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Internet Draft                                                Jim Schaad
November 19, 2000
Expires in six months

                  Certificate Distribution Specification
                     draft-ietf-smime-certdist-05.txt

Status of this memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
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Abstract

   Current methods of publishing certificates in directory services are
   restricted to just certificates.  This document provides a method of
   publishing certificates with secondary support information such as
   the SMimeCapabilities attribute (containing bulk algorithm support)
   in a way that is both authenticated and bound to a given
   certificate.

   This draft is being discussed on the "ietf-smime" mailing list.  To
   join the list, send a message to <ietf-smime-request@imc.org> with
   the single word "subscribe" in the body of the message.  Also, there
   is a Web site for the mailing list at <http://www.imc.org/ietf-
   smime>.

1. Introduction

   This document discusses a new method of publishing certificates in a
   directory to provide authenticated attributes as part of the
   certificate publishing process.  This allows for the addition of
   information such as the SMimeCapabilities attribute from [SMIME]
   which contains information about the bulk encryption algorithms
   supported by the End-Entity's cryptography module.

   Section 2 discusses the current set of publishing methods available
   for use, along with the benefits and restrictions of each method.

Schaad                                                               1
CertDist                                                      May 2000

   Section 3 covers the definition and properties of a
   SMimeCertificatePublish object.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
   NOT","SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.



2. Current Publishing Methods

   There are several different ways to publish certificate information.
   These methods include the userCertificate property in LDAP
   directories, sending signed objects between users, and transport of
   certificate files (either bare or as CMS degenerate signed objects).
   Each of these methods has benefits and drawbacks.  Each of these
   methods will now be briefly discussed.

   Public Directory

   A public directory may be used to distribute certificates.  LDAP
   currently has the userCertificate property defined just for that
   purpose.  The benefits of using a public directory are that a sender
   may create an encrypted object for a recipient without first
   receiving information (such as a signed message) from the recipient.
   However the use of directories has two drawbacks:  First, the set of
   bulk algorithms supported by the recipient is unknown.  Second, the
   chain of certificates needed to validate the userÆs certificate
   needs to be found in another manner.

   Although there exists a property for listing bulk algorithms in the
   X.509 directory, it has no way of binding a list of algorithms to a
   single certificate.  It is possible that a certificate bound to a
   key located on a hardware device is limited to a small set of
   algorithms, while a certificate bound to a software implementation
   can have a greater set of algorithms associated with it.  The
   problem of determining what to publish is made all the harder
   because it is possible the intersection of the algorithms is empty.
   We therefore need to have a method that binds a specific list of
   algorithms to a specific certificate.

   Building the necessary chain of certificates is the other problem.
   While it is possible to do direct lookup using an X.500 directory,
   the same is not true of an LDAP directory especially if one is using
   cross-certificates to a different root.  While the problem is made
   somewhat easier by the Authority Information Access extension (it is
   possible to know where to look for the issuer certificate), it still
   requires multiple network accesses to build the certificate chain
   for what is relatively static information.  If we can include at
   least one common chain with the userÆs certificate this problem is
   simplified.


   Certificate Files

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   Using certificate files for certificate distribution has the benefit
   of already being in wide spread use. (They are commonly used for
   certificate distribution from Certificate Authorities either as part
   of the enrollment protocol or from web based repositories.) The
   degenerate CMS signed object form, certificate files may carry a set
   of certificates to allow a sender to validate the recipients
   certificates.  However, they suffer from two drawbacks.  First, as
   with the public directory, the additional information is not
   available as part of the certificate file.  Second, the certificate
   is obtained from either the recipient one is encrypting for or a
   third party (not a directory).

   Signed Objects

   Using signed objects for certificate distribution has the benefit of
   allowing additional information such as the SMimeCapabilities
   attribute to be carried as part of the package.  It also allows for
   the inclusion of additional certificates to be used in verifying the
   encryption certificate used to build an encrypted object. However,
   it has the drawback that the initialization process is done via a
   one-on-one process.

3. SMimeEncryptCerts

   When publishing one's own encryption certificates, it is often
   advisable to publish a wide selection of certificates to insure
   maximum interoperability.  This section describes an attribute that
   is used both to identify the set of encryption certificates and to
   establish the set of bulk encryption algorithms supported by each of
   the certificates.

   The SMimeEncryptCerts attribute is used to identify one's own
   encryption certificates to the other party.  This attribute is a
   sequence so that more than one encryption certificate can be
   identified in a single SignerInfo object.  Each certificate is then
   given a set of capabilities so senders can identify the correct
   certificate to use for specific capabilities.

   The structure and OID for the SMimeEncryptCerts attribute are:

     id-aa-smimeEncryptCerts OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
          member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
          smime(16) id-aa(2) 13 }

      SMimeEncryptCert ::= SEQUENCE {
           hash           Hash,
           capabilities   SMIMECapabilities
      }

      SMimeEncryptCerts ::= SEQUENCE OF SmimeEncryptCert

      Hash ::= OCTET STRING - SHA1 hash of the certificate

   When a certificate appears in an SMimeEncryptCerts attribute, the
   certificate MUST be available to the verifier in a well known
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   location.  For SignedData objects, this is the certificate bag in
   the object.  The order of certificates in the SMimeEncryptCerts
   attribute is the preferred order of use by the sender.

