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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 7040

Network Working Group                                             Y. Cui
Internet-Draft                                                     J. Wu
Intended status: Standards Track                                   P. Wu
Expires: September 12, 2012                          Tsinghua University
                                                                 C. Metz
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                              O. Vautrin
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                                  Y. Lee
                                                                 Comcast
                                                          March 11, 2012


                  Public IPv4 over IPv6 Access Network
                  draft-ietf-softwire-public-4over6-01

Abstract

   When the service provider networks are upgraded to IPv6, IPv4
   connectivity will still be demanded by network users, at least in the
   recent future.  This draft proposes a mechanism for end hosts or
   networks in IPv6 access networks to build bidirectional IPv4
   communication with the IPv4 Internet.  The mechanism follows the
   softwire hub and spoke model, and uses IPv4-over-IPv6 tunnel as basic
   method to traverse IPv6 network.  The bi-directionality of end-to-end
   communication is achieved by allocating public IPv4 addresses to end
   hosts/networks.  This mechanism is an IPv4 access method for network
   users in IPv6.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2012.

Copyright Notice




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   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Deployment Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     4.1.  Scenario and requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     4.2.  Use cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   5.  Public 4over6 Mechanism  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.1.  Address allocation and mapping maintenance . . . . . . . .  6
     5.2.  4over6 initiator behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       5.2.1.  Host initiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       5.2.2.  CPE initiator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.3.  4over6 concentrator behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10




















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1.  Introduction

   IANA has exhausted the Global IPv4 address pool, while the RIRs are
   running out of IPv4 addresses.  On the other hand, the size of
   Internet is still growing fast, as well as the demand for IP
   addresses.  To satisfy the address demand from end users, operators
   have to push IPv6 to the front, by building IPv6 networks and
   providing IPv6 services.

   When IPv6-only networks are widely deployed, users of those networks
   will probably still need IPv4 connectivity.  This is because part of
   Internet will stay IPv4-only for a long time, and network users in
   IPv6-only networks will communicate with network users sited in the
   IPv4-only part of Internet.  This demand could eventually decrease
   with the general IPv6 adoption.

   Therefore, network operators should provide IPv4 services to IPv6
   users, usually through tunnel.  This type of IPv4 services differ in
   provisioned IPv4 addresses.  If the operators cannot provision public
   IPv4 addresses, the user side can only use private IPv4 addresses,
   and NAT44 translation is required on the carrier side, as is
   described in Dual-stack Lite[RFC6333].  Otherwise the operators are
   capable of provisioning public IPv4 addresses.  Then users can
   directly employ these addresses for IPv4 communication, and carrier-
   side translation won't be necessary.  The network users and operators
   can avoid all the issues raised by translation, such as ALG, NAT
   traversal, session state maintenance, etc.

   This "public IPv4" situation is actually quite common.  From the
   ISPs' perspective, many of them are still capable of providing IPv4
   addresses in its network, or at least part of its network.  From the
   perspective of the Internet, the majority of the Internet users today
   are still using public IPv4 addresses.  Most of them will switch to
   IPv6 sooner or later, and will require IPv4 services for a
   significant long period after the switching.  This draft focuses on
   this public IPv4 situation, i.e., providing IPv4 access to users in
   IPv6 networks under the condition that IPv4 address allocation is
   still feasible.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Terminology

   Public 4over6: Public 4over6 is the mechanism proposed by this draft.



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   Public 4over6 supports bidirectional communication between IPv4
   Internet and IPv4 hosts or local networks in IPv6 access network, by
   leveraging IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel and public IPv4 address allocation.

   4over6 initiator: in Public 4over6 mechanism, 4over6 initiator is the
   IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel initiator located on the user side of IPv6
   network.  The 4over6 initiator can be either a dual-stack capable
   host, or a dual-stack CPE device.  In the former case, the host has
   both IPv4 and IPv6 stack but is provisioned with IPv6 access only.
   In the latter case, the CPE has both IPv6 interface connecting to ISP
   network, and IPv4 interface connecting to local network; hosts in the
   local network can be IPv4-only.

