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SACM                                                  N. Cam-Winget, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                   B. Ford
Intended status: Informational                             Cisco Systems
Expires: May 23, 2015                                        L. Lorenzin
                                                            Pulse Secure
                                                             I. McDonald
                                                          High North Inc
                                                               A. Woland
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                       November 19, 2014


    Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture
                    draft-ietf-sacm-architecture-01

Abstract

   This document describes an architecture for standardization of
   interfaces, protocols and information models related to security
   automation and continuous monitoring.  It describes the basic
   architecture, components and their interfaces defined to enable the
   collection, acquisition and verification of Posture and Posture
   Assessments.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 23, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Architectural Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Component Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.1.  Posture Assessment Information Provider . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.2.  Posture Assessment Information Consumer . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.3.  Controller  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Interfaces between Consumers, Providers, and Controllers    7
   4.  Component Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Control Plane Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.2.  Data Plane Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.2.1.  Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         4.2.1.1.  Internal Collector  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         4.2.1.2.  External Collector  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         4.2.1.3.  Collector Interactions With Target Endpoints  . .   9
       4.2.2.  Evaluator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.3.  Report Generator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.2.4.  Data Store  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Example Illustration of Capabilities and Workflow . . . . . .  10
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   Several data models and protocols are in use today that allow
   different applications to perform the collection, acquisition, and
   assessment of posture.  These applications can vary from being
   focused on general system and security management to specialized
   configuration, compliance, and control systems.  With an existing
   varied set of applications, there is a strong desire to standardize
   data models, protocols, and interfaces to better allow for the
   automation of such data processes.




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   This document addresses general and architectural requirements
   defined in [I-D.ietf-sacm-requirements].  This document describes an
   architecture to enable standardized collection, acquisition, and
   verification of Posture and Posture Assessments.  This architecture
   includes the components and interfaces that can be used to better
   identify the Information Model and type(s) of transport protocols
   needed for communication.

   This document uses terminology defined in
   [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology].

2.  Problem Statement

   Securing information and the systems that store, process, and
   transmit that information is a challenging task for organizations of
   all sizes, and many security practitioners spend much of their time
   on manual processes.  Administrators can't get technology from
   disparate sources to work together; they need information to make
   decisions, but the information is not available.  Everyone is
   collecting the same data, but storing it as different information.
   Administrators therefore need to collect data and craft their own
   information, which may not be accurate or interoperable because it's
   customized by each administrator, not shared.

   Security automation and continuous monitoring require a large and
   broad set of mission and business processes; to make the most
   effective of use of technology, the same data must support multiple
   processes.  The need for complex characterization and assessment
   necessitates components and functions that interoperate and can build
   off each other to enable far-ranging and/or deep-diving analysis.

3.  Architectural Overview

   At a high level, the architecture describes 'How' and 'Where'
   information and assessment of posture may be collected, processed or
   assessed.  Three main functional components are defined: a Posture
   Assessment Information Consumer (C), a Posture Assessment Information
   Provider (P), and a Controller (Cr) used to facilitate some of the
   security functions such as authentication and authorization and other
   metadata functions.











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                         +--------------------------------------+
                         | +--------------------------------------+
                         | | +--------------------------------------+
                         | | |                                      |
                         +-| |      Posture Assessment              |
                           +-|      Information Consumer (C)        |
                             +--------------------------------------+
                               /   \         /   \            /   \
                              /     \       /     \          /     \
                              -     -       -  d  -          -     -
                               || ||A        | a  |B          |   |C
                               || ||         | t  |           |   |
                              -     -       -  a  -           |   |
                              \     /       \     /           |   |
                               \   /         \   /            |   |
                            /|---------------------|\         |   |
                     /|----/                         \--------| d |--|\
                    /     /      Controller (Cr)      \ ctrl  | a |    \
                    \     \ [Broker/Proxy/Repository] / plane | t |    /
                     \|----\                         /--------| a |--|/
                            \|---------------------|/         |   |
                               /   \         /   \            |   |
                              /     \       /     \           |   |
                              -     -       -  d  -           |   |
                               || ||A        | a |B           |   |C
                               || ||         | t |            |   |
                              -     -       -  a  -          -     -
                              \     /       \     /          \     /
                               \   /         \   /            \   /
                             +------------------------------------+
                             |                                    |-+
                             |     Posture Assessment             | |
                             |    Information Provider (P)        | |-+
                             +------------------------------------+ | |
                               +------------------------------------+ |
                                 +------------------------------------+




