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SACM Working Group                                           H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft                                            Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Informational                                     J. Lu
Expires: June 13, 2018                                Oracle Corporation
                                                            J. Strassner
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                           N. Cam-Winget
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            A. Montville
                                                                     CIS
                                                       December 10, 2017


    Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology
                     draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-14

Abstract

   This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by
   SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 13, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   5.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   6.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   7.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   Appendix A.  The Attic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27

1.  Introduction

   Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the
   terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for
   Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring.  Agreeing on
   terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're
   trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use.

2.  Terms and Definitions

   This section describes terms that have been defined by other RFC's
   and defines new ones.  The predefined terms will reference the RFC
   and where appropriate will be annotated with the specific context by
   which the term is used in SACM.  Note that explanatory or
   informational augmentation to definitions are segregated from the
   definitions themselves.  The definition for the term immediately
   follows the term on the same line, whereas expositional text is
   contained in subsequent paragraphs immediately following the
   definition.

   Assertion:  Defined by the ITU in [X.1252] as "a statement made by an
      entity without accompanying evidence of its validity".

   Assessment:  Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting
      posture for a set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host-
      based firewall) such that the appropriate validators may evaluate
      the posture against compliance policy."




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   Asset:  Is a system resource, as defined in [RFC4949], that may be
      composed of other assets.

      Examples of Assets include: Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or
      X.509 public key certificates.  An asset is not necessarily owned
      by an organization.

   Asset Management:  The IT process by which assets are provisioned,
      updated, maintained and deprecated.

   Attribute:  Is a data element, as defined in [RFC5209], that is
      atomic.

      In the context of SACM, attributes are "atomic" information
      elements and an equivalent to attribute-value-pairs.  Attributes
      can be components of Subjects.

   Authentication:  Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a
      claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain
      attribute value."

   Authorization:  Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted
      to a system entity to access a system resource."

   Capability:  A set of features that are available from a SACM
      Component.

      See also "capability" in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology].

      In the context of SACM, the extent of a SACM component's ability
      is enabled by the functions it is composed of.  Capabilities are
      registered at a SACM broker (potentially also at a proxy or a
      repository component if it includes broker functions) by a SACM
      component via the SACM component registration task and can be
      discovered by or negotiated with other SACM components via the
      corresponding tasks.  For example, the capability of a SACM
      provider may be to provide target endpoint records (declarative
      guidance about well-known or potential target endpoints), or only
      a subset of that data.

      A capability's description is in itself imperative guidance on
      what functions are exposed to other SACM components in a SACM
      domain and how to use them in workflows.

      The SACM Vulnerability Assessment Scenario
      [I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario] defines the terms Endpoint
      Management Capabilities, Vulnerability Management Capabilities,
      and Vulnerability Assessment Capabilities, which illustrate



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      specific sets of SACM capabilities on an enterprise IT
      department's point of view and therefore compose sets of
      declarative guidance.

   Collection Result:  Is a composition of one or more content elements
      carrying information about a target endpoint, that is produced by
      a collector when conducting a collection task.

   Collection Task:  A targeted task that collects attributes and/or
      corresponding attribute values from target endpoint.

      There are four types of frequency collection tasks can be
      conducted with:

      ad-hoc, e.g. triggered by a unsolicited query

      conditional, e.g. triggered in accordance with policies included
      in the compositions of workflows

      scheduled, e.g. in regular intervals, such as every minute or
      weekly

      continuously, e.g. a network behavior observation

      There are three types of collection methods, each requiring an
      appropriate set of functions to be included in the SACM component
      conducting the collection task:

      Self-Reporting: A SACM component located on the target endpoint
      itself conducts the collection task.

      Remote-Acquisition: A SACM component located on an Endpoint
      different from the target endpoint conducts the collection task
      via interfaces available on the target endpoint, e.g.  SNMP/
      NETCONF or WMI.

      Behavior-Observation: A SACM component located on an Endpoint
      different from the target endpoint observes network traffic
      related to the target endpoint and conducts the collection task
      via interpretation of that network traffic.

   Collector:  A piece of software that acquires information about one
      or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks.

      A collector can be distributed across multiple endpoints, e.g.
      across a target endpoint and a SACM component.  The separate parts
      of the collector can communicate with a specialized protocol, such
      as PA-TNC [RFC5792].  At least one part of a distributed collector



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      has to take on the role of a provider of information by providing
      SACM interfaces to propagate capabilities and to provide SACM
      content in the form of collection results.

   Configuration:  A non-volatile subset of the endpoint attributes of a
      endpoint that is intended to be unaffected by a normal reboot-
      cycle.

      Configuration is a type of imperative guidance that is stored in
      files (files dedicated to contain configuration and/ or files that
      are software components), directly on block devices, or on
      specific hardware components that can be accessed via
      corresponding software components.  Modification of configuration
      can be conducted manually or automatically via management (plane)
      interfaces that support management protocols, such as SNMP or WMI.
      A change of configuration can occur during both run-time and down-
      time of an endpoint.  It is common practice to scheduled a change
      of configuration during or directly after the completion of a
      boot-cycle via corresponding software components located on the
      target endpoint itself.

