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Versions: (draft-miniero-straw-b2bua-rtcp) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 RFC 8079

STRAW Working Group                                           L. Miniero
Internet-Draft                                                  Meetecho
Intended status: Standards Track                       S. Garcia Murillo
Expires: June 19, 2017                                           Medooze
                                                              V. Pascual
                                                       December 16, 2016

   Guidelines to support RTCP end-to-end in Back-to-Back User Agents


   SIP Back-to-Back User Agents (B2BUAs) are often designed to also be
   on the media path, rather than just intercepting signalling.  This
   means that B2BUAs often implement an RTP/RTCP stack as well, thus
   leading to separate multimedia sessions that the B2BUA correlates and
   bridges together.  If not disciplined, though, this behaviour can
   severely impact the communication experience, especially when
   statistics and feedback information contained in RTCP messages get
   lost because of mismatches in the reported data.

   This document defines the proper behaviour B2BUAs should follow when
   also acting on the signalling/media plane in order to preserve the
   end-to-end functionality of RTCP.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 19, 2017.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Signalling/Media Plane B2BUAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Media Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Media-aware Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Media Terminator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Change Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19

1.  Introduction

   Session Initiation Protocol [RFC3261] Back-to-Back User Agents
   (B2BUAs) are SIP entities that can act as a logical combination of
   both a User Agent Server (UAS) and a User Agent Client (UAC).  As
   such, their behaviour is not always completely adherent to the
   standards, and can lead to unexpected situations.  [RFC7092] presents
   a taxonomy of the most commonly deployed B2BUA implementations,
   describing how they differ in terms of the functionality and features
   they provide.

   Such components often do not only act on the signalling plane, that
   is intercepting and possibly modifying SIP messages, but also on the
   media plane.  This means that, in order to receive and manage all RTP
   and RTCP [RFC3550] packets in a session, these components also

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   manipulate the session descriptions [RFC4566] in the related offer/
   answer exchanges [RFC3264].  The reasons for such a behaviour can be
   different.  The B2BUA may want, for instance, to provide transcoding
   functionality for participants with incompatible codecs, or it may
   need the traffic to be directly handled for different reasons.  This
   can lead to several different topologies for RTP-based communication,
   as documented in [RFC7667].

   Whatever the reason, such a behaviour does not come without a cost.
   In fact, whenever a media-aware component is placed on the path
   between two or more participants that want to communicate by means of
   RTP/RTCP, the end-to-end nature of such protocols is broken.  While
   this may not be a problem for RTP packets, which can be quite easily
   relayed, it definitely can cause serious issue for RTCP messages,
   which carry important information and feedback on the communication
   quality the participants are experiencing.  Consider, for instance,
   the simple scenario only involving two participants and a single RTP
   session depicted in Figure 1:

   +--------+              +---------+              +---------+
   |        |=== SSRC1 ===>|         |=== SSRC3 ===>|         |
   | Alice  |              |  B2BUA  |              |   Bob   |
   |        |<=== SSRC2 ===|         |<=== SSRC4 ===|         |
   +--------+              +---------+              +---------+

                   Figure 1: B2BUA modifying RTP headers

   In this common scenario, a participant (Alice) is communicating with
   another participant (Bob) as a result of a signalling session managed
   by a B2BUA: this B2BUA is also on the media path between the two, and
   is acting as a media relay.  This means that two separate RTP
   sessions are involved (one per side), each carrying two RTP streams
   (one per media direction).  As part of this process, though, the
   B2BUA is also rewriting some of the RTP header information on the
   way.  In this example, just the SSRC of the incoming RTP streams is
   changed, but more information may be modified as well (e.g., sequence
   numbers, timestamps, etc.).  In particular, whenever Alice sends an
   RTP packet, she sets her SSRC (SSRC1) in the RTP header of her RTP
   source stream.  The B2BUA rewrites the SSRC (SSRC3) before relaying
   the packet to Bob. At the same time, RTP packets sent by Bob (SSRC4)
   get their SSRC rewritten as well (SSRC2) before being relayed to

   Assuming now that Alice needs to inform Bob she has lost several
   packets in the last few seconds, she will place the related received
   RTP stream SSRC she is aware of (SSRC2), together with her own