                   Figure 1: Simple Architectural Model

3.1.  Component Roles

   An endpoint, as defined in [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology], can function
   in two primary ways: as the target of an assessment, and/or as a
   functional component of the SACM architecture that can instantiate
   one or more capabilities (see Section 4).  Individual endpoints may



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   be a target endpoint, or a component, or both simultaneously.
   Components can take on the role of Posture Assessment Information
   Provider, Posture Assessment Information Consumer, and/or Controller.

3.1.1.  Posture Assessment Information Provider

   The Posture Assessment Information Provider (P or Provider) is the
   component that contributes Posture Assessment Information and/or
   Guidance either spontaneously or in response to a request.  A
   Provider can be a Posture Evaluator, Posture Collector, or an
   application that has aggregated Posture Assessment Information that
   can be shared.

   The Provider implements the capabilities and functions that must be
   handled to share or provide Posture Assessment information.

   A Provider may provide information spontaneously, or in response to a
   direct request from a Consumer.  The information may be filtered or
   truncated to provide a subset of the requested information to honor
   the request.  This truncation may be performed based on the
   Consumer's request and/or the Provider's ability to filter.  The
   latter case may be due to security considerations (e.g. authorization
   restrictions due to domain segregation, privacy, etc.).

   The Provider may only be able to share the Posture Assessment
   Information using a specific data model and protocol.  It may use a
   standard data model and/or protocol, a non-standard data model and/or
   protocol, or any combination of standard and non-standard data models
   and protocols.  It may also choose to advertise its capabilities
   through a metadata abstraction or through the use of the registration
   function of the Controller (see Section 3.1.3) [QUESTION: Are these
   different?].

   The Provider must be authorized to provide the Posture Assessment
   Information and further, be authorized to do so with the specific
   data models and protocols.

3.1.2.  Posture Assessment Information Consumer

   As described in Section 2.2 of the SACM Use Cases
   [I-D.ietf-sacm-use-cases], several usage scenarios are posed with
   different application types requesting posture assessment
   information.  Whether it is a configuration verification system; a
   checklist verification system; or a system for detecting posture
   deviations, compliance or vulnerabilities, they all need to acquire
   information about Posture Assessment.  Thus, the architectural
   component to enable such requests is defined as a Posture Assessment
   Information Consumer (C or Consumer).



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   The Consumer implements the capabilities and functions that must be
   handled in order to facilitate a Posture Assessment Information
   Request.  Requests can be either for a single posture attribute or a
   set of posture attributes where those attributes can be the raw
   information or an evaluated or assessed state based upon that
   information.  The Consumer may further choose to query for the
   information directly (one-time query), or to request for updates to
   be provided as the Posture Assessment Information changes
   (subscription).  A request could be made directly to an explicitly
   identified Posture Assessment Information Provider (P or Provider),
   but a Consumer may also desire to obtain the information without
   having to know the available providers.

   There may be instances where a Consumer may be requesting information
   from various Providers and due to its policy or application
   requirements may need to be better informed of the Providers and
   their capabilities.  In those use cases, a Consumer may also request
   to discover the respective capabilities of those Providers using the
   discovery function of the Controller (see Section 3.1.3).

   The Controller (described below) must authorize a Consumer to acquire
   the information it is requesting.  The Consumer may also be subject
   to limits or constraints on the numbers, types, sizes, and rate of
   requests.

3.1.3.  Controller

   The Controller (Cr) may be an independent endpoint, or an abstracted
   component running on an endpoint has multiple capabilities.  The
   purpose of the Controller is to execute on security functions and
   overall system functions including:

   Authentication:  The architecture must account for an abstraction
    where a Controller may be defined to affect the authentication of
    Consumers and Providers independent of the actual information
    sharing communication channel.  This supports use cases where:

    *  Consumers may request information independent of knowing the
       identities of the Providers.

