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Versions: (draft-ding-rtgwg-arp-yang-model) 00 01

RTGWG                                                           F. Zheng
Internet-Draft                                                     B. Wu
Intended status: Standards Track                                  Huawei
Expires: February 25, 2019                                     R. Wilton
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                                 X. Ding
                                                         August 24, 2018


                        YANG Data Model for ARP
                   draft-ietf-rtgwg-arp-yang-model-01

Abstract

   This document defines a YANG data model for the management of the
   Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).  It extends the basic ARP
   functionality contained in the ietf-ip YANG data model, defined in
   RFC 8344, to provide management of optional ARP features and
   statistics.

   The YANG data model in this document conforms to the Network
   Management Datastore Architecture defined in RFC 8342.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 25, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Tree Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Design of the Data Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  ARP dynamic learning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  proxy ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  gratuitous ARP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  ietf-arp Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  ARP YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Data Model Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.1.  Static ARP Entries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.2.  ARP Dynamic Learning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   This document defines a YANG [RFC7950] data model for the Address
   Resolution Protocol [RFC0826] implementation and identification of
   some common properties within a device.  Devices have common
   properties that need to be configured and monitored in a standard
   way.  This document is intended to present universal ARP protocol
   configuration and many vendors can implement it.

   The data model convers configuration of system parameters of ARP,
   such as static ARP entries, timeout for dynamic ARP entries,
   interface ARP, proxy ARP, and so on.  It also provides information
   about running state of ARP implementations.

   The YANG modules in this document conform to the Network Management
   Datastore Architecture (NMDA) [RFC8342].

   Editorial Note: (To be removed by RFC Editor)



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   This draft contains many placeholder values that need to be replaced
   with finalized values at the time of publication.  Please apply the
   following replacements

   o  "XXXX" --> the assigned RFC value for this draft both in this
      draft and in the YANG models under the revision statement.

   o  Revision date in model, in the format 2018-08-01 needs to get
      updated with the date the draft gets approved.  The date also
      needs to get reflected on the line with <CODE BEGINS>.

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [BCP 14] [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The following terms are defined in [RFC8342] and are not redefined
   here:

   o  client

   o  server

   o  configuration data

   o  system state

   o  state data

   o  intended configuration

   o  running configuration datastore

   o  operational state datastore

   The following terms are defined in [RFC7950] and are not redefined
   here:

   o  augment

   o  data model

   o  data node





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   The terminology for describing YANG data models is found in
   [RFC7950].

1.2.  Tree Diagrams

   Tree diagrams used in this document follow the notation defined in
   [RFC8340]

2.  Problem Statement

   This document defines a YANG [RFC7950] configuration data model that
   may be used to configure the ARP feature running on a system.  Data
   model "ietf-ip" [RFC8344] covers the address mapping functionality.
   However, this functionality is strictly dependent on IPv4 networks,
   and many ARP related functionalities are missing, e.g.  device global
   ARP entries and control, configuration related to dynamic ARP
   learning, proxy ARP, gratuitous ARP, etc.

   The data model makes use of the YANG "feature" construct which allows
   implementations to support only those ARP features that lie within
   their capabilities.  It is intended this model be used by service
   providers who manipulate devices from different vendors in a standard
   way.

   This model can be used to configure the ARP applications for
   discovering the link layer address associated with a given Internet
   layer address.

3.  Design of the Data Model

   This data model intends to describe the processing that a protocol
   finds the hardware address, also known as Media Access Control (MAC)
   address, of a host from its known IP address.  These tasks include,
   but are not limited to, adding a static entry in the ARP cache,
   configuring dynamic ARP learning, proxy ARP, gratuitous ARP.  There
   are two kind of ARP configurations: global ARP configuration, which
   is across all interfaces on the device, and per interface ARP
   configuration.

3.1.  ARP dynamic learning

   ARP caching is the method of storing network addresses and the
   associated data-link addresses in memory for a period of time as the
   addresses are learned.  This minimizes the use of valuable network
   resources to broadcast for the same address each time a datagram is
   sent.





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   There are static ARP cache entries and dynamic ARP cache entries.
   Static entries are manually configured and kept in the cache table on
   a permanent basis.  Dynamic entries are added by vendor software,
   kept for a period of time, and then removed.  We can specify how long
   an entry remains in the ARP cache.  If we specify a timeout of 0
   seconds, entries are never cleared from the ARP cache.

3.2.  proxy ARP

   Proxy ARP [RFC1027] can be configured to enable the switch to respond
   to ARP queries for network addresses by offering its own Ethernet
   media access control (MAC) address.  With proxy ARP enabled, the
   switch captures and routes traffic to the intended destination.

