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Versions: (draft-litkowski-rtgwg-spf-uloop-pb-statement) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Routing Area Working Group                                  S. Litkowski
Internet-Draft                                   Orange Business Service
Intended status: Informational                               B. Decraene
Expires: July 20, 2019                                            Orange
                                                            M. Horneffer
                                                        Deutsche Telekom
                                                        January 16, 2019


   Link State protocols SPF trigger and delay algorithm impact on IGP
                              micro-loops
               draft-ietf-rtgwg-spf-uloop-pb-statement-10

Abstract

   A micro-loop is a packet forwarding loop that may occur transiently
   among two or more routers in a hop-by-hop packet forwarding paradigm.

   In this document, we are trying to analyze the impact of using
   different Link State IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) implementations
   in a single network, with respect to micro-loops.  The analysis is
   focused on the SPF (Shortest Path First) delay algorithm.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 20, 2019.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Problem statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  SPF trigger strategies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  SPF delay strategies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Two steps SPF delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Exponential backoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Mixing strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Benefits of standardized SPF delay behavior . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   Link State IGP protocols are based on a topology database on which
   the SPF algorithm is run to find a consistent set of non-looping
   routing paths.

   Specifications like IS-IS ([RFC1195]) propose some optimizations of
   the route computation (See Appendix C.1 of [RFC1195]) but not all the
   implementations follow those non-mandatory optimizations.

   We will call "SPF triggers", the events that would lead to a new SPF
   computation based on the topology.

   Link State IGP protocols, like OSPF ([RFC2328]) and IS-IS
   ([RFC1195]), are using multiple timers to control the router behavior



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   in case of churn: SPF delay, PRC (Partial Route Computation) delay,
   LSP (Link State Packet) generation delay, LSP flooding delay, LSP
   retransmission interval...

   Some of those timers (values and behavior) are standardized in
   protocol specifications, while some are not.  The SPF computation
   related timers have generally remained unspecified.

   For non standardized timers, implementations are free to implement
   them in any way.  For some standardized timers, we can also see that
   rather than using static configurable values for such timer,
   implementations may offer dynamically adjusted timers to help control
   the churn.

   We will call "SPF delay", the timer that exists in most
   implementations that specifies the required delay before running SPF
   computation after a SPF trigger is received.

   A micro-loop is a packet forwarding loop that may occur transiently
   among two or more routers in a hop-by-hop packet forwarding paradigm.
   We can observe that these micro-loops are formed when two routers do
   not update their Forwarding Information Base (FIB) for a certain
   prefix at the same time.  The micro-loop phenomenon is described in
   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-microloop-analysis].

   Two micro-loop mitigation techniques have been defined by IETF.
   [RFC6976] has not been widely implemented, presumably due to the
   complexity of the technique.  [RFC8333] has been implemented.
   However, it does not prevent all micro-loops that can occur for a
   given topology and failure scenario.

   In multi-vendor networks, using different implementations of a link
   state protocol may favor micro-loops creation during the convergence
   process due to discrepancies of timers.  Service Providers are
   already aware to use similar timers (values and behavior) for all the
   network as a best practice, but sometimes it is not possible due to
   limitations of implementations.

   This document will present reasons for service providers to have
   consistent implementations of Link State protocols across vendors.
   We are particularly analyzing the impact of using different Link
   State IGP implementations in a single network in regards of micro-
   loops.  The analysis is focused on the SPF delay algorithm.

   [RFC8405] defines a solution that partially addresses this problem
   statement and this document captures the reasoning of the provided
   solution.




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2.  Problem statement

                              S ---- E
                              |      |
                           10 |      | 10
                              |      |
                              D ---- A
                              |  2
                              Px


          Figure 1 - Network topology suffering from micro-loops

   Figure 1 represents a small network composed of four routers (S,D,E
   and A).Router S uses primarily the SD link to reach the prefixes
   behind router D (named Px).  When the SD link fails, the IGP
   convergence occurs.  If S converges before E, S will forward the
   traffic to Px through E, but as E has not converged yet, E will loop
   back traffic to S, leading to a micro-loop.

   The micro-loop appears due to the asynchronous convergence of nodes
   in a network when an event occurs.