    *  Providers may want to share the information without prior
       solicitation.

   Authorization:  To restrict how Posture Assessment Information is
    shared between the Consumers and Providers.  At minimum a management
    function must define the necessary policies.

    The introduction of the Controller supports use cases where:



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    *  Consumer's may request information independent of knowing the
       identities of the Provider's

    *  Providers may want to share information unsolicited

    The architecture must account for an abstraction where a Controller
    may be defined to affect the authentication of the Consumers and
    Providers independent of the actual information sharing
    communication channel.

   Identity Management:  As typically, Identity Management for
    authentication and authorization policies are best defined through a
    centralized component, the Controller also provides these services.

   Registration/Discovery:  A discovery mechanism is required to
    facilitate the interaction of Providers that may have different
    Posture Assessment Information and potentially limited (or a rich
    set) of ways in which they can share the information.  Through the
    use of a discovery mechanism, Consumers can have visibility of the
    Providers present and the type(s) of Posture Assessment Information
    that is available and how it can be requested.  Similarly, a
    Provider may need to register what Posture Assessment Information it
    can share and how it can share it (e.g.  protocol or with filtering
    capabilities).  Enabling this function through a Controller also
    allows for the distinct definition of security considerations (e.g.
    authorized registration of capabilities and of Providers) beyond how
    a Provider may define its own capability.

   These functions may be provided by a single component, or by multiple
   components.  For example, an endpoint acting as a data store may also
   act as its own broker.

   The Controller also helps define how to manage an overall SACM system
   that allows for Consumers to obtain the desired Posture Assessment
   Information without the need to distinctly know and establish a one
   (Consumer) to many (Provider) connections.  Note that the Controller
   also allows for the direct discovery and connection between a
   Consumer and Provider.

3.2.  Interfaces between Consumers, Providers, and Controllers

   As shown in Figure 1, communication can proceed with the following
   interfaces and expected functions and behaviors:

   A:  interface "A" shown in Figure 1 handles the management and
    control functions that are needed to establish, at minimum, a secure
    communication between Consumers and Providers.  The interface must
    also handle the functions to allow for the discovery and



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    registration of the Providers as well as the ways in which Posture
    Assessment Information can be provided (or requested).

   B:  interface "B" shown in Figure 1 enables Providers to share their
    Posture Assessment Information spontaneously; similarly, it enables
    Consumers to request information without having to know the
    identities (or reachability) of all the Providers that can fulfill
    Consumers' requests.

   C:  interface "C" shown in Figure 1 demonstrates the ability and
    desire for Consumers and Providers to be able to communicate
    directly when a Provider is sharing Posture Assessment Information
    directly to a Consumer.  The interface allows for the different data
    models and protocols to be used between a Consumer and a Provider
    with the expectation that the appropriate authentication and
    authorization mechanisms have been employed to establish a secure
    communication link between the Consumer and the Provider.
    Typically, it is expected that the secure link establishment occurs
    as a management or control function through the abstracted
    Controller role (e.g. the Controller could be a proxy or could be
    embedded in a Consumer or a Provider).

   TODO - add text around the usage of various protocols for endpoint
   data collection (SNMP, NETCONF, etc.?)

4.  Component Capabilities

   TODO: Intro text about capabilities

4.1.  Control Plane Capabilities

   TODO: Intro text about control plane capabilities

   TODO: Determine whether broker, proxy, and repository need to be full
   subsections or paragraphs in this section.

   Broker:  Intermediary negotiating connection between provider and
    consumer.

   Proxy:  Intermediary negotiating on behalf of a consumer.

   Repository:  Intermediary receiving and storing data from a provider,
    and providing stored data to a consumer.








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4.2.  Data Plane Capabilities

   TODO: Intro text about data plane capabilities

4.2.1.  Collector

   A collector consumes Guidance and/or other Posture Assessment
   Information; it provides Posture Assessment Information.  Collectors
   may be internal or external.

