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Versions: (draft-tbruijnzeels-sidr-delta-protocol) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 8182

Network Working Group                                     T. Bruijnzeels
Internet-Draft                                              O. Muravskiy
Intended status: Standards Track                                RIPE NCC
Expires: April 21, 2016                                         B. Weber
                                                                Cobenian
                                                              R. Austein
                                                    Dragon Research Labs
                                                           D. Mandelberg
                                                        BBN Technologies
                                                        October 19, 2015


                     RPKI Repository Delta Protocol
                   draft-ietf-sidr-delta-protocol-01

Abstract

   In the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), certificate
   authorities publish certificates, including end entity certificates,
   and CRLs to repositories on repository servers.  Relying Parties (RP)
   retrieve the published information from the repository and MAY store
   it in a cache.  This document specifies a delta protocol which
   provides relying parties with a mechanism to query a repository for
   changes, thus enabling the RP to keep its state in sync with the
   repository.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 21, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  RPKI Repository Delta Protocol Implementation . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Informal Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Update Notification File  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.2.1.  Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.2.2.  Cache Concerns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.2.3.  File Format and Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.2.4.  Repository Server Initialisation  . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.5.  Publishing Updates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Snapshot File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.3.1.  Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.3.2.  Cache Concerns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.3.3.  File Format and Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.  Delta File  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.4.1.  Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.4.2.  Cache Concerns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.4.3.  File Format and Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  SIA for CA certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Relying Party Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Full Synchronisation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.2.  Processing Deltas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  XML Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].





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2.  Introduction

   In the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), Certificate
   Authorities (CAs) publish certificates [RFC6487], RPKI signed objects
   [RFC6488], manifests [RFC6486], and CRLs to repositories.  CAs may
   have an embedded mechanism to publish to these repositories, or they
   may use a separate repository server and publication protocol.  RPKI
   repositories are currently accessible using rsync, allowing Relying
   Parties (RPs) to synchronise a local copy of the RPKI repository used
   for validation with the central repositories using the rsync protocol
   [RFC6481].

   This document specifies an alternative repository access protocol
   based on notification, snapshot and delta files that a RP can
   retrieve over HTTPS.  This allows RPs to perform a full
   (re-)synchronisation of their local copy of the repository using
   snapshot files.  However, typically RPs will use delta files to keep
   their local repository updated after initial synchronisation.

   This protocol is designed to be consistent with the publication
   protocol [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication] and treats publication events of
   one or more repository objects as discrete events that can be
   communicated to relying parties.  This approach helps to minimize the
   amount of data that traverses the network and thus helps minimize the
   amount of time until repository convergence occurs.  This protocol
   also provides a standards based way to obtain consistent, point in
   time views of a single repository, eliminating a number of
   consistency related issues.  Finally, this approach allows these
   discrete events to be communicated as immutable files, so that
   caching infrastructure can be used to reduce the load on a repository
   server when a large a number of relying parties are querying it.

3.  RPKI Repository Delta Protocol Implementation

3.1.  Informal Overview

   Certification Authorities (CA) in the RPKI use a repository server to
   publish their RPKI products, such as manifests, CRLs, signed
   certificates and RPKI signed objects.  This repository server may be
   remote, or embedded in the CA engine itself.  Certificates in the
   RPKI that use a repository server that supports this delta protocol
   include a special Subject Information Access (SIA) pointer referring
   to a notification file.

   The notification file includes a globally unique session_id in the
   form of a version 4 UUID, and serial number that can be used by the
   Relying Party (RP) to determine if it and the repository are
   synchronised.  Furthermore it includes a link to the most recent



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   complete snapshot of current objects that are published by the
   repository servers, and a list of links to delta files, for each
   revision starting at a point determined by the repository server, up
   to the current revision of the repository.

   A RP that learns about a notification file location for the first
   time can download it, and then proceed to download the latest
   snapshot file, and thus create a local copy of the repository that is
   in sync with the repository server.  The RP should remember the
   location of this notification file, the session_id and current serial
   number.

   RPs are encouraged to re-fetch this notification file at regular
   intervals, but not more often than once per minute.  After re-
   fetching the notification file, the RP may find that there are one or
   more delta files available that allow it to synchronise its local
   repository with the current state of the repository server.  If no
   contiguous chain of deltas from RP's serial to the latest repository
   serial is available, or if the session_id has changed, the RP should
   perform a full resynchronisation instead.

   As soon as the RP fetches new content in this way it should start a
   validation process using its local repository.  An example of a
   reason why a RP may not do this immediately is because it has learned
   of more than one notification location and it prefers to complete all
   its updates before validating.

   The repository server may use caching infrastructure to reduce its
   load.  It should be noted that snapshots and deltas for any given
   session_id and serial number contain an immutable record of the state
   of the repository server at a certain point in time.  For this reason
   these files can be cached indefinitely.  Notification files are
   polled by RPs to discover if updates exist, and for this reason
   notification files may not be cached for longer than one minute.

