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Versions: (draft-petrie-sipping-config-framework) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 RFC 6080

SIPPING                                                        D. Petrie
Internet-Draft                                             Pingtel Corp.
Expires: August 20, 2005                               February 19, 2005


     A Framework for Session Initiation Protocol User Agent Profile
                                Delivery
               draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-06.txt

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I certify that any applicable
   patent or other IPR claims of which I am aware have been disclosed,
   and any of which I become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 20, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines the application of a set of protocols for
   providing profile data to SIP user agents.  The objective is to
   define a means for automatically providing profile data a user agent
   needs to be functional without user or administrative intervention.
   The framework for discovery, delivery, notification and updates of
   user agent profile data is defined here.  As part of this framework a
   new SIP event package is defined here for the notification of profile
   changes.  This framework is also intended to ease ongoing
   administration and upgrading of large scale deployments of SIP user



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   agents.  The contents and format of the profile data to be defined is
   outside the scope of this document.

Table of Contents

   1.   Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1  Requirements Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2  Profile Delivery Framework Terminology . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.4  Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.   Profile Change Event Notification Package  . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1  Event Package Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.2  Event Package Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.3  SUBSCRIBE Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     3.4  Subscription Duration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     3.5  NOTIFY Bodies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     3.6  Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests  . . . . . . . .  14
     3.7  Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . . . .  15
     3.8  Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . . .  15
     3.9  Handling of forked requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.10   Rate of notifications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.11   State Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.12   Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.13   Use of URIs to Retrieve State  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       3.13.1   Device URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       3.13.2   User and Application URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.13.3   Local Network URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   4.   Profile Delivery Framework Details . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     4.1  Discovery of Subscription URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       4.1.1  Discovery of Local Network URI . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       4.1.2  Discovery of Device URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       4.1.3  Discovery of User and Application URI  . . . . . . . .  24
     4.2  Enrollment with Profile Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     4.3  Notification of Profile Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     4.4  Retrieval of Profile Data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     4.5  Upload of Profile Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     4.6  Usage of XCAP with the Profile Package . . . . . . . . . .  25
   5.   IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     5.1  SIP Event Package  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   6.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.1  Confidential Profile Content in NOTIFY Request . . . . . .  29
     6.2  Confidential Profile Content via Content Indirection . . .  29
     6.3  Integrity protection for non-confidential profiles . . . .  30
   7.   Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   8.   Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     8.1  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-05.txt  .  31
     8.2  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-04.txt  .  31



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     8.3  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-03.txt  .  31
     8.4  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-02.txt  .  31
     8.5  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-01.txt  .  32
     8.6  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-00.txt  .  32
     8.7  Changes from
          draft-petrie-sipping-config-framework-00.txt . . . . . . .  32
     8.8  Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-01.txt  . .  33
     8.9  Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-00.txt  . .  33
   9.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   9.1  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   9.2  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
        Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
        Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . .  37






































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1.  Motivation

   Today all SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) [RFC3261] user agent
   implementers use proprietary means of delivering user, device,
   application and local network policy profiles to the user agent.  The
   profile delivery framework defined in this document is intended to
   enable a first phase migration to a standard means of providing
   profiles to SIP user agents.  It is expected that UA (User Agent)
   implementers will be able to use this framework as a means of
   delivering their existing proprietary data profiles (i.e.  using
   their existing proprietary binary or text formats).  This in itself
   is a tremendous advantage in that a SIP environment can use a single
   profile delivery server for profile data to user agents from multiple
   implementers.  Follow-on standardization activities can:
   1.  define a standard profile content format framework (e.g.  XML
       with namespaces [W3C.REC-xml-names11-20040204] or name-value
       pairs [RFC0822]).
   2.  specify the content (i.e.  name the profile data parameters, xml
       schema, name spaces) of the data profiles.

   One of the objectives of the framework described in this document is
   to provide a start up experience similar to that of users of an
   analog telephone.  When you plug in an analog telephone it just works
   (assuming the line is live and the switch has been provisioned).
   There is no end user configuration required to make analog phone
   work, at least in a basic sense.  So the objective here is to be able
   to take a new SIP user agent out of the box, plug it in or install
   the software and have it get its profiles without human intervention
   other than security measures.  This is necessary for cost effective
   deployment of large numbers of user agents.

   Another objective is to provide a scalable means for ongoing
   administration of profiles.  Administrators and users are likely to
   want to make changes to profiles.

   Additional requirements for the framework defined in this document
   are described in: [I-D.ietf-sipping-ua-prof-framewk-reqs],
   [I-D.sinnreich-sipdev-req]

2.  Introduction


2.1  Requirements Terminology

   Keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT" and
   "MAY" that appear in this document are to be interpreted as described
   in [RFC2119].




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2.2  Profile Delivery Framework Terminology

   profile - data set specific to a user, device, user's application or
      the local network.
   device - software or hardware appliance containing one or more SIP
      user agent.
   profile content server - The server that provides the content of the
      profiles using the protocol specified by the URI scheme.
   notifier - As defined in [RFC3265] the SIP user agent server which
      processes SUBSCRIBE requests for events and sends NOTIFY requests
      with profile data or URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers) that
      point to the data.
   profile delivery server - The logical collection of the notifier and
      the server which provides the contents of the notification either
      directly in the NOTIFY requests or indirectly via profile URI(s).
   hotelling- when a user moves to a new user agent (i.e.  that is not
      already provisioned to know the user's identity, credentials or
      profile data) and gives the user agent sufficient information to
      retrieve the user's profile(s).  The user agent either permanently
      or temporarily makes the user's profiles effective on that user
      agent.
   roaming- when the user agent moves to a different local network

2.3  Overview

   The profile life cycle can be described by five functional steps.
   These steps are not necessarily discrete.  However it is useful to
   describe these steps as logically distinct.  These steps are named as
   follows:

   Discovery -  discover a profile delivery server
   Enrollment - enroll with the profile delivery server
   Profile Retrieval - retrieve profile data
   Profile Change Notification - receive notification of profile changes
   Profile Change Upload - upload profile data changes back to the
      profile delivery server

   Discovery is the process by which a UA finds the address and port at
   which it enrolls with the profile delivery server.  As there is no
   single discovery mechanism which will work in all network
   environments, a number of discovery mechanisms are defined with a
   prescribed order in which the UA tries them until one succeeds.

   Enrollment is the process by which a UA makes itself known to the
   profile delivery server.  In enrolling, the UA provides identity
   information, requested profile type(s) and supported protocols for
   profile retrieval.  It also subscribes to a mechanism for
   notification of profile changes.  As a result of enrollment, the UA



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   receives the data or the URI for each of the profiles that the
   profile delivery server is able to provide.  Each profile type (set)
   requires a separate enrollment or SUBSCRIBE session.  A profile type
   may represent one or more data sets (e.g.  one profile data set for
   each of a user's applications).

   Profile Retrieval is the process of retrieving the content for each
   of the profiles the UA requested.

   Profile Change Notification is the process by which the profile
   delivery server notifies the UA that the content of one or more of
   the profiles has changed.  If the content is provided indirectly the
   UA MAY retrieve the profile from the specified URI upon receipt of
   the change notification.

   Profile Change Upload is the process by which a UA or other entity
   (e.g.  corporate directory or configuration management server) pushes
   a change to the profile data back up to the profile delivery server.

   This framework defines a new SIP event package [RFC3265] to solve
   enrollment and profile change notification steps.  This event package
   defines everything but the mandatory content type.  This makes this
   event package abstract until the content type is bound.  The profile
   content type(s) will be defined outside the scope of this document.
   It is the author's belief that it would be a huge accomplishment if
   all SIP user agent used this framework for delivering their existing
   proprietary profiles.  Even though this does not accomplish
   interoperability of profiles, it is a big first step in easing the
   administration of SIP user agents.  The definition of standard
   profiles and data sets (see [I-D.petrie-sipping-profile-datasets] )
   will enable interoperability as a subsequent step.