3.3.  gratuitous ARP

   Gratuitous ARP requests help detect duplicate IP addresses.  A
   gratuitous ARP is a broadcast request for a router's own IP address.
   If a router or switch sends an ARP request for its own IP address and
   no ARP replies are received, the router- or switch-assigned IP
   address is not being used by other nodes.  However, if a router or
   switch sends an ARP request for its own IP address and an ARP reply
   is received, the router- or switch-assigned IP address is already
   being used by another node.

3.4.  ietf-arp Module

   This module has one top level container, ARP, which consists of two
   second level containers, which are used for static entries
   configuration and global parameters control.





















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   module: ietf-arp
       +--rw arp
          +--rw dynamic-learning?        boolean
          +--rw proxy-arp?               boolean
          +--rw global-static-entries {global-static-entries}?
             +--rw static-entry* [ip-address]
                +--rw ip-address     inet:ipv4-address-no-zone
                +--rw mac-address    yang:mac-address

     augment /if:interfaces/if:interface:
       +--rw arp
          +--rw expiry-time?     uint32
          +--rw learn-disable?   boolean
          +--rw proxy
          |  +--rw mode?   enumeration
          +--rw probe
          |  +--rw interval?   uint8
          |  +--rw times?      uint8
          |  +--rw unicast?    boolean
          +--rw gratuitous
          |  +--rw enable?     boolean
          |  +--rw interval?   uint32
          |  +--rw drop?       boolean
          +--ro statistics
             +--ro in-requests-pkts?      yang:counter32
             +--ro in-replies-pkts?       yang:counter32
             +--ro in-gratuitous-pkts?    yang:counter32
             +--ro out-requests-pkts?     yang:counter32
             +--ro out-replies-pkts?      yang:counter32
             +--ro out-gratuitous-pkts?   yang:counter32
     augment /if:interfaces/if:interface/ip:ipv4/ip:neighbor:
       +--ro remaining-expiry-time?   uint32

4.  ARP YANG Module

   This section presents the ARP YANG module defined in this document.

   This module imports definitions from Common YANG Data Types
   [RFC6991], A YANG Data Model for Interface Management [RFC8343], and
   A YANG Data Model for IP Management [RFC8344].

   <CODE BEGINS>file "ietf-arp@2018-08-01.yang"
   module ietf-arp {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-arp";
     prefix arp;

     import ietf-inet-types {



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       prefix inet;
       reference "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types";
     }
     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
       reference "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types";
     }
     import ietf-interfaces {
       prefix if;
       reference "RFC 8343: A Yang Data Model for Interface Management";
     }
     import ietf-ip {
       prefix ip;
       reference "RFC 8344: A Yang Data Model for IP Management";
     }

     organization
       "IETF Routing Area Working Group (rtgwg)";
     contact
       "WG Web: <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/rtgwg/>
        WG List: <mailto: rtgwg@ietf.org>
        Editor: Xiaojian Ding
            wjswsl@163.com
        Editor: Feng Zheng
            habby.zheng@huawei.com
        Editor: Robert Wilton
            rwilton@cisco.com";

     description
       "Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) management, which includes
        static ARP configuration, dynamic ARP learning, ARP entry query,
        and packet statistics collection.

       Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

       This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see the RFC
         itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2018-08-01 {
       description



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         "Init revision";
       reference "RFC XXXX: A Yang Data Model for ARP";
     }

     feature global-static-entries {
       description
         "This feature indicates that the device allows static entries
          to be configured globally.";
     }

     container arp {
       description
         "Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) management, which includes
           static ARP configuration, dynamic ARP learning, ARP entry
           query, and packet statistics collection.";
       leaf dynamic-learning {
         type boolean;
         default "true";
         description
           "Controls the default dynamic ARP learning behavior on all
            interfaces on the device:
              true -  dynamic learning is enabled on all interfaces by
                      default,
              false - dynamic learning is disabled on all interfaces by
                      default";
       }
       leaf proxy-arp {
         type boolean;
         default "true";
         description
           "Controls the default proxy ARP behavior on all interfaces
            on the device:
              true - proxy ARP is enabled on interfaces by default,
              false - proxy APR is disabled on interfaces by default";
       }
       container global-static-entries {
         if-feature "global-static-entries";
         description
           "Set a global static ARP entry, which is independent of the
            interface.";
         list static-entry {
           key "ip-address";
           description
             "List of ARP static entries that can be configured
              globally.";
           leaf ip-address {
             type inet:ipv4-address-no-zone;
             description