   Multiple factors (or a combination of these factors) may increase the
   probability for a micro-loop to appear:

   o  the delay of failure notification: the greater the time gap
      between E and S being advised of the failure, the more a micro-
      loop may have a chance to appear.

   o  the SPF delay: most implementations support a delay for the SPF
      computation to try to catch as many events as possible.  If S uses
      an SPF delay timer of x msec and E uses an SPF delay timer of y
      msec and x < y, E would start converging after S leading to a
      potential micro-loop.

   o  the SPF computation time: mostly a matter of CPU power and
      optimizations like incremental SPF.  If S computes its SPF faster
      than E, there is a chance for a micro-loop to appear.  CPUs are
      today fast enough to consider SPF computation time as negligible
      (on the order of milliseconds in a large network).

   o  the SPF computation ordering: an SPF trigger can be common to
      multiple IGP areas or levels (e.g., IS-IS Level1/Level2) or for
      multiple address families with multi-topologies.  There is no
      specified order for SPF computation today and it is implementation
      dependent.  In such scenarios, if the order of SPF computation




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      done in S and E for each area/level/topology/SPF-algorithm is
      different, there is a possibility for a micro-loop to appear.

   o  the RIB and FIB prefix insertion speed or ordering.  This is
      highly dependent on the implementation.

   Even if all of these factors may increase the probability for a
   micro-loop to appear, the SPF delay, especially in case of churn,
   plays a significant role.  As the number of IGP events increase, the
   delta between SPF delay values used by routers becomes significant
   and the dominating factor (especially when one router increases its
   timer exponentially while another one increases it in a more smoother
   way).  Another important factor is the time to update the FIB.  As of
   today, total FIB update time is the major factor for IGP convergence.
   However, for micro-loops, what matters is not the total time, but the
   difference to install the same prefix between nodes.  The time to
   update the FIB may be the main part for the first iteration but is
   not for subsequent IGP events.  In addition, the time to update the
   FIB is very implementation specific and difficult/impossible to
   standardize, while the SPF delay algorithm may be standardized.

   As a consequence, this document will focus on the analysis of the SPF
   delay behavior and associated triggers.

3.  SPF trigger strategies

   Depending on the change advertised in LSPDU (Link State Protocol Data
   Unit) or LSA (Link State Advertisement), the topology may be affected
   or not.  An implementation may avoid running the SPF computation (and
   may only run an IP reachability computation instead) if the
   advertised change does not affect the topology.

   Different strategies exists to trigger the SPF computation:

   1.  An implementation may always run a full SPF for any type of
       change.

   2.  An implementation may run a full SPF only when required.  For
       example, if a link fails, a local node will run an SPF for its
       local LSP update.  If the LSP from the neighbor (describing the
       same failure) is received after SPF has started, the local node
       can decide that a new full SPF is not required as the topology
       has not changed.

   3.  If the topology does not change, an implementation may only
       recompute the IP reachability.





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   As noted in Section 1, SPF optimizations are not mandatory in
   specifications.  This has led to the implementation of different
   strategies.

4.  SPF delay strategies

   Implementations of link state routing protocols use different
   strategies to delay the SPF computation.  The two most common SPF
   delay behaviors are the following:

   1.  Two phase SPF delay.

   2.  Exponential backoff delay.

   These behaviors will be explained in the next sections.

4.1.  Two steps SPF delay

   The SPF delay is managed by four parameters:

   o  Rapid delay: amount of time to wait before running SPF, after the
      initial SPF trigger event.

   o  Rapid runs: the number of consecutive SPF runs that can use the
      rapid delay.  When the number is exceeded, the delay moves to the
      slow delay value.

   o  Slow delay: amount of time to wait before running SPF.

   o  Wait time: amount of time to wait without receiving SPF trigger
      events before going back to the rapid delay.

   Example: Rapid delay (RD) = 50msec, Rapid runs = 3, Slow delay (SD) =
   1sec, Wait time = 2sec

















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   SPF delay time
       ^
       |
       |
   SD- |             x xx x
       |
       |
       |
   RD- |   x  x   x                    x
       |
       +---------------------------------> Events
           |  |   |  | || |            |
                           < wait time >

                   Figure 2 - Two phase delay algorithm

4.2.  Exponential backoff

   The algorithm has two modes: the fast mode and the backoff mode.  In
   the fast mode, the SPF delay is usually delayed by a very small
   amount of time (fast reaction).  When an SPF computation has run in
   the fast mode, the algorithm automatically moves to the backoff mode
   (a single SPF run is authorized in the fast mode).  In the backoff
   mode, the SPF delay is increasing exponentially at each run.  When
   the network becomes stable, the algorithm moves back to the fast
   mode.  The SPF delay is managed by four parameters:

   o  First delay: amount of time to wait before running SPF.  This
      delay is used only when SPF is in fast mode.

   o  Incremental delay: amount of time to wait before running SPF.
      This delay is used only when SPF is in backoff mode and increments
      exponentially at each SPF run.

   o  Maximum delay: maximum amount of time to wait before running SPF.

   o  Wait time: amount of time to wait without events before going back
      to the fast mode.