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   (SSRC1), in RTCP Reports and/or NACKs.  Since the B2BUA is making use
   of different SSRCs for the RTP streams in the RTP session it
   established with each participant, blindly relaying Alice's incoming
   RTCP messages to Bob would cause issues.  These RTCP messages would
   reference SSRCs Bob doesn't know about, which would result in
   precious feedback being dropped.  In fact, Bob is only aware of SSRCs
   SSRC4 (the one his source RTP stream uses) and SSRC3 (the one he's
   receiving from the B2BUA in the received RTP stream), and knows
   nothing about SSRCs SSRC1 and SSRC2 in the messages he received
   instead.  Considering the feedback being dropped because of this may
   contain precious information, e.g., related to packet loss,
   congestion, and other network issues or considerations, the inability
   to take them into account may lead to severe issues.  For instance,
   Bob may flood Alice with more media packets she can handle, and/or
   not retransmit Alice the packets she missed and asked for.  This may
   easily lead to a very bad communication experience, if not eventually
   to an unwanted termination of the communication itself.

   This is just a trivial example that, together with additional
   scenarios, will be addressed in the following sections.
   Nevertheless, it is a valid example of how such a simple mishandling
   of precious information may lead to serious consequences.  This is
   especially true if we picture more complex scenarios involving
   several participants at the same time, multiple RTP sessions (e.g., a
   video stream along audio) rather than a single one, redundancy RTP
   streams, SSRC multiplexing and so on.  Considering how common B2BUA
   deployments are, it is very important for them to properly address
   RTCP messages, in order to be sure that their activities on the media
   plane do not break or interfere with anything relevant to the

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Besides, this document addresses, where relevant, the RTP-related
   terminology as disciplined in [RFC7656].

3.  Signalling/Media Plane B2BUAs

   As described in the introductory section, it's very common for B2BUA
   deployments to also act on the media plane, rather than just
   signalling alone.  In particular, [RFC7092] describes three different
   categories of such B2BUAs: a B2BUA, in fact, may act as a simple
   media relay (1), effectively unaware of anything that is transported;
   it may be a media-aware relay (2), also inspecting and/or modifying

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   RTP and RTCP messages as they flow by; or it may be a full-fledged
   media termination entity (3), terminating and generating RTP and RTCP
   messages as needed.

   [RFC3550] and [RFC7667] already mandate some specific behaviours in
   the presence of certain topologies.  Anyway, due to their mixed
   nature B2BUAs sometimes can't or won't implement all relevant
   specifications.  This means that it's not rare to encounter issues
   that may be avoided with a more disciplined behaviour in that regard,
   that is if the B2BUAs followed at least a set of guidelines to ensure
   no known problems occur.  For this reason, the following subsections
   will describe the proper behaviour B2BUAs, whatever above category
   they fall in, should follow in order not to impact any end-to-end
   RTCP effectiveness.

3.1.  Media Relay

   A media relay, as identified in [RFC7092], simply forwards all RTP
   and RTCP messages it receives, without either inspecting or modifying
   them.  Using the RTP Topologies terminology, this can be seen as a
   RTP Transport Translator.  As such, B2BUA acting as media relays are
   not aware of what traffic they're handling.  This means that both
   packet payloads and packet headers are opaque to them.  Many Session
   Border Controllers (SBC) implement this kind of behaviour, e.g., when
   acting as a bridge between an inner and outer network.

   Considering all headers and identifiers in both RTP and RTCP are left
   untouched, issues like the SSRC mismatch described in the previous
   section would not occur.  Similar problems could still happen,
   though, for different reasons, as for instance if the session
   description prepared by the B2BUA, whether it has been modified or
   not, ends up providing incorrect information.  This may happen, for
   example, if the SDP on either side contains 'ssrc' [RFC5576]
   attributes that don't match the actual SSRC being advertized on the
   media plane, or when the B2BUA advertized support for NACK because it
   implements it, while the original INVITE didn't.  Such issues might
   occur, for instance, when the B2BUA acting as a media relay is
   generating a new session description when bridging an incoming call,
   rather than using the original session description.  This may cause
   participants to find a mismatch between the SSRCs advertized in the
   SDP and the ones actually observed in RTP and RTCP messages, or to
   have them either ignore or generate RTCP feedback packets that were
   not explicitly advertized as supported.