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               "IP address, in dotted decimal notation.";
           }
           leaf mac-address {
             type yang:mac-address;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "MAC address in the format of H-H-H, in which H is a
                hexadecimal number of 1 to 4 bits.";
           }
         }
       }
     }
     augment "/if:interfaces/if:interface" {
       description
         "Augment interfaces with ARP configuration and state.";
       container arp {
         description
           "Dynamic ARP related configuration and state";
         leaf expiry-time {
           type uint32 {
             range "60..86400";
           }
           units "seconds";
           description
             "Aging time of a dynamic ARP entry.";
         }
         leaf learn-disable {
           type boolean;
           default "false";
           description
             "Whether dynamic ARP learning is disabled on an interface:
              If the value is True, dynamic ARP learning is disabled.
              If the value is False, dynamic ARP learning is enabled.";
         }
         container proxy {
           description
             "Configuration parameters for proxy ARP";
           leaf mode {
             type enumeration {
               enum DISABLE {
                 description
                   "The system should not respond to ARP requests that
                    do not specify an IP address configured on the local
                    subinterface as the target address.";
               }
               enum REMOTE_ONLY {
                 description
                   "The system responds to ARP requests only when the



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                    sender and target IP addresses are in different
                    subnets.";
               }
               enum ALL {
                 description
                   "The system responds to ARP requests where the sender
                    and target IP addresses are in different subnets, as
                    well as those where they are in the same subnet.";
               }
             }
             default "DISABLE";
             description
               "When set to a value other than DISABLE, the local system
                should respond to ARP requests that are for target
                addresses other than those that are configured on the
                local subinterface using its own MAC address as the
                target hardware address. If the REMOTE_ONLY value is
                specified, replies are only sent when the target address
                falls outside the locally configured subnets on the
                interface, whereas with the ALL value, all requests,
                regardless of their target address are replied to.";
             reference
               "RFC1027: Using ARP to Implement Transparent Subnet
                Gateways";
           }
         }
         container probe {
           description
             "Common configuration parameters for all ARP probe.";
           leaf interval {
             type uint8 {
               range "1..5";
             }
             units "second";
             description
               "Interval for detecting dynamic ARP entries.";
           }
           leaf times {
             type uint8 {
               range "0..10";
             }
             description
               "Number of aging probe attempts for a dynamic ARP entry.
                If a device does not receive an ARP reply message after
                the number of aging probe attempts reaches a specified
                number,thedynamic ARP entry is deleted.";
           }
           leaf unicast {



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             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "Send unicast ARP aging probe messages for a dynamic ARP
                entry.";
           }
         }
         container gratuitous-arp {
           description
             "Configure gratuitous ARP.";
           leaf enable {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "Enable or disable sending gratuitous ARP packet on
                interface.";
           }
           leaf interval {
             type uint32 {
               range "1..86400";
             }
             units "second";
             description
               "The interval of sending gratuitous ARP packet on the
                interface.";
           }
           leaf drop {
             type boolean;
             default "false";
             description
               "Drop the receipt of gratuitous ARP packets on the
                interface.";
           }
         }
         container statistics {
           config false;
           description
             "IP ARP Statistics information on interfaces";
           leaf in-requests-pkts {
             type yang:counter32;
             description
               "Total ARP requests received";
           }
           leaf in-replies-pkts {
             type yang:counter32;
             description
               "Total ARP replies received";
           }



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           leaf in-gratuitous-pkts {
             type yang:counter32;
             description
               "Total gratuitous ARP received";
           }
           leaf out-requests-pkts {
             type yang:counter32;
             description
               "Total ARP requests sent";
           }
           leaf out-replies-pkts {
             type yang:counter32;
             description
               "Total ARP replies sent";
           }
           leaf out-gratuitous-pkts {
             type yang:counter32;
             description
               "Total gratuitous ARP sent";
           }
         }
       }
     }
     augment "/if:interfaces/if:interface/ip:ipv4/ip:neighbor" {
       description
         "Augment neighbor list with parameters of ARP, eg., support for
          remaining expiry time query on interfaces.";
       leaf remaining-expiry-time {
         type uint32;
         config false;
         description
           "Remaining expiry time of a dynamic ARP entry. ";
       }
     }
   }


5.  Data Model Examples

   This section presents a simple but complete example of configuring
   static ARP entries and dynamic learning, based on the YANG modules
   specified in Section 4.