4.2.1.1.  Internal Collector

   TODO

4.2.1.2.  External Collector

   An external collector is a collector that observes endpoints from
   outside.  These collectors may be configured and operated to manage
   assets for reasons including, but not limited to, posture assessment.
   Collectors that are not primarily intended to support posture
   assessment (e.g. intrusion detection systems) may still provide
   information that speaks to endpoint posture (e.g. behavioral
   information).

   Examples:

   o  A RADIUS server whereby an endpoint has logged onto the network

   o  A network profiling system, which discovers and classifies network
      nodes

   o  A Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) sensor

   o  A vulnerability scanner

   o  A hypervisor that peeks into the endpoint, the endpoint being a
      virtual machine

   o  A management system that configures and installs software on the
      endpoint

4.2.1.3.  Collector Interactions With Target Endpoints

   TODO







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4.2.2.  Evaluator

   An evaluator consumes Posture Assessment Information, Evaluation
   Results, and/or Guidance; it provides Evaluation Results.  An
   evaluator may consume endpoint attribute assertions, previous
   evaluations of posture attributes, or previous reports of Evaluation
   Results.

   [kkw-i don't think this conflicts with the definition in the
   terminology doc re: that evaluation tasks evaluate posture
   attributes.]

   [cek-I like the change.  I think it *does* require a change in the
   terminology doc, though.]

   Example: a NEA posture validator [RFC5209]

   [jmf- a NEA posture validator is not an example of this definition.
   A NEA posture assessment is, maybe?]

   [cek-Why isn't a NEA posture validator an example?]

4.2.3.  Report Generator

   A report generator consumes Posture Assessment Information,
   Evaluation Results, and/or Guidance; it provides reports.  These
   reports are based on:

   o  Endpoint Attribute Assertions, including Evaluation Results

   o  Other Reports (a weekly report may be created from daily reports)

   It may summarize data continually, as the data arrives.  It also may
   summarize data in response to an ad hoc query.

4.2.4.  Data Store

   A data store consumes any data; it provides any data.

5.  Example Illustration of Capabilities and Workflow

   TODO: revise all this text









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                         +-------------------------------+
                        | +-------------------------------+
                        | |                               |
                        +-|        Controller (Cr)        |
                          +-------------------------------+
                             //   /            \   \\
                            //   /              \   \\
                         A //   /                \   \\ A
                          //   /                  \   \\
                         //   /  B             B   \   \\
                        //   /                      \   \\
 +-------------------------------+             +-------------------------------+
 | +-------------------------------+     A     | +-------------------------------+
 | |                               |===========| |                               |
 | |   Posture Assessment          |-----------| |   Posture Assessment          |
 +-|   Information Consumer (C)    |     C     +-|   Information Provider (P)    |
    +-------------------------------+             +-------------------------------+


                      Figure 2: Communications Model

   SACM's focus is on the automation of collection, verification and
   update of system security configurations pertaining to endpoint
   assessment.  In order to carry out these tasks, the architectural
   components shown in Figure 1 can be further refined as:

   Posture Assessment Information Providers:  a Provider may be
    dedicated to perform either the collection, aggregation or
    evaluation of one or more posture attributes whose results can be
    conveyed to a Posture Assessment Information Consumer.  In this
    example form of the SACM architecture model, these are shown as
    Collection, Evaluation, and Results Providers.  Note that there may
    be posture attributes or posture assessment information that
    articulates Guidance information which may or may not be present in
    the architecture.

   Posture Assessment Information Consumers:  a Consumer may request or
    receive one or more posture attributes or posture assessment
    information from a Posture Assessment Information Provider for their
    own use.  In this example form of the SACM architecture model, these
    are shown as Collection, Evaluation, and Results Consumers.  Note
    that there may be posture attributes or posture assessment
    information articulating Guidance information which may or may not
    be present in the architecture to be provided or consumed.