   In order to prevent such an issue, a media-relay B2BUA SHOULD forward
   all the SSRC- and RTCP-related SDP attributes when handling a
   multimedia session setup between participants: this includes
   attributes like 'ssrc' [RFC3261], 'rtcp-fb' [RFC4585], 'rtcp-xr-

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   attrib' [RFC3611] and others.  However, certain SDP attributes may
   lead to call failures when forwarded by a media relay, as they have
   an implied assumption that the attribute describes the immediate
   peer.  A clear example of this is the 'rtcp' [RFC3605] attribute,
   which describes the expected RTCP peer port.  Other attributes might
   include the immediate peer's IP address, preferred transport, etc.
   In general, the guideline is to require rewriting of attributes that
   are implicitly describing the immediate peer.  If in doubt during
   implementation, testing to determine whether a call failure occurs
   should be done.  If it doesn't, B2BUAs SHOULD forward all other SDP
   attributes in order to avoid breaking additional functionality
   endpoints may be relying on.

   The cited 'rtcp' example is also relevant whenever RTP/RTCP
   multiplexing [RFC5761] support is being negotiated.  If the B2BUA
   acting as a Media Relay is unaware of the specifics of the traffic it
   is handling, and as such may not have RTP/RTCP parsing capabilities,
   it SHOULD reject RTP/RTCP multiplexing by removing the 'rtcp-mux' SDP
   attribute.  If instead the Media Relay is able to parse RTP/RTCP, and
   can verify that demultiplexing can be performed without any RTP
   Payload Type rewrites (i.e., no overlap between any RTP Payload Types
   and the RTCP Payload Type space has been detected), then the B2BUA
   SHOULD negotiate RTP/RTCP multiplexing support if advertized.

   It is worth mentioning that, leaving RTCP messages untouched, a media
   relay may also leak information that, according to policies, may need
   to be hidden or masqueraded, e.g., domain names in CNAME items.
   Besides, these CNAME items may actually contain IP addresses: this
   means that, should a NAT be involved in the communication, this may
   actually result in CNAME collisions, which could indeed break the
   end-to-end RTCP behaviour.  While [RFC7022] can prevent this from
   happening, there may be implementations that don't make use of it.
   As such, a B2BUA MAY rewrite CNAME items if any potential collision
   is detected, even in the Media Relay case.  If a B2BUA does indeed
   decide to rewrite CNAME items, though, then it MUST generate new
   CNAMEs following [RFC7022].  The same SHOULD be done in case RTP
   extensions involving CNAMEs are involved (e.g., "urn:ietf:params:rtp-
   hdrext:sdes:cname", [RFC7941]).  If that is not possible, e.g.,
   because the Media Relay does not have RTP header editing capabilities
   or does not support these extensions, then the B2BUA MUST reject the
   negotiation of such extensions when negotiating the session.

3.2.  Media-aware Relay

   A Media-aware relay, unlike the the Media Relay addressed in the
   previous section, is aware of the media traffic it is handling.  This
   means it inspects RTP and RTCP messages flowing by, and may even
   modify their headers.  Using the RFC3550 terminology, this can be

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   seen as a RTP Translator.  A B2BUA implementing this role, though,
   typically does not inspect the RTP payloads, which would be opaque to
   them: this means that the actual media would not be manipulated (e.g,

   This makes them quite different from the Media Relay previously
   discussed, especially in terms of the potential issues that may occur
   at the RTCP level.  In fact, being able to modify the RTP and RTCP
   headers, such B2BUAs may end up modifying RTP related information
   like SSRC/CSRC, sequence numbers, timestamps and others in an RTP
   stream, before forwarding the modified packets to the other
   interested participants.  This means that, if not properly
   disciplined, such a behaviour may easily lead to issues like the one
   described in the introductory section.  For this reason, it is very
   important for a B2BUA modifying RTP-related information across two
   related RTP streams to also modify, in a coherent way, the same
   information in RTCP messages.

   It is worthwile to point out that such a B2BUA may not necessarily
   forward all the packets it receives, though.  Selective Forwarding
   Units (SFU) [RFC7667], for instance, may be implemented to aggregate
   or drop incoming RTCP messages, while at the same time originating
   new ones on their own.  It is important to clarify that a B2BUA
   SHOULD NOT randomly drop or forward RTCP feedback of the same type
   (e.g., a specific XR block type, or specific Feedback messages)
   within the context of the same session, as that may lead to
   confusing, if not broken, feedback to the recipients of the message
   due to gaps in the communication.  As to the messages that are
   forwarded and/or aggregated, though, it's important to make sure the
   information is coherent.

