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Versions: (draft-banghart-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor) 00 01 02 03

SACM Working Group                                           S. Banghart
Internet-Draft                                             D. Waltermire
Intended status: InformationalNational Institute of Standards and Techno
Expires: January 16, 2019                                  July 15, 2018


         Definition of the ROLIE Software Descriptor Extension
              draft-ietf-sacm-rolie-softwaredescriptor-03

Abstract

   This document uses the "information-type" extension point as defined
   in the Resource-Oriented Lightweight Information Exchange (ROLIE)
   [RFC8322] Section 7.1.2 to better support Software Record and
   Software Inventory use cases.  This specification registers a new
   ROLIE information-type, "software-descriptor", that allows for the
   categorization of information relevant to software description
   activities and formats.  In particular, the usage of the ISO
   19770-2:2015 (SWID Tag) and the Concise SWID (COSWID) formats in
   ROLIE are standardized.  Additionally, this document discusses
   requirements and usage of other ROLIE elements in order to best
   syndicate software description information.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 16, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  The "software-descriptor" information type  . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  rolie:property Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     5.1.  urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swname . . . . . . . .   5
     5.2.  urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swversion  . . . . . .   6
     5.3.  urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swcreator  . . . . . .   6
   6.  Data format requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     6.1.  The ISO SWID 2015 format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       6.1.1.  Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       6.1.2.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.2.  The Concise SWID format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       6.2.1.  Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       6.2.2.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  atom:link Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     8.1.  Media Type Registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       8.1.1.  ISO SWID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     8.2.  software-descriptor information-type  . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.3.  swd:swname property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.4.  swd:swversion property  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.5.  swd:swcreator property  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix B.  Examples of Use  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   This document defines an extension to the Resource-Oriented
   Lightweight Information Exchange (ROLIE) [RFC8322] to support the
   publication of software descriptor information.  Software descriptor
   information is information that characterizes static software
   components, packages, and installers; including identifying,
   versioning, software creation and publication, and file artifact
   information.




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   Software descriptor information provides data about what might be
   installed, but doesn't describe a specific software installation's
   configuration or execution.  This static approach to software
   description is a smaller state space that covers the majority of
   current use cases for software inventory and record keeping.

   Some possible use cases for software descriptor information ROLIE
   Feeds include:

   o  Software providers can publish software descriptor information so
      that software researchers, enterprises, and users of software can
      understand the collection of software produced by that software
      provider.

   o  Organizations can aggregate and syndicate collections of software
      descriptor information provided by multiple software providers to
      support software-related analysis processes (e.g., vulnerability
      analysis) and value added information (e.g., software
      configuration checklist repositories) using identification and
      characterization information derived from software descriptor
      information.

   o  End user organizations can consume sources of software descriptor
      information, and other related software vulnerability and
      configuration information to provide the data needed to automate
      software asset, patch, and configuration management practices.

   o  Organizations can use software descriptors to support verification
      of other entities, thru mechanisms such as RIM or other integrity
      measurements.

   This document supports these use cases by describing the content
   requirements for Feeds and Entries of software descriptor information
   that are to be published to or retrieved from a ROLIE repository.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST," "MUST NOT," "REQUIRED," "SHALL," "SHALL NOT,"
   "SHOULD," "SHOULD NOT," "RECOMMENDED," "MAY," and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Several places in this document refer to the "information-type" of a
   Resource (Entry or Feed).  This refers to the "value" attribute of an
   "atom:category" element whose scheme is
   "urn:ietf:params:rolie:category:information-type".  For an Entry,
   this value can be inherited from it's containing Feed as per
   [RFC8322].




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3.  Background

   In order to effectively protect and secure an endpoint, it is vital
   to know what the software load of that endpoint is.  This software
   load, the combination of software, patches and installers on a
   device, represents the majority of the endpoint's attack surface.
   Unfortunately, without a reliable and secure package manager, or
   otherwise a secured and managed operating system, tracking what
   software is installed on an endpoint is currently not feasible
   without undue effort.  Even attempting to whitelist software is
   difficult without a way of identifying software and its editions,
   versions and hotfixes.