      Examples: The static association of an IP address and a MAC
      address in a DHCP server configuration, a directory-path that
      identifies a log-file directory, a registry entry.

   Configuration Drift:  The disposition of endpoint characteristics to
      change over time.

      Configuration drift exists for both hardware components and
      software components.  Typically, the frequency and scale of
      configuration drift of software components is significantly higher
      than the configuration drift of hardware components.

   Consumer:  Is a SACM Role that contains functions to receive
      information from other SACM Components.

   Content Element:  Content elements constitute the payload data (SACM
      content) transferred via statement Subjects emitted by providers
      of information.  Every content element Subject includes a specific
      content Subject and a corresponding content metadata Subject.

   Content Metadata:  Data about content Subjects.  Every content-
      element includes a content metadata Subject.  The Subject can
      include any information element that can annotate the content
      transferred.  Examples include time stamps or data provenance
      Subjects.





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   Control Plane:  An architectural component that provides common
      control functions to all SACM components.

      Typically used as a term in the context of routing, e.g.
      [RFC6192].  SACM components may include authentication,
      authorization, (capability) discovery or negotiation, registration
      and subscription.  The control plane orchestrates the flow on the
      data plane according to imperative guidance (i.e. configuration)
      received via the management plane.  SACM components with
      interfaces to the control plane have knowledge of the capabilities
      of other SACM components within a SACM domain.

   Controller:  A controller is a SACM Role that is assigned to a SACM
      component containing control plane functions managing and
      facilitating information sharing or execute on security functions.

      There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and
      Repository.  Depending on its type, a controller can also contain
      functions that have interfaces on the data plane.

   Data Confidentiality:  Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that
      data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been
      authorized to know the data."

   Data In Motion:  Data that is being transported via a network; also
      referred to as "Data in Transit" or "Data in Flight".

      Data in motion requires a data model to transfer the data using a
      specific encoding.  Typically, data in motion is serialized
      (marshalling) into a transport encoding by a provider of
      information and deserialized (unmarshalling) by a consumer of
      information.  The termination points of provider of information
      and consumer of information data is transferred between are
      interfaces.  In regard to data in motion, the interpretation of
      the roles consumer of information and provider of information
      depends on the corresponding OSI layer (e.g. on layer2: between
      interfaces connected to a broadcast domain, on layer4: between
      interfaces that maintain a TCP connection).  In the context of
      SACM, consumer of information and provider of information are SACM
      components.

      The SACM architecture and corresponding models focus on data in
      motion.

   Data At Rest:  Data that is stored.

      Data at rest requires a data model to encode the data to be
      stored.  In the context of SACM, data at rest located on a SACM



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      component can be provided to other SACM components via
      discoverable capabilities.

      In the context of SACM, data models for data at rest are out of
      scope.

   Data Integrity:  Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has
      not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or
      accidental manner."

   Data Origin:  The SACM Component that initially acquired or produced
      data about an endpoint.

      Data Origin enables a SACM component to identify the SACM
      component that initially acquired or produced data about a
      (target) endpoint (e.g. via collection from a data source) and
      made it available to a SACM domain via a SACM statement.  Data
      Origin can be expressed by an endpoint label information element
      (e.g. to be used as metadata in statement).

   Data Plane:  Is an architectural component providing operational
      functions enabling information exchange that is not command and
      control or management related.

      Typically used as a term in the context of routing (and used as a
      synonym for forwarding plane, e.g.  [RFC6192]).  In the context of
      SACM, the data plane is an architectural component providing
      operational functions to enable a SACM component to provide and
      consume SACM statements and therefore SACM content, which composes
      the actual SACM content.  The data plane in a SACM domain is used
      to conduct distributed SACM tasks by transporting SACM content via
      specific transport encodings and corresponding operations defined
      by SACM data models.

   Data Provenance:  An historical record of the sources, origins and
      evolution, as it pertains to data, that is influenced by inputs,
      entities, functions and processes.

      Additional Information - In the context of SACM, data provenance
      is expressed as metadata that identifies SACM statements and
      corresponding content elements a new statement is created from.
      In a downstream process, this references can cascade, creating a
      data provenance tree that enables SACM components to trace back
      the original data sources involved in the creation of SACM
      statements and take into account their characteristics and
      trustworthiness.





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   Data Source:  Is an endpoint from which a particular set of
      attributes and/or attribute values have been collected.

      Data Source enables a SACM component to identify - and potentially
      characterize - a (target) endpoint that is claimed to be the
      original source of endpoint attributes in a SACM statement.  Data
      Source can be expressed as metadata by an endpoint label
      information element or a corresponding subject of identifying
      endpoint attributes.

   Endpoint:  Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be
      connected to a network."

      Additional Information - The [RFC5209] definition continues, "Such
      devices normally are associated with a particular link layer
      address before joining the network and potentially an IP address
      once on the network.  This includes: laptops, desktops, servers,
      cell phones, or any device that may have an IP address."

      To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any
      physical or virtual device that may have a network address.  Note
      that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers,
      firewalls), which fit the definition, are also considered to be
      endpoints within this document.

