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Versions: (draft-niemi-simple-chat) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 RFC 7701

Network Working Group                                           A. Niemi
Internet-Draft                                                     Nokia
Intended status: Standards Track                        M. Garcia-Martin
Expires: October 10, 2010                                       Ericsson
                                                      G. Sandbakken, Ed.
                                                                TANDBERG
                                                           April 8, 2010


    Multi-party Chat Using the Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP)
                       draft-ietf-simple-chat-06

Abstract

   The Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) defines a mechanism for
   sending instant messages within a peer-to-peer session, negotiated
   using the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the Session
   Description Protocol (SDP).  This document defines the necessary
   tools for establishing multi-party chat sessions, or chat rooms,
   using MSRP.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 10, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.



































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Motivations and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Overview of Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Creating, Joining, and Deleting a Chat Room  . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.1.  Creating a Chat Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.  Joining a Chat Room  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.3.  Deleting a Chat Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  Sending and Receiving Instant Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     6.1.  Regular Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     6.2.  Private Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     6.3.  MSRP reports and responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  Nicknames  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.1.  Using Nicknames within a Conference  . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.2.  Modifying a Nickname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.3.  Removing a Nickname  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.4.  Nicknames in the Conference Event Package  . . . . . . . . 16
     7.5.  Nicknames not supported nor allowed  . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  The SDP 'chatroom' attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   9.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     9.1.  Joining a chat room  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     9.2.  Setting up a nickname  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     9.3.  Sending a regular message to the chat room . . . . . . . . 22
     9.4.  Sending a private message to a participant . . . . . . . . 23
     9.5.  Chuncked private message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     9.6.  Nickname in a conference information document  . . . . . . 26
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     10.1. New MSRP Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     10.2. New MSRP Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     10.3. New MSRP Status Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     10.4. New SDP Attribute  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   12. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   13. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29











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1.  Introduction

   The Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) [RFC4975] defines a
   mechanism for sending a series of instant messages within a session.
   The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] in combination with
   the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC3264] allows for two peers
   to establish and manage such sessions.

   In another application of SIP, a user agent can join in a multi-party
   conversation called a conference that is hosted by a specialized user
   agent called a focus [RFC4353].  Such a conference can naturally
   involve MSRP sessions.  It is the responsibility of an entity
   handling the media to relay instant messages received from one
   participant to the rest of the participants in the conference.

   Several such systems already exist in the Internet.  Participants in
   a chat room can be identified with a pseudonym or nickname, and
   decide whether their real identity is disclosed to other
   participants.  Participants can also use a rich set of features such
   as the ability to send private instant messages to other
   participants.

   Similar conferences supporting chat rooms are already available
   today.  For example, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) [RFC2810], Extensible
   Messaging and Presence Protocol [RFC3920] based chat rooms, and many
   other proprietary systems provide chat room functionality.
   Specifying equivalent functionality for MSRP-based systems provides
   competitive features and enables interworking between the systems.

   This document defines requirements, conventions, and extensions for
   providing private messages and nickname management in centralized
   conferences with MSRP.  Participants in a chat room can be identified
   by a pseudonym, and decide if their real identity is disclosed to
   other participants.  This memo uses the SIP Conferencing Framework
   [RFC4353] as a design basis.  It also aims to be compatible with the
   A Framework for Centralized Conferencing [RFC5239].  It is expected
   that future mechanisms will be developed for providing similar
   functionality in generic conferences, i.e., where the media is not
   only restricted to MSRP.  The mechanisms described in this document
   provide a future compatible short-term solution for MSRP centralized
   conferences.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119, BCP 14



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   [RFC2119], and indicate requirement levels for compliant
   implementations.

   This memo deals with tightly coupled SIP conferences defined in SIP
   Conferencing Framework [RFC4353] adopting the terminology.  In
   addition to that terminology, we introduce some new terms:

   Nickname:   a pseudonym or descriptive name associated to a
      participant.  See Section 7 for details

   Multi-party chat:   an instance of a tightly coupled conference, in
      which the media exchanged between the participants consist of MSRP
      based instant messages.  Also known as a chat room.

   Chat Room:   a synonym for a multi-party chat

   Chat Room URI:   a URI that identifies a particular chat room, and is
      a synonym of a Conference URI defined in [RFC4353]

   Sender:   the conference participant that originally created an
      instant message and sent it to the chat room for delivery.

   Recipient:   the destination conference participant(s).  This
      defaults to the full conference participant list, minus the IM
      Sender.

   MSRP switch:   a media level entity that is a MSRP endpoint.  It is a
      special MSRP endpoint that receives MSRP messages, and delivers
      them to the other conference participants.  The MSRP switch has a
      similar role to a conference mixer with the exception that the
      MSRP switch does not actually "mix" together different input media
      streams; it merely relays the messages between participants.

   Private Instant Message:   an instant message sent in a chat room
      intended for a single participant.  A private IM is usually
      rendered distinctly from the rest of the IMs, indicating that the
      message was a private communication.

   Anonymous URI:  a URI concealing the participant's SIP AOR from the
      other participants in the conference.  The allocation of such a
      URI is out of scope of this specification.  It must be valid for
      the length of the conference, and will be utilized by the MSRP
      switch to forward messages to and from anonymous participants.








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3.  Motivations and Requirements

   Although conference frameworks describing many types of conferencing
   applications already exist, such as the Framework for Centralized
   Conferencing [RFC5239] and the SIP Conferencing Framework [RFC4353],
   the exact details of session-based instant messaging conferences are
   not well-defined at the moment.