   If present, the SMimeEncryptCerts attribute MUST be an authenticated
   attribute; it MUST NOT be an unauthenticated attribute. CMS defines
   authenticatedAttributes as a SET OF AuthAttribute.  A SignerInfo
   MUST NOT include multiple instances of the SMimeEncryptCerts
   attribute. CMS defines the ASN.1 syntax for the authenticated
   attributes to include attrValues SET OF AttributeValue. A
   SMimeEncryptCerts attribute MUST only include a single instance of
   AttributeValue. There MUST be one instance of AttributeValue present
   in the attrValues SET OF AttributeValue.


4. SMimeCertificatePublish Object

   The structure of the SMimeCertificatePublish object is defined in
   this section.  This object has the benefit that it is published into
   a directory service (and thus is available to all parties) and it
   contains a signed object that allows it to carry the additional
   information desired to increase interoperability.

   This section describes the LDAP directory schema, the body content
   and additional restrictions on the attribute and signers of the
   SignedData object used in publishing the user's certificate.

   The ASN definition of a SMimeCertificatePublish object is the same a
   CMS signed object.

     SMimeCertificatePublish ::= ContentInfo

   Where the contentType is id-signed-data and the content is a
   SignedData content.

   A SMimeCertificatePublish object MAY contain multiple SignerInfo
   objects.  Each SignerInfo object is independent.  This document
   imposes no restrictions on attributes that appear in more that one
   SignerInfo object.

4.1 Signed Content

   The SMimeCertificatePublish object is explicitly designed to carry
   no body content.  All information is carried in the signed attribute
   section of the SignerInfo.

   The following object identifier is used to distinguish the content
   of a SMimeCertificatePublish:

     id-ct-publishCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=  { iso(1) member-body(2)
        us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) smime(16) id-ct(1)
        3)

   When creating a SMimeCertificatePublish object, the eContent of the
   Signed-Data object is omitted and the eContentType OID is set to id-
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   ct-publishCert.  Note this is different from an empty content, which
   would be represented as an octet string containing zero bytes.  The
   hash of the body (used in the id-message-digest attribute) is set to
   the initialization value of the hash function.  (This is expected to
   provide the same result as if you had hashed a body containing
   exactly 0 bytes.)

4.2 Signed Attributes

   The signed attributes section MUST be present in the SignerInfo
   object, and the following signed attributes MUST be present: The
   signing-time attribute (from [CMS]), the SMimeCapabilities and
   SMIMEEncryptionKeyPreference (from [SMIME]).

4.3 CertificateSet

   This draft imposes additional restrictions on the set of
   certificates to be included in the SignedData object beyond those
   specified in [CMS] and [SMIMECERT].  A chain of certificate from the
   end-entity certificate(s) to the root certificate(s) MUST be
   included in the CertificateSet. Unlike in S/MIME messages the root
   certificate MUST be included in the CertificateSet. The root
   certificate is included so that end-entities have a better chance of
   finding and independently verifying the trustworthiness of the root
   certificate based on its content.

   User agents MUST NOT automatically trust any root certificate found
   in a SMimeCertificatePublish object.


4.4 Signing Certificate

   The SMimeCertificatePublish object MUST be signed by a signing
   certificate associated with the end-entity, or a signing certificate
   of a CA in the validation path of the encryption certificate.

   Part of the process of extracting certificates involves comparing
   the certificate found to the address matching the directory look-up.
   The validation SHOULD match the address used to look up the
   certificate with one of the names found in the certificate.  Thus,
   if an RFC822 name was used to do the directory look-up, the RFC822
   name would be in the SubjectAltName extension on the certificate.

   The steps for extracting the encryption certificate from a
   SMimeCertificatePublish object are as follows:

   1. Verify that the SMimeCertificatePublish object contains a valid
      signature and the certificate used to sign the message can be
      validated.

   2. Does the certificate used to sign the SMimeCertificatePublish
      object "match" the intended recipient of the encryption object?
      If so, proceed to step 3 else no encryption certificate is found.


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   3. Get the set of potential encryption certificates from the
      SMIMEEncryptCerts attribute in the signed attributes of the
      SMimeCertificatePublish object.

   4. Select the encryption certificate from the set of potential
      encryption certificates by validating the certificate and
      examining the set of encryption algorithms.

   In all cases, once an encryption certificate has been obtained, the
   standard methods of validating signatures on the certificate and
   checking for revocation MUST be followed.

4.5 LDAP Schema

   After a SignedData object has been produced, it needs to be
   published into one or more directories.   The following auxiliary
   object class MAY be used to represent certificate subjects:

   pkiUser   OBJECT-CLASS   ::= {
      SUBCLASS OF   { top}
      KIND          auxiliary
      MAY CONTAIN   {userSMimeCertificate}
      ID    joint-iso-ccitt(2) ds(5) objectClass(6) pkiUser(21)}

   userSMimeCertificate    ATTRIBUTE  ::=  {
        WITH SYNTAX   ContentInfo
        EQUALITY MATCHING RULE   contentInfoExactMatch
        ID  1 2 840 113549 1 9 16 4 1 }



   If the CA is the only entity that can write to the directory, it may
   wish to provide some mechanism for updating the attributes such as
   the smimeUserCapabilities in the published object.

4.6 MIME Encoding

   The application/pkcs7-mime-publish content type is used to carry
   SMimeCertificatePublish objects as mime objects.  The optional
   "name" parameter SHOULD be emitted as part of the Content-Type
   field.  The file extension for the file name SHOULD be ".p7p".