   4over6 concentrator: in Public 4over6 mechanism, 4over6 concentrator
   is the IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel concentrator located in IPv6 ISP network.
   It's a dual-stack router which connects to both the IPv6 ISP network
   and IPv4 Internet.

4.  Deployment Scenario

4.1.  Scenario and requirements

   The general scenario of Public 4over6 is shown in Figure 1.  Users in
   an IPv6 network take IPv6 as their native service.  Some users are
   end hosts which face the ISP network directly, while the others are
   local networks behind CPEs, such as a home LAN, an enterprise
   network, etc.  The ISP network is IPv6-only rather than dual-stack,
   which means the ISP cannot provide native IPv4 service to users.
   However, it's acceptable that some router(s) on the carrier side
   becomes dual-stack and connects to IPv4 Internet.  So if network
   users require IPv4 connectivity, the dual-stack router(s) will work
   as their "entrance".

                    +-------------------------+
                    |    IPv6 ISP Network     |
                 +------+                     |
                 |host: |                     |
                 |initi-|                     |
                 |ator  |=================+-------+   +-----------+
                 +------+                 |4over6 |   |   IPv4    |
                    |      IPv4-in-IPv6   |Concen-|---| Internet  |
   +----------+  +------+                 |trator |   |           |
   |local IPv4|--|CPE:  |=================+-------+   +-----------+
   | network  |  |initi-|                     |
   +----------+  |ator  |                     |
                 +------+                     |
                    |                         |
                    +-------------------------+



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   Figure 1 Public 4over6 scenario

   From end user perspective, 4over6 users require IPv4-to-IPv4
   communication with the IPv4 Internet.  An IPv4 access service is
   needed rather than an IPv6-to-IPv4 translation service.  Second,
   public IPv4 addresses will be preferred by 4over6 users.  With public
   IPv4 address provisioning, IPv4 CGN is not required so end-to-end
   transparency is preserved.  For special users like application
   servers, public address brings great convenience including
   straightforward access, direct DNS registration, no stateful mapping
   maintenance on CGN, etc.  For the direct-connected host case, each
   host should get one public IPv4 address.  For the local IPv4 network
   case, the CPE can get a public IPv4 address and runs an IPv4 NAT for
   the local network.  Here a local NAT is still much better than the
   situation that involves a CGN, since this NAT is in local network and
   can be configured and managed by the users.

   From the operator perspective, the ISPs would like to keep their IPv4
   and IPv6 addressing and routing separated when provisioning IPv4 over
   IPv6.  Then they can manage the native IPv6 networks more easily and
   independently, and also provision IPv4 in a flexible, on-demand way.
   The cost is for the concentrator to maintain per-user address mapping
   state.  As a result, double translation is not preferred.  Unlike
   stateless scenario, double translation in this scenario brings more
   complexity to IPv6 network than tunnel.  Therefore this draft follows
   the hub and spoke softwire model.

4.2.  Use cases

   Public 4over6 can be applicable in several practical cases.  The
   first one is that ISPs which still have plenty of IPv4 address
   resource switch to IPv6.  As long as the amount of the remaining and
   reclaimable IPv4 addresses can match the user amount, the ISPs can
   deploy public 4over6 to preserve IPv4 service for the customers.

   The second case is ISPs which don't have enough IPv4 addresses switch
   to IPv6.  For those ISPs, dual-stack lite is so far the most mature
   solution to provision IPv4 over IPv6.  In dual-stack lite, end users
   use private IPv4 addresses, experience a 44CGN and some service
   degradation.  As long as the end users use public IPv4 addresses, all
   CGN issues can be avoided and the IPv4 service can be full bi-
   directional.  In other words, Public 4over6 can be deployed along
   with DS-lite, to provide a value-added service.  Common users adopt
   DS-lite while high-end users adopt Public 4over6.  The two mechanisms
   can actually get coupled easily.

   There is also a special instance in the second case that the end
   users are IPv4 application servers.  In this circumstance, public



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   address brings significant convenience.  The DNS registration can be
   direct, with dedicated address; the application service access can be
   straightforward with no translation involved for the clients; there's
   no need to reserve and hold session state on the CGN, and no well-
   known port collision will come up.  So it's better to have servers
   take Public 4over6 for IPv4 access when they're located in IPv6
   network.