   Software descriptor information, such as that standardized in the ISO
   19770-2:2015 SWID Tag format, or expressed in proprietary enterprise
   databases, attempts to provide as much data about this software as
   possible.

   Once this information is expressed, it needs to be stored and shared
   to internal and external parties.  ROLIE provides a mechanism to
   handle this sharing in an automation-friendly way.

4.  The "software-descriptor" information type

   When an "atom:category" element has the scheme
   "urn:ietf:params:rolie:category:information-type", the value is
   considered to be the information type of the associated resource.
   The new information type value "software-descriptor", is described in
   this section, and registered in Section 8.2.

   The "software-descriptor" information type represents any static
   information that describes a piece of software.  This document uses
   the definition of software provided by [RFC4949].  Note that as per
   this definition, this information type pertains to static software,
   that is, code on the disc.  The "software-descriptor" information
   type is intended to provide a category for information that does one
   or more of the following:

   identifies and characterizes software:  This software identification
      and characterization information can be provided by a large
      variety of data, but always describes software in a pre-installed
      state.

   provides software installer metadata:  This represents information
      about software used to install other software.  This metadata
      identifies, and characterizes a software installation package or
      media.




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   describes stateless installation metadata:  Information that
      describes the software post-deployment, such as files that may be
      deployed during an installation.  It is expected that this
      metadata is produced generally for a given installation, and may
      not exactly match the actual installed files on a given endpoint.

   Provided below is a non-exhaustive list of information that may be
   considered to be of a software-descriptor information type.

   o  Naming information: IDs and names that aid in the identification
      of a piece of software

   o  Version and patching information: Version numbers, patch
      identifiers, or other information that

   o  Vendor and source information: Includes where the software was
      developed or distributed from, as well as where the software
      installation media may be located.

   o  Payload and file information: information that describes or
      enumerates the files and folders that make up the piece of
      software, and information about those files.

   o  Descriptive information and data: Any information that otherwise
      characterizes a piece of software, such as libraries, runtime
      environments, target OSes, intended purpose or audience, etc.

   Note again that this list is not exhaustive, any information that in
   is the abstract realm of an incident should be classified under this
   information-type.

   It is important to note that software descriptor information is
   static for a given piece of software.  That is, the information
   expressed is the data that doesn't change from the publication of the
   software to its final install.  Information about the current status
   (e.g. install location, memory usage, CPU usage, launch parameters,
   job progress, etc.), is out of scope of this information type.

5.  rolie:property Extensions

   This document registers new valid rolie:property names as follows:

5.1.  urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swname

   This property provides an exposure point for the plain text name of
   the software being described.  Naming of software is not a well
   standardized process, and software names can change between product
   versions or editions.  As such, care should be taken that this value



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   is set as consistently as possible by generating it directly from an
   attached software descriptor resource.

5.2.  urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swversion

   This property provides an exposure point for the version of the
   software being described.  This value should be generated or taken
   from the software descriptor linked to by the entry.  This helps
   avoid, but does not prevent, inconsistent versioning schemes being
   shared.

5.3.  urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swcreator

   This property provides an exposure point for a plain text name of the
   creator of the software being described.  This is in many cases an
   organization or company, but certainly could be a single person.
   Most software descriptor formats include this information, and where
   possible, this property should be set equal to that value.

6.  Data format requirements

   This section defines usage guidance and additional requirements
   related to data formats above and beyond those specified in
   [RFC8322].  The following formats are expected to be commonly used to
   express software descriptor information.  For this reason, this
   document specifies additional requirements to ensure
   interoperability.

6.1.  The ISO SWID 2015 format

6.1.1.  Description

   ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 defines a software record data format referred
   to as a "SWID Tag".  It provides several tag types:

   o  primary: provides descriptive and naming information about
      software,

   o  patch: describes non-standalone software meant to patch existing
      software,

   o  corpus:describes the software installation media that installs a
      given piece of software,

   o  supplemental: provides additional metadata to be deployed
      alongside a tag.