3.2.  Update Notification File

3.2.1.  Purpose

   The update notification file is used by RPs to discover whether any
   changes exist between the state of the repository and the RP's cache.
   It describes the location of the files containing the snapshot and
   incremental deltas which can be used by the RP to synchronise with
   the repository.







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3.2.2.  Cache Concerns

   A repository server MAY use caching infrastructure to cache the
   notification file and reduce the load of HTTPS requests.  However,
   since this file is used by RPs to determine whether any updates are
   available the repository server MUST ensure that this file is not
   cached for longer than 1 minute.  An exception to this rule is that
   it is better to serve a stale notification file, then no notification
   file.

   How this is achieved exactly depends on the caching infrastructure
   used.  In general a repository server may find certain http headers
   to be useful, such as: Cache-Control: max-age=60.  Another approach
   can be to have the repository server push out new versions of the
   notification file to the caching infrastructure when appropriate.

   Relying Parties SHOULD not cache the notification file for longer
   than 1 minute, regardless of the headers set by the repository server
   or CDN.

3.2.3.  File Format and Validation

   Example notification file:

<notification xmlns="http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"
              version="1"
              session_id="9df4b597-af9e-4dca-bdda-719cce2c4e28"
              serial="3">
  <snapshot uri="https://rpki.ripe.net/rrdp/9d--8/3/snapshot.xml"/>
  <delta serial="3" uri="https://rpki.ripe.net/rrdp/9d--8/3/delta.xml"/>
  <delta serial="2" uri="https://rpki.ripe.net/rrdp/9d--8/2/delta.xml"/>
</notification>

   The following validation rules must be observed when creating or
   parsing notification files:

   o  A RP MUST NOT process any update notification file that is not
      well formed, or which does not conform to the RELAX NG schema
      outlined in Section 5 of this document.

   o  The XML namespace MUST be http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp

   o  The encoding MUST be us-ascii

   o  The version attribute in the notification root element MUST be 1

   o  The session_id attribute MUST be a random version 4 UUID unique to
      this session



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   o  The serial attribute must be an unbounded, unsigned positive
      integer indicating the current version of the repository.

   o  The notification file MUST contain exactly one 'snapshot' element
      for the current repository version.

   o  If delta elements are included they MUST form a contiguous
      sequence of serial numbers starting at a revision determined by
      the repository server, up to the serial number mentioned in the
      notification element.

3.2.4.  Repository Server Initialisation

   When the repository server (re-) initialises it MUST generate a new
   random version 4 UUID to be used as the session_id.  Furthermore it
   MUST then generate a snapshot file for serial number ONE for this new
   session that includes all currently known published objects that the
   repository server is responsible for.  This snapshot file MUST be
   made available at a URL that is unique to this session and version,
   so that it can be cached indefinitely.  The format and caching
   concerns for snapshot files are explained in more detail below in
   Section 3.3.  After the snapshot file has been published the
   repository server MUST publish a new notification file that contains
   the new session_id, has serial number ONE, has one reference to the
   snapshot file that was just published, and that contains no delta
   references.

3.2.5.  Publishing Updates

   Whenever the repository server receives updates from a CA it SHOULD
   generate new snapshot and delta files and publish a new notification
   file as follows:

   o  The new repository serial MUST be one greater than the current
      repository serial.

   o  A new delta file MUST be generated for this new serial.  This
      delta file MUST include all new, replaced and withdrawn objects,
      as a single change set.

   o  This delta file MUST be made available at a URL that is unique to
      this session and version, so that it can be cached indefinitely.

   o  The repository server MUST also generate a new snaphost file for
      this new serial.  This file MUST contain all publish elements for
      all current objects.





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   o  The snapshot file MUST be made available at a URL that is unique
      to this session and new version, so that it can be cached
      indefinitely.

   o  A new notification file MUST be created by the repository server.
      This new notification file MUST include a reference to the new
      snapshot file.  The file SHOULD also include available delta files
      for this and previous updates.  However, the server MUST NOT
      include more delta files than, when combined, exceed the size of
      the current snapshot.

   If the repository server is not capable of performing the above for
   some reason, then it MUST perform a full re-initialisation, as
   explained above in Section 3.2.4.

3.3.  Snapshot File

3.3.1.  Purpose

   A snapshot is intended to reflect the complete and current contents
   of the repository for a specific session and version.  Therefore it
   MUST contain all objects from the repository current as of the time
   of the publication.

3.3.2.  Cache Concerns

   A snapshot reflects the content of the repository at a specific point
   in time, and for that reason can be considered immutable data.
   Snapshot files MUST be published at a URL that is unique to the
   specific session and serial.