   Following the principle of Public 4over6, it's also possible to
   achieve address multiplexing between end users.
   [I-D.cui-softwire-b4-translated-ds-lite] and [I-D.sun-v6ops-laft6]
   shows the efforts on this.  The basic idea is that, instead of
   allocating a full IPv4 address to every end user, the ISP can
   allocate a restricted port set within an IPv4 address to every end
   user.

   Besides, the document would like to be explicit about the direct-
   connected host case and the CPE case.  The host case is clear: the
   host is directly connected to IPv6 network, but its protocol stacks
   have IPv4 support as well.  As to the CPE case, this document would
   like to only focus on the situation that the local network behind the
   CPE stays in private IPv4.  If the local network want to run public
   IPv4, then it can either run IPv6 as well and enable the hosts to
   execute Public 4over6, or acquire address blocks from the ISP and
   build configured tunnel or Softwire Mesh[RFC5565] with the ISP
   network.  The former solution is suitable for the home LAN situation
   while the latter solution is suitable for the enterprise network
   situation.

5.  Public 4over6 Mechanism

5.1.  Address allocation and mapping maintenance

   Public 4over6 can be generally considered as IPv4-over-IPv6 hub and
   spoke tunnel leveraging public IPv4 address.  Each 4over6 initiator
   uses public IPv4 address for IPv4-over-IPv6 communication.  As is
   described above, in the host initiator case, every host gets one IPv4
   address; in the CPE case, every CPE gets one IPv4 address, which is
   then shared by hosts behind the CPE.  The key problem here is IPv4
   address allocation over IPv6 network, from ISP device(s) to 4over6
   initiators.

   There're two possibilities here.  One is DHCPv4 over IPv6, and the
   other is static configuration.  DHCPv4 over IPv6 enables DHCPv4
   message to be transported in IPv6 packet instead of IPv4 packet, so
   the address allocation can be achieved between 4over6 concentrator
   and 4over6 initiators.  [I-D.ietf-dhc-dhcpv4-over-ipv6] describes the
   DHCP protocol format and behavior extensions to support that.  As to



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   static configuration, 4over6 users and the ISP operators should
   negotiate beforehand to authorize the IPv4 address.  Application
   servers can falls into this case.  Public 4over6 supports both
   address allocation manners.

   Along with IPv4 address allocation, Public 4over6 should maintain the
   IPv4-IPv6 address mappings on the concentrator.  In this type of
   address mapping, the IPv4 address is the public IPv4 address
   allocated to a 4over6 initiator, and the IPv6 address is the
   initiator's IPv6 address.  This mapping is used to provide correct
   encapsulation destination address for the concentrator.

   If the address is allocated through static configuration, the
   concentrator should install the mapping manually when assigning the
   address, and delete the mapping manually when recycling the address.
   Else the address is allocated by DHCPv4, the concentrator should
   participate in the DHCP procedure, either run a DHCPv4 server to
   dynamically allocate public addresses to 4over6 initiators, or
   perform the DHCP relay functions and leave the actual address
   allocation job to a dedicated DHCPv4 server located in IPv4.  When
   allocating an IPv4 address (to be more precise, when sending back a
   DHCP ACK message to a 4over6 initiator), the concentrator should
   install a mapping entry of the allocated IPv4 address and the
   initiator's IPv6 address into the address mapping table.  This entry
   should be deleted when receiving a DHCP RELEASE of that IPv4 address,
   or the lease of that IPv4 address expires.

5.2.  4over6 initiator behavior

   4over6 initiator has an IPv6 interface connected to the IPv6 ISP
   network, and a tunnel interface to support IPv4-in-IPv6
   encapsulation.  In CPE case, it has at least one IPv4 interface
   connected to IPv4 local network.

   4over6 initiator should learn the 4over6 concentrator's IPv6 address
   beforehand.  For example, if the initiator gets its IPv6 address by
   DHCPv6, it can get the 4over6 concentrator's IPv6 address through a
   DHCPv6 option[RFC6334].