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   For a more complete overview as well as normative requirements, refer
   to ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015 [SWID].

   For additional requirements and guidance around creation of SWID
   Tags, consult NIST Internal Report 8060 [NISTIR8060].

6.1.2.  Requirements

   For an Entry to be considered as a "SWID Tag Entry", it MUST fulfill
   the following conditions:

   o  The information-type of the Entry is "software-descriptor".  For a
      typical Entry, this is derived from the information type of the
      Feed it is contained in.  For a standalone Entry, this is provided
      by an "atom:category" element.

   o  The document linked to by the "href" attribute of the
      "atom:content" element is a 2015 SWID Tag as per ISO/IEC
      19770-2:2015.

   A "SWID Tag Entry" MUST conform to the following requirements:

   o  The value of the "type" attribute of the "atom:content" element
      MUST be "application/swid2015+xml"[TODO].

   o  There MUST be one "rolie:property" with the "name" attribute equal
      to "urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:content-id" and the "value"
      attribute exactly equal to the "<tagid>" element in the attached
      SWID Tag. This allows for ROLIE consumers to more easily search
      for SWID tags without needing to download the tag itself.

   o  There MUST be one "rolie:property" with the "name" attribute equal
      to "urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swname", and the "value"
      attribute equal to the value of the "<name>" element in the
      attached SWID Tag. As above, this field aids ROLIE consumers in
      search and filtering Entries.

   o  There MAY be a property element with the "name" attribute equal to
      "urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swversion".  When this
      property appears, it's value MUST be equal to the value of the
      "TODO-version" element in the attached SWID Tag.

6.2.  The Concise SWID format








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6.2.1.  Description

   The Concise SWID (COSWID) format is an alternative representation of
   the SWID Tag format using a Concise Binary Object Representation
   (CBOR) encoding.  This provides the format with a reduced size that
   is more suitable for constrained devices.  It provides the same
   features and attributes as are specified in ISO 19770-2:2015, plus:

   o  a straight forward method to sign and encrypt using COSE, and

   o  additional attributes that provide an improved structure to
      include file hashes intended to be used as Reference Integrity
      Measurements (RIM).

   For more information and the complete specification, refer to the
   COSWID internet draft [I-D.ietf-sacm-coswid].

6.2.2.  Requirements

   For an Entry to be considered as a "COSWID Tag Entry", it MUST
   fulfill the following conditions:

   o  The information-type of the Entry is "software-descriptor".  For a
      typical Entry, this is derived from the information-type of the
      Feed it is contained in.  For a standalone Entry, this is provided
      by an "atom:category" element.

   o  The document linked to by the "href" attribute of the
      "atom:content" element is a COSWID Tag as per
      [I-D.ietf-sacm-coswid]

   A "COSWID Tag Entry" MUST conform to the following requirements:

   o  The value of the "type" attribute of the atom:content element MUST
      be "application/coswid+cbor".

   o  There MUST be one "rolie:property" with the "name" attribute equal
      to "urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:content-id" and the "value"
      attribute exactly equal to the "tag-id" element in the attached
      COSWID Tag. This allows for ROLIE consumers to more easily search
      for COSWID tags without needing to download the tag itself.

   o  There MUST be one "rolie:property" with the "name" attribute equal
      to "urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swname", and the "value"
      attribute equal to the value of the "swid-name" element in the
      attached COSWID Tag. As above, this field aids ROLIE consumers in
      searching and filtering Entries.




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   o  There MAY be a property element with the "name" attribute equal to
      "urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swversion".  When this
      property appears, it's value MUST be equal to the value of the
      "TODO-version" element in the attached COSWID Tag.