   The question arises as to why SIP should be used for the profile
   delivery framework.  In this document SIP is used for only a small
   portion of the framework.  Other existing protocols are more
   appropriate for transport of the profile contents (to and from the
   user agent) and are suggested in this document.  The discovery step
   is simply a specified order and application of existing protocols.
   SIP is only needed for the enrollment and change notification
   functionality of the profile delivery framework.  In many SIP
   environments (e.g.  carrier/subscriber and multi-site enterprise)
   firewall, NAT (Network Address Translation) and IP addressing issues
   make it difficult to get messages between the profile delivery server
   and the user agent requiring the profiles.

   With SIP the users and devices already are assigned globally routable
   addresses.  In addition the firewall and NAT problems are already
   presumably solved in the environments in which SIP user agents are to



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   be used.  Therefore SIP is the best solution for allowing the user
   agent to enroll with the profile delivery server, which may require
   traversal of multiple firewalls and NATs.  For the same reason the
   notification of profile changes is best solved by SIP.  It should be
   noted that this document is scoped to providing profiles for devices
   which contain one or more SIP user agents.  This framework may be
   applied to non-SIP devices, however more general requirements for
   non-SIP devices are beyond the scope of this document.

   The content delivery server may be either in the public network or
   accessible through a private network.  The user agents requiring
   profiles may be behind firewalls and NATs and many protocols, such as
   HTTP, may be used for profile content retrieval without special
   consideration in the firewalls and NATs (e.g.  an HTTP client on the
   UA can typically pull content from a server outside the NAT/
   firewall.).

2.4  Data Model

   A conscious separation of device, user, application and local network
   profiles is made in this document.  This is useful to provide
   features such as hotelling (described above) as well as securing or
   restricting user agent functionality.  By maintaining this
   separation, a user may walk up to someone else's user agent and
   direct that user agent to get the new user's profile data.  In doing
   so the user agent can replace the previous user's profile data while
   still keeping the device's and the local network's profile data which
   may be necessary for core functionality and communication described
   in this document.  The local network profiles are relevant to a
   visiting device which gets plugged in to a foreign network.  The
   concept of the local network providing profile data is useful to
   provide roaming (described above) as well as local policy data that
   may constrain the user or device behavior relative to the local
   network.  For example media types and codecs may be constrained to
   reflect the network's capabilities.

   The separation of these profiles also enables the separation of the
   management of the profiles.  The user profile may be managed by a
   profile delivery server operated by the user's ISP.  The device
   profile may be delivered from a profile delivery server operated by
   the user's employer.  The application profile(s) may be delivered
   from the user's ASP (Application Service Provider).  The local
   network profile may delivered by a WLAN (Wireless LAN) hotspot
   service provider.  Some interesting services and mobility
   applications are enabled with this separation of profiles.

   A very high level data model is implied here with the separation of
   these four profile types.  Each profile type instance requires a



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   separate subscription to retrieve the profile.  A loose hierarchy
   exists mostly for the purpose of boot strapping and discovery or
   formation of the profile URIs.  No other meaning is implied by this
   hierarchy.  However the profile format and data sets to be defined
   outside this document may define additional meaning to this
   hierarchy.  In the boot strapping scenario, a device straight out of
   the box (software or hardware) does not know anything about it's user
   or local network.  The one thing that is does know is it's instance
   id.  So the hierarchy of the profiles exists as follows.

   The instance id is used to form the user id part of the URI for
   subscribing to the device profile.  The device profile may contain a
   default user AOR (Address of Record) for that device.  The default
   user AOR may then be used to retrieve the user profile.  Applications
   to be used on the device may be defined in the device and user
   profiles.  The user's AOR is also used to retrieve any application
   profiles for that user.  The local network profile is not referenced
   in any way from the device, user, application profiles.  It is
   subscribed to and retrieved based upon a URI formed from the local
   network domain.

3.  Profile Change Event Notification Package

   This section defines a new SIP event package [RFC3265].  The purpose
   of this event package is to send to subscribers notification of
   content changes to the profile(s) of interest and to provide the
   location of the profile(s) via content indirection
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech] or directly in the body of the
   NOTIFY.  Frequently the profiles delivered to the user agent are much
   larger (e.g.  several KB or even several MB) than the MTU of the
   network.  These larger profiles will cause larger than normal SIP
   messages and consequently higher impact on the SIP servers and
   infrastructure.  To avoid the higher impact and load on the SIP
   infrastructure, content indirection SHOULD be used if the profile is
   large enough to cause packet fragmentation over the transport
   protocol.  The presence of the MIME type for content indirection
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech] in the Accept header indicates
   that the user agent supports content indirection and that the profile
   delivery server SHOULD use content indirection.  Similarly the
   content type for the differential notification of profile changes
   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-package] may be used in the Accept header to
   express support for receiving profile change deltas.

   The MIME types or formats of profiles to be delivered via this
   framework are to be defined in the documents that define the profile
   contents.  These profile MIME types specified in the Accept header
   along with the profile types specified in the Event header parameter
   "profile-type" MAY be used to specify which profiles get delivered



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   either directly or indirectly in the NOTIFY requests.  As this event
   package does not specify the mandatory content type, this package is
   abstract.  The profile definition documents will specify the
   mandatory content type to make a concrete event package.

3.1  Event Package Name

   The name of this package is "sip-profile".  This value appears in the
   Event header field present in SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY requests for this
   package as defined in [RFC3265].

3.2  Event Package Parameters

   This package defines the following new parameters for the event
   header: "profile-type", "vendor", "model", "version", "effective-by",
   "document", "app-id", "network-user".  The "effective-by" parameter
   is for use in NOTIFY requests only.  The "effective-by" parameter is
   ignored if it appears in a SUBSCRIBE request.  The others parameters
   are for use in the SUBSCRIBE request and are ignored if they appear
   in NOTIFY requests.

   The "profile-type" parameter is used to indicate the token name of
   the profile type the user agent wishes to obtain data or URIs for and
   to be notified of subsequent changes.  Using a token in this
   parameter allows the URI semantics for retrieving the profiles to be
   opaque to the subscribing user agent.  All it needs to know is the
   token value for this parameter.  This document defines four logical
   types of profiles and their token names.  The contents or format of
   the profiles is outside the scope of this document.

   The four types of profiles defined here are "device", "user",
   "application" and "local".  Specifying "device" type profile(s)
   indicates the desire for the profile data (URI when content
   indirection is used) and change notification of the contents of the
   profile that is specific to the device or user agent.  Specifying
   "user" type profile indicates the desire for the profile data (URI
   when content indirection is used) and change notification of the
   profile content for the user.  Specifying "application" type profile
   indicates the desire for the profile data (URI when content
   indirection is used) and change notification of the profile content
   for the user's applications.  Specifying "local" type profile
   indicates the desire for profiles data (URI when content indirection
   is used) specific to the local network.  The device, user,
   application or local network is identified in the URI of the
   SUBSCRIBE request.  A separate SUBSCRIBE dialog is used for each
   profile type.  The profile type associated with the dialog can then
   be used to infer which profile type changed and is contained in the
   NOTIFY or content indirection URI.  The Accept header of the



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   SUBSCRIBE request MUST include the MIME types for all profile content
   types for which the subscribing user agent wishes to retrieve
   profiles or receive change notifications.

   Profile-type       =  "profile-type" EQUAL profile-value
   profile-value      =  profile-types / token
   profile-types      =  "device" / "user" / "application" / "local"

      The "device", "user", "application" or "local" token in the
      profile-type parameter may represent a class or set of profile
      properties.  As standards are defined for specific profile
      contents related to the user, device or local network, it may be
      desirable to define additional tokens for the profile-type
      parameter.  Also additional content types may be defined along
      with the profile formats that can be used in the Accept header of
      the SUBSCRIBE to filter or indicate what data sets of the profile
      are desired.

   The rational for the separation of user, device, application and
   local network type profiles is provided in Section 2.3.  It should be
   noted that any of the types may result in zero or more profiles or
   URIs being provided in the NOTIFY request.  As discussed, a default
   user may be assigned to a device.  The default user's AOR, if defined
   in the device profile, may in turn be used as the URI to SUBSCRIBE to
   the "user" and "application" profile types.

   The data provided in the four types of profiles may overlap.  As an
   example the codecs that a user prefers to use, the codecs that the
   device supports (and the enterprise or device owner wishes to use),
   the codecs that the local network can support (and the network
   operator wishes to allow) all may overlap in how they are specified
   in the three corresponding profiles.  This policy of merging the
   constraints across the multiple profile types can only unambiguously
   be defined along with the profile format and syntax.  This is out of
   scope for this document.