   To allow interoperable chat implementations, for both conference-
   aware, and conference-unaware user agents, certain conventions for
   MSRP conferences need to be defined.  It also seems beneficial to
   provide a set of features that enhance the baseline multi-party MSRP
   in order to be able to create systems that have functionality on par
   with existing chat systems, as well as enable building interworking
   gateways to these existing chat systems.

   We define the following requirements:

   REQ-1:  A basic requirement is the existence of a multi-party
           conference, where participants can join and leave the
           conference and get instant messages exchanged to the rest of
           the participants.

   REQ-2:  A conference participant must be able to determine the
           identities of the sender and recipient of the received IMs.

   REQ-3:  A conference participant must be able to determine the
           recipient of the received message.  For instance, the
           recipient of the message might be the entire conference or a
           single participant of the conference (i.e., a private
           message).

   REQ-4:  It must be possible to send a message to a single participant
           within the conference (i.e., a private instant message).

   REQ-5:  A conference participant may have a nickname or pseudonym
           associated with their real identity.

   REQ-6:  It must be possible for a participant to change their
           nickname during the progress of the conference.

   REQ-7:  It must be possible that a participant is only known by an
           anonymous identity and not their real identity to the rest of
           the conference.







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   REQ-8:  It must be possible for the MSRP switch originate IMs to the
           conference by owner or administrator (e.g. message of the
           day, welcome messages, server is shutting down, etc.)

   REQ-9:  It must be possible for the conference participants to learn
           the chat room capabilities described in this document.


4.  Overview of Operation

   In order to set up a conference, one must first be created.  Users
   wishing to host a conference themselves can of course do just that;
   their User Agent (UA) simply morphs from an ordinary UA into a
   special purpose one called a Focus UA.  Another, commonly used setup
   is one where a dedicated node in the network functions as a Focus UA.

   Each chat room has an identity of its own: a SIP URI that
   participants use to join the conference, e.g. by sending an INVITE
   request.  The conference focus processes the invitations, and as
   such, maintains SIP dialogs with each participant.  In a multi-party
   chat, or chat room, MSRP is one of the established media streams.
   Each conference participant establishes an MSRP session with the MSRP
   switch, which is a special purpose MSRP application.  The MSRP
   sessions can be relayed by one or more MSRP relays found in
   [RFC4976].  This is illustrated in Figure 1


























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                                  MSRP Sessions
                          +---------------------------+
                          |           +-----------+   |
                      +---+--+    +---+--+        |   |
                      | SIP  |    | SIP  |        |   |
                      | MSRP |    | MSRP |     +--+---+----+
                      |Client|    |Client|     |  MSRP     |
                      +---+--+    ++-----+     |  Relay    |
                          |        |           +-----+-----+
              SIP Dialogs |       /                  |
                          |      |                   | MSRP Sessions
                     +----+------+--+                |
                     | Conference   |        +-------+-----+
                     | Focus UA     |        |    MSRP     |
                     |              |........|   Switch    |
                     |              |        |             |
                     +---+--------+-+        +-------+-----+
                         |        \                  |
             SIP Dialogs |         |                 |  MSRP Sessions
                         |         \                 |
                      +--+---+    +-+----+     +-----+------+
                      | SIP  |    | SIP  |     |   MSRP     |
                      | MSRP |    | MSRP |     |   Relay    |
                      |Client|    |Client|     +-+-------+--+
                      +---+--+    +--+---+       |       |
                          |          +-----------+       |
                          +------------------------------+
                                     MSRP sessions


     Figure 1: Multi-party chat overview shown with MSRP Relays and a
                            conference Focus UA

   The MSRP switch is similar to a conference mixer in that it handles
   media sessions with each of the participants and bridges these
   streams together.  However, unlike a conference mixer, the MSRP
   switch merely forwards messages between participants but doesn't
   actually mix the streams in any way.  The system is illustrated in
   Figure 2.












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                               +------+
                               | MSRP |
                               |Client|
             +------+          +--.---+          +------+
             | MSRP |             |              | MSRP |
             |Client|             |             _|Client|
             +------._            |           ,' +------+
                      `._         |         ,'
                         `.. +----------+ ,'
                            `|          |'
                             |   MSRP   |
                             |  Switch  |
                            ,|          |_
                       _,-'' +----------+ ``-._
             +------.-'            |           `--+------+
             | MSRP |              |              | MSRP |
             |Client|              |              |Client|
             +------+              |              +------+
                               +---'--+
                               | MSRP |
                               |Client|
                               +------+

          Figure 2: Multi-party chat in a Centralized Conference

   Typically conference participants also subscribe to the conference
   event package [RFC4575] to gather information about the conference
   roster in the form of conference state notifications.  For example,
   participants can learn about other participants' identities.

   All messages in the chat room use the 'Message/CPIM' wrapper content
   type [RFC3862], so that it is possible to distinguish between private
   and regular messages.  When a participant wants to send an instant
   message to the conference, it constructs an MSRP SEND request and
   submits it to the MSRP switch including a regular payload (e.g. a
   Message/CPIM message that contains a text, html, an image, etc.).
   The Message/CPIM To header is set to the chat room URI.  The switch
   then fans out the SEND request to all of the other participants using
   their existing MSRP sessions.

   A participant can also send a private instant message addressed to a
   participants whose identity has been learned, e.g. via a notification
   from the conference event package [RFC4575].  In this case the sender
   creates an MSRP SEND request with a Message/CPIM body whose To header
   contains not the chat room URI but the recipient's URI.  The MSRP
   switch then forwards the SEND request to the recipient.

