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Versions: (draft-ymbk-sidrops-6486bis) 00

Network Working Group                                         R. Austein
Internet-Draft                                              Arrcus, Inc.
Updates: 6486 (if approved)                                    G. Huston
Intended status: Standards Track                                   APNIC
Expires: February 12, 2021                                       S. Kent
                                                             Independent
                                                             M. Lepinski
                                                     New College Florida
                                                         August 11, 2020


      Manifests for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI)
                     draft-ietf-sidrops-6486bis-00

Abstract

   This document defines a "manifest" for use in the Resource Public Key
   Infrastructure (RPKI).  A manifest is a signed object (file) that
   contains a listing of all the signed objects (files) in the
   repository publication point (directory) associated with an authority
   responsible for publishing in the repository.  For each certificate,
   Certificate Revocation List (CRL), or other type of signed objects
   issued by the authority that are published at this repository
   publication point, the manifest contains both the name of the file
   containing the object and a hash of the file content.  Manifests are
   intended to enable a relying party (RP) to detect certain forms of
   attacks against a repository.  Specifically, if an RP checks a
   manifest's contents against the signed objects retrieved from a
   repository publication point, then the RP can detect "stale" (valid)
   data and deletion of signed objects.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 12, 2021.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Manifest Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Manifest Signing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Manifest Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  eContentType  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  eContent  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.1.  Manifest  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.  Content-Type Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4.  Manifest Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Manifest Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  Manifest Generation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  Considerations for Manifest Generation  . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  Relying Party Processing of Manifests . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.1.  Manifest Processing Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.2.  Acquiring a Manifest for a CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.3.  Detecting Stale and or Prematurely-issued Manifests . . .  11
     6.4.  Acquiring Files Referenced by a Manifest  . . . . . . . .  12
     6.5.  Matching File Names and Hashes  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.6.  Out of Scope Manifest Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.7.  Failed Fetches  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Publication Repositories  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Appendix A.  ASN.1 Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16




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1.  Introduction

   The Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) [RFC6480] makes use of
   a distributed repository system [RFC6481] to make available a variety
   of objects needed by relying parties (RPs).  Because all of the
   objects stored in the repository system are digitally signed by the
   entities that created them, attacks that modify these published
   objects are detectable by RPs.  However, digital signatures provide
   no protection against attacks that substitute "stale" versions of
   signed objects (i.e., objects that were valid and have not expired,
   but have since been superseded) or attacks that remove an object that
   should be present in the repository.  To assist in the detection of
   such attacks, the RPKI repository system can make use of a signed
   object called a "manifest".

   A manifest is a signed object that enumerates all the signed objects
   (files) in the repository publication point (directory) that are
   associated with an authority responsible for publishing at that
   publication point.  Each manifest contains both the name of the file
   containing the object and a hash of the file content, for every
   signed object issued by an authority that is published at the
   authority's repository publication point.  A manifest is intended to
   allow an RP to detect unauthorized object removal or the substitution
   of stale versions of objects at a publication point.  A manifest also
   is intended to allow an RP to detect similar outcomes that may result
   from a man-in-the-middle attack on the retrieval of objects from the
   repository.  Manifests are intended to be used in Certification
   Authority (CA) publication points in repositories (directories
   containing files that are subordinate certificates and Certificate
   Revocation Lists (CRLs) issued by this CA and other signed objects
   that are verified by end-entity (EE) certificates issued by this CA).

   Manifests are modeled on CRLs, as the issues involved in detecting
   stale manifests and potential attacks using manifest replays, etc.,
   are similar to those for CRLs.  The syntax of the manifest payload
   differs from CRLs, since RPKI repositories contain objects not
   covered by CRLs, e.g., digitally signed objects, such as Route
   Origination Authorizations (ROAs).

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.





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2.  Manifest Scope

   A manifest associated with a CA's repository publication point
   contains a list of:

   o  the set of (non-expired, non-revoked) certificates issued and
      published by this CA,

   o  the most recent CRL issued by this CA, and

   o  all published signed objects that are verifiable using EE
      certificates [RFC6487] issued by this CA.

   Every RPKI signed object includes, in the Cryptographic Message
   Syntax (CMS) [RFC3370] wrapper of the object, the EE certificate used
   to verify it [RFC6488].  Thus, there is no requirement to separately
   publish that EE certificate at the CA's repository publication point.

