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Versions: (draft-tbruijnzeels-sidr-delta-protocol) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 RFC 8182

Network Working Group                                     T. Bruijnzeels
Internet-Draft                                              O. Muravskiy
Intended status: Standards Track                                RIPE NCC
Expires: September 22, 2016                                     B. Weber
                                                                Cobenian
                                                              R. Austein
                                                    Dragon Research Labs
                                                           D. Mandelberg
                                                        BBN Technologies
                                                          March 21, 2016


                     RPKI Repository Delta Protocol
                   draft-ietf-sidr-delta-protocol-02

Abstract

   In the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), certificate
   authorities publish certificates, including end entity certificates,
   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL), and RPKI signed objects to
   repositories.  Relying Parties (RP) retrieve the published
   information from those repositories.  This document specifies a delta
   protocol which provides relying parties with a mechanism to query a
   repository for incremental updates, thus enabling the RP to keep its
   state in sync with the repository.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 22, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.




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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  RPKI Repository Delta Protocol Implementation . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Informal Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Certificate Authority Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Repository Server Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.1.  Initialisation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.2.  Publishing Updates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Relying Party Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.4.1.  Processing the Update Notification File . . . . . . .   7
       3.4.2.  Processing a Snapshot File  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.4.3.  Processing Delta Files  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.4.4.  Polling the Update Notification File  . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  File Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.5.1.  Update Notification File  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.5.2.  Snapshot File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.5.3.  Delta File  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.5.4.  XML Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   7.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Introduction

   In the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), Certificate
   Authorities (CAs) publish certificates [RFC6487], RPKI signed objects
   [RFC6488], manifests [RFC6486], and CRLs to repositories.  CAs may
   have an embedded mechanism to publish to these repositories, or they



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   may use a separate repository server and publication protocol.  RPKI
   repositories are currently accessible using the rsync protocol,
   allowing Relying Parties (RPs) to synchronise a local copy of the
   RPKI repository used for validation with the remote repositories
   [RFC6481].

   This document specifies an alternative repository access protocol
   based on notification, snapshot and delta files that a RP can
   retrieve over the HTTPS protocol.  This allows RPs to perform either
   a full (re-)synchronisation of their local copy of the repository
   using snapshot files, or use delta files to keep their local
   repository updated after initial synchronisation.

   This protocol is designed to be consistent (in terms of data
   structures) with the publication protocol [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]
   and treats publication events of one or more repository objects as
   discrete events that can be communicated to relying parties.  This
   approach helps to minimize the amount of data that traverses the
   network and thus helps minimize the amount of time until repository
   convergence occurs.  This protocol also provides a standards based
   way to obtain consistent, point in time views of a single repository,
   eliminating a number of consistency related issues.  Finally, this
   approach allows these discrete events to be communicated as immutable
   files, so that caching infrastructure can be used to reduce the load
   on a repository server when a large number of relying parties are
   querying it.

3.  RPKI Repository Delta Protocol Implementation

3.1.  Informal Overview

   Certification Authorities (CA) in the RPKI use a repository server to
   publish their RPKI products, such as manifests, CRLs, signed
   certificates and RPKI signed objects.  This repository server may be
   remote, or embedded in the CA engine itself.  Certificates in the
   RPKI that use a repository server that supports this delta protocol
   include a special Subject Information Access (SIA) pointer referring
   to a notification file.

   The notification file includes a globally unique session_id in the
   form of a version 4 UUID, and serial number that can be used by the
   Relying Party (RP) to determine if it and the repository are
   synchronised.  Furthermore it includes a link to the most recent
   complete snapshot of current objects that are published by the
   repository server, and a list of links to delta files, for each
   revision starting at a point determined by the repository server, up
   to the current revision of the repository.




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   A RP that learns about a notification file location for the first
   time can download it, and then proceed to download the latest
   snapshot file, and thus create a local copy of the repository that is
   in sync with the repository server.  The RP should remember the
   location of this notification file, the session_id and current serial
   number.