   The "vendor", "model" and "version" parameter values are tokens
   specified by the implementer of the user agent.  These parameters
   MUST be provided in the SUBSCRIBE request for all profile types.  The
   implementer SHOULD use their DNS domain name (e.g.  example.com) as
   the value of the "vendor" parameter so that it is known to be unique.
   These parameters are useful to the profile delivery server to affect
   the profiles provided.  In some scenarios it is desirable to provide
   different profiles based upon these parameters.  For example feature
   property X in a profile may work differently on two versions of user
   agent.  This gives the profile delivery server the ability to
   compensate for or take advantage of the differences.




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   Vendor       =  "vendor" EQUAL token / quoted-string
   Model        =  "model" EQUAL token / quoted-string
   Version      =  "version" EQUAL token / quoted-string

   The "network-user" parameter MAY be used when subscribing for device
   and local network profiles.  When the profile-type is "device" or
   "local" , the SUBSCRIBE URI addresses the device or local network
   profile delivery server.  It by design cannot indicate the user's
   identity.  The "network-user" parameter is used to indicate the
   user's AOR.  The SUBSCRIBE server may authenticate the subscriber to
   verify this AOR.  If the value of the "profile-type" parameter is not
   "device" or "local", the "network-user" parameter has no defined
   meaning and is ignored.

   Network-User =  "network-user" EQUAL name-addr / addr-spec

   When the profile-type is "device", the user agent MAY set the
   "network-user" parameter to the user's AOR.  This is an indication to
   the profile delivery server to set or change the association of the
   default user with the device indicated in the SUBSCRIBE URI.  If the
   profile delivery server implements and allows this policy of setting
   the default user with a device, the user agent can utilize this
   mechanism to allow a user to login and make the user agent and user
   association permanent.

   In the case where the profile-type is "local", the user agent MAY set
   the "network-user" parameter.  If the user has special privileges
   beyond that of an anonymous user in the local network, the
   "network-user" parameter identifies the user to the local network.
   The value of this parameter is the user's address of record.

   The "effective-by" parameter in the Event header of the NOTIFY
   request specifies the maximum number of seconds before the user agent
   must attempt to make the new profile effective.  A value of 0 (zero)
   indicates that the subscribing user agent must attempt to make the
   profiles effective immediately (despite possible service
   interruptions).  This gives the profile delivery server the power to
   control when the profile is effective.  This may be important to
   resolve an emergency problem or disable a user agent immediately.
   The "effective-by" parameter is ignored in all messages other than
   the NOTIFY request.

   Effective-By =  "effective-by" EQUAL 1*DIGIT

   The "document" parameter is used to specify a relative URI for a
   specific profile document that the user agent wishes to retrieve and
   to receive change notification.  This is particularly useful for
   profile content like XCAP [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap] where there is a



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   well defined URI schema and the user agent knows the specific content
   that it wants.  This provides a filtering mechanism to restrict the
   content to be retrieved and for which change notification is to be
   received.  (The size of the content is important in limited bandwidth
   environments.)  The "document" parameter value syntax is a quoted
   string.  The values for the "document" parameter are defined as part
   of the profile data format, which is out of scope for this document.
   For more details on the use of this package with XCAP see Section
   4.6.  The "document" parameter MAY be set in SUBSCRIBE requests.  It
   is ignored in all other messages.

   Document     =  "document" EQUAL quoted-string

   The "app-id" parameter MAY be set when the "profile-type" parameter
   value is "application".  The "app-id" indicates that the user agent
   wishes to retrieve the profile data or URI and change notification
   for the application profile data for the specific application
   indicated in the value of the "app-id" parameter.  Like the
   "document" parameter, the "app-id" parameter provides a filtering
   mechanism on the profile content.  The "app-id" parameter value is a
   token.  The values for the app-id parameter are defined as part of
   the profile data format, which is out of scope for this document.
   The "app-id" parameter has meaning only in SUBSCRIBE requests when
   the "profile-type" Event header parameter is set to "application".
   The "app-id" parameter is ignored in all other messages.

   App-Id       =  "app-id" EQUAL token / quoted-string


   SUBSCRIBE request Event header examples:
   Event: sip-profile;profile-type=device;
               vendor=vendor.example.com;model=Z100;version=1.2.3

   Event: sip-profile;profile-type="user";
      document="user-aor/";
      vendor=premier;model=trs8000;version=5.5

   NOTIFY request Event header examples:
   Event: sip-profile;effective-by=0

   Event: sip-profile;effective-by=3600



3.3  SUBSCRIBE Bodies

   This package defines no new use of the SUBSCRIBE request body.
   Future follow on documents may specify a filter-like mechanism using



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   etags to minimize the delivery or notification of profiles where the
   user agent already has a current version.

3.4  Subscription Duration

   As the presence (or lack of) a device or user agent it not very time
   critical to the functionality of the profile delivery server, it is
   recommended that default subscription duration be 86400 seconds (one
   day).  A one time fetch of a profile can be accomplished by setting
   the Expires parameter to 0 as defined in [RFC3265] resulting in a
   single NOTIFY with no change notification.

3.5  NOTIFY Bodies

   The size of profile content is likely to be hundreds to several
   thousand of bytes in size.  For this reason if the Accept header of
   the SUBSCRIBE included the MIME type: message/external-body
   indicating support for content indirection the profile delivery
   server SHOULD use content indirection
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech] in the NOTIFY body for providing
   the profiles.

   When delivering profiles via content indirection the profile delivery
   server MUST include the Content-ID MIME header described in
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech] for each profile URI.  This is
   to avoid unnecessary download of the profiles.  Some user agents are
   not able to make a profile effective without rebooting or restarting.
   Rebooting is something to be avoided on a user agent performing
   services such as telephony.  In this way the Content-ID allows the
   user agent to avoid unnecessary interruption of service as well.  The
   Content-Type MUST be specified for each URI.  The profile delivery
   server MUST support the "http:" and "https:" schemes URI for content
   indirection.  Other URI schemes MAY also be provided in the content
   indirection.

      Initially user agent implementers may use a proprietary content
      type for the profiles retrieved from the URI(s).  This is a good
      first step towards easing the management of user agents.  Standard
      profile contents, content type and formats will need to be defined
      for true interoperability of profile delivery.  The specification
      of the content is out of the scope of this document.

   The URI scheme [RFC2396] used in content indirection may be dictated
   by the profile content that is required.  It is expected that FTP
   [RFC0959],  HTTP [RFC2616], HTTPS [RFC2818], LDAP [RFC3377], XCAP
   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap] and other URI schemes could be used by this
   package and framework if the subscribing user agent and profile
   delivery server both support the same scheme.  The negotiation of the



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   URI scheme is described in the following sections.

3.6  Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests

   The general rules for processing SUBSCRIBE requests [RFC3265] apply
   to this package.  If content indirection is used for delivering the
   profiles, the notifier does not need to authenticate the subscription
   as the profile content is not transported in the SUBSCRIBE or NOTIFY
   transaction messages.  With content indirection only URIs are
   transported in the NOTIFY request which may be secured using the
   techniques in Section 6.  If content indirection is not used, SIPS
   with SIP authentication SHOULD be used.  The subscriber MUST support
   the "http:" or "https:" URI scheme for content indirection.  If the
   subscriber wishes to use a URI scheme other than "http:", the
   subscriber must use the "schemes" Contact header field parameter to
   indicate the URI scheme as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech].  For example the subscriber may
   request that content indirection use the "ldaps:" URI scheme by
   including "ldaps" in the "scheme" Contact header parameter of the
   SUBSCRIBE request.  If the subscriber does not specify the URI
   scheme, the notifier may use either "http:" or "https:".

      The profile generation behavior of the profile delivery server is
      left to the implementer.  The profile delivery server may be as
      simple as a SIP SUBSCRIBE UAS and NOTIFY UAC front end to a simple
      HTTP server delivering static files that are hand edited.  At the
      other extreme the profile delivery server can be part of a
      configuration management system that integrates with a corporate
      directory and IT system or carrier operations support systems,
      where the profiles are automatically generated.  The design of
      this framework intentionally provides the flexibility of
      implementation from simple/cheap to complex/expensive.