   Where multiple CA instances share a common publication point, as can
   occur when an entity performs a key-rollover operation [RFC6489], the
   repository publication point will contain multiple manifests.  In
   this case, each manifest describes only the collection of published
   products of its associated CA instance.

3.  Manifest Signing

   A CA's manifest is verified using an EE certificate.  The
   SubjectInfoAccess (SIA) field of this EE certificate contains the
   access method OID of id-ad-signedObject.

   The CA MAY choose to sign only one manifest with each generated
   private key, and generate a new key pair for each new version of the
   manifest.  This form of use of the associated EE certificate is
   termed a "one-time-use" EE certificate.

   Alternatively, the CA MAY elect to use the same private key to sign a
   sequence of manifests.  Because only a single manifest (issued under
   a single CA instance) is current at any point in time, the associated
   EE certificate is used to verify only a single object at a time.  As
   long as the sequence of objects verified by this EE certificate are
   published using the same file name, then this sequential, multiple
   use of the EE certificate is also valid.  This form of use of an EE
   certificate is termed a "sequential-use" EE certificate.








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4.  Manifest Definition

   A manifest is an RPKI signed object, as specified in [RFC6488].  The
   RPKI signed object template requires specification of the following
   data elements in the context of the manifest structure.

4.1.  eContentType

   The eContentType for a manifest is defined as id-ct-rpkiManifest and
   has the numerical value of 1.2.840.113549.1.9.16.1.26.


         id-smime OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
                                   rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 16 }

         id-ct OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-smime 1 }

         id-ct-rpkiManifest OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-ct 26 }


4.2.  eContent

   The content of a manifest is ASN.1 encoded using the Distinguished
   Encoding Rules (DER) [X.690].  The content of a manifest is defined
   as follows:


          Manifest ::= SEQUENCE {
           version     [0] INTEGER DEFAULT 0,
           manifestNumber  INTEGER (0..MAX),
           thisUpdate      GeneralizedTime,
           nextUpdate      GeneralizedTime,
           fileHashAlg     OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
           fileList        SEQUENCE SIZE (0..MAX) OF FileAndHash
           }

         FileAndHash ::=     SEQUENCE {
           file            IA5String,
           hash            BIT STRING
           }


4.2.1.  Manifest

   The manifestNumber, thisUpdate, and nextUpdate fields are modeled
   after the corresponding fields in X.509 CRLs (see [RFC5280]).
   Analogous to CRLs, a manifest is nominally current until the time




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   specified in nextUpdate or until a manifest is issued with a greater
   manifest number, whichever comes first.

   If a "one-time-use" EE certificate is employed to verify a manifest,
   the EE certificate MUST have a validity period that coincides with
   the interval from thisUpdate to nextUpdate, to prevent needless
   growth of the CA's CRL.

   If a "sequential-use" EE certificate is employed to verify a
   manifest, the EE certificate's validity period needs to be no shorter
   than the nextUpdate time of the current manifest.  The extended
   validity time raises the possibility of a substitution attack using a
   stale manifest, as described in Section 6.4.

   The data elements of the manifest structure are defined as follows:

   version:
      The version number of this version of the manifest specification
      MUST be 0.

   manifestNumber:
      This field is an integer that is incremented each time a new
      manifest is issued for a given publication point.  This field
      allows an RP to detect gaps in a sequence of published manifests.

      As the manifest is modeled on the CRL specification, the
      ManifestNumber is analogous to the CRLNumber, and the guidance in
      [RFC5280] for CRLNumber values is appropriate as to the range of
      number values that can be used for the manifestNumber.  Manifest
      numbers can be expected to contain long integers.  Manifest
      verifiers MUST be able to handle number values up to 20 octets.
      Conforming manifest issuers MUST NOT use number values longer than
      20 octets.

   thisUpdate:
      This field contains the time when the manifest was created.  This
      field has the same format constraints as specified in [RFC5280]
      for the CRL field of the same name.

   nextUpdate:
      This field contains the time at which the next scheduled manifest
      will be issued.  The value of nextUpdate MUST be later than the
      value of thisUpdate.  The specification of the GeneralizedTime
      value is the same as required for the thisUpdate field.