   RPs are encouraged to re-fetch this notification file at regular
   intervals, but not more often than once per minute.  After re-
   fetching the notification file, the RP may find that there are one or
   more delta files available that allow it to synchronise its local
   repository with the current state of the repository server.  If no
   contiguous chain of deltas from RP's serial to the latest repository
   serial is available, or if the session_id has changed, the RP should
   perform a full resynchronisation instead.

   As soon as the RP fetches new content in this way it should start a
   validation process.  An example of a reason why a RP may not do this
   immediately is because it has learned of more than one notification
   location and it prefers to complete all its updates before
   validating.

   The repository server may use caching infrastructure to reduce its
   load.  It should be noted that snapshots and deltas for any given
   session_id and serial number contain an immutable record of the state
   of the repository server at a certain point in time.  For this reason
   these files can be cached indefinitely.  Notification files are
   polled by RPs to discover if updates exist, and for this reason
   notification files may not be cached for longer than one minute.

3.2.  Certificate Authority Use

   Certificate Authorities that use this delta protocol MUST include an
   instance of an SIA AccessDescription extension in resource
   certificates they produce, in addition to the ones defined in
   [RFC6487],

             AccessDescription ::= SEQUENCE {
               accessMethod OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
               accessLocation GeneralName }

   This extension MUST use an accessMethod of id-ad-rpkiNotify, see:
   [IANA-AD-NUMBERS],

               id-ad OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-pkix 48 }
               id-ad-rpkiNotify OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-ad 13 }





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   The accessLocation MUST be a URI [RFC3986], using the 'https' scheme,
   that will point to the update notification file for the repository
   server that publishes the products of this CA certificate.

   Relying Parties that do not support this delta protocol MUST NOT
   reject a CA certificate merely because it has an SIA extension
   containing this new kind of AccessDescription.

3.3.  Repository Server Use

3.3.1.  Initialisation

   When the repository server initialises it must perform the following
   actions:

      The server MUST generate a new random version 4 UUID to be used as
      the session_id

      The server MUST then generate a snapshot file for serial number
      ONE for this new session that includes all currently known
      published objects that the repository server is responsible for.
      Note that this snapshot file MAY contain zero publish elements at
      this point if no objects have been submitted for publication yet.

      This snapshot file MUST be made available at a URL that is unique
      to this session_id and serial number, so that it can be cached
      indefinitely.

      The format and caching concerns for snapshot files are explained
      in more detail in Section 3.5.2.

      After the snapshot file has been published the repository server
      MUST publish a new notification file that contains the new
      session_id, has serial number ONE, has one reference to the
      snapshot file that was just published, and that contains no delta
      references.

      The format and caching concerns for update notification files are
      explained in more detail in Section 3.5.1.

3.3.2.  Publishing Updates

   Whenever the repository server receives updates from a CA it SHOULD
   generate new snapshot and delta files.  However, if a publication
   server services a large number of CAs it MAY choose to combine
   updates from multiple CAs.  If a publication server combines updates
   in this way, it MUST NOT postpone publishing for longer than one
   minute.



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   Updates must be processed as follows:

   o  The new repository serial number MUST be one greater than the
      current repository serial number.

   o  A new delta file MUST be generated for this new serial.  This
      delta file MUST include all new, replaced and withdrawn objects
      for multiple CAs if applicable, as a single change set.

   o  This delta file MUST be made available at a URL that is unique to
      the current session_id and serial number, so that it can be cached
      indefinitely.

   o  The format and caching concerns for delta files are explained in
      more detail in Section 3.5.3.

   o  The repository server MUST also generate a new snapshot file for
      this new serial.  This file MUST contain all "publish" elements
      for all current objects.

   o  The snapshot file MUST be made available at a URL that is unique
      to this session and new serial, so that it can be cached
      indefinitely.

   o  The format and caching concerns for snapshot files are explained
      in more detail in Section 3.5.2.