A.  ASN Module

   SMimeCertDistributionSyntax
      { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
          pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) <TBD> }

     DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::=
     BEGIN

     -- EXPORTS All
     -- The types and values defined in this module are exported for
     -- use in the other ASN.1 modules.  Other applications may use
     -- them for their own purposes.
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     IMPORTS
     -- SMime Cryptographic Message Format
        ContentInfo
           FROM CryptographicMessageSyntax { iso(1) member-body(2)
                   us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
                   modules(0) cms(1) }

     -- SecureMimeMessageV3
        SMIMECapabilities
           FROM SecureMimeMessageV3 { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
                  rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0)
                  smime(4)};

     -- S/MIME Object Identifier Registry
     id-smime OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
               rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) }

     -- Authenticated Attribute identifying Encryption Certificates
     --   Value is a single SMimeEncryptCerts

     id-aa-smimeEncryptCerts OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-smime id-aa(2)
                                                     13 }

     SMimeEncryptCerts ::= SEQUENCE OF SMimeEncryptCert

     SMimeEncryptCert ::= SEQUENCE {
         hash           Hash,
         capabilities   SMIMECapabilities
     }

     Hash ::= OCTET STRING -- SHA1 hash of the certificate

     -- Content Type of Certificate publish message.
     --   Signed content is detached and empty
     id-ct-publishCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=  { id-smime id-ct(1) 3 }

     SMimeCertificatePublish ::= ContentInfo

   END -- of SMimeCertDistributionSyntax

B. Backwards Compatibility

   The SMimeCertificatePublish object is based on work previously done
   at both Microsoft and Netscape.

   Both of these companies have implemented a version of
   userSMimeCertificate in their mail LDAP directory structures.
   Microsoft has also put the property into its MAPI based directory
   schema.

   Both companies use a ContentInfo object containing a SignedData
   object with one SignerInfo object.  In both cases however the
   eContent is tagged with id-data not id-ct-publishCert.  The actual
   content is omitted from the SMimeCertificatePublish object.
Schaad                                                               7
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   Microsoft has also produced an early version of the
   SMimeEncryptCerts attribute. The syntax for this structure is

    id-Microsoft-SMimeEncryptCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {1 3 6 1 4 1
                              311 16 4}

    Microsoft-SMimeEncryptionCert ::= IssuerAndSerialNumber

   A description of IssuerAndSerialNumber can be found in [CMS].

C. Registration of MIME

   To: ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of MIME media type application/pkcs7-mime-
   publish

   MIME media type name: application

   MIME subtype name: pkcs7-mime-publish

   Required parameters: none
   Optional parameters: name, filename

   Encoding considerations: Will be binary data, therefore should use
   base-64 encoding

   Security considerations: There is no requirement for additional
   security mechanisms to be applied at this level. The required
   mechanisms are designed into the SMimeCertificatePublish content.

   Interoperability considerations: -

   Published specification: this document

   Applications that use this media type: Secure Internet mail and
   other secure data transports.

   Additional information:
     File extension (s): p7p
     Macintosh File Type Code (s): -

   Person and email address to contact for further information: Jim
   Schaad, jimsch@exmsft.com

   Intended usage: COMMON

D. Example Message

   In this example Alice makes the statement that messages encrypted
   for her should use one of two encryption certificates issued to Bob.

   0 30 NDEF: SEQUENCE {
   2 06    9:  OBJECT IDENTIFIER signedData (1 2 840 113549 1 7 2)
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  13 A0 NDEF:  [0] {
  15 30 NDEF:   SEQUENCE {
  17 02    1:    INTEGER 1
  20 31   11:    SET {
  22 30    9:     SEQUENCE {
  24 06    5:      OBJECT IDENTIFIER sha1 (1 3 14 3 2 26)
  31 05    0:      NULL
            :      }
            :     }
  33 30 NDEF:    SEQUENCE {
  35 06   11:     OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :      id-ct-publishCert (1 2 840 113549 1 9 16 1 3)
  48 A0 NDEF:     [0] {
            :      }
            :     }
  54 A0 3298:    [0] {
  58 30  491:     SEQUENCE {
  62 30  340:      SEQUENCE {
  66 A0    3:       [0] {
  68 02    1:        INTEGER 2
            :        }
  71 02   16:       INTEGER
            :        46 34 6B C7 80 00 56 BC 11 D3 6E 2E 9F F2 50 20
  89 30   13:       SEQUENCE {
  91 06    9:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :         sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
 102 05    0:        NULL
            :        }
 104 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
 106 31   16:        SET {
 108 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
 110 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 115 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlRSA'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
 124 30   30:       SEQUENCE {
 126 17   13:        UTCTime '990818070000Z'
 141 17   13:        UTCTime '391231235959Z'
            :        }
 156 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
 158 31   16:        SET {
 160 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
 162 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 167 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlRSA'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
 176 30  159:       SEQUENCE {
 179 30   13:        SEQUENCE {
 181 06    9:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :          rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
 192 05    0:         NULL
            :         }
 194 03  141:        BIT STRING 0 unused bits
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CertDist                                                      May 2000