5.2.1.  Host initiator

   When the initiator is a direct-connected host, it assigns the
   allocated public IPv4 address to its tunnel interface.  The host uses
   this address for IPv4 communication.  If the host acquires this
   address through DHCP, it should support DHCPv4 over IPv6.

   For IPv4 data traffic, the host performs the IPv4-in-IPv6
   encapsulation and decapsulation on the tunnel interface.  When



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   sending out an IPv4 packet, it performs the encapsulation, using the
   IPv6 address of the 4over6 concentrator as the IPv6 destination
   address, and its own IPv6 address as the IPv6 source address.  The
   encapsulated packet will be forwarded to the IPv6 network.  The
   decapsulation on 4over6 initiator is simple.  When receiving an IPv4-
   in-IPv6 packet, the initiator just drops the IPv6 header, and hands
   it to upper layer.

5.2.2.  CPE initiator

   The CPE case is quite similar to the host initiator case.  The CPE
   assigns the allocated IPv4 address to its tunnel interface.  The CPE
   should support DHCPv4 over IPv6 if it acquires this address through
   DHCP.  The local IPv4 network won't take part in the public IPv4
   allocation; instead, end hosts will use private IPv4 addresses,
   possibly allocated by the CPE.

   On data plan, the CPE can be viewed as a regular IPv4 NAT(using
   tunnel interface as the NAT outside interface) cascaded with a tunnel
   initiator.  For IPv4 data packets received from the local network,
   the CPE translates these packets, using the tunnel interface address
   as the source address, and then encapsulates the translated packet
   into IPv6, using the concentrator's IPv6 address as the destination
   address, the CPE's IPv6 address as source address.  For IPv6 data
   packet received from the IPv6 network, the CPE performs decapsulation
   and IPv4 public-to-private translation.  As to the CPE itself, it
   uses the public, tunnel interface address to communicate with the
   IPv4 Internet, and the private, IPv4 interface address to communicate
   with the local network.

5.3.  4over6 concentrator behavior

   4over6 concentrator represents the IPv4-IPv6 border router working as
   the remote tunnel endpoint for 4over6 initiators, with its IPv6
   interface connected to the IPv6 network, IPv4 interface connected to
   the IPv4 Internet, and a tunnel interface supporting IPv4-in-IPv6
   encapsulation and decapsulation.  There is no CGN on the 4over6
   concentrator, it won't perform any translation function; instead,
   4over6 concentrator maintains an IPv4-IPv6 address mapping table for
   IPv4 data encapsulation.

   4over6 concentrator maintains the IPv4-IPv6 address mapping of 4over6
   initiators.  Besides manual configuration of address mappings, it
   runs either a DHCP relay or a DHCP server which support DHCPv4 over
   IPv6.  When sending out a DHCP ACK, the concentrator resolves the
   allocated IPv4 address and the IPv6 destination address, installs the
   mapping entry into the mapping table or renews it if it already
   exists.  When the lifetime of a mapping entry/a lease of allocated



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   address expires, or when the concentrator receives a DHCP RELEASE of
   allocated address, the concentrator deletes the corresponding mapping
   entry from the table.  The mapping entry is used to provide correct
   encapsulation destination address for concentrator encapsulation.  As
   long as the entry exists in the table, the concentrator can
   encapsulate inbound IPv4 packets destined to the initiator, with the
   initiator's IPv6 address as IPv6 destination.

   On the IPv6 side, 4over6 concentrator decapsulates IPv4-in-IPv6
   packets coming from 4over6 initiators.  It removes the IPv6 header of
   every IPv4-in-IPv6 packet and forwards it to the IPv4 Internet.  On
   the IPv4 side, the concentrator encapsulates the IPv4 packets
   destined to 4over6 initiators.  When performing the IPv4-in-IPv6
   encapsulation, the concentrator uses its own IPv6 address as the IPv6
   source address, uses the IPv4 destination address in the packet to
   look up IPv6 destination address in the address mapping table.  After
   the encapsulation, the concentrator sends the IPv6 packet on its IPv6
   interface to reach an initiator.