   If the user or device is not known to the profile delivery server,
   the implementer MAY accept the subscription or reject it.  It is
   recommended that the implementer accept the subscription.  It is
   useful for the profile delivery server to maintain the subscription
   for unprovisioned users or devices as an administrator may add the
   user or device to the system after the initial subscription, defining
   the profile contents.  This allows the profile delivery server to
   immediately send a NOTIFY request with the profile URIs.  If the
   profile delivery server does not accept the subscription from an
   unknown user or device, the administer or user must manually provoke
   the user agent to resubscribe.  This may be difficult if the user
   agent and administrator are at different locations.

   A user agent can provide hotelling by collecting a user's AOR and
   credentials needed to SUBSCRIBE and retrieve the user's profiles.



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   Hotelling functionality is achieved by subscribing to the user's AOR
   and specifying the "user" profile type.  This same mechanism can also
   be used to secure a user agent, requiring a non-mobile user to login
   to enable functionality beyond the default user's restricted
   functionality.

   When the Event header "profile-type" is "device" and the user agent
   has provided the user's AOR in the "network-user" parameter, the
   profile delivery server MAY set or change the default user associated
   with the device indicated in the SUBSCRIBE URI.  This is an
   implementation or policy decision.  The profile delivery server
   SHOULD authenticate the user for the SUBSCRIBE request before
   effecting the default user associated with the device as indicated in
   the "network-user" parameter.

3.7  Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests

   As in [RFC3265], the profile delivery server MUST always send a
   NOTIFY request upon accepting a subscription.  If the device or user
   is unknown to the profile delivery server and it chooses to accept
   the subscription, the implementer has two choices.  A NOTIFY MAY be
   sent with no body or content indirection containing the profile
   URI(s).  Alternatively a NOTIFY MAY be sent with a body or content
   indirection containing URI(s) pointing to a default data set.  The
   data sets provided may allow for only limited functionality of the
   user agent (e.g.  a phone user agent with data to enable calls to
   help desk and emergency services.).  This is an implementation and
   business policy decision for the profile delivery server.

   If the URI in the SUBSCRIBE request is a known identity and
   provisioned with the requested profile type (i.e.  as specified in
   the profile-type parameter of the Event header), the profile delivery
   server SHOULD send a NOTIFY with profile data or content indirection
   (if the content indirection mime type was included in the Accept
   header) containing the URI for the profile.

   The profile delivery server may specify when the new profiles must be
   made effective by the user agent.  The profile delivery server MAY
   specify a maximum time in seconds (zero or more), in the
   "effective-by" event header parameter, by which the user agent is
   required to make the new profiles effective for all dialogs.

3.8  Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests

   The user agent subscribing to this event package MUST adhere to the
   NOTIFY request processing behavior specified in [RFC3265].  The user
   agent MUST attempt to make the profiles effective within the time in
   seconds given in the "effective-by" Event header parameter if present



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   in the NOTIFY request (see Section 3.7).  By default the user agent
   makes the profiles effective as soon as it thinks that it is
   non-obtrusive (e.g.  when there are no active calls).  Profile
   changes SHOULD affect behavior on all new dialogs which are created
   after the notification, but may not be able to affect existing
   dialogs.  The user agent SHOULD use one of the techniques specified
   in Section 6 to securely retrieve the profiles.  If the subscriber
   included the MIME type: message/external-body for content indirection
   in the SUBSCRIBE request Accept header, the subscriber MUST support
   the http: or https: URI schemes for content indirection.  If the
   subscriber indicated alternative URI schemes for content indirection
   it MUST also indicate support for http: or https:.  The subscriber
   should still be prepared to use http: or https: as the profile
   delivery server may not support the alternative URI schemes.

3.9  Handling of forked requests

   This event package allows the creation of only one dialog as a result
   of an initial SUBSCRIBE request.  The techniques to achieve this are
   described in section 4.4.9 of [RFC3265].

3.10  Rate of notifications

   It is anticipated that the rate of change for user and device
   profiles will be very infrequent (i.e.  days or weeks apart).  For
   this reason no throttling or minimum period between NOTIFY requests
   is specified for this package.

3.11  State Agents

   State agents are not applicable to this event package.

3.12  Examples

   Example SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY request using content indirection:
















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   SUBSCRIBE sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@acme.example.com SIP/2.0
   Event: sip-profile;profile-type=device;vendor=vendor.example.com;
                            model=Z100;version=1.2.3
   From: sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@acme.example.com;tag=1234
   To: sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@acme.example.com;tag=abcd
   Call-ID: 3573853342923422@10.1.1.44
   CSeq: 2131 SUBSCRIBE
   Contact: sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@10.1.1.44
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 10.1.1.41;
     branch=z9hG4bK6d6d35b6e2a203104d97211a3d18f57a
   Accept: message/external-body, application/z100-device-profile
   Content-Length: 0



   NOTIFY sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@10.1.1.44 SIP/2.0
   Event: sip-profile;effective-by=3600
   From: sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@acme.example.com;tag=abcd
   To: sip:MAC%3aFF00000036C5@acme.example.com;tag=1234
   Call-ID: 3573853342923422@10.1.1.44
   CSeq: 321 NOTIFY
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.168.0.3;
     branch=z9hG4bK1e3effada91dc37fd5a0c95cbf6767d1
   MIME-Version: 1.0
   Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary42
   Content-Length: ...

   --boundary42
   Content-Type: message/external-body;
       access-type="URL";
       expiration="Mon, 24 June 2002 09:00:00 GMT";
           URL="http://www.example.com/devices/ff00000036c5";
           size=1234

   Content-Type: application/z100-device-profile
   Content-ID: <39EHF78SA@example.com>

   --boundary42--


3.13  Use of URIs to Retrieve State

   The URI for the SUBSCRIBE request is formed differently depending
   upon which profile type the subscription is for.  This allows the
   different profile types to be potentially managed by different
   profile delivery servers (perhaps even operated by different
   entities).




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3.13.1  Device URIs

   The URI for the "device" type profile (device URI) is based upon the
   identity of the device.  The device URI MUST be unique across all
   devices and implementations.  If an instance id is used as the user
   part of the device URI, it SHOULD remain the same for the lifetime of
   the user agent.  The device URI is used to identify which profile is
   associated with a specific instance of a user agent.

      If the user agent changed its device URI, the profile delivery
      server would not know the association between the profile and the
      device.  This would also make it difficult for the profile
      delivery server to track user agents under profile management.
      The profile delivery server may decide to provide the same device
      profile to all devices of the same vendor, model and version.
      However this is a implementation choice on the profile delivery
      server.  The subscribing device has no way of knowing whether the
      profiles for each device are different.  For this reason the
      device must always use a unique id in the device SUBSCRIBE request
      URI.  As an example the device profile for similar devices may
      differ with properties such as the default user.  This is how the
      bootstrapping mechanism works as described in Section 4.1.3.

   The URI for the device type profile MUST use a unique identifier as
   the user portion of the URI.  The host and port portion of the URI is
   set to that of the domain or address of the profile deliver server
   which manages that user agent.  A means of discovering the host and
   port portion is discussed in Section 4.1.  There is an administration
   aspect of the unique identifier, that makes it desirable for the id
   to be obtainable or predictable prior to installation of the device
   (hard or soft).  Also from a human factors perspective, ids that are
   easily distinguished and communicated will make the administrators
   job a little easier.  The MAC address or UUID SHOULD be used for
   constructing a unique identifier to be used in the user portion of
   the device URI.