      Physical endpoints are always composites that are composed of
      hardware components and software components.  Virtual endpoints
      are composed entirely of software components and rely on software
      components that provide functions equivalent to hardware
      components.

      The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of
      endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be
      assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically
      excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints).

      Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of
      asset.

   Endpoint Attribute:  Is a discreet endpoint characteristic that is
      computably observable.

      Endpoint Attributes typically constitute Attributes that can be
      bundled into Subject (e.g. information about a specific network
      interface can be represented via a set of multiple AVP).

   Endpoint Characteristics:  The state, configuration and composition
      of the software components and (virtual) hardware components a



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      target endpoint is composed of, including observable behavior,
      e.g. sys-calls, log-files, or PDU emission on a network.

   Endpoint Characterization:  The description of the distinctive nature
      of an endpoint, that is based on its characteristics.

   Endpoint Characterization Task:  The task of endpoint
      characterization that uses endpoint attributes that represent
      distinct endpoint characteristics.

   Endpoint Classification:  The categorization of of the endpoint into
      one or more taxonomic structures.

      Endpoint classification requires declarative guidance in the form
      of an endpoint profile, discovery results and potentially
      collection results.  Types, classes or the characteristics of an
      individual target endpoint are defined via endpoint profiles.

   Endpoint Classification Task:  The task of endpoint classification
      that uses an endpoint's characteristics to determine how to
      categorize the given endpoint into one or more taxonomic
      structures.

   Endpoint Label:  A unique label associated with a unique endpoint.

      Endpoint specializations have corresponding endpoint label
      specializations.  For example, an endpoint label used on a SACM
      Component is a SACM Component Label.

   Endpoint Management Capabilities:  Enterprise IT management
      capabilities that are tailored to manage endpoint identity,
      endpoint information, and associated metadata.

   Evaluation Task:  A task by which an endpoint's asserted attribute
      value is evaluated against a policy-compliant attribute value.

   Evaluation Result:  The resulting value from having evaluated a set
      of posture attributes.

   Expected Endpoint Attribute State:  The policy-compliant state of an
      endpoint attribute that is to be compared against.

   Guidance:  Input directing SACM processes or tasks.

      There are two types of guidance:

      Declarative Guidance: Guidance that defines the configuration or
      state an endpoint is supposed to be in, without providing specific



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      actions or methods to produce that desired state.  Examples
      include Target Endpoint Profiles or network topology based
      requirements.

      Imperative Guidance: Guidance that prescribes specific actions to
      be conducted or methods to be used in order to achieve an outcome.
      Examples include a targeted Collection Task or the IP-Address of a
      SACM Component that provides a registration function.

   Endpoint Hardware Inventory:  The set of hardware components that
      compose a specific endpoint representing its hardware
      configuration.

   Information Element:  A representation of information about physical
      and virtual "objects of interest".

      Information elements are the building blocks that constitute the
      SACM information model.  In the context of SACM, an information
      element that expresses a single value with a specific name is
      referred to as an Attribute (analogous to an attribute-value-
      pair).  A set of attributes that is bundled into a more complex
      composite information element is referred to as a Subject.  Every
      information element in the SACM information model has a unique
      name.  Endpoint attributes or time stamps, for example, are
      represented as information elements in the SACM information model.

   Information Model:  An abstract representation of data, their
      properties, relationships between data and the operations that can
      be performed on the data.

      While there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444]
      distinguishes an information model as being protocol and
      implementation neutral whereas a data model would provide such
      details.  The purpose of the SACM information model is to ensure
      interoperability between SACM data models (that are used as
      transport encoding) and to provide a standardized set of
      information elements for communication between SACM components.

   Interaction Model:  The definition of specific sequences regarding
      the exchange of messages (data in motion), including, for example,
      conditional branching, thresholds and timers.  An interaction
      model, for example, can be used to define operations, such as
      registration or discovery, on the control plane.  A composition of
      data models for data in motion and a corresponding interaction
      model is a protocol.

   Internal Collector:  Internal Collector: a collector that runs on a
      target endpoint to acquire information from that target endpoint.



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   Management Plane:  Is an architectural component providing common
      functions to steer the behavior of SACM components, e.g. their
      behavior on the control plane.

      Prominent examples include: modification of the configuration of a
      SACM component or updating a target endpoint profile that resides
      on an evaluator.  In essence, guidance is transported via the
      management plane.  Typically, a SACM component can fulfill its
      purpose without continuous input from the management plane.  In
      contrast, without continuous availability of control plane
      functions a typical SACM component could not function properly.
      In general, interaction on the management plane is less frequent
      and less regular than on the control plane.  Input via the
      management plane can be manual (e.g. via a CLI), or can be
      automated via management plane functions that are part of other
      SACM components.

   Metadata:  Data about data.