   o  The update notification file SHOULD be kept small, and in order to
      do so the repository server needs to make a decision about which
      delta files to support.  Any older delta files that, when combined
      with all more recent delta files, will result in total size of
      deltas exceeding the size of the snapshot, MUST be excluded.

   o  The server MAY also exclude more recent delta files if it finds
      that their usage by a small number of RPs that would be forced to
      perform a full synchronisation is outweighed by the performance
      penalty for all RPs in having a large update notification file.
      However the repository server SHOULD include all deltas for the
      last two hours.

   o  A new notification file MUST now be created by the repository
      server.  This new notification file MUST include a reference to
      the new snapshot file, and all delta files selected in the
      previous steps.

   o  The format and caching concerns for update notification files are
      explained in more detail in Section 3.5.1.




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   If the repository server is not capable of performing the above for
   some reason, then it MUST perform a full re-initialisation, as
   explained above in Section 3.3.1.

3.4.  Relying Party Use

3.4.1.  Processing the Update Notification File

   When a Relying Party (RP) performs RPKI validation and learns about a
   valid certificate with an SIA entry for the RRDP protocol, it SHOULD
   prefer to use this protocol as follows.

   The RP SHOULD download the update notification file, unless an update
   notification file was already downloaded and processed from the same
   location in this validation run.

   The RP MAY use a "User-Agent" header explained in section 5.5.3. of
   [RFC7231] to identify the name and version of the RP software used.
   This is not required, but would be useful to help track capabilities
   of Relying Parties in the event of changes to the RPKI standards.

   When the RP downloads an update notification file it MUST verify the
   file format and validation steps described in section
   Section 3.5.1.3.  If this verification fails, the file MUST be
   rejected.

   The RP MUST verify whether the session_id in this update notification
   file matches the last known session_id for this update notification
   file location.  If the session_id matches the last known session_id,
   then an RP MAY download and process missing delta files as described
   in section Section 3.4.3, provided that all delta files for serial
   numbers between the last processed serial number and the current
   serial number in the notification file can be processed this way.

   If the session_id was not previously known, or if delta files could
   not be used, then the RP MUST update its last known session_id to
   this session_id and download and process snapshot file on the update
   notification file as described in section Section 3.4.2.

   If neither update notification file and one snapshot file or delta
   files could be processed this way, the RP MUST issue an operator
   error, and SHOULD use an alternate repository retrieval mechanism if
   it is available.








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3.4.2.  Processing a Snapshot File

   When the RP downloads a snapshot file it MUST verify the file format
   and validation steps described in Section 3.5.2.3.  If this
   verification fails, the file MUST be rejected.

   Furthermore the RP MUST verify that the hash of the contents of this
   file matches the hash on the update notification file that referenced
   it.  In case of a mismatch of this hash, the file MUST be rejected.

   If an RP retrieved a snapshot file that is valid according to the
   above criteria, it should perform the following actions:

      The RP MUST verify that the session_id matches the session_id of
      the notification file.  If the session_id values do not match the
      file MUST be rejected.

      The RP MUST verify that the serial number of this snapshot file is
      greater than the last processed serial number for this session_id.
      If this fails the file MUST be rejected.

      The RP SHOULD then add all publish elements to a local storage and
      update its last processed serial number to the serial number of
      this snapshot file.

3.4.3.  Processing Delta Files

   If an update notification file contains a contiguous chain of links
   to delta files from the last processed serial number to the current
   serial number, then RPs MUST attempt to download and process all
   delta files in order of serial number as follows.

   When the RP downloads a delta file it MUST verify the file format and
   perform validation steps described in Section 3.5.3.3.  If this
   verification fails, the file MUST be rejected.

   Furthermore the RP MUST verify that the hash of the contents of this
   file matches the hash on the update notification file that referenced
   it.  In case of a mismatch of this hash, the file MUST be rejected.

   If an RP retrieved a delta file that is valid according to the above
   criteria, it should perform the following actions:

      The RP MUST verify that the session_id matches the session_id of
      the notification file.  If the session_id values do not match the
      file MUST be rejected.