   We extend the current MSRP negotiation that takes place in SDP



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   [RFC4566] to allow participants to learn whether the chat room
   supports and is willing to accept (e.g. due to local policy
   restrictions) certain MSRP functions defined in this memo, such as
   nicknames or private messaging.

   Naturally, when a participant wishes to leave a chat room, it sends a
   SIP BYE request to the Focus UA and terminates the SIP dialog with
   the focus and MSRP sessions with the MSRP switch.


5.  Creating, Joining, and Deleting a Chat Room

5.1.  Creating a Chat Room

   Since we consider a chat room a particular type of conference having
   MSRP media, the methods defined by the SIP Conference Framework
   [RFC4353] for creating conferences are directly applicable to a chat
   room.

   Once a chat room is created, it is identified by a SIP URI, like any
   other conference.

5.2.  Joining a Chat Room

   Participants usually join the conference by sending an INVITE request
   to the conference URI.  As long as the conference policy allows, the
   INVITE request is accepted by the focus and the user is brought into
   the conference.

   The SIP URI from the dialog of which the participant is known to the
   focus, MUST be notified to the MSRP switch.  It will be used to
   validate messages from participants, and to forward them accordingly.

   Conference aware participants will detect that the peer is a focus
   due to the presence of the "isfocus" feature tag [RFC3840] in the
   Contact header field of the 200-class response to the INVITE request.
   Conference unaware participants will not notice it is a foucs, and
   can not apply the additional mechanisms defined in this document.
   Participants are also aware that the mixer is an MSRP switch due to
   the presence of an 'message' media type and either TCP/MSRP or TCP/
   TLS/MSRP as the protocol field in the SDP [RFC4566] media-line.

   The conference focus of a chat room MUST include support for a
   Message/CPIM [RFC3862] top-level wrapper for the MSRP messages by
   setting the 'accept-types' MSRP media line attribute in the SDP offer
   or answer to include 'Message/CPIM'.





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      Note that the 'Message/CPIM' wrapper is used to carry the sender
      information that, otherwise, it will not be available to the
      recipient.  Additionally, 'Message/CPIM' wrapper carries the
      recipient information (e.g.  To and Cc: headers).

   If a participant wants to remain anonymous to the rest of the
   participants in the conference, the participant's UA must provide an
   anonymous URI to the conference focus.  The URI will be used in the
   From and To headers in the 'Message/CPIM' wrapper, and can be learned
   by the other participants of the conference.  The anonymous URI MUST
   NOT reveal the participant's SIP AOR.

   The conference focus of a chat room MUST learn the chat room
   capabilities of each participant that joins the chat room, and MUST
   inform the MSRP switch of such support.  This is to prevent that the
   MSRP switch distributes private messages to participants who do not
   support private messaging.  The recipient could be able to render the
   private message, but not supporting private messages the participant
   can not respond.

5.3.  Deleting a Chat Room

   As with creating a conference, the methods defined by the SIP
   Conference Framework [RFC4353] for deleting a conference are directly
   applicable to a chat room.  The MSRP switch will terminate the MSRP
   sessions with all the participants.

   Deleting a chat room is an action that heavily depends on the policy
   of the chat room.  The policy can determine that the chat room is
   deleted when the creator leaves the conference, or with any out of
   band mechanism.


6.  Sending and Receiving Instant Messages

6.1.  Regular Messages

   This section describes the conventions used to send and receive
   instant messages that are addressed to all the participants in the
   chat room.  These are sent over a regular MSRP SEND request that
   contains a Message/CPIM wrapper [RFC3862] that in turn contains the
   desired payload (e.g. text, image, video-clip, etc.).

   When a chat room participant wishes to send an instant message to all
   the other participants in the chat room, he constructs an MSRP SEND
   request that MUST contain a top-level wrapper of type 'Message/CPIM'
   [RFC3862].  The actual instant message payload inside 'Message/CPIM'
   MAY be of any type negotiated in the SDP 'accepted-types' attribute



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   according to the MSRP rules.

   The sender SHOULD populate the From header of the Message/CPIM
   wrapper with a proper identity by which the user is recognized in the
   conference.  Identities that can be used (among others) are:

   o  A SIP URI [RFC3261] representing the participant's address-of-
      record

   o  A tel URI [RFC3966] representing the participant's telephone
      number

   o  An IM URI [RFC3860] representing the participant's instant
      messaging address

   o  An Anonymous URI [RFC3860] representing the paricipant's anonymous
      adress

   The MSRP switch that receives a SEND request from a participant
   SHOULD first verify that the From header field of the Message/CPIM
   wrapper is correctly populated with a valid URI.  This focus MUST
   notify the MSRP switch of the URI of which the participant is known
   to validate it.

   Then the MSRP switch should inspect the To header field of the
   Message/CPIM wrapper.  If the To header field of the Message/CPIM
   wrapper contains the chat room URI, the MSRP switch can generate a
   copy of the SEND request to each of the participants in the
   conference except the sender.  The MSRP switch MUST NOT modify any of
   the bodies included in the received SEND request.  Note that the MSRP
   switch does not need to wait for the reception of the complete MSRP
   chunk or MSRP message before it starts the distribution to the rest
   of the participants.  Instead, once the MSRP switch has received the
   headers of the Message/CPIM body it SHOULD start the distribution
   process.  Having the Message/CPIM header only in the first chunk, the
   MSRP switch MUST track the Message-Id until the last chunk of the
   message has been distributed.