   Example: First delay (FD) = 50msec, Incremental delay (ID) = 50msec,
   Maximum delay (MD) = 1sec, Wait time = 2sec










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   SPF delay time
       ^
   MD- |               xx x
       |
       |
       |
       |
       |
       |             x
       |
       |
       |
       |          x
       |
   FD- |   x  x                        x
   ID  |
       +---------------------------------> Events
           |  |   |  | || |            |
                           < wait time >
          FM->BM -------------------->FM

                  Figure 3 - Exponential delay algorithm

5.  Mixing strategies

   In Figure 1, we consider a flow of packet from S to D.  We consider
   that S is using optimized SPF triggering (Full SPF is triggered only
   when necessary), and two steps SPF delay (rapid=150ms,rapid-runs=3,
   slow=1s).  As implementation of S is optimized, Partial Reachability
   Computation (PRC) is available.  We consider the same timers as SPF
   for delaying PRC.  We consider that E is using a SPF trigger strategy
   that always compute a Full SPF for any change, and uses the
   exponential backoff strategy for SPF delay (start=150ms, inc=150ms,
   max=1s)

   We also consider the following sequence of events:

   o  t0=0 ms: a prefix is declared down in the network.  We consider
      this event to happen at time=0.

   o  200ms: the prefix is declared as up.

   o  400ms: a prefix is declared down in the network.

   o  1000ms: S-D link fails.

   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+
   |  Time  |   Network Event    | Router S events  | Router E events  |



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   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+
   |  t0=0  |    Prefix DOWN     |                  |                  |
   |  10ms  |                    | Schedule PRC (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |      150ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 160ms  |                    |    PRC starts    |    SPF starts    |
   | 161ms  |                    |     PRC ends     |                  |
   | 162ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 163ms  |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 164ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 175ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 178ms  |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 200ms  |     Prefix UP      |                  |                  |
   | 212ms  |                    | Schedule PRC (in |                  |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |                  |
   | 214ms  |                    |                  | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |                  |      150ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 370ms  |                    |    PRC starts    |                  |
   | 372ms  |                    |     PRC ends     |                  |
   | 373ms  |                    |                  |    SPF starts    |
   | 373ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 375ms  |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 376ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 383ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 385ms  |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 400ms  |    Prefix DOWN     |                  |                  |
   | 410ms  |                    | Schedule PRC (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |      300ms)      |      300ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 710ms  |                    |    PRC starts    |    SPF starts    |
   | 711ms  |                    |     PRC ends     |                  |
   | 712ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 713ms  |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 714ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 716ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1000ms |   S-D link DOWN    |                  |                  |
   | 1010ms |                    | Schedule SPF (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |      600ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |



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   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1160ms |                    |    SPF starts    |                  |
   | 1161ms |                    |     SPF ends     |                  |
   | 1162ms |   Micro-loop may   |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   |        |  start from here   |                  |                  |
   | 1175ms |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1612ms |                    |                  |    SPF starts    |
   | 1615ms |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 1616ms |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 1626ms |  Micro-loop ends   |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+

   Table 1 - Route computation when S and E use the different behaviors
                        and multiple events appear

   In the Table 1, we can see that due to discrepancies in the SPF
   management, after multiple events of a different type, the values of
   the SPF delay are completely misaligned between node S and node E,
   leading to the creation of micro-loops.

   The same issue can also appear with only a single type of event as
   shown below:

   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+
   |  Time  |   Network Event    | Router S events  | Router E events  |
   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+
   |  t0=0  |     Link DOWN      |                  |                  |
   |  10ms  |                    | Schedule SPF (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |      150ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 160ms  |                    |    SPF starts    |    SPF starts    |
   | 161ms  |                    |     SPF ends     |                  |
   | 162ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 163ms  |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 164ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 175ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 178ms  |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 200ms  |     Link DOWN      |                  |                  |
   | 212ms  |                    | Schedule SPF (in |                  |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |                  |
   | 214ms  |                    |                  | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |                  |      150ms)      |



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   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 370ms  |                    |    SPF starts    |                  |
   | 372ms  |                    |     SPF ends     |                  |
   | 373ms  |                    |                  |    SPF starts    |
   | 373ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 375ms  |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 376ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 383ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 385ms  |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 400ms  |     Link DOWN      |                  |                  |
   | 410ms  |                    | Schedule SPF (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |      300ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 560ms  |                    |    SPF starts    |                  |
   | 561ms  |                    |     SPF ends     |                  |
   | 562ms  |   Micro-loop may   |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   |        |  start from here   |                  |                  |
   | 568ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 710ms  |                    |                  |    SPF starts    |
   | 713ms  |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 714ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 716ms  |  Micro-loop ends   |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1000ms |     Link DOWN      |                  |                  |
   | 1010ms |                    | Schedule SPF (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |       1s)        |      600ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1612ms |                    |                  |    SPF starts    |
   | 1615ms |                    |                  |     SPF ends     |
   | 1616ms |   Micro-loop may   |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   |        |  start from here   |                  |                  |
   | 1626ms |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 2012ms |                    |    SPF starts    |                  |
   | 2014ms |                    |     SPF ends     |                  |
   | 2015ms |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 2025ms |  Micro-loop ends   |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |



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   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+

   Table 2 - Route computation upon multiple link down events when S and
                       E use the different behaviors

6.  Benefits of standardized SPF delay behavior

   Using the same event sequence as in Table 1, we may expect fewer and/
   or shorter micro-loops using a standardized SPF delay.