   If the identifier is a MAC address, it MUST be formatted as the
   letters "MAC:" followed by a 12 digit hexadecimal representation of
   the MAC address.  The address can not include ":", whitespace, or
   other formatting.
      The MAC address of the device may be used if there will always be
      no more than one user agent using that MAC address over time (e.g.
      a dedicated telephone appliance).  The MAC address may not be used
      if more than one user agent instance exists or use the same MAC
      address (e.g.  multiple instances of a softphone may run on a
      general purpose computing device).  The advantage of the MAC
      address is that many vendors put bar codes on the device with the
      actual MAC address on it.  A bar code scanner is a convenient



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      means of collecting the instance id for input and provisioning on
      the profile delivery server.  If the MAC address is used, it is
      recommended that the MAC address is rendered in all upper case
      with no punctuation for consistency across implementations.  A
      prefix of "MAC:" should be added to the MAC address to form a
      proper URN [RFC2141].  For example a device managed by
      sipuaconfig.example.com using its MAC address to form the device
      URI might look like:
      sip:MAC%3a00DF1E004CD0@sipuaconfig.example.com.


          UHEX  =  DIGIT / %x41-46 ;uppercase A-F
          MAC  =  %x4d.41.43 ; MAC in caps
          RANDID  = %x52.41.4e.44.49.44 ; RANDID in caps
          uniq-ident = ( mac-ident / rand-ident )
          mac-ident = MAC "-" 12UHEX

   When the MAC address is not used in the device URI, UUID SHOULD be
   used.

      For devices where there is no MAC address or the MAC address is
      not unique to an instance of a user agent (e.g.  multiple
      softphones on a computer or a gateway with multiple logical user
      agents) it is recommended that a UUID  is used as the user portion
      of the device URI.  The same approach to defining a user agent
      instance ID as [I-D.ietf-sip-gruu] should be used.  When
      constructing the instance id the implementer should also consider
      that a human may need to manually enter the instance id to
      provision the device in the profile delivery server (i.e.  longer
      strings are more error prone in data entry).  When the URN is used
      as the user part of URI, it MUST be URL escaped.  The ":" is not a
      legal character (without being escaped) in the user part of a
      name-addr.  For example the instance ID:
      urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7ced-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6 would be escaped to
      look as follows in a URI:
      sip:urn%3auuid%3af81d4fae-7ced-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@example.com.
      Soft user agents are likely to need to use this approach due to
      the multi-user nature of general purpose computers.  The software
      installer program might generate the uuid as part of the install
      process so that it remains persistent for the installation.  It
      may also be desirable that any upgrades of the software maintain
      the unique id.  However these are all implementation choices.

3.13.2  User and Application URIs

   The URI for the "user" and "application" type profiles is based upon
   the identity of the user.  The user's address of record (AOR) is used
   as the URI in the SUBSCRIBE request.  A new user agent or device may



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   not know the user's AOR.  The user's AOR may be obtained as part of a
   default user property in the device profile.  Alternatively the user
   agent may prompt the user for an AOR and credentials to be used to
   authenticate the request.  This can provide a login and/or hotelling
   feature on the user agent.  The user agent may be pre-provisioned
   with the user's AOR or provided as information on a SIM or flash key.
   These are only examples not an exhaustive list of sources for the
   user AOR.

3.13.3  Local Network URIs

   The URI for the "local" type profile is based upon the identity of
   the local network.  When subscribing to the local network profile,
   the user part of the URI is "anonymous".  The host and port part of
   the URI is the local network name/domain.  The discovery of the local
   network name or domain is discussed in Section 4.1.  The user agent
   may provide the user's AOR as the value to the "network-user" event
   header parameter.  This is useful if the user has privileges in the
   local network beyond those of the default user.  The profile delivery
   server SHOULD authenticate the user before providing the profile if
   additional privileges are granted.  Example URI:
   sip:anonymous@example.com

4.  Profile Delivery Framework Details

   The following describes how different functional steps of the profile
   delivery framework work.  Also described here is how the event
   package defined in this document provides the enrollment and
   notification functions within the framework.

4.1  Discovery of Subscription URI

   The discovery approach varies depending upon which profile type URI
   is to be discovered.  The order of discovery is important in the boot
   strapping situation as the user agent may not have any information
   provisioned.  The local network profile should be discovered first as
   it may contain key information such as how to traverse a NAT/firewall
   to get to outside services (e.g.  the user's profile delivery
   server).  The device profile URI should be discovered next.  The
   device profile may contain the default user's AOR or firmware/
   software information that should be updated first before proceeding
   with the discovery process.  The user and application profile
   subscription URIs should be discovered last.  The URIs are formed
   differently for each of the profile types.  This is to support the
   delegation of the profile management to potentially four different
   entities.  However all four profile types may be provided by the same
   entity.  As the user agent has no way of knowing whether the profiles
   are provide by one or more different profile delivery servers ahead



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   of time, it must subscribe to all four profile types in separate
   SUBSCRIBE requests to get the profiles.

4.1.1  Discovery of Local Network URI

   The "discovered" host for the "local" profile subscription URI is the
   local IP network domain for the user agent, either provisioned as
   part of the device's static network configuration or discovered via
   DHCP.  The local network profile subscription URI SHOULD not be
   cached if the user agent moves from one local network to another
   other.  The user agent should perform the local network discovery
   every time it starts up or network connectivity is regained.

      For example: The user agent requested and received the local
      domain name via DHCP: airport.example.net.  The local network
      profile SUBSCRIBE request URI would look like:
      sip:anonymous@airport.example.net.  The user agent should send
      this request using the normal SIP locating mechanisms defined in
      [RFC3263].  The Event header would look like the following if the
      user agent decided to provide the user's AOR:
      sip:alice@example.com as Alice may have a prior arrangement with
      the local network operator giving her special policy privileges:

   Event: sip-profile;profile-type=local;
      network-user="sip:alice@example.com"


4.1.2  Discovery of Device URI

   The discovery function is needed to bootstrap user agents to the
   point of knowing where to enroll with the profile delivery server.
   Section 3.13.1 describes how to form the user part of the device
   profile SUBSCRIBE request URI used for enrollment.  However the
   bootstrapping problem for the user agent (out of the box) is what to
   use for the host and port in the device URI.  Due to the wide
   variation of environments in which the enrolling user agent may
   reside (e.g.  behind residential router, enterprise LAN, WLAN
   hotspot, ISP, dialup modem) and the limited control that the
   administrator of the profile delivery server (e.g.  enterprise,
   service provider) may have over that environment, no single discovery
   mechanism works everywhere.

   Therefore a number of mechanisms should be tried in the specified
   order: SIP DHCP option [RFC3361], SIP DNS SRV [RFC3263], DNS A record
   and manual.  The user agent may be pre-provisioned with the host and
   port (e.g.  service providers may pre-provision a device before
   sending it to a subscriber, provide a SIM or flash key, etc.) in
   which case this discovery mechanism is not needed.  Before performing



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   the discovery steps, the user agent should provide a means to skip
   the discovery stage and manually enter the device URI host and port.
   In addition the user agent should allow the user to accept or reject
   the discovered host and port, in case an alternate to the discovered
   host and port are desired.

   1.  The first discovery mechanism that should be tried to construct
       the device SUBSCRIBE request URI, as described in Section 3.13.1,
       is to use the host and port of the out bound proxy discovered by
       the SIP DHCP option as described in [RFC3361].  If the SIP DHCP
       option is not provided in the DHCP response; or no SIP response
       is received for the SUBSCRIBE request; or a SIP failure response
       other than for authorization is received for the SUBSCRIBE
       request to the sip-profile event, the next discovery mechanism
       should be tried.

          For example: Consider a dedicated hardware device with a
          single user agent having the MAC address: abc123efd456.  The
          user agent sends a DHCP request including the request for the
          DHCP option for SIP: 120 (see [RFC3361]).  If the DHCP
          response includes an answer for option 120, then the DNS name
          or IP address included is used in the host part of the device
          URI.  For this example let's assume: example.com.  The device
          URI would look like: sip:MAC%3aABC123EFD456@example.com.  The
          user agent should send this request using the normal SIP
          locating mechanisms defined in [RFC3263].  If the response
          fails then, the next discovery mechanism is tried.

   2.  The local IP network domain for the user agent, either configured
       or discovered via DHCP, should be used with the technique in
       [RFC3263] to obtain a host and port to use in the SUBSCRIBE URI.
       If no SIP response or a SIP failure response other than for
       authorization is received for the SUBSCRIBE request to the
       sip-profile event, the next discovery mechanism should be tried.