   Data Stores:  a Data Store is both a Provider and a Consumer, storing
    one or more posture attributes or assessments for endpoints.  It
    should be understood that these repositories interface directly to a



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    Provider or Consumer (and Guidance) but the interfaces used to
    interact between them is outside the scope of SACM (e.g. no
    interface arrows are shown in the architecture).

   Figure 3 illustrates an example flow for how Posture Assessment
   Information may flow.













































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                   +-------------+
                    |Evaluation   |
           +-------------+  |Guidance     +--+
           |Endpoint     |  |Capability   |  |
       +-------+             |  +-------------+  |
       |       |             |                   |
       |       +-------+-----+             +-----v-------+
       | Collection    |                   |Evaluation   |
         +-> Capability +--+--------+          |Capability   |
         | |            |Collection |    +-----------+   +----------+
         | +------------+Provider   |    |           |---|          |
         |              |           |    |Collection |   |Evaluation|
         |              |           |    |Consumer   |   |Provider  |
         |              +----+------+    +----^------+   +---+------+
        ++---------+         |                |              |
        |Collection|   +-----v------+     +---+--------+     |
        |Guidance  |   |            |     |Collection  |     |
        |Capability|   |Collection  |     |Provider    |     |
        |          |   |Consumer    |-----|            |     |
        +----------+   +------------+     +------------+     |
                      | Collection |             |
                      | Data Store |             |
                      +------------+             |
                                 |
        +--------------+           +---------------+     |
        |Evaluation    |           |Evaluation     |     |
        |Results       |           |Consumer       <-----+
        |Provider      |-----------|               |
        +-----+--------+           +---------------+
              |     |Results Reporting|
              |     |Capability       |
              |     +------------^----+
              |                  |
        +-----v--------+    +----+------+
        |Evaluation    |    |Reporting  |
        |Results       |    |Guidance   |
        |Consumer      |    |Data Store |
        +---+----------+    +-----------+ +-------------+
            |                             | Results     |
            +-----------------------------> Data Store  |
                          |             |
                          +-------------+




                Figure 3: Example Posture Information Flow




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   TODO - add example of / more content around interactions with
   endpoint, possible communications patterns

6.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Jim Bieda, Henk Birkholz, Jessica
   Fitzgerald-McKay, Trevor Freeman, Adam Montville, and David
   Waltermire for participating in architecture design discussions,
   reviewing, and contributing to this draft.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

8.  Security Considerations

   TBD.  This section will need to cover the AAA and confidentiality/
   integrity of the data and data transports to be considered.  Also,
   the considerations for the interfaces (which may be covered in
   transports) between the Consumers, Providers, and the Controller.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-requirements]
              Cam-Winget, N. and L. Lorenzin, "Secure Automation and
              Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Requirements", draft-ietf-
              sacm-requirements-02 (work in progress), October 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology]
              Waltermire, D., Montville, A., Harrington, D., and N. Cam-
              Winget, "Terminology for Security Assessment", draft-ietf-
              sacm-terminology-05 (work in progress), August 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-use-cases]
              Waltermire, D. and D. Harrington, "Endpoint Security
              Posture Assessment - Enterprise Use Cases", draft-ietf-
              sacm-use-cases-07 (work in progress), April 2014.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444, January
              2003.



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   [RFC5209]  Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J.
              Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and
              Requirements", RFC 5209, June 2008.

Authors' Addresses

   Nancy Cam-Winget (editor)
   Cisco Systems
   3550 Cisco Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   US

   Email: ncamwing@cisco.com


   Brian Ford
   Cisco Systems
   5507-10 Nesconset Hwy #242
   Mt Sinai, NY  11766
   US

   Email: brford@cisco.com


   Lisa Lorenzin
   Pulse Secure
   2700 Zanker Rd, Suite 200
   San Jose, CA  95134
   US

   Email: llorenzin@pulsesecure.net


   Ira E McDonald
   High North Inc
   PO Box 221
   Grand Marais, MI  49839
   US

   Email: blueroofmusic@gmail.com











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   Aaron Woland
   Cisco Systems
   1900 South Blvd. Suite 200
   Charlotte, NC  28203
   US

   Email: loxx@cisco.com












































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