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      The RP MUST verify that the serial number of this delta file is
      exactly one greater than the last processed serial number for this
      session_id, and if not this file MUST be rejected.

      The RP SHOULD add all publish elements to a local storage and
      update its last processed serial number to the serial number of
      this snapshot file.

      The RP SHOULD NOT remove objects from its local storage solely
      because it encounters a "withdraw" element, because this would
      enable a publication server to withdraw any object without the
      signing Certificate Authority consent.  Instead it is RECOMMENDED
      that a RP uses additional strategies to determine if an object is
      still relevant for validation before removing it from its local
      storage.

3.4.4.  Polling the Update Notification File

   Once a Relying Party has learned about the location, session_id and
   last processed serial number of repository that uses the RRDP
   protocol, the RP MAY start polling the repository server for updates.
   However the RP MUST NOT poll for updates more often than once every 1
   minute, and in order to reduce data usage RPs MUST use the "If-
   Modified-Since" header explained in section 3.3 of [RFC7232]in
   requests.

   If an RP finds that updates are available it SHOULD download and
   process the file as described in Section 3.4.1, and initiate a new
   validation process.  A detailed description of the validation process
   itself is out of scope of this document.

3.5.  File Definitions

3.5.1.  Update Notification File

3.5.1.1.  Purpose

   The update notification file is used by RPs to discover whether any
   changes exist between the state of the repository and the RP's cache.
   It describes the location of the files containing the snapshot and
   incremental deltas which can be used by the RP to synchronise with
   the repository.

3.5.1.2.  Cache Concerns

   A repository server MAY use caching infrastructure to cache the
   notification file and reduce the load of HTTPS requests.  However,
   since this file is used by RPs to determine whether any updates are



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   available the repository server MUST ensure that this file is not
   cached for longer than 1 minute.  An exception to this rule is that
   it is better to serve a stale notification file, then no notification
   file.

   How this is achieved exactly depends on the caching infrastructure
   used.  In general a repository server may find certain HTTP headers
   to be useful, such as: Cache-Control: max-age=60.  Another approach
   can be to have the repository server push out new versions of the
   notification file to the caching infrastructure when appropriate.

   Relying Parties SHOULD NOT cache the notification file for longer
   than 1 minute, regardless of the headers set by the repository server
   or CDN.

3.5.1.3.  File Format and Validation

   Example notification file:

     <notification xmlns="http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"
           version="1"
           session_id="9df4b597-af9e-4dca-bdda-719cce2c4e28"
           serial="3">
       <snapshot uri="https://host/9d-8/3/snapshot.xml" hash="AB"/>
       <delta serial="3" uri="https://host/9d-8/3/delta.xml" hash="CD"/>
       <delta serial="2" uri="https://host/9d-8/2/delta.xml" hash="EF"/>
     </notification>

   Note: URIs and hash values in this example are shortened because of
   formatting.

   The following validation rules must be observed when creating or
   parsing notification files:

   o  A RP MUST reject any update notification file that is not well-
      formed, or which does not conform to the RELAX NG schema outlined
      in Section 3.5.4 of this document.

   o  The XML namespace MUST be http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp

   o  The encoding MUST be US-ASCII

   o  The version attribute in the notification root element MUST be 1

   o  The session_id attribute MUST be a random version 4 UUID unique to
      this session





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   o  The serial attribute must be an unbounded, unsigned positive
      integer in decimal format indicating the current version of the
      repository.

   o  The notification file MUST contain exactly one 'snapshot' element
      for the current repository version.

   o  If delta elements are included they MUST form a contiguous
      sequence of serial numbers starting at a revision determined by
      the repository server, up to the serial number mentioned in the
      notification element.

   o  The hash attribute in snapshot and delta elements must be the
      hexadecimal encoding of the SHA-256 hash of the referenced file.
      The RP MUST verify this hash when the file is retrieved and reject
      the file if the hash does not match.