          For example: The user agent requested and received the local
          domain name (option 15) in the DHCP response:
          boston.example.com.  The device URI would look like:
          sip:MAC%3aABC123EFD456@boston.example.com.  The user agent
          should send this request using the normal SIP locating
          mechanisms defined in [RFC3263].  If the response fails then,
          the next discovery mechanism is tried.

   3.  The fully qualified host name constructed using the host name
       "sipuaconfig" and concatenated with the local IP network domain
       (as provided via DHCP or provisioned) should be tried next using
       the technique in [RFC3263] to obtain a host and port to use in
       the SUBSCRIBE URI.  If no SIP response or a SIP failure response



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       other than for authorization is received for the SUBSCRIBE
       request to the sip-profile event, the next discovery mechanism
       should be tried.

          For example: The user agent requested and received the local
          domain name via DHCP as in the above example:
          boston.example.com.  The device URI would look like:
          sip:MAC%3aABC123EFD456@sipuaconfig.boston.example.com.  The
          user agent should send this request using the normal SIP
          locating mechanisms defined in [RFC3263].  If the response
          fails then, the next discovery mechanism is tried.

   4.  If all other discovery techniques fail, the user agent MUST
       provide a manual means for the user to enter the host and port
       used to construct the SUBSCRIBE request URI.

   Two approaches to the manual discovery process are suggested.  In the
   first approach using SIP, the user agent provides a means for
   entering the subscription host and port information for the request
   URI along with the user id and password to be used for authentication
   of the SUBSCRIBE request.  With this approach the user agent begins
   with the enrollment process followed by the change notification and
   profile retrieve steps.

   An alternative to the manual discovery using SIP, is to start with
   the retrieve process.  The user agent provides a means of entering a
   HTTPS URI along with the user id and password to be used for
   authentication of the retrieval of the profile.  The retrieved device
   profile may contain the properties for the SUBSCRIBE request URI and
   credentials to enroll and get change notification of profile changes.
   This approach bootstraps the process in a different step in the
   cycle, but uses the same profile framework.

   Once a user agent has successfully discovered, enrolled and received
   a NOTIFY response with profile data or URI(s), the user agent should
   cache the device profile SUBSCRIBE request URI to avoid having to
   rediscover the profile delivery server again in the future.  Caching
   of the device URI is necessary when the user agent is likely to move
   to different local network domains as the local network may not be
   the provider for the device's profile.  The user agent should not
   cache the device URI until it receives a NOTIFY with profile data or
   URI(s).  The reason for this is that a profile delivery server may
   send 202 responses to SUBSCRIBE requests and NOTIFY responses to
   unknown user agent (see Section 3.6) with no profile data or URIs.
   Until the profile delivery server has sent a NOTIFY request with
   profile data or URI(s), it has not agreed to provide profiles.





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      To illustrate why the user agent should not cache the device
      profile SUBSCRIBE URI until profile data or URI(s) are provided in
      the NOTIFY, consider the following example:  a user agent running
      on a laptop plugged into a visited LAN in which a foreign profile
      delivery server is discovered.  The profile delivery server never
      provides profile URIs in the NOTIFY request as it is not
      provisioned to accept the user agent.  The user then takes the
      laptop to their enterprise LAN.  If the user agent cached the
      SUBSCRIBE URI from the visited LAN (which did not provide
      profiles), when subsequently placed in the enterprise LAN which is
      provisioned to provide profiles to the user agent, the user agent
      would not attempt to discover the profile delivery server.

4.1.3  Discovery of User and Application URI

   The default user's AOR from the device profile (if provided) may then
   be used to subscribe to the "user" and "application" profiles.  The
   user's AOR may be preprovisioned or provided via SIM or flash key,
   etc.  Alternatively the user's AOR to be used for the "user" and
   "application" subscription URI, may be "discovered" manually by
   prompting the user.  This "discovered" URI for the user and
   application profile subscription may be cached.

4.2  Enrollment with Profile Server

   Enrollment is accomplished by subscribing to the event package
   described in Section 3.  The enrollment process is useful to the
   profile delivery server as it makes the server aware of user agents
   to which it may deliver profiles (those user agents the profile
   delivery server is provisioned to provide profiles to; those present
   to which the server may provide profiles in the future; and those
   that the server can automatically provide default profiles).  It is
   an implementation choice and business policy as to whether the
   profile delivery server provides profiles to user agents that it is
   not explicitly provisioned to do so.  However the profile delivery
   server SHOULD accept (with 2xx response) SUBSCRIBE requests from any
   user agent as explained in Section 3.5.

4.3  Notification of Profile Changes

   The NOTIFY request in the sip-profile event package serves two
   purposes.  First it provides the user agent with a means to obtain
   the profile data directly or via URI(s) for desired profiles without
   requiring the end user to manually enter them.  It also provides the
   means for the profile delivery server to notify the user agent that
   the content of the profiles has changed and should be made effective.
   Optionally the differential changes may be obtained by notification
   by including the content-type: "application/xcap-diff+xml" defined in



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   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-package] in the Accept header of the SUBSCRIBE
   request.

4.4  Retrieval of Profile Data

   The user agent retrieves its needed profile(s) directly or via the
   URI(s) provided in the NOTIFY request as specified in Section 3.5.
   The profile delivery server SHOULD secure the content of the profiles
   using one of the techniques described in Section 6.  The user agent
   SHOULD make the new profiles effective in the timeframe described in
   Section 3.2.

   The contents of the profiles SHOULD be cached by the user agent.  The
   cache should be used if the user agent is unable to successfully
   SUBSCRIBE or receive the NOTIFY providing the most recent profile.
   This it to avoid the situation where the content delivery server is
   not available, leaving the user agent non-functional.  The user agent
   should verify that it has the latest profile content using the "hash"
   parameter defined in [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech].

4.5  Upload of Profile Changes

   The user agent or other service MAY push changes up to the profile
   delivery server using the technique appropriate to the profile's URL
   scheme (e.g.  HTTP PUT method, FTP put command).  The technique for
   pushing incremental or atomic changes MUST be described by the
   specific profile data framework.  A means for pushing changes up into
   the profile delivery server for XCAP is defined in
   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap].

4.6  Usage of XCAP with the Profile Package

   This framework allows for the usage of several different protocols
   for the retrieval of profiles.  One protocol which is suitable is
   XCAP [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap], which allows for HTTP URIs to represent
   XML documents, elements and attributes.  XCAP defines a specific
   hierarchy for how documents are organized.  As a result, it is
   necessary to discuss how that organization relates to the rough data
   model presented here.

   When a user or device enrolls with a SUBSCRIBE request, the request
   URI will contain some kind of identifying information for that user
   or device.  This identity is mapped to an XCAP User ID (XUID) based
   on an implementation specific mapping.  The "profile-type" along with
   the "app-id" Event header parameters specify the specific XCAP
   application usage.

   In particular, when the Event header parameter "profile-type" is



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   "application", the "app-id" MAY be included to contain the XCAP
   Application Unique ID (AUID).  When the "profile-type" is
   "application", but the "app-id" parameter is absent, this specifies
   that the user wishes to SUBSCRIBE to all documents for all
   application usages associated with the user in the request-uri.  This
   provides a convenient way for a single subscription to be used to
   obtain all application data.  The XCAP root is determined by a local
   mapping.

   When the "profile-type" is "device", or "user" or "local", this maps
   to an AUID and document selector for representing device, user and
   local-network data, respectively.  The mapping is a matter of local
   policy.  This allows different providers to use different XCAP
   application usages and document schemas for representing these
   profiles, without having to configure the device with the specific
   AUID which is being used.

   Furthermore, when the "document" attribute is present, it identifies
   a specific document that is being requested.  If the "profile-type"
   is "application", the "app-id" MAY be present as well if the
   "document" relative path does not indicate the specific application
   profile.  The "document" attribute then specifies a relative path
   reference.  Its first path segment is either "global", specifying
   global data, or "user", specifying user data for the user in the
   request URI.  The next path segment identifies the path in the global
   directory or the user's home directory.  For "profile-type"
   "application", if "app-id" is not present the next path segment (i.e.
   after "global" or the user's home directory segment) MAY indicate the
   XCAP Application Unique ID (AUID) if the user agent wishes to
   subscribe to a specific application profile.