   An MSRP endpoint that receives a SEND request from the MSRP switch
   containing a Message/CPIM wrapper SHOULD first inspect the To header
   field of the Message/CPIM body.  If the To header field is set to the
   chat room URI, it should render it as a regular message that has been
   distributed to all the participants in the conference.  Then the MSRP
   endpoint SHOULD inspect the From header field of the Message/CPIM
   body to identify the sender.  The From header field will include a
   URI that identifies the sender.  The endpoint might have also
   received further identity information through a subscription to the
   SIP conference event package [RFC4575].



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6.2.  Private Messages

   This section describes the conventions used to send and receive
   private instant messages, i.e., instant messages that are addressed
   to one participant of the chat room rather to all of them.  A chat
   room can signal support for private messages using the chatroom-
   attribute (see Section 8 for details).

   When a chat room participant wishes to send a private instant message
   to a participant the chat room, it follows the same procedures for
   creating a SEND request as for regular messages (Section 6.1).  The
   only difference is that the MSRP endpoint MUST populate the To header
   of the Message/CPIM with the identity of the intended recipient.  The
   identity can be SIP, TEL, and IM URIs typically learned from the
   information received in notifications of the conference event package
   [RFC4575].

   As for regular messages, the MSRP switch that receives a SEND request
   from a participant SHOULD first verify that the From header field of
   the Message/CPIM wrapper is correctly populated with a valid URI, and
   that the recipient is supporting private messages.  See section
   Section 6.3 for report and response handling.  If successful, the
   MSRP switch should search it's mapping table to find the MSRP session
   established towards the recipient.  If a match is found the MSRP
   switch MUST create a SEND request and MUST copy the contents of the
   sender's message to it.

   An MSRP endpoint that receives a SEND request from the MSRP switch
   does the same validations as for regular messages (Section 6.1).  If
   the To header field is different from the chat room URI, the MSRP
   endpoints know that it is a private message.  It should render who it
   is from based on the From header of the Message/CPIM wrapper

   It is possible that a participant, identified by a SIP Address of
   Record, joins a conference of instant messages from two or more
   different SIP UAs.  It is RECOMMENDED that the the MSRP switch can
   map a participant or anonymous URI for two or more MSRP sessions.  If
   the policy of the server allows for this, the MSRP switch MUST copy
   all messages intended for the recipient through each MSRP session.

6.3.  MSRP reports and responses

   The MSRP SHALL follow the success report and failure report handling
   described in section 7 of [RFC4975].  For regular messages the MSRP
   switch MUST act as a MSRP endpoint receiver of the request according
   to section 5.3 of [RFC4975].

   For regular messages the MSRP switch MAY use any report model in the



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   copies of the regular SEND request intended for the recipients, but
   any received reports MUST NOT be forwarded to the originator of the
   original SEND request.  This could lead to having the sender
   receiving multiple reports for a single MSRP request.  The MSRP
   switch for regular messages SHALL construct responses according to
   section 7.2 of [RFC4975].  If the URI included in the From header
   field of the Message/CPIM wrapper is not valid (e.g, because it does
   not "belong" to the user), the response code is 403.  Otherwise the
   response code is 200.

   Private messages (section Section 6.2) handle MSRP reports
   differently from regular chat room messages.  The MSRP switch acts
   transparently having an end-to-end relationship between the sender
   and the recipient.  The MSRP switch MUST for private messages keep
   any Sucess-Report and Failure-Report headers in the relayed request.
   Any reports or responses from the recipient MUST be forwarded to the
   sender.

   For private messages the MSRP switch MUST follow section 7.2 of
   [RFC4975] in the following error scenarios.  The MSRP switch MUST
   inspect the To header field of the Message/CPIM wrapper.  If the To
   header field of the Message/CPIM wrapper in the request does not
   contain the chat room URI, it must check if it contains a
   participants URI associated with a participant.  If the URI in the To
   header can not be resolved (e.g. caused by a mistyped URI or that the
   recipient has abandoned he chat room), the response error code is
   404.  The new 404 status code indicates a failure to resolve the
   recipient URI in the To header field.  If the recipient doesn't
   support private messages, the response code is 428.  The new response
   428 indicate that the recipient does not support private messages.  A
   REPORT request MUST include a Message/CPIM wrapper, with the original
   From header field included in the SEND request, and the To header
   field of the original message.  The message MUST NOT be forwarded to
   the recipient if above conditions applies.


7.  Nicknames

   A common characteristic of existing chat room services is that
   participants have the ability to present themselves with a nickname
   to the rest of the participants of the conference.  It is used for
   easy reference of participants in the chat room, and can also provide
   anonymous participants with a meaningful descriptive name.

   A nickname is a useful construct in many use cases, of which MSRP
   chat is but one example.  It is associated with a URI of which the
   participant is known to the focus.  It is a user selectable
   appearance of which the participant wants to be known to the other



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   participants.  It is not a 'display-name', but it is used somewhat
   like a display name.  A main difference is that a nickname is unique
   inside a chat room to allow an unambiguous reference to a participant
   in the chat.  Nicknames may be long lived, or may be temporary.
   Users also need to reserve a nickname prior to its utilization.

   This memo specifies the nickname as a string.  The nickname string
   MUST be unambiguous within the scope of the chat room (conference
   instance).  This scope is similar to having a nickname unique inside
   a chat room from Extensible Messaging  and Presence Protocol
   [RFC3920].  The chat room may have policies associated with
   nicknames.  It may not accept nickname strings at all, or a it may
   provide a wider unambiguous scope like a domain or server, similar to
   Internet Relay Chat (IRC) [RFC2810].