3.5.2.  Snapshot File

3.5.2.1.  Purpose

   A snapshot is intended to reflect the complete and current contents
   of the repository for a specific session and version.  Therefore it
   MUST contain all objects from the repository current as of the time
   of the publication.

3.5.2.2.  Cache Concerns

   A snapshot reflects the content of the repository at a specific point
   in time, and for that reason can be considered immutable data.
   Snapshot files MUST be published at a URL that is unique to the
   specific session and serial.

   Because these files never change, they MAY be cached indefinitely.
   However, in order to prevent that these files use a lot of space in
   caching infrastructure it is RECOMMENDED that a limited interval is
   used in the order of hours or days.

   To avoid race conditions where an RP downloads a notification file
   moments before it's updated, Repository Servers SHOULD retain old
   snapshot files for at least 5 minutes after a new notification file
   is published.

3.5.2.3.  File Format and Validation

   Example snapshot file:





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      <snapshot xmlns="http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"
             version="1"
             session_id="9df4b597-af9e-4dca-bdda-719cce2c4e28"
             serial="2">
        <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/Alice/Bob.cer">
          ZXhhbXBsZTE=
        </publish>
        <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/Alice/Alice.mft">
          ZXhhbXBsZTI=
        </publish>
        <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/Alice/Alice.crl">
          ZXhhbXBsZTM=
        </publish>
      </snapshot>

   The following rules must be observed when creating or parsing
   snapshot files:

   o  A RP MUST reject any snapshot file that is not well-formed, or
      which does not conform to the RELAX NG schema outlined in
      Section 3.5.4 of this document.

   o  The XML namespace MUST be http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp.

   o  The encoding MUST be US-ASCII.

   o  The version attribute in the notification root element MUST be 1

   o  The session_id attribute MUST match the expected session_id in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  The serial attribute MUST match the expected serial in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  Note that the publish element is defined in the publication
      protocol [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]

3.5.3.  Delta File

3.5.3.1.  Purpose

   An incremental delta file contains all changes for exactly one serial
   increment of the repository server.  In other words a single delta
   will typically include all the new objects, updated objects and
   withdrawn objects that a Certification Authority sent to the
   repository server.  In its simplest form the update could concern
   only a single object, but it is recommended that CAs send all changes




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   for one of their key pairs: i.e. updated objects as well as a new
   manifest and CRL as one atomic update message.

3.5.3.2.  Cache Concerns

   Deltas reflect the difference between two consecutive versions of a
   repository for a given session.  For that reason deltas can be
   considered immutable data.  Delta files MUST be published at a URL
   that is unique to the specific session and serial.

   Because these files never change, they MAY be cached indefinitely.
   However, in order to prevent these files from using a lot of space in
   caching infrastructure it is RECOMMENDED that a limited interval is
   used in the order of hours or days.

   To avoid race conditions where an RP downloads a notification file
   moments before it's updated, Repository Servers SHOULD retain old
   delta files for at least 5 minutes after they are no no longer
   included in the latest notification file.

3.5.3.3.  File Format and Validation

   Example delta file:

     <delta xmlns="http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"
            version="1"
            session_id="9df4b597-af9e-4dca-bdda-719cce2c4e28"
            serial="3">
       <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Alice.mft"
                hash="50d8...545c">
         ZXhhbXBsZTQ=
       </publish>
       <publish uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Alice.crl"
                hash="5fb1...6a56">
         ZXhhbXBsZTU=
       </publish>
       <withdraw uri="rsync://rpki.ripe.net/repo/Alice/Bob.cer"
                 hash="caeb...15c1"/>
     </delta>

   Note that a formal RELAX NG specification of this file format is
   included later in this document.  A RP MUST NOT process any delta
   file that is incomplete or not well-formed.