   For example, consider a phone with an instance ID of
   urn:uuid:00000000-0000-0000-0000-0003968cf920.  To obtain its device
   profile, it would generate a SUBSCRIBE that contain the following
   Request-Line and Event header:  (Note that line folding of the
   Request-URI is illegal in SIP.  The Request URI is shown broken
   across the first 3-line here only due to formatting limitations of
   IETF documents.)


   SUBSCRIBE
    sip:urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-0000-0000-0003968cf920@example.com
    SIP/2.0
   Event: sip-profile;profile-type=device

   If the profile data is stored in an XCAP server, the server would map
   the "device" profile to an application usage and document selector
   based on local policy.  If this mapping specifies the AUID



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   "vendor2-device-data" and a document called "index" within the user
   directory, the corresponding HTTP URI for the document is: (Note that
   this URL is only one line; it is split across two lines due to
   formatting limitations of IETF documents.)


   http://xcap.example.com/root/vendor2-device-data/users/
   urn%3auuid%3a00000000-0000-0000-0000-0003968cf920/index

   and indeed, if a content indirection is returned in a NOTIFY, the URL
   would equal this.

   That user profile might specify the user identity (as a SIP AOR) and
   their application-usages.  From that, the device can enroll to learn
   about its application data.  To learn about all of the data:


   SUBSCRIBE sip:alice@example.com SIP/2.0
   Event: sip-profile;profile-type=application

   The server would map the request URI to an XUI (user-aor, for
   example) and the xcap root based on local policy.  If there are two
   AUIDs, "resource-lists" [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-list-usage] and
   "rls-services" [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-list-usage], this would result
   in a subscription to all documents within:


   http://xcap.example.com/root/rls-services/users/user-aor
   http://xcap.example.com/root/resource-lists/users/user-aor

   The user would not be subscribed to the global data for these two
   application usages, since that data is not important for users.

   However, the user/device could be made aware that it needs to
   subscribe to a specific document.  In that case, its subscribe would
   look like:


   SUBSCRIBE sip:user-aor@example.com SIP/2.0
   Event: sip-profile;profile-type=application;app-id=resource-lists
     ;document="global/index"

   this would result in a subscription to the single global document for
   resource-lists.

   In some cases, these subscriptions are to a multiplicity of
   documents.  In that case, the notification format will need to be one
   which can indicate what document has changed.  This includes content



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   indirection, but also the xcap diff format
   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-package].

5.  IANA Considerations

   There are several IANA considerations associated with this
   specification.

5.1  SIP Event Package

   This specification registers a new event package as defined in
   [RFC3265].  The following information required for this registration:
      Package Name: sip-profile
      Package or Template-Package: This is a package
      Published Document: RFC XXXX (Note to RFC Editor: Please fill in
      XXXX with the RFC number of this specification).
      Person to Contact: Daniel Petrie dpetrie AT pingtel.com
      New event header parameters: profile-type, vendor, model, version,
      effective-by, document, app-id, network-user

6.  Security Considerations

   Profiles may contain sensitive data such as user credentials and
   personal information.  The protection of this data depends upon how
   the data is delivered.  Some profiles may be safe to deliver without
   the need to protect the content.  For example in some environments
   the local network profile may contain the list of codecs that are
   acceptable for use in the network and information on NAT traversal
   such as a STUN server to use.  As the information in this example
   local network profile does not contain passwords or sensitive
   information it may be acceptable to provide it without authentication
   or confidentiality (encryption).  We refer to these as
   non-confidential profiles.  Non-confidential profiles require message
   integrity and profile server authentication, as described in Section
   6.3.  However any profiles that contain personal information,
   passwords or credentials (confidential profiles) require mutual
   authentication, confidentiality, and message integrity, and must
   follow the guidance provided in the next two subsections.  Profile
   specifications that define schemas MUST identify if they contain
   confidential data to indicate which of the security approaches
   describer here should be used.

   The profile data is delivered in either the NOTIFY request or via the
   URI scheme indicated in the content indirection in the NOTIFY
   request.  The security approach is different for these two delivery
   mechanisms.

   Subscribers implementing this specification MUST implement either



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   HTTP or HTTPS.  Subscribers also MUST implement the hash verification
   scheme described in SIP content indirection
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech].  SIP profile delivery servers
   MUST implement both HTTP and HTTPS, and SHOULD implement a SIP
   Authentication Service as described in the SIP Identity mechanism
   [I-D.ietf-sip-identity].  All SIP entities are already required to
   implement SIP Digest authentication [RFC3261].

6.1  Confidential Profile Content in NOTIFY Request

   When the profile data is delivered directly in the NOTIFY request,
   the SUBSCRIBE request MUST be authenticated (for example, using the
   SIP Digest authentication mechanism).  As the profile content is
   delivered in the resulting NOTIFY request to the subscription,
   authenticating the SUBSCRIBE is the only way to prevent unauthorized
   access to the profile data.  To provide message integrity and
   confidentiality over the profile data, a direct TLS connection
   established with the SUBSCRIBE request or S/MIME MUST be used for the
   NOTIFY request containing the profile data.  The profile data in the
   S/MIME body should be encrypted using the public key for the user or
   device subscribing to the profile data.  For user, application and
   local network profiles the user public key is used.  For device
   profiles the device public key is used.

6.2  Confidential Profile Content via Content Indirection

   When the profile data is delivered via content indirection, SIP
   integrity protection (a direct TLS connection established by the user
   agent for the SUBSCRIBE request, S/MIME  or [I-D.ietf-sip-identity])
   MUST be used to protect the integrity of any content indirection body
   provided in a SIP NOTIFY request.  In addition, the indirect profile
   transport mechanism also requires security protection.  A
   non-replayable authentication mechanism such as Digest authentication
   MUST be used for the content indirection URI scheme which provides
   the profile data (e.g.  LDAP, HTTP and HTTPS all support Digest
   authentication).  URI schemes which provide no authentication or only
   clear-text authentication SHOULD NOT be used for profile delivery as
   they are vulnerable to replay attacks (e.g.  TFTP does not provide
   authentication).
      Without a suitable authentication mechanism, the content
      indirection profile delivery URI scheme is susceptible to replay
      attacks.  Even if the profile is symmetrically encrypted, if it
      can be retrieved through a replay attack, the encrypted profile
      can be used for offline attacks to crack the encryption key.

   The profile delivery scheme MUST use channel security such as TLS
   (e.g.  HTTPS) to protect the content from being snooped in transport
   to the user agent.  Mutual authentication using the client and server



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   certificates MAY be used to verify the authenticity of the user or
   device identity and the profile delivery server identity.  The user
   agent SHOULD provide a mechanism for the user to approve the profile
   delivery server identity or provision the acceptable server
   identity(s) through out of band means.  Other transport schemes which
   do not support TLS MAY be used if communications channel for profile
   transport is known to be secured (e.g.  VPN or IPsec type
   mechanisms).

6.3  Integrity protection for non-confidential profiles

   Even for non-confidential profiles, the subscriber MUST verify the
   authenticity of the profile delivery server, and MUST verify that the
   integrity of the profile data and content indirection URI, if one is
   provided.  To meet these requirements in the SIP messaging the NOTIFY
   request MUST use a SIP Identity header [I-D.ietf-sip-identity], or S/
   MIME.  If content is provided via redirection, the content
   indirection "hash" parameter MUST be included unless the profile data
   is delivered via a protocol which natively provides authentication
   and message integrity, such as HTTP or LDAP protected by TLS.  The
   content retrieved via the content indirection URI MUST be integrity
   checked using the "hash" parameter.

   For example, Alice subscribes to the local domain profile for
   paris.example.com.  She receives the following NOTIFY request which
   uses content indirection, including a "hash" parameter.  Alice uses
   the Identity header from the NOTIFY to verify that the request came
   from paris.example.com and that the body was not modified.  Then she
   fetches the content at the provided URI and verifies that the hash
   she calculates from the profile matches the hash provided in the SIP
   signaling.