   Besides the behaviour already mandated for RTCP translators in
   Section 7.2 of [RFC3550], a media-aware B2BUA MUST handle incoming
   RTCP messages to forward following this guideline:

   SR:  [RFC3550]
      If the B2BUA has changed the SSRC of the sender RTP stream a
      Sender Report refers to, it MUST update the SSRC in the SR packet
      header as well.  If the B2BUA has changed the SSRCs of other RTP
      streams too, and any of these streams are addressed in any of the
      SR report blocks, it MUST update the related values in the SR
      report blocks as well.  If the B2BUA has also changed the base RTP
      sequence number when forwarding RTP packets, then this change MUST
      be reflected in the 'extended highest sequence number received'
      field in the Report Blocks.  In case the B2BUA is acting as a
      Selective Forwarding Units (SFU) [RFC7667], it needs to track in
      the outgoing SR the relevant number of packets sent and total
      amount of bytes sent to the receiver.

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   RR:  [RFC3550]
      The same guidelines given for SR apply for RR as well.

   SDES:  [RFC3550]
      If the B2BUA has changed the SSRC of any RTP stream addressed in
      any of the chunks of an incoming SDES message, it MUST update the
      related SSRCs in all the chunks.  The same considerations made
      with respect to CNAME collisions at the end of Section 3.1 apply
      here as well.

   BYE:  [RFC3550]
      If the B2BUA has changed the SSRC of any RTP stream addressed in
      the SSRC/CSRC identifiers included in a BYE packet, it MUST update
      them in the message.

   APP:  [RFC3550]
      If the B2BUA has changed the SSRC of any RTP stream addressed in
      the header of an APP packet, it MUST update the identifier in the
      message.  Should the B2BUA be aware of any specific APP message
      format that contains additional information related to SSRCs, it
      SHOULD update them as well accordingly.

   Extended Reports (XR):  [RFC3611]
      If the B2BUA has changed the SSRC of the RTP stream associated
      with the originator of an XR packet, it MUST update the SSRC in
      the XR message header.  The same guidelines given for SR/RR, with
      respect to SSRC identifiers in report blocks, apply for all the
      Report Block types in the XR message as well.  If the B2BUA has
      also changed the base RTP sequence number when forwarding RTP
      packets, then this change MUST be reflected in the 'begin_seq' and
      'end_seq' fields that are available in most of the Report Block
      types that are part of the XR specification.

   Receiver Summary Information (RSI):  [RFC5760]
      If the B2BUA has changed any SSRC of RTP streams addressed in a
      RSI packet, it MUST update the SSRC identifiers in the message.
      This includes the distribution source SSRC, which MUST be
      rewritten with the one the B2BUA uses to send RTP packets to each
      sender participant, the summarized SSRC and, when a Collision Sub-
      Report Block is available, the SSRCs in the related list.

   Port Mapping (TOKEN):  [RFC6284]
      If the B2BUA has changed any SSRC of RTP streams addressed in a
      TOKEN packet, it MUST update the SSRC identifiers in the message.
      This includes the Packet Sender SSRC, which MUST be rewritten with
      the one the B2BUA uses to send RTP packets to each sender
      participant, and the Requesting Client SSRC when the message is a

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      response, which MUST be rewritten using the related sender
      participant(s) SSRC.

   Feedback messages:  [RFC4585]
      All Feedback messages have a common packet format, which includes
      the SSRC identifier of the packet sender and the SSRC identifier
      of the media source the feedack is related to.  Just as described
      for the previous messages, these SSRC identifiers MUST be updated
      in the message if the B2BUA has changed the SSRC of the RTP
      streams addressed there.  It MUST NOT, though, change a media
      source SSRC that was originally set to zero, unless zero is
      actually the SSRC that was chosen by one of the involved
      endpoints, in which case the above mentioned rules as to SSRC
      rewriting apply.  Considering that many feedback messages also
      include additional data as part of their specific Feedback Control
      Information (FCI), a media-aware B2BUA MUST take care of them
      accordingly, if it can parse and regenerate them, according to the
      following guidelines:

      NACK:  [RFC4585]
         A media-aware B2BUA MUST properly rewrite the Packet ID (PID)
         of all addressed lost packets in the NACK FCI if it changed the
         RTP sequence numbers.