            :         30 81 89 02 81 81 00 E4 4B FF 18 B8 24 57 F4 77
            :         FF 6E 73 7B 93 71 5C BC 33 1A 92 92 72 23 D8 41
            :         46 D0 CD 11 3A 04 B3 8E AF 82 9D BD 51 1E 17 7A
            :         F2 76 2C 2B 86 39 A7 BD D7 8D 1A 53 EC E4 00 D5
            :         E8 EC A2 36 B1 ED E2 50 E2 32 09 8A 3F 9F 99 25
            :         8F B8 4E AB B9 7D D5 96 65 DA 16 A0 C5 BE 0E AE
            :         44 5B EF 5E F4 A7 29 CB 82 DD AC 44 E9 AA 93 94
            :         29 0E F8 18 D6 C8 57 5E F2 76 C4 F2 11 60 38 B9
            :         1B 3C 1D 97 C9 6A F1 02 03 01 00 01
            :        }
 338 A3   66:       [3] {
 340 30   64:        SEQUENCE {
 342 30   15:         SEQUENCE {
 344 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
 349 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
 352 04    5:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 03 01 01 FF
            :          }
 359 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
 361 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
 366 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
 369 04    4:          OCTET STRING
            :          03 02 01 86
            :          }
 375 30   29:         SEQUENCE {
 377 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
 382 04   22:          OCTET STRING
            :          04 14 E9 E0 90 27 AC 78 20 7A 9A D3 4C F2 42 37
            :          4E 22 AE 9E 38 BB
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
            :       }
 406 30   13:      SEQUENCE {
 408 06    9:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :        sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
 419 05    0:       NULL
            :       }
 421 03  129:      BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :       B7 9E D4 04 D3 ED 29 E4 FF 89 89 15 2E 4C DB 0C
            :       F0 48 0F 32 61 EE C4 04 EC 12 5D 2D FF 0F 64 59
            :       7E 0A C3 ED 18 FD E3 56 40 37 A7 07 B5 F0 38 12
            :       61 50 ED EF DD 3F E3 0B B8 61 A5 A4 9B 3C E6 9E
            :       9C 54 9A B6 95 D6 DA 6C 3B B5 2D 45 35 9D 49 01
            :       76 FA B9 B9 31 F9 F9 6B 12 53 A0 F5 14 60 9B 7D
            :       CA 3E F2 53 6B B0 37 6F AD E6 74 D7 DB FA 5A EA
            :       14 41 63 5D CD BE C8 0E C1 DA 6A 8D 53 34 18 02
            :      }
 553 30  520:     SEQUENCE {
 557 30  369:      SEQUENCE {
 561 A0    3:       [0] {
 563 02    1:        INTEGER 2
            :        }
 566 02   16:       INTEGER
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            :        46 34 6B C7 80 00 56 BC 11 D3 6E 2E CD 5D 71 D0
 584 30   13:       SEQUENCE {
 586 06    9:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :         sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
 597 05    0:        NULL
            :        }
 599 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
 601 31   16:        SET {
 603 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
 605 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 610 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlRSA'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
 619 30   30:       SEQUENCE {
 621 17   13:        UTCTime '990819070000Z'
 636 17   13:        UTCTime '391231235959Z'
            :        }
 651 30   17:       SEQUENCE {
 653 31   15:        SET {
 655 30   13:         SEQUENCE {
 657 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
 662 13    6:          PrintableString 'BobRSA'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
 670 30  159:       SEQUENCE {
 673 30   13:        SEQUENCE {
 675 06    9:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :          rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
 686 05    0:         NULL
            :         }
 688 03  141:        BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :         30 81 89 02 81 81 00 CA 5C E1 2E EC CF C1 3B 5D
            :         10 1B DF 54 35 71 99 0A 09 D8 3D E4 61 BF A0 BE
            :         0A BE 11 A4 3C B5 38 41 41 48 04 E1 5B B1 17 1C
            :         53 B5 F4 C5 15 D3 FE 0C FB 0C AC EA 80 18 36 03
            :         7E 41 93 53 D7 40 74 49 DB D9 C6 AF FE D6 CA 0D
            :         CA 01 84 8F A1 E9 A3 00 21 27 51 D5 40 19 AA E3
            :         C0 30 78 5B A0 B2 E6 C1 2D 24 36 CB AE 44 10 82
            :         B0 DD 74 D7 F6 EB 51 27 B2 A7 B6 AD 78 CA A7 1B
            :         59 51 18 EF 28 0C 53 02 03 01 00 01
            :        }
 832 A3   96:       [3] {
 834 30   94:        SEQUENCE {
 836 30   12:         SEQUENCE {
 838 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
 843 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
 846 04    2:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 00
            :          }
 850 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
 852 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
 857 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
 860 04    4:          OCTET STRING
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CertDist                                                      May 2000