   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+
   |  Time  |   Network Event    | Router S events  | Router E events  |
   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+
   |  t0=0  |    Prefix DOWN     |                  |                  |
   |  10ms  |                    | Schedule PRC (in | Schedule PRC (in |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |      150ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 160ms  |                    |    PRC starts    |    PRC starts    |
   | 161ms  |                    |     PRC ends     |                  |
   | 162ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |     PRC ends     |
   | 163ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 175ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 176ms  |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 200ms  |     Prefix UP      |                  |                  |
   | 212ms  |                    | Schedule PRC (in |                  |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |                  |
   | 213ms  |                    |                  | Schedule PRC (in |
   |        |                    |                  |      150ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 370ms  |                    |    PRC starts    |    PRC starts    |
   | 372ms  |                    |     PRC ends     |                  |
   | 373ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |     PRC ends     |
   | 374ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 383ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 384ms  |                    |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 400ms  |    Prefix DOWN     |                  |                  |
   | 410ms  |                    | Schedule PRC (in | Schedule PRC (in |
   |        |                    |      300ms)      |      300ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |



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   | 710ms  |                    |    PRC starts    |    PRC starts    |
   | 711ms  |                    |     PRC ends     |     PRC ends     |
   | 712ms  |                    |  RIB/FIB starts  |                  |
   | 713ms  |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 716ms  |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1000ms |   S-D link DOWN    |                  |                  |
   | 1010ms |                    | Schedule SPF (in | Schedule SPF (in |
   |        |                    |      150ms)      |      150ms)      |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   |        |                    |                  |                  |
   | 1160ms |                    |    SPF starts    |                  |
   | 1161ms |                    |     SPF ends     |    SPF starts    |
   | 1162ms |   Micro-loop may   |  RIB/FIB starts  |     SPF ends     |
   |        |  start from here   |                  |                  |
   | 1163ms |                    |                  |  RIB/FIB starts  |
   | 1175ms |                    |   RIB/FIB ends   |                  |
   | 1177ms |  Micro-loop ends   |                  |   RIB/FIB ends   |
   +--------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+

    Table 3 - Route computation when S and E use the same standardized
                                 behavior

   As displayed above, there could be some other parameters like router
   computation power, flooding timers that may also influence micro-
   loops.  In all the examples in this document comparing the SPF timer
   behavior of router S and router E, we have made router E a bit slower
   than router S.  This can lead to micro-loops even when both S and E
   use a common standardized SPF behavior.  However, we expect that by
   aligning implementations of the SPF delay, service providers may
   reduce the number and the duration of micro-loops.

7.  Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any security consideration.

8.  Acknowledgements

   Authors would like to thank Mike Shand and Chris Bowers for their
   useful comments.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no action for IANA.







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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1195]  Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for routing in TCP/IP and
              dual environments", RFC 1195, DOI 10.17487/RFC1195,
              December 1990, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1195>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2328, April 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2328>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8405]  Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., Gredler, H., Lindem, A.,
              Francois, P., and C. Bowers, "Shortest Path First (SPF)
              Back-Off Delay Algorithm for Link-State IGPs", RFC 8405,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8405, June 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8405>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-microloop-analysis]
              Zinin, A., "Analysis and Minimization of Microloops in
              Link-state Routing Protocols", draft-ietf-rtgwg-microloop-
              analysis-01 (work in progress), October 2005.

   [RFC6976]  Shand, M., Bryant, S., Previdi, S., Filsfils, C.,
              Francois, P., and O. Bonaventure, "Framework for Loop-Free
              Convergence Using the Ordered Forwarding Information Base
              (oFIB) Approach", RFC 6976, DOI 10.17487/RFC6976, July
              2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6976>.

   [RFC8333]  Litkowski, S., Decraene, B., Filsfils, C., and P.
              Francois, "Micro-loop Prevention by Introducing a Local
              Convergence Delay", RFC 8333, DOI 10.17487/RFC8333, March
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8333>.







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Authors' Addresses

   Stephane Litkowski
   Orange Business Service

   Email: stephane.litkowski@orange.com


   Bruno Decraene
   Orange

   Email: bruno.decraene@orange.com


   Martin Horneffer
   Deutsche Telekom

   Email: martin.horneffer@telekom.de

































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