      If the authority alters any of the items that it has published in
      the repository publication point, then the authority MUST issue a
      new manifest before the nextUpdate time.  If a manifest



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      encompasses a CRL, the nextUpdate field of the manifest MUST match
      that of the CRL's nextUpdate field, as the manifest will be re-
      issued when a new CRL is published.  If a "one-time-use" EE
      certificate is used to verify the manifest, then when a new
      manifest is issued before the time specified in nextUpdate of the
      current manifest, the CA MUST also issue a new CRL that includes
      the EE certificate corresponding to the old manifest.

   fileHashAlg:
      This field contains the OID of the hash algorithm used to hash the
      files that the authority has placed into the repository.  The hash
      algorithm used MUST conform to the RPKI Algorithms and Key Size
      Profile specification [RFC6485].

   fileList:
      This field is a sequence of FileAndHash objects.  There is one
      FileAndHash entry for each currently valid signed object that has
      been published by the authority (at this publication point).  Each
      FileAndHash is an ordered pair consisting of the name of the file
      in the repository publication point (directory) that contains the
      object in question and a hash of the file's contents.

4.3.  Content-Type Attribute

   The mandatory content-type attribute MUST have its attrValues field
   set to the same OID as eContentType.  This OID is id-ct-rpkiManifest
   and has the numerical value of 1.2.840.113549.1.9.16.1.26.

4.4.  Manifest Validation

   To determine whether a manifest is valid, the RP MUST perform the
   following checks in addition to those specified in [RFC6488]:

   1.  The eContentType in the EncapsulatedContentInfo is id-ad-
       rpkiManifest (OID 1.2.840.113549.1.9.16.1.26).

   2.  The version of the rpkiManifest is 0.

   3.  In the rpkiManifest, thisUpdate precedes nextUpdate.

   If the above procedure indicates that the manifest is invalid, then
   the manifest MUST be discarded and treated as though no manifest were
   present.








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5.  Manifest Generation

5.1.  Manifest Generation Procedure

   For a CA publication point in the RPKI repository system, a CA MUST
   perform the following steps to generate a manifest:

   1.  If no key pair exists, or if using a "one-time-use" EE
       certificate with a new key pair, generate a key pair.

   2.  If using a "one-time-use" EE certificate, or if a key pair was
       generated in step 1, or if using a "sequential-use" EE
       certificate that will expire before the intended nextUpdate time
       of this manifest, issue an EE certificate for this key pair.

       This EE certificate MUST have an SIA extension access description
       field with an accessMethod OID value of id-ad-signedobject, where
       the associated accessLocation references the publication point of
       the manifest as an object URL.

       This EE certificate MUST describe its Internet Number Resources
       (INRs) using the "inherit" attribute, rather than explicit
       description of a resource set (see [RFC3779]).

       In the case of a "one-time-use" EE certificate, the validity
       times of the EE certificate MUST exactly match the thisUpdate and
       nextUpdate times of the manifest.

       In the case of a "sequential-use" EE certificate, the validity
       times of the EE certificate MUST encompass the time interval from
       thisUpdate to nextUpdate.

   3.  The EE certificate MUST NOT be published in the authority's
       repository publication point.

   4.  Construct the manifest content.

       The manifest content is described in Section 4.2.1.  The
       manifest's fileList includes the file name and hash pair for each
       object issued by this CA that has been published at this
       repository publication point (directory).  The collection of
       objects to be included in the manifest includes all certificates
       issued by this CA that are published at the CA's repository
       publication point, the most recent CRL issued by the CA, and all
       objects verified by EE certificates that were issued by this CA
       that are published at this repository publication point.





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       Note that the manifest does not include a self reference (i.e.,
       its own file name and hash), since it would be impossible to
       compute the hash of the manifest itself prior to it being signed.

   5.  Encapsulate the manifest content using the CMS SignedData content
       type (as specified Section 4), sign the manifest using the
       private key corresponding to the subject key contained in the EE
       certificate, and publish the manifest in the repository system
       publication point that is described by the manifest.

   6.  In the case of a key pair that is to be used only once, in
       conjunction with a "one-time-use" EE certificate, the private key
       associated with this key pair MUST now be destroyed.

5.2.  Considerations for Manifest Generation

   A new manifest MUST be issued and published on or before the
   nextUpdate time.