7.  atom:link Extensions

   This section defines additional link relationships that
   implementations MUST support.  These relationships are not registered
   in the Link Relation IANA table as their use case is too narrow.
   Each relationship is named and described.

   These relations come in related pairs.  The first of each pair is
   expected to be more common, as they can be determined at the time
   that the Entry is created.  The second of each pair will often need
   to be added retroactively to an Entry.



































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   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   | Name                 | Description                                |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   | ancestor             | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines an ancestor of the software   |
   |                      | being described by this Entry. This is     |
   |                      | usually a previous version of the          |
   |                      | software.                                  |
   | descendent           | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines an descendent of the software |
   |                      | being described by this Entry. This is     |
   |                      | usually a more recent version or edition   |
   |                      | of the software.                           |
   | patches              | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines the software being patched by |
   |                      | this software                              |
   | patchedby            | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines the patch or update itself    |
   |                      | that can be or has been applied to this    |
   |                      | software.                                  |
   | requires             | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines a piece of software required  |
   |                      | for this software to function properly,    |
   |                      | i.e., a dependency.                        |
   | requiredBy           | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines a piece of software that      |
   |                      | requires this software to function         |
   |                      | properly.                                  |
   | installs             | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines the software that is          |
   |                      | installed by this software.                |
   | installedBy          | Links to a software descriptor resource    |
   |                      | that defines the software package that     |
   |                      | installs this software.                    |
   | patchesVulnerability | Links to a vulnerability that this         |
   |                      | software update fixes. Used for software   |
   |                      | descriptors that are describing software   |
   |                      | patches or updates.                        |
   | hasVulnerability     | Links to a vulnerability description       |
   |                      | object that details a vulnerability that   |
   |                      | this software has.                         |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+

    Table 1: Link Relations for Resource-Oriented Lightweight Indicator
                                 Exchange






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8.  IANA Considerations

8.1.  Media Type Registrations

8.1.1.  ISO SWID

   This document registers a MIME Type for the SWID Tag format.  The
   registration is as follows

   MIME media type name: application

   MIME subtype name: swid2015+xml

   Mandatory parameters: None.

   Optional parameters: "charset": This parameter has semantics
   identical to the charset parameter of the "application/xml" media
   type as specified in [RFC3023].

   Encoding considerations: Identical to those of "application/xml" as
   described in [RFC3023], Section 3.2.

   Security considerations: As defined in this specification, and in
   [RFC8322].  In addition, as this media type uses the "+xml"
   convention, it shares the same security considerations as described
   in [RFC3023], Section 10.

   Interoperability considerations: There are no known interoperability
   issues.

   Published specification: This specification.

   Applications that use this media type: No known applications
   currently use this media type.

   Additional information:

   Magic number(s): As specified for "application/xml" in [RFC3023],
   Section 3.2.

   File extension: .swidtag

   Fragment identifiers: As specified for "application/xml" in
   [RFC3023], Section 5.

   Base URI: As specified in [RFC3023], Section 6.

   Macintosh File Type code: TEXT



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   Person and email address to contact for further information: Stephen
   Banghart <stephen.banghart@nist.gov>

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Author/Change controller: IESG

8.2.  software-descriptor information-type

   IANA has added an entry to the "ROLIE Security Resource Information
   Type Sub-Registry" registry located at
   <https://www.iana.org/assignments/rolie/category/information-type> .

   The entry is as follows:

      name: software-descriptor

      index: TBD

      reference: This document, Section 4

8.3.  swd:swname property

   IANA has added an entry to the "ROLIE URN Parameters" registry
   located in <https://www.iana.org/assignments/rolie/>.

   The entry is as follows:

      name: property:swd:swname

      Extension IRI: urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swname

      Reference: This document, Section 5.1

      Subregistry: None

8.4.  swd:swversion property

   IANA has added an entry to the "ROLIE URN Parameters" registry
   located in <https://www.iana.org/assignments/rolie/>.