      In the SACM information model, data is referred to as Content.
      Metadata about the content is referred to as Content-Metadata,
      respectively.  Content and Content-Metadata are combined into
      Subjects called Content-Elements in the SACM information model.
      Some information elements defined by the SACM information model
      can be part of the Content or the Content-Metadata.  Therefore, if
      an information element is considered data or data about data
      depends on which kind of Subject it is associated with.  The SACM
      information model also defines metadata about the data origin via
      the Subject Statement-Metadata.  Typical examples of metadata are
      time stamps, data origin or data source.

      Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer
      2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with
      multiple IPv6 addresses, layer 3 tunnel ingress or egress with an
      IPv4 address.

   Posture:  Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of
      hardware or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an
      organization's security policy."

      This term is used within the scope of SACM to represent the
      configuration and state information that is collected from a
      target endpoint in the form of endpoint attributes (e.g. software/
      hardware inventory, configuration settings, dynamically assigned
      addresses).  This information may constitute one or more posture
      attributes.





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   Posture Attributes:  Defined in [RFC5209] as "attributes describing
      the configuration or status (posture) of a feature of the
      endpoint.  A Posture Attribute represents a single property of an
      observed state.  For example, a Posture Attribute might describe
      the version of the operating system installed on the system."

      Within this document this term represents a specific assertion
      about endpoint configuration or state (e.g. configuration setting,
      installed software, hardware) represented via endpoint attributes.
      The phrase "features of the endpoint" highlighted above refers to
      installed software or software components.

   Provider:  A provider is a SACM role assigned to a SACM component
      that provides role-specific functions to provide information to
      other SACM components.

   Repository:  A repository is a controller that contains functions to
      consume, store and provide information of a particular kind.

      Such information is typically data transported on the data plane,
      but potentially also data and metadata from the control and
      management plane.  A single repository may provide the functions
      of more than one specific repository type (i.e. configuration
      baseline repository, assessment results repository, etc.)

   SACM Broker Controller:  A SACM Broker Controller is a controller
      that contains control plane functions to provide and/or connect
      services on behalf of other SACM components via interfaces on the
      control plane.

      A broker may provide, for example, authorization services and
      find, upon request, SACM components providing requested services.

   SACM Component:  Is a component, as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology], that is composed of SACM
      capabilities.

      In the context of SACM, a set of SACM functions composes a SACM
      component.  A SACM component conducts SACM tasks, acting on
      control plane, data plane and/or management plane via
      corresponding SACM interfaces.  SACM defines a set of standard
      components (e.g. a collector, a broker, or a data store).  A SACM
      component contains at least a basic set of control plane functions
      and can contain data plane and management plane functions.  A SACM
      component residing on an endpoint assigns one or more SACM roles
      to the corresponding endpoint due to the SACM functions it is
      composed of.  A SACM component "resides on" an endpoint and an
      endpoint "contains" a SACM component, correspondingly.  For



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      example, a SACM component that is composed solely of functions
      that provide information would only take on the role of a
      provider.

   SACM Component Discovery:  The task of brokering appropriate SACM
      components according to their capabilities or roles on request.

      Input: Query

      Output: a list of SACM components including metadata

   SACM Component Label:  A specific endpoint label that is used to
      identify a SACM component.

      In content-metadata, this label is called data origin.

   SACM Content:  The payload provided by SACM components to the SACM
      domain on the data plane.

      SACM content includes the SACM data models.

   SACM Domain:  Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM
      domain.

      (To be revised, additional definition content TBD, possible
      dependencies to SACM architecture)

   SACM Interface:  An interface, as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology], that provides SACM-specific
      operations.

      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] defines interface as a "set of
      operations one object knows it can invoke on, and expose to,
      another object," and further defines interface by stating that an
      interface "decouples the implementation of the operation from its
      specification.  An interface is a subset of all operations that a
      given object implements.  The same object may have multiple types
      of interfaces to serve different purposes."

      In the context of SACM, SACM Functions provide SACM Interfaces on
      the management, control, or data plane.  Operations a SACM
      Interface provides are based on corresponding data model defined
      by SACM.  SACM Interfaces are used for communication between SACM
      components.

   SACM Proxy Controller:  A SACM Proxy Controller is a controller that
      provides data plane and control plane functions, information, or




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      services on behalf of another component, which is not directly
      participating in the SACM architecture.

   SACM Role:  Is a role, as defined in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology],
      that requires the SACM Component assuming the role to bear a set
      of SACM functions or interfaces.

      SACM Roles provide three important benefits.  First, it enables
      different behavior to be supported by the same Component for
      different contexts.  Second, it enables the behavior of a
      Component to be adjusted dynamically (i.e., at runtime, in
      response)to changes in context, by using one or more Roles to
      define the behavior desired for each context.  Third, it decouples
      the Roles of a Component from the Applications that use that
      Component."

      In the context of SACM, SACM roles are associated with SACM
      components and are defined by the set of functions and interfaces
      a SACM component includes.  There are three SACM roles: provider,
      consumer, and controller.  The roles associated with a SACM
      component are determined by the purpose of the SACM functions and
      corresponding SACM interfaces the SACM component is composed of.

   SACM Statement:  Is SACM component output that represents an
      assertion.

   Security Automation:  The process of which security alerts can be
      automated through the use of different components to monitor,
      analyze and assess endpoints and network traffic for the purposes
      of detecting misconfigurations, misbehaviors or threats.