            :          03 02 05 20
            :          }
 866 30   31:         SEQUENCE {
 868 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
 873 04   24:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 16 80 14 E9 E0 90 27 AC 78 20 7A 9A D3 4C F2
            :          42 37 4E 22 AE 9E 38 BB
            :          }
 899 30   29:         SEQUENCE {
 901 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
 906 04   22:          OCTET STRING
            :          04 14 E8 F4 B8 67 D8 B3 96 A4 2A F3 11 AA 29 D3
            :          95 5A 86 16 B4 24
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
            :       }
 930 30   13:      SEQUENCE {
 932 06    9:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :        sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
 943 05    0:       NULL
            :       }
 945 03  129:      BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :       2B 53 8A E0 38 69 0C 19 2D AA D9 42 67 BE 58 49
            :       A9 58 4C 42 F1 F5 68 B6 4E 4D 07 A4 9E B2 DB D0
            :       95 DF 4C F0 EF 5F 23 D6 90 7C 3F 62 92 86 E4 D2
            :       64 AB 2E B5 CA 5D 58 57 04 DF 39 29 73 B0 CD A5
            :       6B 22 75 C9 5D D5 0B FF C9 B8 7B F0 09 2C A1 86
            :       F3 75 CD 54 67 AD 8B 1E 7B EC 7E AB 25 2B 14 71
            :       98 D1 19 16 F0 60 EB 3B 3C F4 0F 24 98 7A A4 A4
            :       BA E6 C2 4E 80 07 EA C4 93 92 8B 49 17 FE 42 58
            :      }
1077 30  667:     SEQUENCE {
1081 30  602:      SEQUENCE {
1085 A0    3:       [0] {
1087 02    1:        INTEGER 2
            :        }
1090 02    1:       INTEGER 1
1093 30    9:       SEQUENCE {
1095 06    7:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :        }
1104 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
1106 31   16:        SET {
1108 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
1110 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
1115 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlDSS'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
1124 30   30:       SEQUENCE {
1126 17   13:        UTCTime '990816225050Z'
1141 17   13:        UTCTime '391231235959Z'
            :        }
Schaad                                                              12
CertDist                                                      May 2000

1156 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
1158 31   16:        SET {
1160 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
1162 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
1167 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlDSS'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
1176 30  439:       SEQUENCE {
1180 30  299:        SEQUENCE {
1184 06    7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsa (1 2 840 10040 4 1)
1193 30  286:         SEQUENCE {
1197 02  129:          INTEGER
            :          00 B6 49 18 3E 8A 44 C1 29 71 94 4C 01 C4 12 C1
            :          7A 79 CB 54 4D AB 1E 81 FB C6 4C B3 0E 94 09 06
            :          EB 01 D4 B1 C8 71 4B C7 45 C0 50 25 5D 9C FC DA
            :          E4 6D D3 E2 86 48 84 82 7D BA 15 95 4A 16 F6 46
            :          ED DD F6 98 D2 BB 7E 8A 0A 8A BA 16 7B B9 50 01
            :          48 93 8B EB 25 15 51 97 55 DC 8F 53 0E 10 A9 50
            :          FC 70 B7 CD 30 54 FD DA DE A8 AA 22 B5 A1 AF 8B
            :          CC 02 88 E7 8B 70 5F B9 AD E1 08 D4 6D 29 2D D6
            :          E9
1329 02   21:          INTEGER
            :          00 DD C1 2F DF 53 CE 0B 34 60 77 3E 02 A4 BF 8A
            :          5D 98 B9 10 D5
1352 02  128:          INTEGER
            :          0C EE 57 9B 4B BD DA B6 07 6A 74 37 4F 55 7F 9D
            :          ED BC 61 0D EB 46 59 3C 56 0B 2B 5B 0C 91 CE A5
            :          62 52 69 CA E1 6D 3E BD BF FE E1 B7 B9 2B 61 3C
            :          AD CB AE 45 E3 06 AC 8C 22 9D 9C 44 87 0B C7 CD
            :          F0 1C D9 B5 4E 5D 73 DE AF 0E C9 1D 5A 51 F5 4F
            :          44 79 35 5A 73 AA 7F 46 51 1F A9 42 16 9C 48 EB
            :          8A 79 61 B4 D5 2F 53 22 44 63 1F 86 B8 A3 58 06
            :          25 F8 29 C0 EF BA E0 75 F0 42 C4 63 65 52 9B 0A
            :          }
            :         }
1483 03  133:        BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :         02 81 81 00 99 87 74 27 03 66 A0 B1 C0 AD DC 2C
            :         75 BB E1 6C 44 9C DA 21 6D 4D 47 6D B1 62 09 E9
            :         D8 AE 1E F2 3A B4 94 B1 A3 8E 7A 9B 71 4E 00 94
            :         C9 B4 25 4E B9 60 96 19 24 01 F3 62 0C FE 75 C0
            :         FB CE D8 68 00 E3 FD D5 70 4F DF 23 96 19 06 94
            :         F4 B1 61 8F 3A 57 B1 08 11 A4 0B 26 25 F0 52 76
            :         81 EA 0B 62 0D 95 2A E6 86 BA 72 B2 A7 50 83 0B
            :         AA 27 CD 1B A9 4D 89 9A D7 8D 18 39 84 3F 8B C5
            :         56 4D 80 7A
            :        }
1619 A3   66:       [3] {
1621 30   64:        SEQUENCE {
1623 30   15:         SEQUENCE {
1625 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
1630 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
1633 04    5:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 03 01 01 FF
            :          }
Schaad                                                              13
CertDist                                                      May 2000