5.1.  Static ARP Entries







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   Requirement:
   Enable static ARP entry global configuration (not rely on interface).
      <config xmlns:xc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
         <arp xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-arp">
            <static-tables>
       <ip-address> 10.2.2.3 </ip-address>
       <mac-address> 00e0-fc01-0000 </mac-address>
        </static-tables>
         </arp>


   Requirement:
   Enable static ARP entry configuration on interface (defined in
   draft [I-D.ietf-netmod-rfc7277bis]).
      <config xmlns:xc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
         <ipv4 xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-ip">
            <neighbor>
       <ip-address> 10.2.2.3 </ip-address>
       <mac-address> 00e0-fc01-0000 </mac-address>
       <if-name> GE1/0/1 </if-name>
        </neighbor>
         </ipv4>


5.2.  ARP Dynamic Learning

   Requirement:
   Enable ARP dynamic learning configuration.

      <config xmlns:xc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
         <arp xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-arp">
            <if-name> GE1/0/1 </if-name>
            <expire-time>1200</expire-time>
         <learn-disable>false</learn-disable>
            <proxy-enable>false</proxy-enable>
      <probe>
      <interval>5</interval>
      <times>3</times>
      <unicast>false</unicast>
      </probe>
      <gratuitous>
      <gratuitous-enable>false<gratuitous-enable>
      <interval>60</interval>
      <drop>false</drop>
               <gratuitous>
         </arp>





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6.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers a URI in theIETF XML registry [RFC3688].
   Following the format in [RFC3688], the following registration is
   requested to be made:

   URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-arp
   Registrant Contact: The IESG.
   XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   This document registers a YANG module in the YANG Module Names
   registry [RFC7950].

   Name: ietf-arp
   Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang: ietf-arp
   Prefix: arp
   Reference: RFC XXXX

7.  Security Considerations

   The YANG module defined in this document is designed to be accessed
   via YANG based management protocols, such as NETCONF [RFC6241] and
   RESTCONF [RFC8040].  Both of these protocols have mandatory-to-
   implement secure transport layers (e.g., SSH, TLS) with mutual
   authentication.

   The NETCONF access control model (NACM) [RFC8341] provides the means
   to restrict access for particular users to a pre-configured subset of
   all available protocol operations and content.

   There are a number of data nodes defined in this YANG module that are
   writable/creatable/deletable (i.e., config true, which is the
   default).  These data nodes may be considered sensitive or vulnerable
   in some network environments.  Write operations (e.g., edit-config)
   to these data nodes without proper protection can have a negative
   effect on network operations.

   These are the subtrees and data nodes and their sensitivity/
   vulnerability:

      arp/dynamic-learning: This leaf is used to enable ARP dynamic
      learning on all interfaces.ARP dynamic learning could allow an
      attacker to inject spoofed traffic into the network, e.g. denial-
      of- service attack.

      arp/proxy-arp and arp/proxy:These leaves are used to enable ARP
      proxy on interface.  They could allow traffic to be mis-configured
      (denial-of- service attack).



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      arp/global-static-entries/static-entry: This list specifies ARP
      static entries configured on the device.  By modifying this
      information, an attacker can cause a node to either ignore
      messages destined to it or accept messages it would otherwise
      ignore.

      /arp/gratuitous-arp:This leaf is used to enable sending gratuitous
      ARP packet on an interface.This configuration could allow an
      attacker to inject spoofed traffic into the network, e.g.  man-in-
      the-middle attack.

8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank Alex Campbell and Reshad Rahman, Qin Wu,
   Tom Petch, many others for their helpful comments.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0826]  Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
              Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
              Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37,
              RFC 826, DOI 10.17487/RFC0826, November 1982,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc826>.

   [RFC1027]  Carl-Mitchell, S. and J. Quarterman, "Using ARP to
              implement transparent subnet gateways", RFC 1027,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1027, October 1987,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1027>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC6991]  Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., "Common YANG Data Types",
              RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.




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   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8342]  Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
              (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.

   [RFC8343]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for Interface
              Management", RFC 8343, DOI 10.17487/RFC8343, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8343>.

   [RFC8344]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for IP Management",
              RFC 8344, DOI 10.17487/RFC8344, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8344>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8340]  Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams",
              BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.

   [RFC8341]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.

Authors' Addresses

   Feng Zheng
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012
   China

   Email: habby.zheng@huawei.com





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   Bo Wu
   Huawei

   Email: lana.wubo@huawei.com


   Robert Wilton
   Cisco Systems

   Email: rwilton@cisco.com


   Xiaojian Ding

   Email: wjswsl@163.com




































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