      Security Automation is intended to identify target endpoints that
      cannot be trusted (see "trusted" in [RFC4949].  This goal is
      achieved by creating and processing evidence (assessment
      statements) that a target endpoint is not a trusted system
      [RFC4949].

   Software Package:  A generic software package (e.g. a text editor).

   Software Component:  A software package installed on an endpoint.

      The software component may include a unique serial number (e.g. a
      text editor associated with a unique license key).

   Software Instance:  A running instance of a software component.

      For example, on a multi-user system, one logged-in user has one
      instance of a text editor running and another logged-in user has



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      another instance of the same text editor running, or on a single-
      user system, a user could have multiple independent instances of
      the same text editor running.

   State:  A volatile set of endpoint attributes of a (target) endpoint
      that is affected by a reboot-cycle.

      Local state is created by the interaction of components with other
      components via the control plane, via processing data plane
      payload, or via the functional properties of local hardware and
      software components.  Dynamic configuration (e.g.  IP address
      distributed dynamically via an address distribution and management
      services, such as DHCP) is considered state that is the result of
      the interaction with another component that provides configuration
      via the control plane (e.g. provided by a DHCP server with a
      specific configuration).

      Examples: The static association of an IP address and a MAC
      address in a DHCP server configuration, a directory-path that
      identifies a log-file directory, a registry entry.

   Statement:  A statement is a subject defined in the SACM information
      model.

      When a statement is used to provide content to a SACM domain, it
      is a top-level subject that bundles Content Elements into one
      subject and includes metadata about the data origin.

   Subject:  A semantic composite information element pertaining to a
      system entity that is a target endpoint.

      Like Attributes, subjects have a name and are composed of
      attributes and/or other subjects.  Every IE that is part of a
      subject can have a quantitiy associated with it (e.g. zero-one,
      none-unbounded).  The content IE of a subject can be an unordered
      or an ordered list.

      In contrast to the definitions of subject provided by [RFC4949], a
      subject in the scope of SACM is neither "a system entity that
      causes information to flow among objects or changes the system
      state" nor "a name of a system entity that is bound to the data
      items in a digital certificate".

      In the context of SACM, a subject is a semantic composite of
      information elements about a system entity that is a target
      endpoint.  Every acquirable subject-as defined in the scope of
      SACM-about a target endpoint represents and therefore identifies
      every subject-as defined by [RFC4949]-that is a component of that



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      target endpoint.  The semantic difference between both definitions
      can be subtle in practice and is in consequence important to
      highlight.

   Supplicant:  A component seeking to be authenticated via the control
      plane for the purpose of participating in a SACM domain.

   System Resource:  Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an
      information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system
      capacity, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or
      an item of system equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software,
      or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and
      equipment."

   Target Endpoint:  Is an endpoint that is under assessment at some
      point in, or region of, time.

      Every endpoint that is not specifically designated as an excluded
      endpoint is a target endpoint.  A target endpoint is not part of a
      SACM domain unless it contains a SACM component (e.g. a SACM
      component that publishes collection results coming from an
      internal collector).

      A target endpoint is similar to a device that is a Target of
      Evaluation (TOE) as defined in Common Criteria and as referenced
      by {{RFC4949}.

   Target Endpoint Characterization Record:  A set of endpoint
      attributes about a target endpoint that was encountered in a SACM
      domain, which are associated with that target endpoint as a result
      of a Target Endpoint Characterization Task.

      A characterization record is intended to be a representation of an
      endpoint.  It cannot be assured that a record distinctly
      represents a single target endpoint unless a set of one or more
      endpoint attributes that compose a unique set of identifying
      endpoint attributes are included in the record.  Otherwise, the
      set of identifying attributes included in a record can match more
      than one target endpoints, which are - in consequence -
      indistinguishable to a SACM domain until more qualifying endpoint
      attributes can be acquired and added to the record.  A
      characterization record is maintained over time in order to assert
      that acquired endpoint attributes are either about an endpoint
      that was encountered before or an endpoint that has not been
      encountered before in a SACM domain.  A characterization record
      can include, for example, acquired configuration, state or
      observed behavior of a specific target endpoint.  Multiple and
      even conflicting instances of this information can be included in



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      a characterization record by using timestamps and/or data origins
      to differentiate them.  The endpoint attributes included in a
      characterization record can be used to re-identify a distinct
      target endpoint over time.  Classes or profiles can be associated
      with a characterization record via the Classification Task in
      order to guide collection, evaluation or remediation tasks.

   Target Endpoint Characterization Task:  An ongoing task of
      continuously adding acquired endpoint attributes to a
      corresponding record.  The TE characterization task manages the
      representation of encountered target endpoints in the SACM domain
      in the form of characterization records.  For example, the output
      of a target endpoint discovery task or a collection task can be
      processed by the characterization task and added to the record.
      The TE characterization Task also manages these representations of
      target endpoints encountered in the SACM domain by splitting or
      merging the corresponding records as new or more refined endpoint
      attributes become available.