1640 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
1642 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
1647 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
1650 04    4:          OCTET STRING
            :          03 02 01 86
            :          }
1656 30   29:         SEQUENCE {
1658 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
1663 04   22:          OCTET STRING
            :          04 14 70 44 3E 82 2E 6F 87 DE 4A D3 75 E3 3D 20
            :          BC 43 2B 93 F1 1F
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
            :       }
1687 30    9:      SEQUENCE {
1689 06    7:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :       }
1698 03   48:      BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :       30 2D 02 14 6B A9 F0 4E 7A 5A 79 E3 F9 BE 3D 2B
            :       C9 06 37 E9 11 17 A1 13 02 15 00 8F 34 69 2A 8B
            :       B1 3C 03 79 94 32 4D 12 1F CE 89 FB 46 B2 3B
            :      }
1748 30  734:     SEQUENCE {
1752 30  669:      SEQUENCE {
1756 A0    3:       [0] {
1758 02    1:        INTEGER 2
            :        }
1761 02    2:       INTEGER 200
1765 30    9:       SEQUENCE {
1767 06    7:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :        }
1776 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
1778 31   16:        SET {
1780 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
1782 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
1787 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlDSS'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
1796 30   30:       SEQUENCE {
1798 17   13:        UTCTime '990817011049Z'
1813 17   13:        UTCTime '391231235959Z'
            :        }
1828 30   19:       SEQUENCE {
1830 31   17:        SET {
1832 30   15:         SEQUENCE {
1834 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
1839 13    8:          PrintableString 'AliceDSS'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
1849 30  438:       SEQUENCE {
1853 30  299:        SEQUENCE {
Schaad                                                              14
CertDist                                                      May 2000

1857 06    7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsa (1 2 840 10040 4 1)
1866 30  286:         SEQUENCE {
1870 02  129:          INTEGER
            :          00 81 8D CD ED 83 EA 0A 9E 39 3E C2 48 28 A3 E4
            :          47 93 DD 0E D7 A8 0E EC 53 C5 AB 84 08 4F FF 94
            :          E1 73 48 7E 0C D6 F3 44 48 D1 FE 9F AF A4 A1 89
            :          2F E1 D9 30 C8 36 DE 3F 9B BF B7 4C DC 5F 69 8A
            :          E4 75 D0 37 0C 91 08 95 9B DE A7 5E F9 FC F4 9F
            :          2F DD 43 A8 8B 54 F1 3F B0 07 08 47 4D 5D 88 C3
            :          C3 B5 B3 E3 55 08 75 D5 39 76 10 C4 78 BD FF 9D
            :          B0 84 97 37 F2 E4 51 1B B5 E4 09 96 5C F3 7E 5B
            :          DB
2002 02   21:          INTEGER
            :          00 E2 47 A6 1A 45 66 B8 13 C6 DA 8F B8 37 21 2B
            :          62 8B F7 93 CD
2025 02  128:          INTEGER
            :          26 38 D0 14 89 32 AA 39 FB 3E 6D D9 4B 59 6A 4C
            :          76 23 39 04 02 35 5C F2 CB 1A 30 C3 1E 50 5D DD
            :          9B 59 E2 CD AA 05 3D 58 C0 7B A2 36 B8 6E 07 AF
            :          7D 8A 42 25 A7 F4 75 CF 4A 08 5E 4B 3E 90 F8 6D
            :          EA 9C C9 21 8A 3B 76 14 E9 CE 2E 5D A3 07 CD 23
            :          85 B8 2F 30 01 7C 6D 49 89 11 89 36 44 BD F8 C8
            :          95 4A 53 56 B5 E2 F9 73 EC 1A 61 36 1F 11 7F C2
            :          BD ED D1 50 FF 98 74 C2 D1 81 4A 60 39 BA 36 39
            :          }
            :         }
2156 03  132:        BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :         02 81 80 5C E3 B9 5A 75 14 96 0B A9 7A DD E3 3F
            :         A9 EC AC 5E DC BD B7 13 11 34 A6 16 89 28 11 23
            :         D9 34 86 67 75 75 13 12 3D 43 5B 6F E5 51 BF FA
            :         89 F2 A2 1B 3E 24 7D 3D 07 8D 5B 63 C8 BB 45 A5
            :         A0 4A E3 85 D6 CE 06 80 3F E8 23 7E 1A F2 24 AB
            :         53 1A B8 27 0D 1E EF 08 BF 66 14 80 5C 62 AC 65
            :         FA 15 8B F1 BB 34 D4 D2 96 37 F6 61 47 B2 C4 32
            :         84 F0 7E 41 40 FD 46 A7 63 4E 33 F2 A5 E2 F4 F2
            :         83 E5 B8
            :        }
2291 A3  131:       [3] {
2294 30  128:        SEQUENCE {
2297 30   32:         SEQUENCE {
2299 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectAltName (2 5 29 17)
2304 04   25:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 17 81 15 61 6C 69 63 65 44 73 73 40 65 78 61
            :          6D 70 6C 65 73 2E 63 6F 6D
            :          }
2331 30   12:         SEQUENCE {
2333 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
2338 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
2341 04    2:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 00
            :          }
2345 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
2347 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
2352 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
2355 04    4:          OCTET STRING
Schaad                                                              15
CertDist                                                      May 2000