         A media-aware B2BUA MUST properly rewrite the additional SSRC
         identifier in the specific FCI, if it changed the related RTP
         SSRC of the media sender.

      REMB:  [I-D.alvestrand-rmcat-remb]
         This draft describes an RTCP Payload-Specific feedback message
         that reports the receiver's available bandwidth to the the
         sender.  As of the time of this writing, REMB has been widely
         deployed, but has not been standardized.  The REMB mechanism
         will not function correctly across a media-aware B2BUA that
         changes the SSRC of the media sender unless it also changes the
         SSRC values in the REMB packet.

      Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN):  [RFC6679]
         The same guidelines given for SR/RR management apply,
         considering the presence of sequence numbers in the ECN
         Feedback Report format.  For what concerns the management of
         RTCP XR ECN Summary Report messages, the same guidelines given
         for generic XR messages apply.

   Apart from the generic guidelines related to Feedback messages, no
   additional modifications are needed for PLI, SLI and RPSI feedback

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   Of course, the same considerations about the need for SDP and RTP/
   RTCP information to be coherent applies to media-aware B2BUAs.  This
   means that, if a B2BUA changes any SSRC, it MUST update the related
   'ssrc' attributes, if present, before sending it to the recipient.
   Besides, it MUST rewrite the 'rtcp' attribute if provided.  At the
   same time, while a media-aware B2BUA is typically able to inspect/
   modify RTCP messages, it may not support all RTCP messages.  This
   means that a B2BUA may choose to drop RTCP messages it can't parse.
   In that case, a media-aware B2BUA MUST advertize its RTCP level of
   support in the SDP in a coherent way, in order to prevent, for
   instance, a UAC to from sending NACK messages that would never reach
   the intended recipients.  It's important to point out that, in case a
   compound RTCP packet was received and any RTCP message in it needs to
   be dropped, then the B2BUA SHOULD NOT drop the whole compound RTCP
   packet, but only the selected messages.

   The same considerations on CNAMEs made when talking of Media Relays
   apply for Media-aware Relays as well.  Specifically, if RTP
   extensions involving CNAMEs are involved (e.g., "urn:ietf:params:rtp-
   hdrext:sdes:cname", [RFC7941]) and negotiated because the B2BUA
   supports them, then the B2BUA MUST update the CNAME value in there as
   well, if it was changed.  It is worth pointing out that, if the new
   CNAME is larger than the old one, this would result in a larger RTP
   packet than originally received.  If the length of the updated packet
   exceeds the MTU of any of the networks the packet will traverse, this
   can result in the packet being dropped and lost by the recipient.

   A different set of considerations is worthwhile for what concerns
   RTP/RTCP multiplexing [RFC5761] and Reduced-Size RTCP [RFC5506].
   While the former allows for a better management of network resources
   by multiplexing RTP packets and RTCP messages over the same
   transport, the latter allows for a compression of RTCP messages, thus
   leading to less network traffic.  For what concerns RTP/RTCP
   multiplexing, a B2BUA acting as a Media Relay may use it on either
   RTP session independently.  This means that, for instance, a Media
   Relay B2BUA may use RTP/RTCP multiplexing on one side of the
   communication, and not use it on the other side, if the endpoint does
   not support it.  This allows for a better management of network
   resources on the side that does support it.  In case any of the
   parties in the communications supports it and the B2BUA does too, the
   related 'rtcp-mux' SDP attribute MUST be forwarded on the other
   side(s).  If the B2BUA detects that any of the parties in the
   communication do not support the feature, it may decide to either
   disable it entirely or still advertize it for the RTP sessions with
   parties that do support it.  In case the B2BUA decides to involve
   RTP/RTCP multiplexing, it MUST ensure that there are no conflicting
   RTP payload type numbers on either side.  When there are, it MUST
   rewrite RTP payload type numbers to prevent conflicts in the session

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   where the RTP/RTCP multiplexing is applied.  Should RTP payload types
   be rewritten, the related information in the SDP MUST be updated