      Input: discovered target endpoint attributes, endpoint attribute
      collection, existing characterization records

      Output: target endpoint characterization records

   Target Endpoint Classification Task:  The task of associating a class
      from an extensible list of classes with an endpoint
      characterization record.  TE classes function as imperative and
      declarative guidance for collection, evaluation, remediation and
      security posture assessment in general.

      Input: endpoint characterization records (without classification),
      guidance (how to classify a record)

      Output: endpoint characterization records (with classification)

   Target Endpoint Discovery Task:  The ongoing task of detecting
      previously unknown interaction of a potential target endpoint in
      the SACM domain.  TE Discovery is not directly targeted at a
      specific target endpoint and therefore an un-targeted task.  SACM
      Components conducting the discovery task as a part of their
      function are typically distributed and located, for example, on
      infrastructure components or collect from those remotely via
      appropriate interfaces.  Examples of infrastructure components
      that are of interest to the discovery task include routers,
      switches, VM hosting or VM managing components, AAA servers, or
      servers handling dynamic address distribution.

      Input: endpoint attributes acquired via local or remote interfaces



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      Output: endpoint attributes including metadata such as data source
      or data origin

   Target Endpoint Identifier:  The target endpoint discovery task and
      the collection tasks can result in a set of identifying endpoint
      attributes added to a corresponding Characterization Record.  This
      subset of the endpoint attributes included in the record is used
      as a target endpoint identifier, by which a specific target
      endpoint can be referenced.  Depending on the available
      identifying attributes, this reference can be ambiguous and is a
      "best-effort" mechanism.  Every distinct set of identifying
      endpoint attributes can be associated with a target endpoint label
      that is unique in a SACM domain.

   Target Endpoint Label:  A specific endpoint label that refers to a
      target endpoint identifier used to identify a specific target
      endpoint (also referred to as TE label).  In content-metadata,
      this label is called data source.

   Target Endpoint Profile:  A bundle of expected or desired component
      composition, configurations and states that is associated with a
      target endpoint.

      The corresponding task by which the association with a target
      endpoint takes places is the endpoint classification task.  The
      task by which an endpoint profile is created is the endpoint
      characterization task.  A type or class of target endpoints can be
      defined via a target endpoint profile.  Examples include:
      printers, smartphones, or an office PC.

      In respect to [RFC4949], a target endpoint profile is a protection
      profile as defined by Common Criteria (analogous to the target
      endpoint being the target of evaluation).

   SACM Task:  Is a task conducted within the scope of a SACM domain by
      one or more SACM functions that achieves a SACM-defined outcome.

      A SACM task can be triggered by other operations or functions
      (e.g. a query from another SACM component or an unsolicited push
      on the data plane due to an ongoing subscription).  A task is part
      of a SACM process chain.  A task starts at a given point in time
      and ends in a deterministic state.  With the exception of a
      collection task, a SACM task consumes SACM statements provided by
      other SACM components.  The output of a task is a result that can
      be provided (e.g. published) on the data plane.

      The following tasks are defined by SACM:




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      Target Endpoint Discovery

      Target Endpoint Characterization

      Target Endpoint Classification

      Collection

      Evaluation [TBD]

      Information Sharing [TBD]

      SACM Component Discovery

      SACM Component Authentication [TBD]

      SACM Component Authorization [TBD]

      SACM Component Registration [TBD]

   Timestamps :  Defined in [RFC4949] as "with respect to a data object,
      a label or marking in which is recorded the time (time of day or
      other instant of elapsed time) at which the label or marking was
      affixed to the data object" and as "with respect to a recorded
      network event, a data field in which is recorded the time (time of
      day or other instant of elapsed time) at which the event took
      place.".

      This term is used in SACM to describe a recorded point in time at
      which, for example, an information element is created or updated
      on a target endpoint, and observed, transmitted or processed by a
      SACM component.  Timestamps can be created by target endpoints or
      SACM components and are associated with SACM statements provided
      or consumed by SACM components.  Outside of the domain of SACM
      components the assurance of correctness of time stamps is
      typically significantly lower than inside a SACM domain.  In
      general, it cannot be simply assumed that the source of time a
      target endpoint uses is synchronized or trustworthy.

   Virtual Component:  A target endpoint can be composed entirely of
      logical system entities (see [RFC4949].

      The most common example is a virtual machine/host running on a
      target endpoint.

      Effectively, target endpoints can be nested and at the time of
      this writing the most common example of target endpoint




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      characteristics about virtual components is the EntLogicalEntry in
      [RFC6933].

   Vulnerability Assessment:  An assessment specifically tailored to
      determining whether a set of endpoints is vulnerable according to
      the information contained in the vulnerability description
      information.

   Vulnerability Description Information:  Information pertaining to the
      existence of a flaw or flaws in software, hardware, and/or
      firmware, which could potentially have an adverse impact on
      enterprise IT functionality and/or security.

      Vulnerability description information should contain enough
      information to support vulnerability detection.

   Vulnerability Detection Data:  A type of imperative guidance
      extracted or derived from vulnerability description information
      that describes the specific mechanisms of vulnerability detection
      that is used by an enterprise's vulnerability management
      capabilities to determine if a vulnerability is present on an
      endpoint.