            :          03 02 06 C0
            :          }
2361 30   31:         SEQUENCE {
2363 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
2368 04   24:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 16 80 14 70 44 3E 82 2E 6F 87 DE 4A D3 75 E3
            :          3D 20 BC 43 2B 93 F1 1F
            :          }
2394 30   29:         SEQUENCE {
2396 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
2401 04   22:          OCTET STRING
            :          04 14 BE 6C A1 B3 E3 C1 F7 ED 43 70 A4 CE 13 01
            :          E2 FD E3 97 FE CD
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
            :       }
2425 30    9:      SEQUENCE {
2427 06    7:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :       }
2436 03   48:      BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :       30 2D 02 15 00 98 B0 C6 3F CF 71 47 5A 35 A9 4A
            :       8F C0 F8 24 05 E8 46 94 8E 02 14 5B 9F 48 C0 8C
            :       A1 C1 02 9C 44 EA E9 A1 87 C1 A5 7F 28 2D BB
            :      }
2486 30  866:     SEQUENCE {
2490 30  801:      SEQUENCE {
2494 A0    3:       [0] {
2496 02    1:        INTEGER 2
            :        }
2499 02    2:       INTEGER 201
2503 30    9:       SEQUENCE {
2505 06    7:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :        }
2514 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
2516 31   16:        SET {
2518 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
2520 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
2525 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlDSS'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
2534 30   30:       SEQUENCE {
2536 17   13:        UTCTime '990817011828Z'
2551 17   13:        UTCTime '391231235959Z'
            :        }
2566 30   16:       SEQUENCE {
2568 31   14:        SET {
2570 30   12:         SEQUENCE {
2572 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
2577 13    5:          PrintableString 'bobDH'
            :          }
            :         }
Schaad                                                              16
CertDist                                                      May 2000

            :        }
2584 30  578:       SEQUENCE {
2588 30  439:        SEQUENCE {
2592 06    7:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :          dhPublicNumber (1 2 840 10046 2 1)
2601 30  426:         SEQUENCE {
2605 02  129:          INTEGER
            :          00 EC 2C CD A4 EF 9A 26 2F 62 A7 BB 23 4D DF 2B
            :          25 C1 68 D2 9E A9 45 5B 36 F1 94 89 1A AF 7D 11
            :          24 9D 3D B9 3C 29 E8 D7 23 80 33 A6 9E 45 02 BB
            :          AA CC 9E 28 05 95 A0 B3 17 76 C1 F7 25 35 61 02
            :          41 92 27 0C 5E AE 48 E5 F3 6E 38 EF 91 D1 CF 37
            :          FE 9A 40 97 C8 2D 35 9E 9D 93 C6 F8 15 AF 3F DA
            :          74 3A B7 C4 93 B5 B9 BB 76 6C 1F A8 7E BC 3A AA
            :          43 0A 81 64 FC 63 F0 7B 71 98 FA C0 38 79 10 1A
            :          33
2737 02  129:          INTEGER
            :          00 BA 0B D7 74 3D E7 34 E5 4C 13 A7 95 96 BB F1
            :          E4 61 37 08 FB 12 C7 FB 9C 91 77 06 99 35 F0 48
            :          24 96 33 12 01 7E 8D EC 0B F6 B2 C0 63 A7 15 C5
            :          5E 95 86 A2 73 C5 49 46 37 79 60 FD 77 05 09 48
            :          9B 70 8D 3C 05 F6 CE 44 2C 7F 7D 1B 2B 15 DD F3
            :          05 2F BE 85 20 8F 8D F9 B4 A0 45 74 2B F4 3B 9D
            :          42 62 34 27 27 81 8E 6F 0F 5E 62 85 89 CC ED 21
            :          C3 91 70 06 54 EE 70 A8 92 55 5B 6E 19 22 4D 62
            :          A7
2869 02   33:          INTEGER
            :          00 C3 AB 4A 30 79 B3 D3 97 4E CA F5 A2 7D C7 70
            :          A3 45 F3 B3 A2 86 05 D2 3E 49 F9 9F D9 0A B3 BE
            :          BD
2904 02   97:          INTEGER
            :          01 34 FE C2 33 48 EB F6 3B 97 D9 E4 97 A7 60 A5
            :          25 69 34 FB FD 46 2A D6 C9 C4 C5 F7 D6 F4 04 19
            :          8D 94 D9 8A 37 68 69 67 55 FB F2 6B 0E 47 C5 5B
            :          0B 4B 0E 1C 1A 8B 7B 75 B7 AA C3 AA D7 EB 3B DA
            :          2A 8D 02 87 37 47 83 D7 31 B4 25 A8 AC BB 11 88
            :          53 1C 11 92 B6 69 E7 2E 90 C1 7A FC 87 F4 F6 D7
            :          1A
3003 30   26:          SEQUENCE {
3005 03   21:           BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :          B9 FF 1C 93 44 67 37 D1 B2 F8 57 9A 32 4A C9 4A
            :          FF 3B EC 1E
3028 02    1:           INTEGER 29
            :           }
            :          }
            :         }
3031 03  132:        BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :         02 81 80 6F D4 F6 CD 94 9A 6E AF 5B 57 17 96 75
            :         BB 0F B9 48 E9 90 37 0D 15 20 C2 55 1E 13 E2 AE
            :         71 17 84 C3 0E 74 AE 8A 55 7F 28 7D 8B D7 28 22
            :         9C 76 46 D7 3B 4F 9D D1 4D 1B B2 DB 51 94 C5 6D
            :         54 96 40 38 8A 38 81 63 4A 8C C3 1E 09 89 74 A6
            :         58 D5 C8 5A 3D CF BB B8 23 7F 9C 1F 7D 78 FA 9E
            :         F9 90 9E 91 E7 4B C2 A4 BE 45 06 78 42 58 3D 9F
            :         63 2C EF 84 D4 67 E5 FB C6 6D A2 36 29 67 90 46
Schaad                                                              17
CertDist                                                      May 2000