   For what concerns Reduced-Size RTCP, instead, the considerations are
   a bit different.  In fact, while a Media Relay B2BUA may choose to
   use it on the side that supports it and not on the side that doesn't,
   there are several reasons for discouraging such a behaviour.  While
   Reduced-Size allows indeed for less network traffic related to RTCP
   messaging in general, this gain may lead a Reduced-Size RTCP
   implementation to also issue a higher rate of RTCP feedback messages.
   This would result in an increased RTCP traffic on the side that does
   not support Reduced-Size, and could as a consequence be actually
   counterproductive if the available bandwidth is different on the two
   sides.  Negotiating a session with both sides would allow the B2BUA
   to discover which one supports Reduced-Size and which doesn't, and in
   case decide whether to allow the sides to independently use Reduced-
   Size or not.  Should the B2BUA decide to disable the feature on all
   sides, which is suggested in case Reduced-Size is not supported by
   all parties involved, it MUST NOT advertize support for the Reduced-
   Size RTCP functionality on either side, by removing the 'rtcp-rsize'
   attribute from the SDP.

3.3.  Media Terminator

   A Media Terminator B2BUA, unlike simple relays and media-aware ones,
   is also able to terminate media itself.  As such, it can inspect and/
   or modify RTP payloads as well.  This means that such components, for
   instance, can act as media transcoders and/or originate specific RTP
   media.  Using the RTP Topologies terminology, this can be seen as a
   RTP Media Translator.  Such a topology can also be seen as a Back-to-
   back RTP sessions through a Middlebox, as described in Section 3.2.2
   of [RFC7667].  Such a capability makes them quite different from the
   previously introduced B2BUA typologies.  Since such a B2BUA would
   terminate RTP itself, it can take care of the related statistics and
   feedback functionality directly, with no need to simply relay any
   message between the participants in the multimedia session.

   For this reason, no specific guideline is needed to ensure a proper
   end-to-end RTCP behaviour in such scenarios, mostly because most of
   the times there would be no end-to-end RTCP interaction among the
   involved participants in the first place.  Nevertheless, should any
   RTCP message actually need to be forwarded to another participant in
   the multimedia session, the same guidelines provided for the media-
   aware B2BUA case apply.

   For what concerns RTP/RTCP multiplexing support, the same
   considerations already given for the Media Relay management also

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   apply for a Media Terminator.  Some different considerations might be
   given as to the Reduced-Size RTCP functionality, instead.  In fact,
   in the Media Terminator case it is safe to use the feature
   independently on each side, as the B2BUA would terminate RTCP.  In
   that case, the B2BUA SHOULD advertize and negotiate support for
   Reduced-Size if available, and MUST NOT otherwise.

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

5.  Security Considerations

   The discussion made in the previous sections on the management of
   RTCP messages by a B2BUA worked under the assumption that the B2BUA
   has actually access to the RTP/RTCP information itself.  This is
   indeed true if we assume that plain RTP and RTCP is being handled,
   but may not be once any security is enforced on RTP packets and RTCP
   messages by means of SRTP [RFC3711].

   While typically not an issue in the Media Relay case, where RTP and
   RTCP packets are forwarded without any modification no matter whether
   security is involved or not, this could definitely have an impact on
   Media-aware Relays and Media Terminator B2BUAs.  To make a simple
   example, if we envisage a SRTP/SRTCP session across a B2BUA, where
   the B2BUA itself has no access to the keys used to secure the
   session, there would be no way to manipulate SRTP headers without
   violating the hashing on the packet.  At the same time, there would
   be no way to rewrite the RTCP information accordingly either.

   For this reason, it is important to point out that the operations
   described in the previous sections are only possible if the B2BUA has
   a way to effectively manipulate the packets and messages flowing by.
   This means that, when media security is involved, only the Media-
   unaware Relay scenario can be properly addressed.  Attempting to
   cover Media-aware Relay and Media Termination scenarios when
   involving secure sessions will inevitably lead to the B2BUA acting as
   a man-in-the-middle, and consequently its behaviour is unspecified
   and discouraged.  More considerations on this are provided in

   It is also worth pointing out that there are scenarios where an
   improper management of RTCP messaging across a B2BUA may lead,
   willingly or not, to situations not unlike an attack.  To make a
   simple example, an improper management of a REMB feedback message
   containing, e.g., information on the limited bandwidth availability
   for a user, may lead to missing or misleading information to its
   peer.  This may cause the peer to increase the encoder bitrate, maybe

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   up to a point where a user with poor connectivity will inevitably be
   choked by an amount of data it cannot process.  This scenario may
   thus result in what looks like a Denial of Service (DOS) attack
   towards the user.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

7.  Change Summary

   Note to RFC Editor: Please remove this whole section.