7.1.  Using Nicknames within a Conference

   This memo provides a mechanism to reserve a nickname for a
   participant for as long as the participant is logged into the chat
   room.  The mechanism is based on a NICKNAME MSRP method (see below)
   and a new "Use-Nickname" header.  Note that other mechanisms may
   exist (for example, a web page reservation system), although they are
   outside the scope of this document.

   A conference participant who has established an MSRP session with the
   MSRP switch, where the MSRP switch has indicated the support and
   availability of nicknames with the 'nicknames' token in the
   'chatroom' SDP attribute, MAY send a NICKNAME request to the MSRP
   switch.  The NICKNAME request MUST include a new Use-Nickname header
   that contains the nickname string that the participant wants to
   reserve.

   The MSRP switch that receives a NICKNAME request containing a
   nickname in the Use-Nickname header field SHOULD first verify whether
   the policy of the chat room allows the nickname functionality.  If is
   not allowed, the MSRP the response code is 501 section 7.2 of
   [RFC4975] for constructing a response.

   If the policy of the chat room allows the usage of nicknames, the
   MSRP switch SHOULD validate that the SIP AOR is entitled to reserve
   the nickname.  The participant's authenticated identity can be
   derived after a successful HTTP Digest Authentication, included in a
   trusted SIP P-Asserted-Identity header field, included in a valid SIP
   Identity header field, or derived from any other present or future
   SIP authentication mechanism.  Once the MSRP switch has validated
   that the participant is entitled to reserve the nickname, the
   response code is 200.




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   The reservation of a nickname can fail, e.g. if the NICKNAME request
   contains a malformed or non-existent Use-Nickname header field, or if
   the same nickname has already been reserved by another participant in
   the conference.  The validation can also fail where the SIP AOR is
   not entitled to reserve the nickname.  In any of these cases the MSRP
   response code is 423.The semantics of the 423 response are: "Nickname
   usage failed; the nickname is not allocated to this user".

   As indicated earlier, this specification defines a new MSRP header
   field: "Use-Nickname".  The Use-Nickname header field carries a
   nickname string, and SHOULD be included in the NICKNAME requests.

   The syntax of the NICKNAME method and the "Use-Nickname" header field
   is built upon the MSRP formal syntax [RFC4975]

               ext-method =/ NICKNAMEm
               NICKNAMEm = %x4E.49.43.4B.4E.41.4D.45 ; NICKNAME in caps
               ext-header =/ Use-Nickname
               ; ext-header is specified in RFC 4975
               Use-Nickname = "Use-Nickname" ":" nickname
               nickname = quoted-string

7.2.  Modifying a Nickname

   Typically participants will reserve a nickname as soon as they join
   the chat room.  But it is also possible for participants to modify
   their own nicknames and replace them it a new one at any time during
   the duration of the MSRP session.  Modification of the nickname is
   not different from the initial reservation and usage of a nickname,
   thus the NICKNAME method is used as described in Section 7.1.

   If a NICKNAME request that attempts to modify the current nickname of
   the user for some reason fails, the current nickname stays in effect.
   A new nickname comes into effect and the old one is released only
   after a NICKNAME request is accepted with a 200 response.

7.3.  Removing a Nickname

   If the participant no longer wants to be known by a nickname in the
   conference, the participant can follow the method described in
   Section 7.2.  The nickname element of the Use-Nickname header MUST be
   set to an empty quoted string.

7.4.  Nicknames in the Conference Event Package

   Typically the conference focus acts as a notifier of the SIP
   conference event package [RFC4575].  The conference focus MAY notify
   subscribers of the nickname reserved by a given participant.  We



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   define an extension to the conference event package to include
   nicknames.  The extension adds a <nickname> child element to the
   <user> element containing the nickname string.

   The following element is to be added to the sequence of the USER-TYPE
   in the XML schema in conference event package [RFC4575]

   <xs:element name="nickname" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" \>

7.5.  Nicknames not supported nor allowed

   The participants of the conference are identified by the SIP, TEL and
   IM URI's typically learned from the information received in
   notifications of the conference event package [RFC4575].  If
   nicknames are not supported nor allowed, the participant list of the
   conference will be less presentable.


8.  The SDP 'chatroom' attribute

   There are a handful of use cases where a participant would like to
   learn the chat room capabilities supported by the MSRP switch and the
   chat room.  For example, a participant would like to learn if the
   MSRP switch supports private messaging, otherwise, the participant
   may send what he believes is a private instant message addressed to a
   participant, but since the MSRP switch does not support the functions
   specified in this memo, the message gets eventually distributed to
   all the participants of the chat room.

   The reverse case also exists.  A participant, say Alice, whose user
   agent does not support the extensions defined by this document joins
   the chat room.  The MSRP switch learns that Alice application does
   not support private messaging nor nicknames.  If another participant,
   say Bob, sends a private message to Alice, the MSRP switch does not
   distribute it to Alice, because Alice is not able to differentiate it
   from a regular message sent to the whole roster.  Further more, if
   Alice replied to this message, she would do it to the whole roster.
   Because of this, the MSRP switch keeps also track of users who do not
   support the extensions defined in this document.

   In another scenario, the policy of a chat room may indicate that
   certain functions are not allowed.  For example, the policy may
   indicate that nicknames or private messages are not allowed.