            :         DB 4E 48
            :        }
3166 A3  127:       [3] {
3168 30  125:        SEQUENCE {
3170 30   29:         SEQUENCE {
3172 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectAltName (2 5 29 17)
3177 04   22:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 14 81 12 62 6F 62 44 68 40 65 78 61 6D 70 6C
            :          65 73 2E 63 6F 6D
            :          }
3201 30   12:         SEQUENCE {
3203 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
3208 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
3211 04    2:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 00
            :          }
3215 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
3217 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER keyUsage (2 5 29 15)
3222 01    1:          BOOLEAN TRUE
3225 04    4:          OCTET STRING
            :          03 02 03 08
            :          }
3231 30   31:         SEQUENCE {
3233 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           authorityKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 35)
3238 04   24:          OCTET STRING
            :          30 16 80 14 70 44 3E 82 2E 6F 87 DE 4A D3 75 E3
            :          3D 20 BC 43 2B 93 F1 1F
            :          }
3264 30   29:         SEQUENCE {
3266 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :           subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
3271 04   22:          OCTET STRING
            :          04 14 26 FF 19 48 C3 59 33 68 56 8D 7E C8 80 68
            :          5C CF 3C 72 DD 26
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
            :       }
3295 30    9:      SEQUENCE {
3297 06    7:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :       }
3306 03   48:      BIT STRING 0 unused bits
            :       30 2D 02 14 15 EA 15 43 E3 49 22 86 C1 BB E5 DA
            :       E4 0E B8 09 E0 D5 72 35 02 15 00 AE 4F 51 29 73
            :       71 75 A9 81 EB ED 9D 5E 00 19 7E F0 DE 5A D6
            :      }
            :     }
3356 31  283:    SET {
3360 30  279:     SEQUENCE {
3364 02    1:      INTEGER 1
3367 30   24:      SEQUENCE {
3369 30   18:       SEQUENCE {
3371 31   16:        SET {
3373 30   14:         SEQUENCE {
Schaad                                                              18
CertDist                                                      May 2000

3375 06    3:          OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
3380 13    7:          PrintableString 'CarlDSS'
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
3389 02    2:       INTEGER 200
            :       }
3393 30    9:      SEQUENCE {
3395 06    5:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER sha1 (1 3 14 3 2 26)
3402 05    0:       NULL
            :       }
3404 A0  176:      [0] {
3407 30   26:       SEQUENCE {
3409 06    9:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :         contentType (1 2 840 113549 1 9 3)
3420 31   13:        SET {
3422 06   11:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :          id-ct-publishCert (1 2 840 113549 1 9 16 1 3)
            :         }
            :        }
3435 30   35:       SEQUENCE {
3437 06    9:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :         messageDigest (1 2 840 113549 1 9 4)
3448 31   22:        SET {
3450 04   20:         OCTET STRING
            :          DA 39 A3 EE 5E 6B 4B 0D 32 55 BF EF 95 60 18 90
            :          AF D8 07 09
            :         }
            :        }
3472 30  109:       SEQUENCE {
3474 06   11:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :         id-aa-smimeEncryptCerts (1 2 840 113549 1 9 16 2
13)
3487 31   94:        SET {
3489 30   92:         SEQUENCE {
3491 30   36:          SEQUENCE {
3493 04   20:           OCTET STRING
            :          3B F6 B5 69 50 7E 3E AD 03 97 F8 F8 29 DD A0 B9
            :          8A CF DA 9B
3515 30   12:           SEQUENCE {
3517 30   10:            SEQUENCE {
3519 06    8:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :              des-EDE3-CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 7)
            :             }
            :            }
            :           }
3529 30   52:          SEQUENCE {
3531 04   20:           OCTET STRING
            :          E4 B8 2D 17 E4 23 D5 22 F0 58 BD 73 BD 3D 59 76
            :          AF C6 18 C8
3553 30   28:           SEQUENCE {
3555 30   10:            SEQUENCE {
3557 06    8:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :              des-EDE3-CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 7)
            :             }
Schaad                                                              19
CertDist                                                      May 2000

3567 30   14:            SEQUENCE {
3569 06    8:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
            :              rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
3579 02    2:             INTEGER 160
            :             }
            :            }
            :           }
            :          }
            :         }
            :        }
            :       }
3583 30    9:      SEQUENCE {
3585 06    7:       OBJECT IDENTIFIER dsaWithSha1 (1 2 840 10040 4 3)
            :       }
3594 04   47:      OCTET STRING
            :       30 2D 02 15 00 B7 D1 AD F0 EF F6 49 30 F9 9F 9C
            :       55 74 E0 60 56 65 B4 14 15 02 14 37 B4 90 1F 00
            :       8A F6 F7 41 8B CF AF 90 E6 F3 8E 4D A0 7A 30
            :      }
            :     }
            :    }
            :   }
            :  }

References
   CMS        Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax" RFC 2630,
              June 1999.

   MUSTSHOULD Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119 , March 1997.

   SMIME      Ramsdell, B., "S/MIME Version 3 Message Specification",
              RFC 2633, June 1999.

   SMIMECERT  Ramsdell, B., "S/MIME Version 3 Certificate Handling",
              RFC 2632, June 1999.

Security Considerations

   This entire document discusses security.  Some items of special note
   are:

   Implementations must protect the signer's private key.  Compromise
   of the signer's private key permits masquerading and therefore
   substitution of encryption certificates.

   Implementations must do appropriate checking that the entity named
   in a certificate is the same entity that the encrypted message is
   destined for to protect contents of encrypted messages.

Author Address

   Jim Schaad
   Jimsch@exmsft.com

Schaad                                                              20
http://www.nwlink.com


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