7.  Acknowledgements

   Many thanks to those who contributed and commented on the many
   iterations of this document.  Detailed input was provided by Jonathan
   Rosenberg from Cisco, Henning Schulzrinne from Columbia University,
   Cullen Jennings from Cisco, Rohan Mahy from Airespace, Rich Schaaf
   from Pingtel, Volker Hilt from Bell Labs, Hisham Khartabil from
   Telio, Henry Sinnreich from MCI, Martin Dolly from AT&T Labs, John
   Elwell from Siemens, Elliot Eichen and Robert Liao from Verizon.

8.  Change History

   [[RFC Editor:  Please remove this entire section upon publication as
   an RFC.]]





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8.1  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-05.txt

      Made HTTP and HTTPS profile transport schemes mandatory in the
      profile delivery server.  The subscribing device must implement
      HTTP or HTTPS as the profile transport scheme.
      Rewrote the security considerations section.
      Divided references into Normative and Informative.
      Minor edits through out.

8.2  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-04.txt

      Clarified usage of instance-id
      Specify which event header parameters are mandatory or optional
      and in which messages.
      Included complete list of event header parameters in parameter
      overview and IANA sections.
      Removed TFTP reference as protocol for profile transport.
      Added examples for discovery.
      Added ABNF for all event header parameters.
      Changed profile-name parameter back to profile-type.  This was
      changed profile-name in 02 when the parameter could contain either
      a token or a path.  Now that the path is contained in the separate
      parameter: "document", profile-type make more sense as the
      parameter name.
      Fixed some statements that should have and should not have been
      normative.
      Added the ability for the user agent to request that the default
      user associated with the device be set/changed using the
      "network-user" parameter.
      A bunch of editorial nits and fixes.

8.3  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-03.txt

   Incorporated changes to better support the requirements for the use
   of this event package with XCAP and SIMPLE so that we can have one
   package (i.e.  simple-xcap-package now defines a content type not a
   package).  Added an additional profile type: "application".  Added
   document and app-id Event header parameters in support of the
   application profile.  Define a loose high level data model or
   relationship between the four profile types.  Tried to edit and fix
   the confusing and ambiguous sections related to URI formation and
   discovery for the different profile types.  Better describe the
   importance of uniqueness for the instance id which is used in the
   user part of the device URI.

8.4  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-02.txt

   Added the concept of the local network as a source of profile data.



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   There are now three separate logical sources for profile data: user,
   device and local network.  Each of these requires a separate
   subscription to obtain.

8.5  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-01.txt

   Changed the name of the profile-type event parameter to profile-name.
   Also allow the profile-name parameter to be either a token or an
   explicit URI.

   Allow content indirection to be optional.  Clarified the use of the
   Accept header to indicate how the profile is to be delivered.

   Added some content to the Iana section.

8.6  Changes from draft-ietf-sipping-config-framework-00.txt

   This version of the document was entirely restructured and re-written
   from the previous version as it had been micro edited too much.

   All of the aspects of defining the event package are now organized in
   one section and is believed to be complete and up to date with
   [RFC3265].

   The URI used to subscribe to the event package is now either the user
   or device address or record.

   The user agent information (vendor, model, MAC and serial number) are
   now provided as event header parameters.

   Added a mechanism to force profile changes to be make effective by
   the user agent in a specified maximum period of time.

   Changed the name of the event package from sip-config to sip-profile

   Three high level security approaches are now specified.

8.7  Changes from draft-petrie-sipping-config-framework-00.txt

   Changed name to reflect SIPPING work group item

   Synchronized with changes to SIP DHCP [RFC3361], SIP [RFC3261] and
   [RFC3263], SIP Events [RFC3265] and content indirection
   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech]

   Moved the device identity parameters from the From field parameters
   to User-Agent header parameters.




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   Many thanks to Rich Schaaf of Pingtel, Cullen Jennings of Cisco and
   Adam Roach of Dyamicsoft for the great comments and input.

8.8  Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-01.txt

   Changed the name as this belongs in the SIPPING work group.

   Minor edits

8.9  Changes from draft-petrie-sip-config-framework-00.txt

   Split the enrollment into a single SUBSCRIBE dialog for each profile.
   The 00 draft sent a single SUBSCRIBE listing all of the desired.
   These have been split so that each enrollment can be routed
   differently.  As there is a concept of device specific and user
   specific profiles, these may also be managed on separate servers.
   For instance in a roaming situation the device might get its profile
   data from a local server which knows the LAN specific profile data.
   At the same time the user specific profiles might come from the
   user's home environment profile delivery server.

   Removed the Config-Expires header as it is largely superfluous with
   the SUBSCRIBE Expires header.

   Eliminated some of the complexity in the discovery mechanism.

   Suggest caching information discovered about a profile delivery
   server to avoid an avalanche problem when a whole building full of
   devices powers up.

   Added the User-Profile From header field parameter so that the device
   can request a user specific profile for a user that is different from
   the device's default user.

9.  References

9.1  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech]
              Burger, E., "A Mechanism for Content Indirection in
              Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)  Messages",
              draft-ietf-sip-content-indirect-mech-05 (work in
              progress), October 2004.

   [I-D.ietf-sip-identity]
              Peterson, J., "Enhancements for Authenticated Identity
              Management in the Session Initiation  Protocol (SIP)",
              draft-ietf-sip-identity-04 (work in progress), February



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              2005.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2132]  Alexander, S. and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
              Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.

   [RFC2246]  Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0",
              RFC 2246, January 1999.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P. and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2617]  Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
              Leach, P., Luotonen, A. and L. Stewart, "HTTP
              Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
              RFC 2617, June 1999.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M. and E. Schooler,
              "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263, June
              2002.

   [RFC3265]  Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific
              Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [RFC3361]  Schulzrinne, H., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              (DHCP-for-IPv4) Option for Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) Servers", RFC 3361, August 2002.

9.2  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap]
              Rosenberg, J., "The Extensible Markup Language (XML)
              Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP)",
              draft-ietf-simple-xcap-06 (work in progress), February
              2005.

   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-list-usage]
              Rosenberg, J., "Extensible Markup Language (XML) Formats
              for Representing Resource Lists",



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              draft-ietf-simple-xcap-list-usage-05 (work in progress),
              February 2005.

   [I-D.ietf-simple-xcap-package]
              Rosenberg, J., "An Extensible Markup Language (XML)
              Document Format for Indicating Changes  in XML
              Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP) Resources",
              draft-ietf-simple-xcap-package-03 (work in progress),
              January 2005.

   [I-D.ietf-sip-gruu]
              Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User
              Agent (UA) URIs (GRUU) in the  Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP)", draft-ietf-sip-gruu-02 (work in progress), July
              2004.

   [I-D.ietf-sipping-ua-prof-framewk-reqs]
              Petrie, D. and C. Jennings, "Requirements for SIP User
              Agent Profile Delivery Framework",
              draft-ietf-sipping-ua-prof-framewk-reqs-00 (work in
              progress), March 2003.

   [I-D.petrie-sipping-profile-datasets]
              Petrie, D., "A Schema for Session Initiation Protocol User
              Agent Profile Data Sets",
              draft-petrie-sipping-profile-datasets-00 (work in
              progress), July 2004.

   [I-D.sinnreich-sipdev-req]
              Butcher, I., Lass, S., Petrie, D., Sinnreich, H. and C.
              Stredicke, "SIP Telephony Device Requirements and
              Configuration", draft-sinnreich-sipdev-req-05 (work in
              progress), January 2005.

   [RFC0822]  Crocker, D., "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet
              text messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol", STD
              9, RFC 959, October 1985.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC
              2131, March 1997.

   [RFC2141]  Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.

   [RFC2396]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396,
              August 1998.



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   [RFC3377]  Hodges, J. and R. Morgan, "Lightweight Directory Access
              Protocol (v3): Technical Specification", RFC 3377,
              September 2002.

   [W3C.REC-xml-names11-20040204]
              Tobin, R., Hollander, D., Layman, A. and T. Bray,
              "Namespaces in XML 1.1", W3C REC REC-xml-names11-20040204,
              February 2004.


Author's Address

   Daniel Petrie
   Pingtel Corp.
   400 W. Cummings Park
   Suite 2200
   Woburn, MA  01801
   US

   Phone: "Dan Petrie (+1 617 835 1379)"<sip:dpetrie AT pingtel.com>
   EMail: dpetrie AT pingtel.com
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Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
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