   The following are the major changes between the 14 and the 15
   versions of the draft:

   o  Several changes addressing the IESG review (list follows).

   o  Addressed 'rtcp-mux' in 3.1 as well, and not only 3.2.

   o  Clarified that, if CNAMEs are rewritten, RTP extensions
      referencing them (e.g., [RFC7941]) should be updated too.
      Clarified that MTU issues can occur if the rewriting results in a
      larger RTP packet.

   o  Clarified that when handling SR packets, the an SFU B2BUA must
      track packets/bytes sent.

   o  Removed references to billing, lawful interception, etc. from the

   o  Moved some references (especially those affected by MUSTs in 3.2)
      to Normative.

   o  Rewritten the "Such attributes SHOULD NOT be forwarded" section to
      clarify the context of the attributes that may lead to a failure
      if not taken care of.

   o  Clarified that randomly dropping RTCP packets can lead to
      confusion on the recipient.

   o  Updated text related to REMB.

   o  Smaller fixes here and there.

   The following are the major changes between the 13 and the 14
   versions of the draft:

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   o  Removed first paragraph of Security Considerations which was

   o  Added an IANA Considerations section to clarify there are no

   The following are the major changes between the 12 and the 13
   versions of the draft:

   o  Updated authors' affiliations and mail addresses.

   The following are the major changes between the 11 and the 12
   versions of the draft:

   o  Addressed remaining points in Ben's second review.

   o  Updated reference of STRAW's DTLS-SRTP draft to new [RFC7879].

   The following are the major changes between the 10 and the 11
   versions of the draft:

   o  Addressed Ben's second review.

   The following are the major changes between the 09 and the 10
   versions of the draft:

   o  Replaced references to obsoleted RFC 5117 with [RFC7667].

   o  Made reference to [RFC7656] normative.

   o  Clarified text across the whole document to address Ben's review.

   The following are the major changes between the 08 and the 09
   versions of the draft:

   o  Updated references to documents which have become RFC in the
      meanwhile, [RFC7667] and [RFC7656].

   The following are the major changes between the 06 and the 07
   versions of the draft:

   o  Clarified the suggested changed by Colin Perkins on the management
      of CNAME items in SDES, and added reference to [RFC7022].

   o  Addressed comment by Simon Perreault on CNAME collisions

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   The following are the major changes between the 05 and the 06
   versions of the draft:

   o  Addressed comment by Colin Perkins on the management of CNAME
      items in SDES.

   The following are the major changes between the 04 and the 05
   versions of the draft:

   o  Clarified behaviour when SSRC is zero.

   o  Fixed a couple of nits found by the Idnits tool.

   The following are the major changes between the 03 and the 04
   versions of the draft:

   o  Addressed review by Magnus Westerlund.

   o  Added guidelines for ECN RTCP messages.

   o  Clarified that if an RTCP message is dropped because unsupported,
      only the unsupported packet is dropped and not the compound packet
      that contains it.

   o  Added reference to Section 3.2.2 of [RFC7667] to Section 3.3.

   o  Added considerations on RTP/RTCP multiplexing and Reduced-Size

   The following are the major changes between the 02 and the 03
   versions of the draft:

   o  Rephrased the Media Path Security section to take into account the
      MITM-related discussion in Honolulu.

   o  Added some Security Considerations.

   The following are the major changes between the 01 and the 02
   versions of the draft:

   o  Updated terminology to better adhere to [RFC7656].

   o  Rephrased the Media Path Security section to take into account the
      MITM-related discussion in Toronto.

   o  Clarified that NACK management might be trickier when SRTP is

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   The following are the major changes between the 00 and the 01
   versions of the draft:

   o  Updated references and mapping per taxonomy RFC (7092).

   o  Added a reference to RTP topologies, and tried a mapping as per-
      discussion in London.

   o  Added more RTCP message types to the Media-Aware section.

   o  Clarified that fixing the 'rtcp' SDP attribute is important.

   o  Added a new section on the impact of media security.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Flavio Battimo and Pierluigi Palma
   for their invaluable feedback in the early stages of the document.
   The authors would also like to thank Colin Perkins, Bernard Aboba,
   Albrecht Schwarz, Hadriel Kaplan, Keith Drage, Jonathan Lennox,
   Stephen Farrell, Magnus Westerlund, Simon Perreault and Ben Campbell
   for their constructive comments, suggestions, and reviews that were
   critical to the formulation and refinement of this document.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, DOI 10.17487/RFC4566,
              July 2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4566>.