   In order to provide the user with a good chat room experience, we
   define a new 'chatroom' SDP attribute.  The 'chatroom' attribute is a
   media-level attribute that MAY be included in conjunction with and
   MSRP media stream (i.e., when an m= line in SDP indicates "TCP/MSRP"



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   or "TCP/TLS/MSRP").  The 'chatroom' attribute indicates the
   intersection of support and chat room local policy allowance for a
   number of functions specified in this document.  Specifically, we
   provide the means for indicating support to use nicknames and private
   messaging.

   The 'chatroom' SDP attribute has the following syntax:

             chatroom = chatroom-label ":" chat-token *(SP chat-token)
             chatroom-label = "chatroom"
             chat-token = (nicknames-token | private-msg-token | token)
             nicknames-token = "nicknames"
             private-msg-token = "private-messages"

   A conference focus that includes the 'nicknames' token in the session
   description is signaling that the MSRP switch supports and the chat
   room allows to use of the procedures specified in Section 7.  A
   conference focus that includes the 'private-messages' in the SDP
   description is signaling that the MSRP switch supports and the chat
   room allows to use of the procedures specified in Section 6.2.

   Example of the 'chatroom' attribute for an MSRP media stream that
   indicates the acceptance of nicknames and private messages:

             a=chatroom:nickname private-messages


9.  Examples

9.1.  Joining a chat room

   Figure 3 presents a flow diagram where Alice joins a chat room by
   sending an INVITE request.  This INVITE request contains a session
   description that includes the chatroom extensions defined in this
   document.

                    Alice               Conference focus
                      |                        |
                      |(1) (SIP) INVITE        |
                      |----------------------->|
                      |(2) (SIP) 200 OK        |
                      |<-----------------------|
                      |(3) (SIP) ACK           |
                      |----------------------->|
                      |                        |

           Figure 3: Flow diagram of a user joining a chat room




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   F1: Alice constructs an SDP description that includes an MSRP media
   stream.  She also indicates her support for the chatroom extensions
   defined in this document.  She sends the INVITE request to the chat
   room server.

   INVITE sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
   To: Chatroom 22 <sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com>
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:alice@client.atlanta.example.com;transport=tcp>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: [length]

   v=0
   o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.atlanta.example.com
   s=-
   c=IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
   m=message 7654 TCP/MSRP *
   a=accept-types:message/cpim text/plain text/html
   a=path:msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   a=chatroom:nickname private-messages

      Figure 4: INVITE request containing an SDP offer with chat room
                                extensions

   F2: The chat room server accepts the session establishment.  It
   includes the 'isfocus' and other relevant feature tags in the Contact
   header field of the response.  The chat room server also builds an
   SDP answer that also that forces the reception of messages wrapped in
   message/cpim envelops.  It also includes the the chatroom attribute
   with the allowed extensions.

















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   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
    ;received=192.0.2.101
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
   To: Chatroom 22 <sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com>;tag=8321234356
   Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com;transport=tcp> \
             ;methods="INVITE,BYE,OPTIONS,ACK,CANCEL,SUBSCRIBE,NOTIFY" \
             ;automata;isfocus;message;event="conference"
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: [length]

   v=0
   o=chat 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 chat.example.com
   s=-
   c=IN IP4 chat.example.com
   m=message 12763 TCP/MSRP *
   a=accept-types:message/cpim
   a=accept-wrapped-types:text/plain text/html *
   a=path:msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   a=chatroom:nickname private-messages

        Figure 5: 200 (OK) response including chat room extensions

   F3: The session established is acknowledged (details not shown).

9.2.  Setting up a nickname

   Figure 6 shows an example of Alice setting up a nickname using the
   conference as provider.  Her first proposal is not accepted because
   the proposed nickname is already in use.  Her second proposal is
   accepted.

                     Alice                  MSRP switch
                       |                        |
                       |(1) (MSRP) NICKNAME     |
                       |----------------------->|
                       |(2) (MSRP) 423          |
                       |<-----------------------|
                       |(3) (MSRP) NICKNAME     |
                       |----------------------->|
                       |(4) (MSRP) 200          |
                       |<-----------------------|
                       |                        |

         Figure 6: Flow diagram of a user setting up her nickname




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   F1: Alice sends an MSRP NICKNAME request that contains her proposed
   nicknames in the Set-Nickname header field.

   MSRP d93kswow NICKNAME
   To-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   Use-Nickname: "Alice the great"
   -------d93kswow$

     Figure 7: MSRP NICKNAME request with an initial nickname proposal

   F2: The MSRP switch analyzes the existing allocation of nicknames and
   detects that the nickname "Alice the great" is already provided to
   another participant by the conference.  The MSRP switch answers with
   a 423 response.

   MSRP d93kswow 423 Nickname usage failed
   To-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   -------d93kswow$

                        Figure 8: MSRP 423 response

   F3: Alice receives the response.  She proposes a new nickname in a
   second NICKNAME request.

   MSRP 09swk2d NICKNAME
   To-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   Use-Nickname: "Alice in Wonderland"
   -------09swk2d$

      Figure 9: MSRP NICKNAME request with a second nickname proposal

   F4: The MSRP switch accepts the nickname proposal and answers with a
   200 response.

   MSRP 09swk2d 200 OK
   To-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   -------09swk2d$

                     Figure 10: MSRP NICKNAME request








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9.3.  Sending a regular message to the chat room

   Figure 11 depicts a flow diagram where Alice is sending a regular
   message addressed to the chat room.  The MSRP switch distributes the
   message to the rest of the participants.