   An authority MUST issue a new manifest in conjunction with the
   finalization of changes made to objects in the publication point.  An
   authority MAY perform a number of object operations on a publication
   repository within the scope of a repository change before issuing a
   single manifest that covers all the operations within the scope of
   this change.  Repository operators SHOULD implement some form of
   repository update procedure that mitigates, to the extent possible,
   the risk that RPs that are performing retrieval operations on the
   repository are exposed to inconsistent, transient, intermediate
   states during updates to the repository publication point (directory)
   and the associated manifest.

   Since the manifest object URL is included in the SIA of issued
   certificates, a new manifest MUST NOT invalidate the manifest object
   URL of previously issued certificates.  This implies that the
   manifest's publication name in the repository, in the form of an
   object URL, is unchanged across manifest generation cycles.

   When a CA entity is performing a key rollover, the entity MAY choose
   to have two CA instances simultaneously publishing into the same
   repository publication point.  In this case, there will be one
   manifest associated with each active CA instance that is publishing
   into the common repository publication point (directory).

6.  Relying Party Processing of Manifests

   Each RP must determine which signed objects it will use for
   validating assertions about INRs and their use (e.g., which ROAs to
   use in the construction of route filters).  As noted earlier,



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   manifests are designed to allow an RP to detect manipulation of
   repository data, errors by a CA or repository manager, and/or active
   attacks on the communication channel between an RP and a repository.
   Unless all of the files enumerated in a manifest can be obtained by
   an RP during a fetch operation, the fetch is considered to have
   failed and the RP MUST retry the fetch later.

   [RFC6480] suggests (but does not mandate) that the RPKI model employ
   fetches that are incremental, e.g., an RP transfers files from a
   publication point only if they are new/changed since the previous,
   successful, fetch represented in the RP's local cache.  This document
   avoids language that relies on details of the underlying file
   transfer mechanism employed by an RP and a publication point to
   effect this operation.  Thus the term "fetch" refers to an operation
   that attempts to acquire the full set of files at a publication
   point, consistent with the id-ad-rpkiManifest URI extracted from a CA
   certificate's SIA (see below).

   If a fetch fails, it is assumed that a subsequent fetch will resolve
   problems encountered during the fetch.  Until such time as a
   successful fetch is executed, an RP SHOULD use cached data from a
   previous, successful fetch.  This response is intended to prevent an
   RP from misinterpreting data associated with a publication point, and
   thus possibly treating invalid routes as valid, or vice versa.

   The processing described below is designed to cause all RPs with
   access to the same local cache and RPKI repository data to achieve
   the same results with regard to validation of RPKI data.  However, in
   operation, different RPs will access repositories at different times,
   and some RPs may experience local cache failures, so there is no
   guarantee that all RPs will achieve the same results with regard to
   validation of RPKI data.

   Note that there is a "chicken and egg" relationship between the
   manifest and the CRL for a given CA instance.  If the EE certificate
   for the current manifest is revoked, i.e., it appears in the current
   CRL, then the CA or publication point manager has made a serious
   error.  In this case the fetch has failed; proceed to Section 6.7.
   Similarly, if the CRL is not listed on a valid, current manifest,
   acquired during a fetch, the fetch has failed; proceed to
   Section 6.7, because the CRL is considered missing.

   Note that if a CA and its associated publication point are operating
   properly, there will always be exactly one manifest and one
   associated CRL at the publication point identified in the CA's SIA
   (see below).





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6.1.  Manifest Processing Overview

   For a given publication point, an RP MUST perform a series of tests
   to determine which signed object files at the publication point are
   acceptable.  The tests described below (Section 6.2 to Section 6.6)
   are to be performed using the manifest identified by the id-ad-
   rpkiManifest URI extracted from a CA certificate's SIA.  All of the
   files referenced by the manifest MUST be be located at the
   publication point specified by the id-ad-caRepository URI from the
   (same) CA certificate's SIA.  The manifest and the files it
   references MUST reside at the same publication point.  If an RP
   encounters any files that appear on a manifest but do not reside at
   the same publication point as the manifest the RP MUST treat the
   fetch as failed, and a warning MUST be issued (see Section 6.7
   below).

   A manifest SHOULD contain exactly one CRL (.crl) file and it MUST be
   at the location specified in the CRLDP in the manifest's EE
   certificate.  If more than one .crl file appears in the manifest, the
   fetch has failed and the RP MUST proceed to Section 6.7; otherwise
   proceed to Section 6.2.