   The 4over6 concentrator, or its upstream router should advertise the
   IPv4 prefix which contains the IPv4 addresses of 4over6 users to the
   IPv4 side, in order to make these initiators reachable on IPv4
   Internet.

   Since the concentrator has to maintain the IPv4-IPv6 address mapping
   table, the concentrator is stateful in IP level.  Note that this
   table will be much smaller than a CGN table, as there is no port
   information involved.

6.  Security Considerations

   The 4over6 concentrator should support ways to limit service only to
   registered customers.  The first step is to allocate IPv4 addresses
   only to registered customers.  One simple solution is to filter on
   the IPv6 source addresses of incoming DHCP packets and only respond
   to the ones which have registered IPv6 source address.  The
   concentrator can also perform authentication during DHCP, for
   example, based on the MAC address of the initiators.  As to data
   packets, the concentrator can implement an IPv6 ingress filter on the
   tunnel interface to accept only the IPv6 address range defined in the
   filter.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]                                 Bradner, S., "Key words for
                                             use in RFCs to Indicate



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                                             Requirement Levels",
                                             BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                                             March 1997.

   [RFC4925]                                 Li, X., Dawkins, S., Ward,
                                             D., and A. Durand,
                                             "Softwire Problem
                                             Statement", RFC 4925,
                                             July 2007.

   [RFC4966]                                 Aoun, C. and E. Davies,
                                             "Reasons to Move the
                                             Network Address Translator
                                             - Protocol Translator
                                             (NAT-PT) to Historic
                                             Status", RFC 4966,
                                             July 2007.

   [RFC5549]                                 Le Faucheur, F. and E.
                                             Rosen, "Advertising IPv4
                                             Network Layer Reachability
                                             Information with an IPv6
                                             Next Hop", RFC 5549,
                                             May 2009.

   [RFC5565]                                 Wu, J., Cui, Y., Metz, C.,
                                             and E. Rosen, "Softwire
                                             Mesh Framework", RFC 5565,
                                             June 2009.

   [RFC6333]                                 Durand, A., Droms, R.,
                                             Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee,
                                             "Dual-Stack Lite Broadband
                                             Deployments Following IPv4
                                             Exhaustion", RFC 6333,
                                             August 2011.

   [RFC6334]                                 Hankins, D. and T.
                                             Mrugalski, "Dynamic Host
                                             Configuration Protocol for
                                             IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for
                                             Dual-Stack Lite", RFC 6334,
                                             August 2011.

7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.cui-softwire-b4-translated-ds-lite]  Boucadair, M., Sun, Q.,
                                             Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and Y.



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                                             Cui, "Lightweight 4over6:
                                             An Extension to DS-Lite
                                             Architecture", draft-cui-
                                             softwire-b4-translated-ds-
                                             lite-05 (work in progress),
                                             February 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-dhc-dhcpv4-over-ipv6]           Lemon, T., Cui, Y., Wu, P.,
                                             and J. Wu, "DHCPv4 over
                                             IPv6 Transport", draft-
                                             ietf-dhc-dhcpv4-over-ipv6-
                                             00 (work in progress),
                                             November 2011.

   [I-D.sun-v6ops-laft6]                     Sun, Q. and C. Xie, "LAFT6:
                                             Lightweight address family
                                             transition for IPv6",
                                             draft-sun-v6ops-laft6-01
                                             (work in progress),
                                             March 2011.

Authors' Addresses

   Yong Cui
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6260-3059
   EMail: yong@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn


   Jianping Wu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6278-5983
   EMail: jianping@cernet.edu.cn


   Peng Wu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China



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   Phone: +86-10-6278-5822
   EMail: pengwu.thu@gmail.com


   Chris Metz
   Cisco Systems
   3700 Cisco Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   EMail: chmetz@cisco.com


   Olivier Vautrin
   Juniper Networks
   1194 N Mathilda Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   USA

   EMail: Olivier@juniper.net


   Yiu L. Lee
   Comcast
   One Comcast Center
   Philadelphia, PA  19103
   USA

   EMail: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com






















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