   Because these files never change, they MAY be cached indefinitely.
   However, in order to prevent that these files use a lot of space in
   caching infrastructure it is RECOMMENDED that a limited interval is
   used in the order of hours or days.

   Repository servers MAY delete old snapshot files one hour after they
   are no longer included in the notification file.

3.3.3.  File Format and Validation

   Example snapshot file:









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   <snapshot xmlns="http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"
             version="1"
             session_id="9df4b597-af9e-4dca-bdda-719cce2c4e28"
             serial="2">
     <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/Alice/Bob.cer">
       ZXhhbXBsZTE=
     </publish>
     <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Alice.mft">
       ZXhhbXBsZTI=
     </publish>
     <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Alice.crl">
       ZXhhbXBsZTM=
     </publish>
   </snapshot>

   The following rules must be observed when creating or parsing
   snapshot files:

   o  A RP MUST NOT process any snapshot file that is not well formed,
      or which does not conform to the RELAX NG schema outlined in
      Section 5 of this document.

   o  The XML namespace MUST be http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp.

   o  The encoding MUST be us-ascii.

   o  The version attribute in the notification root element MUST be 1

   o  The session_id attribute MUST match the expected session_id in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  The serial attribute MUST match the expected serial in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  Note that the publish element is defined in the publication
      protocol [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]

3.4.  Delta File

3.4.1.  Purpose

   An incremental delta file contains all changes for exactly one serial
   increment of the repository server.  In other words a single delta
   will typically include all the new objects, updated objects and
   withdrawn objects that a Certification Authority sent to the
   repository server.  In its simplest form the update could concern
   only a single object, but it is recommended that CAs send all changes




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   for one of their key pairs: i.e. updated objects as well as a new
   manifest and CRL as one atomic update message.

3.4.2.  Cache Concerns

   Deltas reflect a the difference between two consecutive versions of a
   repository for a given session.  For that reason deltas can be
   considered immutable data.  Delta files MUST be published at a URL
   that is unique to the specific session and serial.

   Because these files never change, they MAY be cached indefinitely.
   However, in order to prevent these files from using a lot of space in
   caching infrastructure it is RECOMMENDED that a limited interval is
   used in the order of hours or days.

   Repository servers MAY delete old delta files one hour after they are
   no longer included in the notification file.

3.4.3.  File Format and Validation

   Example delta file:

     <delta xmlns="http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"
            version="1"
            session_id="9df4b597-af9e-4dca-bdda-719cce2c4e28"
            serial="3">
       <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Alice.mft"
                hash="50d8...545c">
         ZXhhbXBsZTQ=
       </publish>
       <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Alice.crl"
                hash="5fb1...6a56">
         ZXhhbXBsZTU=
       </publish>
       <withdraw uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Bob.cer"
                 hash="caeb...15c1"/>
     </delta>

   Note that a formal RELAX NG specification of this file format is
   included later in this document.  A RP MUST NOT process any delta
   file that is incomplete or not well formed.

   The following validation rules must be observed when creating or
   parsing delta files:

   o  A RP MUST NOT process any delta file that is not well formed, or
      which does not conform to the RELAX NG schema outlined in
      Section 5 of this document.



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   o  The XML namespace MUST be http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp.

   o  The encoding MUST be us-ascii.

   o  The version attribute in the delta root element MUST be 1

   o  The session_id attribute MUST be a random version 4 UUID unique to
      this session

   o  The session_id attribute MUST match the expected session_id in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  The serial attribute MUST match the expected serial in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  Note that the publish and withdraw elements are defined in the
      publication protocol [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]

3.5.  SIA for CA certificates

   Certificate Authorities that use this delta protocol MUST have an
   instance of an SIA AccessDescription in addition to the ones defined
   in [RFC6487],

             AccessDescription ::= SEQUENCE {
               accessMethod OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
               accessLocation GeneralName }

   This extension MUST use an accessMethod of id-ad-rpkiNotify, see:
   [IANA-AD-NUMBERS],

               id-ad OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-pkix 48 }
               id-ad-rpkiNotify OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-ad 13 }

   The accessLocation MUST be a URI [RFC3986], using the 'https' scheme,
   that will point to the update notification file for the repository
   server that publishes the products of this CA certificate.

   Relying Parties that do not support this delta protocol MUST NOT
   reject a CA certificate merely because it has an SIA extension
   containing this new kind of AccessDescription.

4.  Relying Party Use








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4.1.  Full Synchronisation

   When a Relying Party first encounters a notification file URI as an
   SIA of a certificate that it has validated it SHOULD retrieve the
   notification file and download the latest snapshot to get in sync
   with the current version of the repository server.

4.2.  Processing Deltas

   It is RECOMMENDED that the RP notes the URI, session_id and serial
   number when it first learns about a notification file.  The RP MAY
   then poll the file to discover updates, but SHOULD NOT poll more
   frequently than once per minute.