   Note that, during CA key rollover [RFC6489], signed objects for two
   or more different CA instances will appear at the same publication
   point.  Manifest processing is to be performed separately for each CA
   instance, guided by the SIA id-ad-rpkiManifest URI in each CA
   certificate.

6.2.  Acquiring a Manifest for a CA

   The RP MUST fetch the manifest identified by the SIA id-ad-
   rpkiManifest URI in the CA certificate.  If an RP cannot retrieve a
   manifest using this URI, or if the manifest is not valid
   (Section 4.4), an RP MUST treat this as a failed fetch and, proceed
   to Section 6.7; otherwise proceed to Section 6.3.

6.3.  Detecting Stale and or Prematurely-issued Manifests

   The RP MUST check that the current time (translated to UTC) is
   between thisUpdate and nextUpdate.  If the current time lies within
   this interval, proceed to Section 6.4.  If the current time is
   earlier than thisUpdate, the CA has made an error; this is a failed
   fetch and the RP MUST proceed to Section 6.7.  If the current time is
   later than nextUpdate, then the manifest is stale; this is a failed
   fetch and RP MUST proceed to Section 6.7; otherwise proceed to
   Section 6.4.





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6.4.  Acquiring Files Referenced by a Manifest

   The RP MUST acquire all of the files enumerated in the manifest
   (fileList) from the publication point.  This includes the CRL, each
   object containing an EE certificate issued by the CA, and any
   subordinate CA and EE certificates.  If there are files listed in the
   manifest that cannot be retrieved from the publication point, or if
   they fail the validity tests specified in [RFC6488], the fetch has
   failed and the RP MUST proceed to Section 6.7; otherwise, proceed to
   Section 6.5.

6.5.  Matching File Names and Hashes

   The RP MUST verify that the hash value of each file listed in the
   manifest matches the value obtained by hashing the file acquired from
   the publication point.  If the computed hash value of a file listed
   on the manifest does not match the hash value contained in the
   manifest, then the fetch has failed and the RP MUST proceed to
   Section 6.7; otherwise proceed to Section 6.6.

6.6.  Out of Scope Manifest Entries

   If a current manifest contains entries for objects that are not
   within the scope of the manifest (Section 6.2), the fetch has failed
   and the RP SHOULD proceed to Section 6.7; otherwise the fetch is
   deemed successful and the RP will process the fetched objects.

6.7.  Failed Fetches

   If an RP does not acquire a current valid manifest, or does not
   acquire current valid instances of all of the objects enumerated in a
   current valid manifest as a result of a fetch, then processing of the
   signed objects associated with the CA instance has failed for this
   fetch cycle.  The RP MUST issue a warning indicating the reason(s)
   for termination of processing with regard to this CA instance.  It is
   RECOMMENDED that a human operator be notified of this warning.

   Termination of processing means that the RP SHOULD continue to use
   cached versions of the objects associated with this CA instance,
   until such time as they become stale or they can be replaced by
   objects from a successful fetch.  This implies that the RP MUST not
   try to acquire and validate subordinate signed objects, e.g.,
   subordinate CA certificates, until the next interval when the RP is
   scheduled to fetch and process data for this CA instance.







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7.  Publication Repositories

   The RPKI publication system model requires that every publication
   point be associated with one or more CAs, and be non-empty.  Upon
   creation of the publication point associated with a CA, the CA MUST
   create and publish a manifest as well as a CRL.  A CA's manifest will
   always contain at least one entry, namely, the CRL issued by the CA
   upon repository creation [RFC6481].

   Every published signed object in the RPKI [RFC6488] is published in
   the repository publication point of the CA that issued the EE
   certificate, and is listed in the manifest associated with that CA
   certificate.

8.  Security Considerations

   Manifests provide an additional level of protection for RPKI RPs.
   Manifests can assist an RP to determine if a repository object has
   been deleted, occluded, or otherwise removed from view, or if a
   publication of a newer version of an object has been suppressed (and
   an older version of the object has been substituted).

   Manifests cannot repair the effects of such forms of corruption of
   repository retrieval operations.  However, a manifest enables an RP
   to determine if a locally maintained copy of a repository is a
   complete and up-to-date copy, even when the repository retrieval
   operation is conducted over an insecure channel.  In cases where the
   manifest and the retrieved repository contents differ, the manifest
   can assist in determining which repository objects form the
   difference set in terms of missing, extraneous, or superseded
   objects.