   The entry is as follows:

      name: property:swd:swversion

      Extension IRI: urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swversion

      Reference: This document, Section 5.1



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      Subregistry: None

8.5.  swd:swcreator property

   IANA has added an entry to the "ROLIE URN Parameters" registry
   located in <https://www.iana.org/assignments/rolie/>.

   The entry is as follows:

      name: property:swd:swcreator

      Extension IRI: urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swcreator

      Reference: This document, Section 5.1

      Subregistry: None

9.  Security Considerations

   Use of this extension implies dealing with the security implications
   of both ROLIE and of software descriptors in general.  As with any
   data, care should be taken to verify the trustworthiness and veracity
   of the descriptor information to the fullest extent possible.

   Ideally, software descriptors should have been signed by the software
   manufacturer, or signed by whichever agent processed the source code.
   Software descriptor documents from these sources are more likely to
   be accurate than those generated by scraping installed software.

   These "authoritative" sources of software descriptor content should
   consider additional security for their ROLIE repository beyond the
   typical recommendations, as the central importance of the repository
   is likely to make it a target.

   Version information is often represented differently across
   manufacturers and even across product releases.  If using software
   version information for low fault tolerance comparisons and searches,
   care should be taken that the correct version scheme is being
   utilized.

10.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-coswid]
              Birkholz, H., Fitzgerald-McKay, J., Schmidt, C., and D.
              Waltermire, "Concise Software Identifiers", draft-ietf-
              sacm-coswid-06 (work in progress), July 2018.





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   [NISTIR8060]
              Waltermire, D., Cheikes, B., Feldman, L., and G. Witte,
              "Guidelines for the Creation of Interoperable Software
              Identification (SWID) Tags", NISTIR 8060, April 2016,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8060>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5070]  Danyliw, R., Meijer, J., and Y. Demchenko, "The Incident
              Object Description Exchange Format", RFC 5070,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5070, December 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5070>.

   [RFC8322]  Field, J., Banghart, S., and D. Waltermire, "Resource-
              Oriented Lightweight Information Exchange (ROLIE)",
              RFC 8322, DOI 10.17487/RFC8322, February 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8322>.

   [SWID]     "Information technology - Software asset management - Part
              2: Software identification tag", ISO/IEC 19770-2:2015,
              October 2015.

Appendix A.  Schema

   This document does not require any schema extensions.

Appendix B.  Examples of Use

   Use of this extension in a ROLIE repository will not typically change
   that repository's operation.  As such, the general examples provided
   by the ROLIE core document would serve as examples.  Provided below
   is a sample software descriptor ROLIE entry:












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  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  <entry xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
    xmlns:rolie="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:rolie-1.0">
    <id>dd786dba-88e6-440b-9158-b8fae67ef67c</id>
    <title>Sample Software Descriptor</title>
    <published>2015-08-04T18:13:51.0Z</published>
    <updated>2015-08-05T18:13:51.0Z</updated>
    <summary>A descriptor for a piece of software published by this
    organization. </summary>
    <link rel="self" href="http://www.example.org/rolie/SWD/123456"/>
    <link rel="feed" href="http://www.example.org/rolie/SWD/"/>
    <link rel="requires" href="http://www.example.org/rolie/SWD/78430"/>
    <rolie:property name=urn:ietf:params:rolie:property:swd:swname
        value="Example Software Name"/>
    <category
        scheme="urn:ietf:params:rolie:category:information-type"
        term="software-descriptor"/>
    <rolie:format
        ns="http://standards.iso.org/iso/19770/-2/2015/schema.xsd"/>
    <content type="application/swid+xml"
        src="http://www.example.org/rolie/SWD/123456/data"/>
  </entry>

Authors' Addresses

   Stephen Banghart
   National Institute of Standards and Technology
   100 Bureau Drive
   Gaithersburg, Maryland  20877
   USA

   Email: stephen.banghart@nist.gov


   David Waltermire
   National Institute of Standards and Technology
   100 Bureau Drive
   Gaithersburg, Maryland  20877
   USA

   Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov










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