   If the RP finds that the session_id has changed, or if it cannot find
   a contiguous chain of links to delta files from its current serial to
   repository server's current serial, then it MUST perform a full
   synchronisation instead of continuing to process deltas.

   If the RP finds a contiguous chain of links to delta files from its
   current serial to the repository server's current serial, and the
   session_id has not changed, it should download all missing delta
   files.  If any delta file cannot be downloaded, or if no such chain
   of deltas is available, or the session_id has changed, then the RP
   MUST perform a full synchronisation instead.

   New objects found in delta files can be added to the RPs local copy
   of the repository.  However, it is RECOMMENDED that the RP treats
   object updates and withdraws with some skepticism.  A compromised
   repository server may not have access to the certification
   authorities' keys, but it can pretend valid objects have been
   withdrawn.  Therefore it may be preferred to use a strategy where
   local copies of objects are only discarded when the RP is sure that
   they are no longer relevant, e.g. the CA has explicitly removed the
   objects in a recent valid manifest and revoked them in a recent valid
   CRL (unless they have expired).

5.  XML Schema

   The following is a RELAX NG compact form schema describing version 1
   of this protocol.

   #
   # RelaxNG schema for RPKI Repository Delta Protocol (RRDP).
   #

   default namespace = "http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"




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   version = xsd:positiveInteger   { maxInclusive="1" }
   serial  = xsd:nonNegativeInteger
   uri     = xsd:anyURI
   uuid    = xsd:string            { pattern = "[\-0-9a-fA-F]+" }
   hash    = xsd:string            { pattern = "[0-9a-fA-F]+" }
   base64  = xsd:base64Binary

   # Notification file: lists current snapshots and deltas

   start |= element notification {
     attribute version    { version },
     attribute session_id { uuid },
     attribute serial     { serial },
     element snapshot {
       attribute uri  { uri },
       attribute hash { hash }
     },
     element delta {
       attribute serial { serial },
       attribute uri    { uri },
       attribute hash   { hash }
     }*
   }

   # Snapshot segment: think DNS AXFR.

   start |= element snapshot {
     attribute version    { version },
     attribute session_id { uuid },
     attribute serial     { serial },
     element publish      {
       attribute uri { uri },
       base64
     }*
   }

   # Delta segment: think DNS IXFR.

   start |= element delta {
     attribute version    { version },
     attribute session_id { uuid },
     attribute serial     { serial },
     delta_element+
   }

   delta_element |= element publish  {
     attribute uri  { uri },
     attribute hash { hash }?,



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     base64
   }

   delta_element |= element withdraw {
     attribute uri  { uri },
     attribute hash { hash }
   }

   # Local Variables:
   # indent-tabs-mode: nil
   # comment-start: "# "
   # comment-start-skip: "#[ \t]*"
   # End:

6.  Security Considerations

   TBD

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

8.  Acknowledgements

   TBD

9.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]
              Weiler, S., Sonalker, A., and R. Austein, "A Publication
              Protocol for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", draft-ietf-sidr-publication-07 (work in
              progress), September 2015.

   [IANA-AD-NUMBERS]
              "SMI Security for PKIX Access Descriptor",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/smi-numbers/
              smi-numbers.xhtml#smi-numbers-1.3.6.1.5.5.7.48>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
              3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.



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   [RFC6481]  Huston, G., Loomans, R., and G. Michaelson, "A Profile for
              Resource Certificate Repository Structure", RFC 6481, DOI
              10.17487/RFC6481, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6481>.

   [RFC6486]  Austein, R., Huston, G., Kent, S., and M. Lepinski,
              "Manifests for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", RFC 6486, DOI 10.17487/RFC6486, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6486>.

   [RFC6487]  Huston, G., Michaelson, G., and R. Loomans, "A Profile for
              X.509 PKIX Resource Certificates", RFC 6487, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC6487, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6487>.

   [RFC6488]  Lepinski, M., Chi, A., and S. Kent, "Signed Object
              Template for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", RFC 6488, DOI 10.17487/RFC6488, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6488>.

Authors' Addresses

   Tim Bruijnzeels
   RIPE NCC

   Email: tim@ripe.net


   Oleg Muravskiy
   RIPE NCC

   Email: oleg@ripe.net


   Bryan Weber
   Cobenian

   Email: bryan@cobenian.com


   Rob Austein
   Dragon Research Labs

   Email: sra@hactrn.net







Bruijnzeels, et al.      Expires April 21, 2016                [Page 14]


Internet-Draft       RPKI Repository Delta Protocol         October 2015


   David Mandelberg
   BBN Technologies

   Email: david@mandelberg.org















































Bruijnzeels, et al.      Expires April 21, 2016                [Page 15]


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