      Alice               MSRP switch                   Bob   Charlie
        |                      |                        |       |
        | (1) (MSRP) SEND      |                        |       |
        |--------------------->|  (3) (MSRP) SEND       |       |
        | (2) (MSRP) 200       |----------------------->|       |
        |<---------------------|  (4) (MSRP) SEND       |       |
        |                      |------------------------------->|
        |                      |  (5) (MSRP) 200 OK     |       |
        |                      |<-----------------------|       |
        |                      |  (6) (MSRP) 200 OK     |       |
        |                      |<------------------------------ |
        |                      |                        |       |
        |                      |                        |       |

           Figure 11: Sending a regular message to the chat room

   F1: Alice builds a text message and wraps it in a CPIM message.  She
   addresses the CPIM message to the chat room.  She encloses the result
   in an MSRP SEND request and sends it to the MSRP switch via the
   existing TCP connection.

   MSRP 3490visdm SEND
   To-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   Message-ID: 99s9s2
   Byte-Range: 1-*/*
   Content-Type: message/cpim

   To: <sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com;transport=tcp>
   From: <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>
   DateTime: 2009-03-02T15:02:31-03:00
   Content-Type: text/plain

   Hello guys, how are you today?
   -------3490visdm$

   Figure 12: Instant message addressed to all participants in the chat
                                   room

   F2: The MSRP switch acknowledges the reception of the SEND request
   with a 200 (OK) response.




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   MSRP 3490visdm 200 OK
   To-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   Message-ID: 99s9s2
   Byte-Range: 1-*/*
   -------3490visdm$

                       Figure 13: 200 (OK) response

   F3: The MSRP switch creates a new MSRP SEND request that contains the
   received message/cpim body and sends it to Bob.

   MSRP 490ej23 SEND
   To-Path: msrp://client.biloxi.example.com:4923/49dufdje2;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:5678/jofofo3;tcp
   Message-ID: 304sse2
   Byte-Range: 1-*/*
   Content-Type: message/cpim

   To: <sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com;transport=tcp>
   From: <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>
   DateTime: 2009-03-02T15:02:31-03:00
   Content-Type: text/plain

   Hello guys, how are you today?
   -------490ej23$

            Figure 14: Instant message sent to all participants

   The rest of the message flows are analogous to the previous.  They
   are not shown here.

9.4.  Sending a private message to a participant

   Figure 15 depicts a flow diagram where Alice is sending a private
   message addressed to Bob's SIP AOR.  The MSRP switch distributes the
   message only to Bob.

           Alice               MSRP switch                   Bob
             |                      |                        |
             | (1) (MSRP) SEND      |                        |
             |--------------------->|  (3) (MSRP) SEND       |
             | (2) (MSRP) 200       |----------------------->|
             |<---------------------|                        |
             |                      |                        |
             |                      |                        |

                Figure 15: Sending a private message to Bob



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   F1: Alice builds a text message and wraps it in a CPIM message.  She
   addresses the CPIM message to the Bob's nickname, which she learned
   from a notification in the conference event package.  She encloses
   the result in an MSRP SEND request and sends it to the MSRP switch
   via the existing TCP connection.

   MSRP 6959ssdf SEND
   To-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   Message-ID: okj3kw
   Byte-Range: 1-*/*
   Content-Type: message/cpim

   To: <sip:bob@example.com>
   From: <sip:alice@example.com>
   DateTime: 2009-03-02T15:02:31-03:00
   Content-Type: text/plain

   Hello Bob.
   -------6959ssdf$

      Figure 16: Private instant message addressed to one participant

   F2: The MSRP switch acknowledges the reception of the SEND request
   with a 200 (OK) response.

   MSRP 6959ssdfm 200 OK
   To-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   Message-ID: okj3kw
   Byte-Range: 1-*/*
   -------6959ssdfm$

                       Figure 17: 200 (OK) response

   F3: The MSRP switch creates a new MSRP SEND request that contains the
   received message/cpim body and sends it only to Bob. Bob can
   distinguish the sender in the From header of the CPIM message.  He
   also identifies this as a private message due to the To CPIM header.












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   MSRP 9v9s2 SEND
   To-Path: msrp://client.biloxi.example.com:4923/49dufdje2;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:5678/jofofo3;tcp
   Message-ID: d9fghe982
   Byte-Range: 1-*/*
   Content-Type: message/cpim

   To: <sip:bob@example.com>
   From: <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>
   DateTime: 2009-03-02T15:02:31-03:00
   Content-Type: text/plain

   Hello Bob.
   -------9v9s2$

              Figure 18: Private instant message sent to Bob

9.5.  Chuncked private message

   Figure 19 depicts an example of the private message in Section 9.4
   split in two chuncks.  The MSRP switch must wait for the complete set
   of CPIM headers before distributing the messages.

   MSRP 7443ruls SEND
   To-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   Message-ID: aft4to
   Byte-Range: 1-*/174
   Content-Type: message/cpim

   To: <sip:bob@example.com>
   From: <sip:anonymousX@example.com>
   -------7443ruls$

   MSRP 7443ruls SEND
   To-Path: msrp://chat.example.com:12763/kjhd37s2s20w2a;tcp
   From-Path: msrp://client.atlanta.example.com:7654/jshA7weztas;tcp
   Message-ID: aft4to
   Byte-Range: 68-174/174
   Content-Type: message/cpim

   DateTime: 2009-03-02T15:02:31-03:00
   Content-Type: text/plain

   Hello Bob
   -------7443ruls$

                    Figure 19: Chuncked private message



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9.6.  Nickname in a conference information document

   Figure 20 depicts two user elements in a conference information
   document both having the nickname element with a nickname string.