   The following validation rules must be observed when creating or
   parsing delta files:





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   o  A RP MUST reject any delta file that is not well-formed, or which
      does not conform to the RELAX NG schema outlined in Section 3.5.4
      of this document.

   o  The XML namespace MUST be http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp.

   o  The encoding MUST be US-ASCII.

   o  The version attribute in the delta root element MUST be 1

   o  The session_id attribute MUST be a random version 4 UUID unique to
      this session

   o  The session_id attribute MUST match the expected session_id in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  The serial attribute MUST match the expected serial in the
      reference in the notification file.

   o  Note that the publish and withdraw elements are defined in the
      publication protocol [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]

3.5.4.  XML Schema

   The following is a RELAX NG compact form schema describing version 1
   of this protocol.

   #
   # RelaxNG schema for RPKI Repository Delta Protocol (RRDP).
   #

   default namespace = "http://www.ripe.net/rpki/rrdp"

   version = xsd:positiveInteger   { maxInclusive="1" }
   serial  = xsd:nonNegativeInteger
   uri     = xsd:anyURI
   uuid    = xsd:string            { pattern = "[\-0-9a-fA-F]+" }
   hash    = xsd:string            { pattern = "[0-9a-fA-F]+" }
   base64  = xsd:base64Binary

   # Notification file: lists current snapshots and deltas

   start |= element notification {
     attribute version    { version },
     attribute session_id { uuid },
     attribute serial     { serial },
     element snapshot {
       attribute uri  { uri },



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       attribute hash { hash }
     },
     element delta {
       attribute serial { serial },
       attribute uri    { uri },
       attribute hash   { hash }
     }*
   }

   # Snapshot segment: think DNS AXFR.

   start |= element snapshot {
     attribute version    { version },
     attribute session_id { uuid },
     attribute serial     { serial },
     element publish      {
       attribute uri { uri },
       base64
     }*
   }

   # Delta segment: think DNS IXFR.

   start |= element delta {
     attribute version    { version },
     attribute session_id { uuid },
     attribute serial     { serial },
     delta_element+
   }

   delta_element |= element publish  {
     attribute uri  { uri },
     attribute hash { hash }?,
     base64
   }

   delta_element |= element withdraw {
     attribute uri  { uri },
     attribute hash { hash }
   }

   # Local Variables:
   # indent-tabs-mode: nil
   # comment-start: "# "
   # comment-start-skip: "#[ \t]*"
   # End:





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4.  Security Considerations

   TBD

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

6.  Acknowledgements

   TBD

7.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-sidr-publication]
              Weiler, S., Sonalker, A., and R. Austein, "A Publication
              Protocol for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", draft-ietf-sidr-publication-07 (work in
              progress), September 2015.

   [IANA-AD-NUMBERS]
              "SMI Security for PKIX Access Descriptor",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/smi-numbers/
              smi-numbers.xhtml#smi-numbers-1.3.6.1.5.5.7.48>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC6481]  Huston, G., Loomans, R., and G. Michaelson, "A Profile for
              Resource Certificate Repository Structure", RFC 6481,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6481, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6481>.

   [RFC6486]  Austein, R., Huston, G., Kent, S., and M. Lepinski,
              "Manifests for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", RFC 6486, DOI 10.17487/RFC6486, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6486>.







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   [RFC6487]  Huston, G., Michaelson, G., and R. Loomans, "A Profile for
              X.509 PKIX Resource Certificates", RFC 6487,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6487, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6487>.

   [RFC6488]  Lepinski, M., Chi, A., and S. Kent, "Signed Object
              Template for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", RFC 6488, DOI 10.17487/RFC6488, February 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6488>.

   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.

   [RFC7232]  Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests", RFC 7232,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7232, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7232>.

Authors' Addresses

   Tim Bruijnzeels
   RIPE NCC

   Email: tim@ripe.net


   Oleg Muravskiy
   RIPE NCC

   Email: oleg@ripe.net


   Bryan Weber
   Cobenian

   Email: bryan@cobenian.com


   Rob Austein
   Dragon Research Labs

   Email: sra@hactrn.net







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   David Mandelberg
   BBN Technologies

   Email: david@mandelberg.org















































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