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3264, June 2002,

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   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC7656]  Lennox, J., Gross, K., Nandakumar, S., Salgueiro, G., and
              B. Burman, Ed., "A Taxonomy of Semantics and Mechanisms
              for Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Sources", RFC 7656,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7656, November 2015,

   [RFC4585]  Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
              "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control
              Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4585, July 2006,

   [RFC3611]  Friedman, T., Ed., Caceres, R., Ed., and A. Clark, Ed.,
              "RTP Control Protocol Extended Reports (RTCP XR)",
              RFC 3611, DOI 10.17487/RFC3611, November 2003,

   [RFC5760]  Ott, J., Chesterfield, J., and E. Schooler, "RTP Control
              Protocol (RTCP) Extensions for Single-Source Multicast
              Sessions with Unicast Feedback", RFC 5760,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5760, February 2010,

   [RFC6284]  Begen, A., Wing, D., and T. Van Caenegem, "Port Mapping
              between Unicast and Multicast RTP Sessions", RFC 6284,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6284, June 2011,

   [RFC5104]  Wenger, S., Chandra, U., Westerlund, M., and B. Burman,
              "Codec Control Messages in the RTP Audio-Visual Profile
              with Feedback (AVPF)", RFC 5104, DOI 10.17487/RFC5104,
              February 2008, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5104>.

   [RFC6679]  Westerlund, M., Johansson, I., Perkins, C., O'Hanlon, P.,
              and K. Carlberg, "Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)
              for RTP over UDP", RFC 6679, DOI 10.17487/RFC6679, August
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6679>.

   [RFC5761]  Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Multiplexing RTP Data and
              Control Packets on a Single Port", RFC 5761,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5761, April 2010,

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   [RFC5506]  Johansson, I. and M. Westerlund, "Support for Reduced-Size
              Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP): Opportunities
              and Consequences", RFC 5506, DOI 10.17487/RFC5506, April
              2009, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5506>.

   [RFC7022]  Begen, A., Perkins, C., Wing, D., and E. Rescorla,
              "Guidelines for Choosing RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
              Canonical Names (CNAMEs)", RFC 7022, DOI 10.17487/RFC7022,
              September 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7022>.

   [RFC7941]  Westerlund, M., Burman, B., Even, R., and M. Zanaty, "RTP
              Header Extension for the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
              Source Description Items", RFC 7941, DOI 10.17487/RFC7941,
              August 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7941>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC7092]  Kaplan, H. and V. Pascual, "A Taxonomy of Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP) Back-to-Back User Agents",
              RFC 7092, DOI 10.17487/RFC7092, December 2013,

   [RFC7667]  Westerlund, M. and S. Wenger, "RTP Topologies", RFC 7667,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7667, November 2015,

              Alvestrand, H., "RTCP message for Receiver Estimated
              Maximum Bitrate", draft-alvestrand-rmcat-remb-03 (work in
              progress), October 2013.

   [RFC5576]  Lennox, J., Ott, J., and T. Schierl, "Source-Specific
              Media Attributes in the Session Description Protocol
              (SDP)", RFC 5576, DOI 10.17487/RFC5576, June 2009,

   [RFC3605]  Huitema, C., "Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) attribute
              in Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3605,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3605, October 2003,

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, DOI 10.17487/RFC3711, March 2004,

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   [RFC7879]  Ravindranath, R., Reddy, T., Salgueiro, G., Pascual, V.,
              and P. Ravindran, "DTLS-SRTP Handling in SIP Back-to-Back
              User Agents", RFC 7879, DOI 10.17487/RFC7879, May 2016,

Authors' Addresses

   Lorenzo Miniero

   Email: lorenzo@meetecho.com

   Sergio Garcia Murillo

   Email: sergio.garcia.murillo@gmail.com

   Victor Pascual

   Email: victor.pascual.avila@oracle.com

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