    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <conference-info
       xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:conference-info"
       entity="sip:chatroom22@chat.example.com"
       state="full" version="1">
      <!--
        CONFERENCE INFO
      -->
       <conference-description>
         <subject>MSRP nickname example</subject>
        </conference-description>
      <!--
         CONFERENCE STATE
      -->
       <conference-state>
        <user-count>2</user-count>
       </conference-state>
      <!--
        USERS
      -->
       <users>
         <user entity="sip:bob@example.com" state="full">
           <nickname>Dopey Donkey</nickname>
        </user>
      <!--
        USER
      -->
        <user entity="sip:alice@atlanta.example.com" state="full">
          <nickname>Depressed Donkey</nickname>
        </user>
       </users>
      </conference-info>


         Figure 20: Nickname in a conference information document


10.  IANA Considerations







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10.1.  New MSRP Method

   This specification defines a new MSRP method to be added to the
   Methods sub-registry under the MSRP Parameter registry: NICKNAME.
   See section Section 7 for details.

10.2.  New MSRP Header

   This specification defines a new MSRP header to be added to the
   header-field sub registry under the MSRP Parameter registry:
   Use-Nickname.  See section Section 7 for details.

10.3.  New MSRP Status Codes

   This specification defines three new MSRP status codes to be added to
   the Status-Code sub-registry under MSRP parameters.

   The 404 status code indicates the failure to resolve the recipient
   URI in the To header field of the Message/CPIM wrapper in the SEND
   request.  See section for details.

   The 428 status code indicates that the recipient of a SEND request
   does not support private messages.  See section for details.

   The 423 response indicates that the requested nickname is not
   allocated to the user requesting it.  See section Section 7 for
   details.

10.4.  New SDP Attribute

   This specification defines a new media level attribute in the Session
   Description Protocol (SDP) Parameters registry: chatroom.  See
   section Section 8 for details.


11.  Security Considerations

   This document proposes extensions to the Message Session Relay
   Protocol [RFC4975].  Therefore, the security considerations of such
   document apply to this document as well.

   In general, messages sent to a multi-party session based messaging
   focus are not deem to expose any security threat.  Nevertheless, if a
   participant wants to avoid eavesdropping from non authorized
   entities, it should send those messages a TLS [RFC5246] transport
   connection, as allowed by MSRP.

   Nicknames will be used to show the appearances of the participants of



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   the conference.  A successful take over of a nickname from a
   participant might lead to private messages to be sent to the wrong
   destination.  The recipient's URI will be different from the URI
   associated to the original owner of the nickname, but the sender
   might not notice this.  To avoid take overs the MSRP switch MUST make
   sure that a nickname is unique inside a chat room.  Also the security
   consideration for any authenticated identity mechanisms used to
   validate the SIP AOR will apply to this document as well.  If a
   nickname can be reserved if it previously has been used by another
   participant in the chat room, is up to the policy of the chat room.


12.  Contributors

   This work would have never been possible without the fruitful
   discussions in the SIMPLE WG mailing list, specially with Brian Rosen
   (Neustar) and Paul Kyzivat (Cisco), who provided extensive review and
   improvements throughout the document.


13.  Acknowledgments

   The authors want to thank Eva Leppanen, Adamu Haruna, Adam Roach,
   Matt Lepinski, Mary Barnes and Ben Campbell for providing comments.


14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3840]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat,
              "Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.

   [RFC3860]  Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Instant Messaging
              (CPIM)", RFC 3860, August 2004.

   [RFC3862]  Klyne, G. and D. Atkins, "Common Presence and Instant
              Messaging (CPIM): Message Format", RFC 3862, August 2004.




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   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [RFC4575]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and O. Levin, "A Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event Package for Conference
              State", RFC 4575, August 2006.

   [RFC4975]  Campbell, B., Mahy, R., and C. Jennings, "The Message
              Session Relay Protocol (MSRP)", RFC 4975, September 2007.

   [RFC4976]  Jennings, C., Mahy, R., and A. Roach, "Relay Extensions
              for the Message Sessions Relay Protocol (MSRP)", RFC 4976,
              September 2007.

   [RFC5239]  Barnes, M., Boulton, C., and O. Levin, "A Framework for
              Centralized Conferencing", RFC 5239, June 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

14.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2810]  Kalt, C., "Internet Relay Chat: Architecture", RFC 2810,
              April 2000.

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3920]  Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October 2004.

   [RFC3966]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers",
              RFC 3966, December 2004.

   [RFC4353]  Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the
              Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4353,
              February 2006.













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Authors' Addresses

   Aki Niemi
   Nokia
   P.O. Box 407
   NOKIA GROUP, FIN  00045
   Finland

   Phone: +358 50 389 1644
   Email: aki.niemi@nokia.com


   Miguel A. Garcia-Martin
   Ericsson
   Calle Via de los Poblados 13
   Madrid, ES  28033
   Spain

   Email: miguel.a.garcia@ericsson.com


   Geir A. Sandbakken (editor)
   TANDBERG
   Philip Pedersens vei 20
   N-1366 Lysaker
   Norway

   Phone: +47 67 125 125
   Email: geir.sandbakken@tandberg.com
   URI:   http://www.tandberg.com





















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