   Vulnerability Management Capabilities:  An IT management capability
      tailored toward managing endpoint vulnerabilities and associated
      metadata on an ongoing basis by ingesting vulnerability
      description information and vulnerability detection data, and
      performing vulnerability assessments.

   Vulnerability assessment capabilities:  An assessment capability that
      is tailored toward determining whether a set of endpoints is
      vulnerable according to vulnerability description information.

   Workflow:  A workflow is a modular composition of tasks that can
      contain loops, conditionals, multiple starting points and multiple
      endpoints.

      The most prominent workflow in SACM is the assessment workflow.

3.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

4.  Security Considerations

   This memo documents terminology for security automation.  While it is
   about security, it does not affect security.




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5.  Acknowledgements

6.  Change Log

   Changes from version 00 to version 01:

   o  Added simple list of terms extracted from UC draft -05.  It is
      expected that comments will be received on this list of terms as
      to whether they should be kept in this document.  Those that are
      kept will be appropriately defined or cited.

   Changes from version 01 to version 02:

   o  Added Vulnerability, Vulnerability Management, xposure,
      Misconfiguration, and Software flaw.

   Changes from version 02 to version 03:

   o  Removed Section 2.1.  Cleaned up some editing nits; broke terms
      into 2 sections (predefined and newly defined terms).  Added some
      of the relevant terms per the proposed list discussed in the IETF
      89 meeting.

   Changes from version 03 to version 04:

   o  TODO

   Changes from version 04 to version 05:

   o  TODO

   Changes from version 05 to version 06:

   o  Updated author information.

   o  Combined "Pre-defined Terms" with "New Terms and Definitions".

   o  Removed "Requirements language".

   o  Removed unused reference to use case draft; resulted in removal of
      normative references.

   o  Removed introductory text from Section 1 indicating that this
      document is intended to be temporary.

   o  Added placeholders for missing change log entries.

   Changes from version 06 to version 07:



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   o  Added Contributors section.

   o  Updated author list.

   o  Changed title from "Terminology for Security Assessment" to
      "Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology".

   o  Changed abbrev from "SACM-Terms" to "SACM Terminology".

   o  Added appendix The Attic to stash terms for future updates.

   o  Added Authentication, Authorization, Data Confidentiality, Data
      Integrity, Data Origin, Data Provenance, SACM Component, SACM
      Component Discovery, Target Endpoint Discovery.

   o  Major updates to Building Block, Function, SACM Role, Target
      Endpoint.

   o  Minor updates to Broker, Capability, Collection Task, Evaluation
      Task, Posture.

   o  Relabeled Role to SACM Role, Endpoint Target to Target Endpoint,
      Endpoint Discovery to Endpoint Identification.

   o  Moved Asset Targeting, Client, Endpoint Identification to The
      Attic.

   o  Endpoint Attributes added as a TODO.

   o  Changed the structure of the Change Log.

   Changes from version 07 to version 08:

   o  Added Assertion, Collection Result, Collector, Excluded Endpoint,
      Internal Collector, Network Address, Network Interface, SACM
      Domain, Statement, Target Endpoint Identifier, Target Endpoint
      Label, Timestamp.

   o  Major updates to Attributes, Broker, Collection Task, Consumer,
      Controller, Control Plane, Endpoint Attributes, Expected Endpoint
      State, SACM Function, Provider, Proxy, Repository, SACM Role,
      Target Endpoint.

   o  Minor updates to Asset, Building Block, Data Origin, Data Source,
      Data Provenance, Endpoint, Management Plane, Posture, Posture
      Attribute, SACM Component, SACM Component Discovery, Target
      Endpoint Discovery.




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   o  Relabeled Function to SACM Function.

   Changes from version 08 to version 09:

   o  Updated author list.

   o  Added Data Plane, Endpoint Characterization, Endpoint
      Classification, Guidance, Interaction Model, Software Component,
      Software Instance, Software Package, Statement, Target Endpoint
      Profile, SACM Task.

   o  Removed Building Block.

   o  Major updates to Control Plane, Endpoint Attribute, Expected
      Endpoint State, Information Model, Management Plane.

   o  Minor updates to Attribute, Capabilities, SACM Function, SACM
      Component, Collection Task.

   o  Moved Asset Characterization to The Attic.

