UDP and including congestion control.

   if multihoming, streams, unsequenced  and/or assured delivery are
   required for the application, then SCTP should be used for ASAP. See
   SCTP aplicability statement RFC 3257 [9].

4.4 Address hiding

   If an application requires only a single address(due to memory
   constraints) to reach a pool element of a pool , then ASAP can
   provide one address at a time when quering the ENRP server. If that
   pool element fails, then the client must request a new address from
   the ENRP server, before it can fail-over(as it has no information
   about the other pool elements of the same pool except the pool
   handle). This is done by ASAP itself in the full Rserpool service,



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   but must be done by the client software itself in minimal Rserpool
   service.

   This may require some buffering in the client during the failover.















































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5. Proxies and Rserpool

   Application which require absolutely no protocol changes to their
   clients, may be able to use Rserpool protocols by using a proxy
   between the client and the server pool. Neither ASAP nor ENRP is used
   by the client application, but the proxy employs ENRP and ASAP. The
   client will only know the IP address and portnumbers of the proxy to
   contact. This can be accomplished via normal DNS queries.

   The main drawback is that the proxy becomes the single point of
   failure for the connection between the client and the server.








































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6. Issues for Reliable Server pooling

6.1 State transfer accoss the server pool

   Rserpool protocols(ENRP and ASAP) do NOT provide any service for
   directly transfering state information of a application from one
   Processing Element(PE) to another PE.

   However by using the ASAP cookie mechanims, the PU may be able to
   transfer some state provided by the PE to the PU, to the new PE in
   case of failover. This is the responsability of the PU to do this.








































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7. Security considerations

   The protocols used in the Reliable server pool architecture only
   tries to increase the availability of the servers in the network.
   Rserpool protocols does not contain any protocol mechanisms which are
   directly related to user message authentication, integrity and
   confidentiality functions. For such features, it depends on the IPSEC
   protocols or on Transport Layer Security(TLS) protocols for its own
   security and on the architecture and/or security features of its user
   protocols.

   A overview of possible treats to Reliable Server pooll protcols is
   detailed in RFC TREAT [8].

   Rserpool architecture allows the use of different Transport protocols
   for its application and control data exchange. Those transport
   protocols may have mechanisms for reducing the risk of blind
   denial-of-service attacks and/or masquerade attacks. If such measures
   are required by the applications, then it is advised to check the
   SCTP applicability statement[RFC3057] for guidance on this issue.































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8. Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank H. Hazewinkel, M. Urena and M. Stillman and
   many others for their invaluable comments.















































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References

   [1]  Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Shore, M., Xie, Q., Ong, L., Loughney,
        J. and M. Stillman, "Requirements for Reliable Server Pooling",
        RFC 3237, January 2002.

   [2]  Tuexen, M., Stewart, R., Shore, M., Xie, Q., Ong, L., Loughney,
        J. and M. Stillman, "Architecture for Reliable Server Pooling",
        Draft in progress , October 2002.

   [3]  Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Stillman, M. and M. Tuexen, "Aggregate
        Server Access Protocol (ASAP)", Draft in progress , October
        2002.

   [4]  Xie, Q., Stewart, R. and M. Stillman, "Endpoint Name Resolution
        Protocol (ENRP)", Draft in progress , October 2002.

   [5]  Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Stillman, M. and M. Tuexen, "Aggregate
        Server Access Protocol and Endpoint Name Resolution Protocol
        Common Parameters", Draft in progress , October 2002.

   [6]  Conrad, P. and P. Lei, ""Services Provided By Reliable Server
        Pooling", Draft in progress , January 2003.

   [7]  Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Morneault, K., Sharp, C., Schwarzbauer,
        H., Taylor, T., Rytina, I., Kalla, M., Zhang, L. and V. Paxson,
        ""Stream Control Transmission Protocol"", RFC 2960, October
        2000.

   [8]  Stillman, M., Gopal, R., Sengodan, S., Guttman, E. and M.
        Holdrege, ""Threats Introduced by Rserpool and Requirements for
        Security in response to Threats"", RFC zzzz, Nov 2002.

   [9]  Coene, L., ""Stream Control Transmission Protocol Applicability
        statement"", RFC 3257, April 2002.


Authors' Addresses

   Lode Coene
   Siemens
   Atealaan 32
   Herentals  2200
   Belgium

   Phone: +32-14-252081
   EMail: lode.coene@siemens.com




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   Phil Conrad
   University of Delaware

   USA

   Phone: +
   EMail: pconrad@acm.org


   Peter Lei
   Cisco
   8735 W Higgins Rd, Suite 300
   Chicago, IL  60631
   USA

   Phone: +1 847 870 7201
   EMail: peter.lei@ieee.org


































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Intellectual Property Statement

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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
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Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.











































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