   The signing structure of a manifest and the use of the nextUpdate
   value allows an RP to determine if the manifest itself is the subject
   of attempted alteration.  The requirement for every repository
   publication point to contain at least one manifest allows an RP to
   determine if the manifest itself has been occluded from view.  Such
   attacks against the manifest are detectable within the time frame of
   the regular schedule of manifest updates.  Forms of replay attack
   within finer-grained time frames are not necessarily detectable by
   the manifest structure.

9.  IANA Considerations

   As [RFC6488] created and populated the registries "RPKI Signed
   Object" and three-letter filename extensions for "RPKI Repository
   Name Schemes," no new action is requested of the IANA.




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10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions from George
   Michelson and Randy Bush in the preparation of the manifest
   specification.  Additionally, the authors would like to thank Mark
   Reynolds and Christopher Small for assistance in clarifying manifest
   validation and RP behavior.  The authors also wish to thank Job
   Snijders, Oleg Muravskiy, and Sean Turner for their helpful review of
   this document.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC6481]  Huston, G., Loomans, R., and G. Michaelson, "A Profile for
              Resource Certificate Repository Structure", RFC 6481,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6481, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6481>.

   [RFC6485]  Huston, G., "The Profile for Algorithms and Key Sizes for
              Use in the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI)",
              RFC 6485, DOI 10.17487/RFC6485, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6485>.

   [RFC6487]  Huston, G., Michaelson, G., and R. Loomans, "A Profile for
              X.509 PKIX Resource Certificates", RFC 6487,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6487, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6487>.

   [RFC6488]  Lepinski, M., Chi, A., and S. Kent, "Signed Object
              Template for the Resource Public Key Infrastructure
              (RPKI)", RFC 6488, DOI 10.17487/RFC6488, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6488>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.



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   [X.690]    International International Telephone and Telegraph
              Consultative Committee, "ASN.1 encoding rules:
              Specification of basic encoding Rules (BER), Canonical
              encoding rules (CER) and Distinguished encoding rules
              (DER)", CCITT Recommendation X.690, July 2002.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3370]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)
              Algorithms", RFC 3370, DOI 10.17487/RFC3370, August 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3370>.

   [RFC3779]  Lynn, C., Kent, S., and K. Seo, "X.509 Extensions for IP
              Addresses and AS Identifiers", RFC 3779,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3779, June 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3779>.

   [RFC6480]  Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support
              Secure Internet Routing", RFC 6480, DOI 10.17487/RFC6480,
              February 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6480>.

   [RFC6489]  Huston, G., Michaelson, G., and S. Kent, "Certification
              Authority (CA) Key Rollover in the Resource Public Key
              Infrastructure (RPKI)", BCP 174, RFC 6489,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6489, February 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6489>.

Appendix A.  ASN.1 Module























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           RPKIManifest { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
                          pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) smime(16) mod(0) 60 }

           DEFINITIONS EXPLICIT TAGS ::=

           BEGIN

           -- EXPORTS ALL --

           -- IMPORTS NOTHING --

           -- Manifest Content Type: OID

           id-smime OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
           us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 16 }

           id-ct OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-smime 1 }

           id-ct-rpkiManifest OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-ct 26 }

           -- Manifest Content Type: eContent

           Manifest ::= SEQUENCE {
           version        [0] INTEGER DEFAULT 0,
           manifestNumber     INTEGER (0..MAX),
           thisUpdate         GeneralizedTime,
           nextUpdate         GeneralizedTime,
           fileHashAlg        OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
           fileList           SEQUENCE SIZE (0..MAX) OF FileAndHash
           }

           FileAndHash ::= SEQUENCE {
           file  IA5String,
           hash  BIT STRING
           }

           END


Authors' Addresses

   Rob Austein
   Arrcus, Inc.

   Email: sra@hactrn.net






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   Geoff Huston
   APNIC
   6 Cordelia St
   South Brisbane  QLD 4101
   Australia

   Email: gih@apnic.net


   Stephen Kent
   Independent

   Email: kkent@alum.mit.edu


   Matt Lepinski
   New College Florida
   5800 Bay Shore Rd.
   Sarasota, FL  34243
   USA

   Email: mlepinski@ncf.edu





























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