   Changes from version 09 to version 10:

   o  Added Configuration Drift, Data in Motion, Data at Rest, Endpoint
      Management Capability, Hardware Component, Hardware Inventory,
      Hardware Type, SACM Interface, Target Endpoint Characterization
      Record, Target Endpoint Characterization Task, Target Endpoint
      Classification Task, Target Endpoint Discovery Task, Vulnerability
      Description Information, Vulnerability Detection Data,
      Vulnerability Management Capability, Vulnerability Assessment

   o  Added references to i2nsf definitions in Capability, SACM
      Component, SACM Interface, SACM Role.

   o  Added i2nsf Terminology I-D Reference.

   o  Major Updates to Endpoint, SACM Task, Target Endpoint Identifier.

   o  Minor Updates to Guidance, SACM Component Discovery, Target
      Endpoint Label, Target Endpoint Profile.

   o  Relabeled SACM Task

   o  Removed Target Endpoint Discovery

   Changes from version 10 to version 11:





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   o  Added Content Element, Content Metadata, Endpoint Label,
      Information Element, Metadata, SACM Component Label, Workflow.

   o  Major Updates to Assessment, Capability, Collector, Endpoint
      Management Capabilities, Guidance, Vulnerability Assessment
      Capabilities, Vulnerability Detection Data, Vulnerability
      Assessment Capabilities.

   o  Minor updates to Collection Result, Control Plane, Data in Motion,
      Data at Rest, Data Origin, Network Interface, Statement, Target
      Endpoint Label.

   o  Relabeled Endpoint Management Capability, Vulnerability Management
      Capability, Vulnerability Assessment.

   Changes from version 11 to version 12:

   o  Added Configuration, Endpoint Characteristic, Event, SACM Content,
      State, Subject.

   o  Major Updates to Assertion, Data in Motion, Data Provenance, Data
      Source, Interaction Model.

   o  Minor Updates to Attribute, Control Plane, Data Origin, Data
      Provenance, Expected Endpoint State, Guidance, Target Endpoint
      Classification Task, Vulnerability Detection Data.

   Changes from version 12 to version 13:

   o  Added Virtual Component.

   o  Major Updates to Capability, Collection Task, Hardware Component,
      Hardware Type, Security Automation, Subject, Target Endpoint,
      Target Endpoint Profile.

   o  Minor Updates to Assertion, Data Plane, Endpoint Characteristics.

   Changes from version 13 to version 14:

   o  Handled a plethora of issues listed in GitHub.

   o  Pruned some commonly understood terms.

   o  Narrowing term labels per their definitions.

   o  In some cases, excised expositional text.





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   o  Where expositional text was left intact, it has been separated
      from the actual definition of a term.

7.  Contributors

   David Waltermire
   National Institute of Standards and Technology
   100 Bureau Drive
   Gaithersburg, MD  20877
   USA

   Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov


   Adam W. Montville
   Center for Internet Security
   31 Tech Valley Drive
   East Greenbush, NY  12061
   USA

   Email: adam.w.montville@gmail.com


   David Harrington
   Effective Software
   50 Harding Rd
   Portsmouth, NH  03801
   USA

   Email: ietfdbh@comcast.net

   Brian Ford
   Lancope
   3650 Brookside Parkway, Suite 500
   Alpharetta, GA  30022
   USA

   Email: bford@lancope.com


   Merike Kaeo
   Double Shot Security
   3518 Fremont Avenue North, Suite 363
   Seattle, WA  98103
   USA

   Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com




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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC5792]  Sangster, P. and K. Narayan, "PA-TNC: A Posture Attribute
              (PA) Protocol Compatible with Trusted Network Connect
              (TNC)", RFC 5792, DOI 10.17487/RFC5792, March 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5792>.

   [RFC6933]  Bierman, A., Romascanu, D., Quittek, J., and M.
              Chandramouli, "Entity MIB (Version 4)", RFC 6933,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6933, May 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6933>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology]
              Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., Xia, L., and H.
              Birkholz, "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
              Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-04 (work in
              progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity]
              Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Dong, J., and D. Romascanu, "A
              YANG Data Model for Hardware Management", draft-ietf-
              netmod-entity-05 (work in progress), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario]
              Coffin, C., Cheikes, B., Schmidt, C., Haynes, D.,
              Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and D. Waltermire, "SACM
              Vulnerability Assessment Scenario", draft-ietf-sacm-vuln-
              scenario-02 (work in progress), September 2016.

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5209]  Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J.
              Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and
              Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>.





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   [RFC6192]  Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the
              Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, DOI 10.17487/RFC6192,
              March 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6192>.

   [X.1252]   "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d..

Appendix A.  The Attic

   The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later:

   Asset Characterization:  Asset characterization is the process of
      defining attributes that describe properties of an identified
      asset.

   Asset Targeting:  Asset targeting is the use of asset identification
      and categorization information to drive human-directed, automated
      decision making for data collection and analysis in support of
      endpoint posture assessment.

   Client:  An architectural component receiving services from another
      architectural component.

   Endpoint Identification (TBD per list; was "Endpoint Discovery"):
      The process by which an endpoint can be identified.

Authors' Addresses

   Henk Birkholz
   Fraunhofer SIT
   Rheinstrasse 75
   Darmstadt  64295
   Germany

   Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de


   Jarrett Lu
   Oracle Corporation
   4180 Network Circle
   Santa Clara, CA  95054
   USA

   Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com








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   John Strassner
   Huawei Technologies
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA  95138
   USA

   Email: john.sc.strassner@huawei.com


   Nancy Cam-Winget
   Cisco Systems
   3550 Cisco Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: ncamwing@cisco.com


   Adam Montville
   Center for Internet Security
   31 Tech Valley Drive
   East Greenbush, NY  12061
   USA

   Email: adam.w.montville@gmail.com


























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